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Sample records for ricinus og koeksistens

  1. Ricinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) could become one of the premier crops for health enhancing phytochemicals. Immunotoxins derived from castor bean constituents have proven effective in targeting tumor cells without harming normal cells in humans. In addition, castor bean is currently undergoing intense r...

  2. OGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-22

    ISS020-E-012819 (22 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. OGS Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-21

    ISS024-E-009246 (21 July 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 24 flight engineer, is pictured during troubleshooting operations of the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) hardware and replacement of an H2 (hydrogen) Dome Orbit Replaceable Unit (ORU) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  4. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, Aubree Christine

    2006-01-01

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  5. Antibody interactions with Ricinus communis agglutinins studied by biolayer interferometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two related agglutinins are present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor): ricin, a dichain ribosome-inactivating protein and Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA-1), a much less toxic hemagglutinin. Because ricin has been used for experimental cancer chemotherapy as well as for intentional poison...

  6. Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Waghmare, Maruti G; Bandal, Rajendra S; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MRCL). Methods Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg bw. Results The results indicated that MRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids. Conclusions It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it. PMID:23569744

  7. Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Waghmare, Maruti G; Bandal, Rajendra S; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MRCL). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg bw. The results indicated that MRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids. It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it.

  8. Antifertility effects of Ricinus communis (Linn) on rats.

    PubMed

    Sandhyakumary, K; Bobby, R G; Indira, M

    2003-05-01

    The antifertility effects of 50% ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis have been studied in male rats. There was a drastic reduction in the epididymal sperm counts. Alteration in the motility, mode of movement and morphology of the sperms were observed. Reductions in the fructose and testosterone levels were suggestive of reduced reproductive performance. Reversibility tests showed that the antifertility effect of Ricinus communis was completely reversible on withdrawal of the drug. The ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis did not cause any hepatotoxicity since the hepatic GOT and GPT levels were unaltered.

  9. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden.

  10. [Ixodes ricinus, transmitted diseases and reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, A; Rosà, R; Mantelli, B; Pecchioli, E; Hauffe, H; Tagliapietra, V; Beninati, T; Neteler, M; Genchi, C

    2004-06-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus has been recorded in most Italian regions especially in thermo-mesophilous woods and shrubby habitats where the relative humidity allow the tick to complete its 3 year developmental cycle, as predicted for the European climatic ranges. This tick acts both as vector and reservoir for a series of wildlife zoonotic pathogens, especially the agents of Lyme diseases, Tick borne encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis, which are emerging in most of Europe. To assess the spatial distribution of these pathogens and the infection risk for humans and animals within the territory of the Province of Trento, we carried out a long term study using a combination of eco-epidemiological surveys and mathematical modelling. An extensive tick collection with a GIS based habitat suitability analysis allowed us to identify the areas where tick occurs at various density. To identify the areas with higher infection risk, we estimated the values of R0 for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., TBE virus and Anaplasma phagocytophila under different ecological conditions. We assessed the infection prevalence in the vector and in the wildlife reservoir species that play a central role in the persistence of these infections, ie the small mammals A. flavicollis and C. glareolus. We also considered the double effect of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) which act as reservoir for A. phagocytophila but is an incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus, thus reducing the infection prevalence in ticks of these last two pathogens. Infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophila in the vector was assessed by PCR screening 1212 I. ricinus nymphs collected by dragging in six main study areas during 2002. The mean infection prevalence recorded was 1.32% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 9.84% for A. phagocytophila. Infection prevalence in nymphs with TBE virus, as assessed in a previous study was 0.03%. Infection prevalence in rodents was assessed by screening (with ELISA

  11. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis.

  12. Structure and stability of Ricinus communis haemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Frénoy, J P; Tran, A T; Bourrillon, R

    1986-01-01

    The molecular properties of the haemagglutinin of Ricinus communis (RCA I or RCA 120) were evaluated by analytical ultracentrifugation, light-scattering, c.d. and fluorescence. The native molecule had a fairly expanded structure (f/f0 = 1.43) and dissociated into two subunits of equal size in 6 M-guanidinium chloride. This native structure was stable in alkali (up to pH 11) and resistant to thermal denaturation at neutrality. A pH-triggered change in the haemagglutinin conformation was observed and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, c.d. and fluorescence between pH 7 and 4.5, the range in which its affinity for galactosides decreased [Yamasaki, Absar & Funatsu (1985) Biochim, Biophys. Acta 828, 155-161]. These results are discussed in relation to those reported in the literature for other lectins and more especially ricin, for which a pH-dependent conformation transition has been observed in the same range of low pH. PMID:3827842

  13. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult and presenting these findings as new or potentially pathogenic Rickettsiae should be done with caution: a recent report suggested presence of a known human pathogen, R. australis, in questing I. ricinus ticks in Europe. A refined analysis of these results revealed that R. helvetica was most likely to be misinterpreted as R. australis. Evidence in the literature is accumulating that rickettsial DNA sequences found in tick lysates can also be derived from other sources than viable, pathogenic Rickettsiae. For example, from endosymbionts, environmental contamination or even horizontal gene transfer. PMID:20569494

  14. Redescriptions and new host records of chewing lice of the genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-08-19

    Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated.

  15. Nucleolar organizing chromosomes ofRicinus.

    PubMed

    Paris, H S; Shifriss, O; Jelenkovic, G

    1980-03-01

    Pachytene chromosome morphology was compared in nine races ofRicinus communis L. (2n = 20), using pollen mother cells (PMCs) and light microscopy. Of the ten bivalents, only the two possessing nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), chromosomes 2 and 7, exhibit structural variations among the races. The NORs are located in the short arms of these two chromosomes. Most of the observed structural variations affect these short arms, which are similar morphologically and consist largely of heterochromatic segments. The PMCs contain a single nucleolus and this is associated with the NOR of each of the two chromosomes at a particular frequency in each race. In eight races, a nucleolar constriction (NC) is present in either chromosome 2 or chromosome 7. In these races, the nucleolus is associated with the chromosome possessing an NC at a frequency of 100% and with the chromosome lacking an NC at a frequency ranging between 5.6 and 100%, depending upon the race. No microscopically visible NC is present in the ninth race. In this race, the nucleolus is associated with both chromosomes 2 and 7 at a frequency of 100%. The association of the nucleolus with a chromosome possessing an NC is at the NC and with a chromosome lacking an NC is at the terminal heterochromatic segment of the short arm. Several interpretations are offered to account for the variations in frequency of association between the nucleolus and each of the nucleolar organizing chromosomes. It is suggested that the two non-linked NORs have evolved through some intragenomic changes rather than polyploidy, that this species is highly intolerant to structural variations other than those occurring in or near the NORs, and that structural variations in the nucleolar organizing chromosomes are not associated with racial variations in plant phenotype.

  16. IN VITRO REGENERATION CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.) USING COTYLEDON EXPLANTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel plant regeneration protocol was established for castor (Ricinus communis L.), an important oilseed crop. Mature seed-derived cotyledon explants produced adventitious shoots when placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). The rate of shoot regeneration was maximal...

  17. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a hi...

  18. Role of ethylene in the germination metabolism of ricinus communis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Simona; Dumitras, Dan C.; Godeanu, Adriana

    1999-03-01

    A CO2 laser-based photoacoustic method has been used to monitor the ethylene (C2H4) released by castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds during germination. The relationship between the evolution of the C2H4 germinating seeds and the respiration intensity is presented.

  19. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL SIGNATURES FROM THE RICINUS COMMUNIS (CASTOR BEAN) GENOME Kevin P. O’Connell* and Evan W. Skowronski...2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discovery And Characterization Of Novel Signatures From The Ricinus Communis ...fingerprints” of ricin genes, and knowledge about the overall genetic diversity of Ricinus communis varieties worldwide, are required to establish

  20. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks.

  1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania.

  2. Characterizing the virome of Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, John H-O; Shi, Mang; Bohlin, Jon; Eldholm, Vegard; Brynildsrud, Ola B; Paulsen, Katrine Mørk; Andreassen, Åshild; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-09-07

    RNA viruses are abundant infectious agents and present in all domains of life. Arthropods, including ticks, are well known as vectors of many viruses of concern for human and animal health. Despite their obvious importance, the extent and structure of viral diversity in ticks is still poorly understood, particularly in Europe. Using a bulk RNA-sequencing approach that captures the complete transcriptome, we analysed the virome of the most common tick in Europe - Ixodes ricinus. In total, RNA sequencing was performed on six libraries consisting of 33 I. ricinus nymphs and adults sampled in Norway. Despite the small number of animals surveyed, our virus identification pipeline revealed nine diverse and novel viral species, phylogenetically positioned within four different viral groups - bunyaviruses, luteoviruses, mononegavirales and partitiviruses - and sometimes characterized by extensive genetic diversity including a potentially novel genus of bunyaviruses. This work sheds new light on the virus diversity in I. ricinus, expands our knowledge of potential host/vector-associations and tick-transmitted viruses within several viral groups, and pushes the latitudinal limit where it is likely to find tick-associated viruses. Notably, our phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of tick-specific virus clades that span multiple continents, highlighting the role of ticks as important virus reservoirs.

  3. Analysis of castor by ELISAs that distinguish Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To facilitate the analysis of castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed fractions and germplasm for ricin content, we investigated the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to differentiate between ricin toxin and the related Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA). Both proteins are based on ...

  4. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lipolytic activity of ricin from Ricinus sanguineus and Ricinus communis on neutral lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, S; Helmy, M E; Piéroni, G

    2001-01-01

    The present study was carried out with a view of determining ricin lipolytic activity on neutral lipids in emulsion and in a membrane-like model. Using 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol tributyrate (BAL-TC(4)) as substrate, the lipolytic activity of ricin was found to be proportional to ricin and substrate concentrations, with an apparent K(m) (K(m,app)) of 2.4 mM, a k(cat) of 200 min(-1) and a specific activity of 1.0 unit/mg of protein. This work was extended to p-nitrophenyl (pNP) fatty acid esters containing two to twelve carbon atoms. Maximum lipolytic activity was registered on pNP decanoate (pNPC(10)), with a K(m,app) of 3.5 mM, a k(cat) of 173 min(-1) and a specific activity of 3.5 units/mg of protein. Ricin lipolytic activity is pH and galactose dependent, with a maximum at pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.2 M galactose. Using the monolayer technique with dicaprin as substrate, ricin showed a lipolytic activity proportional to the ricin concentration at 20 mN/m, which is dependent on the surface pressure of the lipid monolayer and is detectable up to 30 mN/m, a surface pressure that is of the same order of magnitude as that of natural cell membranes. The methods based on pNPC(10) and BAL-TC(4) hydrolysis are simple and reproducible; thus they can be used for routine studies of ricin lipolytic activity. Ricin from Ricinus communis and R. sanguineus were treated with diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate, an irreversible serine esterase inhibitor, and their lipolytic activities on BAL-TC(4) and pNPC(10), and cytotoxic activity, were concurrently recorded. A reduction in lipolytic activity was accompanied by a decrease in cytotoxicity on Caco2 cells. These data support the idea that the lipolytic activity associated with ricin is relevant to a lipase whose activity is pH and galactose dependent, sensitive to diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate, and that a lipolytic step may be involved in the process of cell poisoning by ricin. Both colorimetric tests used in this study are sensitive

  6. Characterization of ricin toxin family members from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Leshin, Jonathan; Danielsen, Mark; Credle, Joel J; Weeks, Andrea; O'Connell, Kevin P; Dretchen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Ricin inhibits translation by removal of a specific adenine from 28S RNA. The Ricinus communis genome encodes seven full-length ricin family members. All encoded proteins have the ability of hydrolyzing adenine in 28S rRNA. As expected, these proteins also inhibited an in vitro transcription/translation system. These data show that the ricin gene family contains at least seven members that have the ability to inhibit translation and that may contribute to the toxicity of R. communis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Driving the Abundance of Ixodes ricinus Ticks and the Prevalence of Zoonotic I. ricinus-Borne Pathogens in Natural Foci

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; Acevedo, Pelayo; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors may drive tick ecology and therefore tick-borne pathogen (TBP) epidemiology, which determines the risk to animals and humans of becoming infected by TBPs. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of immature-stage Ixodes ricinus ticks and on the prevalence of two zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci of endemicity. I. ricinus abundance was measured at nine sites in the northern Iberian Peninsula by dragging the vegetation with a cotton flannelette, and ungulate abundance was measured by means of dung counts. In addition to ungulate abundance, data on variables related to spatial location, climate, and soil were gathered from the study sites. I. ricinus adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from the vegetation, and a representative subsample of I. ricinus nymphs from each study site was analyzed by PCR for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA. Mean prevalences of these pathogens were 4.0% ± 1.8% and 20.5% ± 3.7%, respectively. Statistical analyses confirmed the influence of spatial factors, climate, and ungulate abundance on I. ricinus larva abundance, while nymph abundance was related only to climate. Interestingly, cattle abundance rather than deer abundance was the main driver of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs in the study sites, where both domestic and wild ungulates coexist. The increasing abundance of cattle seems to increase the risk of other hosts becoming infected by A. phagocytophilum, while reducing the risk of being infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Controlling ticks in cattle in areas where they coexist with wild ungulates would be more effective for TBP control than reducing ungulate abundance. PMID:22286986

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in southwestern Finland.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Hänninen, Jari

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis. While the bacterium has been reported from questing ticks in neighboring Sweden, Norway and Russia, the few surveys regarding questing ticks in Finland have thus far been negative. In the current study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus populations was evaluated in several study localities around southwestern Finland during 2013-2014. Some of these populations were previously screened and found negative for A. phagocytophilum in 2000. A total of 3158 I. ricinus collected by blanket dragging were screened for Anaplasma spp. using qPCR. Anaplasma were detected in 9.2% of adult ticks (n = 87) and 3.1% of nymphs (n = 979). All larval samples were negative for infection. All Anaplasma-positive samples were identified as A. phagocytophilum by sequencing. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the pathogen from questing ticks in Finland. Furthermore, the pathogen was detected from several localities found negative during the previous screening 13 years earlier.

  9. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, L A P; Montandon, A A B; Corbi, S C T; Moraes, T A; Fais, L M G

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were performed prior to the use of the antifungal (baseline) and repeated after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The sample was clinically examined for oral mucosal conditions. Standard photographs were taken of the palate, and the oral candidiasis was classified (Newton's criteria). Mycological investigation was performed by swabbing the palatal mucosa, and Candida spp. were quantified by counting the number of colony-forming units (cfu mL⁻¹). The clinical and mycological data were analysed, respectively by Wilcoxon and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant improvement in the clinical appearance of DS in the MIC and RC groups was observed between the 1st and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011) as well as between the 2nd and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011). Neither groups showed a statistically significant reduction in cfu mL⁻¹ at any time. Although none of the treatments decreased the cfu mL⁻¹, it was concluded that Ricinus communis can improve the clinical condition of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly patients, showing similar results to Miconazole. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  11. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.

    PubMed

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A

    2007-04-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  12. Phloem transport in Ricinus: Concentration gradients between source and sink.

    PubMed

    Milburn, J A

    1974-12-01

    Solute concentration gradients were studied in Ricinus communis L. stems using refractometry linked with cryoscopic measurements of osmotic pressure. Techniques were developed to study the local composition of sieve-tube sap, effectively isolating bark segments by ring-massage or massage-girdling. In intact plants concentration gradients in stems were found to be steep near leaves, as reported previously, and also near roots. However, when transport from these organs was prevented, the steep gradients disappeared. Apparently they are caused by sap influx from nearby organs into stems during sampling. Concentration gradients in stems proper were almost negligible under standard growing conditions. They became positive (more concentrated above) when photosynthesis was enhanced, and negative in darkness.During exudation, leaves could secrete abundant concentrated sap for long periods. Stems had a similar but more limited capacity to secrete and, to a still lesser extent, roots also. Secretion was triggered even from natural sinks by exudation from an incision. Release from turgor pressure seems responsible rather than dilution of the phloem sap, suggesting that in whole plants a sink induces secretion and pressure-flow from distant sources by regulating the pressure within sieve tubes. The rate of exudation decreased as sap concentration fell, indicating that a reduction in pressure corresponds to assimilate exhaustion.The hydraulic conductivity of bark was not high, but was greater when the bark was secreting solutes. A change in mass-flow conduction between sieve tubes and storage cells is proposed to explain these differences in water permeability.The common assumption that solute concentration gradients correspond to pressure gradients seems inapplicable to whole Ricinus plants. Solute transfer can exceed the water flux so that osmotic equilibrium may not be reached at a particular location. In intact plants, solute gradients probably reflect source and sink

  13. Anaplasma spp. in wild mammals and Ixodes ricinus from the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Santibáñez, Paula; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. infection in red deer, wild boars, and Ixodes ricinus removed from deer surveyed in La Rioja, as well as to analyze the presence of Anaplasma spp. in I. ricinus from different Spanish regions--ours included. A total of 21 deer and 13 wild boar blood samples as well as 295 I. ricinus removed from deer, vegetation, or asymptomatic people were tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon. Twelve deer blood samples were found to be infected with Anaplasma centrale (n = 7) or Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5). No wild boar blood samples gave positive polymerase chain reaction results. Further, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 out of 89 I. ricinus removed from deer and in 18 out of 168 I. ricinus collected over vegetation in the North of Spain. Anaplasma spp. was not detected in any of the 38 I. ricinus removed from people. Nucleotide sequences for 16S rRNA gene showed substancial heterogeneity. The etiological agent of human anaplasmosis was found in two deer blood samples, an adult tick from deer, and a nymph from vegetation. The 16S rRNA sequences for 12 out of 35 samples matched the sequence of the Ap-variant 1 strain previously described in the United States, and the remaining 19 positive samples (deer blood and I. ricinus) showed variations with unknown significance. Although the groEL DNA sequences varied among analyzed strains, the deduced amino acid sequences did not change for any of them. This study suggests that deer population from La Rioja harbors strains of A. phagocytophilum similar to that pathogen for humans and other of unknown pathogenicity. Further, it seems that the Ap-variant 1 is circulating among I. ricinus ticks from the North of Spain more frequently than the A. phagocytophilum strain associated to human anaplasmosis.

  14. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J.; Nijhof, Ard M.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2015-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus. PMID:25919587

  15. Seasonal infestation of birds with immature stages of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola.

    PubMed

    Kocianová, Elena; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika; Haruštiaková, Danka; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the parasitization of cavity-nesting birds and ground-nesting/foraging birds with larvae and nymphs of two Ixodes species, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola. Totals of 679 (52.3%) I. ricinus and 619 (47.7%) I. arboricola ticks were collected from 15 species of passerine birds which were caught during the nesting and non-nesting periods of 2003-2006, in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic, the Drahanská Vrchovina Uplands. In the non-nesting period from October to March, 6.8% (101/1492) of birds were infested with ticks, mainly with I. arboricola larvae. In the non-nesting period, the average intensity of infestation by I. arboricola and I. ricinus was 8.5 and 1.5 individuals per infested bird, respectively. In the nesting period from April to June, 21.6% (50/232) of birds were infested by both tick species but mainly with I. ricinus nymphs. The average intensity of infestation by I. ricinus and I. arboricola was 13.3 and 10.8 individuals per infested bird, respectively. Altogether, 23.2% of the infested birds were parasitized by both immature life stages of one or both tick species. From an enzootic perspective, co-feeding and co-infestation of I. ricinus and I. arboricola subadults on passerine birds might happen and may be important for the dissemination of tick-borne agents.

  16. Babesia Species Occurring in Austrian Ixodes ricinus Ticks▿

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Marion; Narodoslavsky-Gföller, Melanie; Kanzler, Michaela; Stanek, Gerold; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. The first Austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. In the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 Ixodes ricinus and 11 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout Austria were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. by using 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. The infection rates for sampling sites were highly variable, ranging from 0% to almost 100%. Different instars and different sexes were infected almost equally. Babesia isolates occurring in Austrian ticks were identified as Babesia divergens, Babesia divergens-like, and Babesia sp. strain DD by sequencing a fragment of the heat shock protein 70 gene and internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of Babesia spp. in Austrian ticks. PMID:18539787

  17. A Developmental Analysis of the Enolase Isozymes from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1992-06-01

    Enolase activity was measured in clarified homogenates of various tissues during the life cycle of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296). The proportions of total activity due to the plastid and cytosolic isozymes were determined after separation by ion-exchange chromatography. The contribution of the plastid isozyme varied from more than 30% of the total at the midpoint of endosperm development to less than 1% in mature leaves and roots. During endosperm development, enolase activity increased to a peak coincident with the maximum rate of storage lipid accumulation, then decreased to nearly undetectable levels in the mature seed. Plastid enolase protein, measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, increased in parallel with the increase in activity but decreased less rapidly and was still easily detectable in mature seeds.

  18. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  19. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes P; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2010-09-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.

  20. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    PubMed

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of emerging pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Coipan, Elena Claudia; Jahfari, Setareh; Fonville, Manoj; Maassen, Catharina B.; van der Giessen, Joke; Takken, Willem; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies have also detected Rickettsia helvetica, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and several Babesia species in questing ticks in The Netherlands. In this study, we assessed the acarological risk of exposure to several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), in The Netherlands. Questing ticks were collected monthly between 2006 and 2010 at 21 sites and between 2000 and 2009 at one other site. Nymphs and adults were analysed individually for the presence of TBPs using an array-approach. Collated data of this and previous studies were used to generate, for each pathogen, a presence/absence map and to further analyse their spatiotemporal variation. R. helvetica (31.1%) and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (11.8%) had the highest overall prevalence and were detected in all areas. N. mikurensis (5.6%), A. phagocytophilum (0.8%), and Babesia spp. (1.7%) were detected in most, but not all areas. The prevalences of pathogens varied among the study areas from 0 to 64%, while the density of questing ticks varied from 1 to 179/100 m2. Overall, 37% of the ticks were infected with at least one pathogen and 6.3% with more than one pathogen. One-third of the Borrelia-positive ticks were infected with at least one other pathogen. Coinfection of B. afzelii with N. mikurensis and with Babesia spp. occurred significantly more often than single infections, indicating the existence of mutual reservoir hosts. Alternatively, coinfection of R. helvetica with either B. afzelii or N. mikurensis occurred significantly less frequent. The diversity of TBPs detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of their coinfections with B. burgdorferi s.l., underline the need to consider them when evaluating the risks of infection and subsequently the risk of disease following a tick bite. PMID:23908971

  2. Morphological differentiation of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrid larvae in experiment and under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Karganova, Galina G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was detection of hybrid larvae in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus cohabitation sites. To this end, the following three tasks were solved: interspecies crossing of ticks, evaluation of typical morphological signs of the hybrid larvae, and analysis of collected specimens from sites of sympatry. Under experimental conditions, hybrid larvae of I. persulcatus (female) and I. ricinus (male) were obtained that differed from the parental species by the size of setae on the scutum and alloscutum. Discriminant analysis yielded 87.5% classification accuracy for the priory set groups of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrids. Of 88 hybrid larvae, 13 (15%) were classified as I. persulcatus and 4 (5%) as I. ricinus. We measured larvae of Ixodes ticks (n=141) collected from small mammals in 1950-1970 in Karelia in cohabitation sites of these species that were previously classified as I. persulcatus or I. ricinus. According to the results of discriminant analysis, 31 larvae (22%) were classified as hybrids with probability p≥0.52; for 10 larvae (7%), the probability of placement to the hybrid group was >0.95.

  3. The role of deer as vehicles to move ticks, Ixodes ricinus, between contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gilbert, Lucy

    2010-08-01

    In Europe the most important hosts maintaining Ixodes ricinus tick populations are deer. Therefore, excluding deer by fencing or culling are potential tick management tools. Here we test the hypothesis that deer act as vehicles for moving ticks between two distinct habitats: forest and open heather moorland. We utilised an ideal "natural experiment" whereby forests were either fenced or unfenced to prevent or allow deer to move between habitats. We aimed to test the hypothesis that deer cause a net movement of ticks from high tick density areas, i.e. forests, to low tick density areas, i.e. open moorland. We recorded I. ricinus and host abundance in 10 unfenced and seven fenced forests and their respective surrounding heather moorland. We found that fenced forests had fewer deer and fewer I. ricinus nymphs than unfenced forests. However, we found no evidence that fencing forests reduced I. ricinus abundance on adjacent heather moorland. Thus there was insufficient evidence for our hypothesis that deer cause a net movement of ticks from forest onto adjacent moorland. However, we found that deer abundance generally correlates with I. ricinus abundance. We conclude that fencing can be used as a tool to reduce ticks and disease risk in forests, but that fencing forests is unlikely to reduce ticks or disease risk on adjacent moorland. Instead, reducing deer numbers could be a potential tool to reduce tick abundance with implications for disease mitigation.

  4. Behavioural responses of Ixodes ricinus nymphs to carbon dioxide and rodent odour.

    PubMed

    VAN Duijvendijk, G; Gort, G; Sprong, H; Takken, W

    2017-06-01

    Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Carbon dioxide evoked a response in the absence and presence of host odour, but did not attract nymphs. Host odour, however, did not evoke a response but did attract nymphs in the absence and presence of CO2 . The current results show that CO2 is an activator, but not an attractant, and that host odour is an attractant, but not an activator, of I. ricinus nymphs, and provide ecological insights into the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  6. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehensive resource on Castor, Castor DB, is required to facilitate research on this important plant. Findings CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein. Conclusion CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners. PMID:21914200

  7. Variants of hamster fibroblasts resistant to Ricinus communis toxin (ricin).

    PubMed Central

    Meager, A; Ungkitchanukit, A; Hughes, R C

    1976-01-01

    1. Variant baby-hamster kidney (BHK) cell lines were isolated that grow in the presence of high concentrations of ricin, the toxic lectin of castor beans (Ricinus communis). The variant lines were independently derived from several cultures of normal BHK cells which had been exposed to the mutagen, methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, before selection by ricin. 2. The cell lines maintain a high degree of resistance to ricin after growth in lectin-free medium for prolonged periods and therefore exhibit stable phenotypes that are different from normal BHK cells. 3. A preliminary classification of the phenotypes was made. Several cell lines bind normal amounts of 125I-labelled ricin, whereas other bind the lectin poorly. 4. A loss of surface receptors for two other lectins, R. communis RCA and Axinella polyploides, which have specificities similar to ricin, was also found in some but not all of the cell lines showing decreased surface concentrations of ricin receptors. 5. The binding to the ricin-resistant cells of lectins of different sugar specificity, namely Lens culinaris lectin and concanavalin A, was similar to, or higher than, to normal BHK cells. 6. Several of the ricin-resistant cell lines were shown to be cross-resistant to the weak cytotoxicity of Phaseolus vulgaris lectin. By contrast, some cell lines were more sensitive to concanavalin A than were normal BHK cells. Images PLATE 1 PMID:1275903

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stordal, Frode; Lager, Malin; Rognerud, Bjørg; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Matussek, Andreas; Gray, Jeremy; Stuen, Snorre

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana were similar to findings in most other studies in Scandinavia, with B. afzelii by far the most prevalent at 76%. The high Borrelia-infection prevalence in ticks from Brønnøy may explain the high incidence rate of reported Lyme borreliosis in the municipality.

  9. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England.

    PubMed

    Hansford, K M; Fonville, M; Jahfari, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the first detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in UK Ixodes ricinus ticks. It also reports on the presence and infection rates of I. ricinus for a number of other tick-borne pathogens of public health importance. Ticks from seven regions in southern England were screened for B. miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis using qPCR. A total of 954 I. ricinus ticks were tested, 40 were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., 22 positive for A. phagocytophilum and three positive for B. miyamotoi, with no N. mikurensis detected. The three positive B. miyamotoi ticks came from three geographically distinct areas, suggesting a widespread distribution, and from two separate years, suggesting some degree of endemicity. Understanding the prevalence of Borrelia and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks is crucial for locating high-risk areas of disease transmission.

  10. Occurrence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.

  11. Enolase isozymes from Ricinus communis: partial purification and characterization of the isozymes.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1984-09-01

    The plastid and cytosolic isozymes of enolase from developing endosperm of castor oil seeds, Ricinus communis L. cv. Baker 296, were separated and partially purified. Each purified isozyme had a specific activity of approximately 200 mumol min-1 mg protein. The isozymes have similar pH optima for the forward reaction, but different optima for the reverse reaction. The divalent metal specificity is the same for both isozymes. In addition to differences in charge, the isozymes can be distinguished by their different kinetic constants, thermostability, and sensitivity to fluoride inhibition. Antibodies against yeast enolase isozyme I cross-react with Ricinus plastid enolase but not with the cytosolic isozyme.

  12. Affinity of bronchial secretion glycoproteins and cells of human bronchial mucosa for Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Lamblin, G; Degand, P; Roussel, P; Mazzuca, M

    1977-01-01

    The coupling of Ricinus communis lectins to Sephadex G 25 was used in order to study mucins and other glycoproteins from human bronchial secretion. The major part of human bronchial mucins and other glycoproteins such as immunoglobulins A, bronchotransferrin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin were isolated by this procedure. A parallel study of human bronchial mucosa was achieved with peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis lectins; this study characterized goblet cells and mucous cells which contain mucins, and serous cells which are involved in the synthesis or the secretion of the other glycoproteins.

  13. [Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Fei-Long; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2011-11-01

    Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g x L(-1), whereas the R. communis water extracts at concentration 100 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g x L(-1). With the inoculation of M. incognita treated with ricinine, R. communis water extracts, and R. communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6 +/- 1.7, 20.6 +/- 1.5 and 22.8 +/- 3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4 +/- 2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8%, 34.5% and 33.8%, and the plant height increased by 33.5%, 22.6% and 15.8%, and the fresh mass increased by 41.4%, 18.9% and 10.1%, respectively, compared with the control. All the results suggested that R. communis extracts could mitigate the harm of M. incognita, and had obvious effects on potted tomato against M. incognita.

  14. Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, D J; Schnarrenberger, C; Kauss, H

    1976-01-01

    1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:1008861

  15. Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D J; Schnarrenberger, C; Kauss, H

    1976-11-15

    1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.

  16. Expression profile of the genes involved in reserve synthesis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil derived from the seed of castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) and has numerous industrial uses. Despite its economic importance, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of detrimental seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergeni...

  17. Seed Development in Castor (Ricinus communis L.): Morphology, Reserve Synthesis and Gene Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a non-eatable oilseed crop producing seed oil comprising 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of noxious seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S...

  18. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  19. Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia prevalence at the Arctic Circle in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stuen, Snorre; Jenkins, Andrew; Dienus, Olaf; Olsen, Renate S; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Matussek, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The distribution limit of Ixodes ricinus ticks in northwestern Europe (Brønnøy, Norway, 1° south of the Arctic Circle), has been known since the 1930s. To reconfirm this finding and extend studies in the areas adjacent to the Arctic Circle (66°33' N), ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 8 districts in northern Norway from 64°56' N to 68°48' N. We detected 549 I. ricinus, 244 (44%) of them in Brønnøy district, and 305 (range 6-87 ticks) in 7 districts in the northern part of the study area. The prevalence of Borrelia in these ticks was determined by real-time PCR. In the Brønnøy district (65°28' N, 12°12' E), 29% of the I. ricinus were Borrelia spp.-positive, and the species B. afzelii was nearly twice as prevalent as B. garinii and/or B. valaisiana. In the study area north of Brønnøy district, only 12 (4%) of the collected ticks contained Borrelia spp. In conclusion, tick occurrence and Borrelia prevalence are high in the Brønnøy district. In contrast, I. ricinus occurrence and Borrelia prevalence are low further north across the Arctic Circle in Norway.

  20. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-09-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia.

  1. Lack of Bartonella sp. in 167 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    La Scola, Bernard; Holmberg, Martin; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Sudden death in Swedish orienteers was demonstrated to be significantly associated with antibodies to Bartonella sp. To test if these antibodies could be related with tick exposure, we searched Bartonella sp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks using specific PCR amplification and culture. No Bartonella sp. was detected in 167 ticks tested.

  2. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL EXPRESSION OF 2S ALBUMIN IN CASTOR (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed develop...

  3. Loss of Lyme disease spirochetes from Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on European blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Matuschka, F R; Spielman, A

    1992-03-01

    To determine whether blackbirds (Turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of Central Europe, may contribute to the transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. European blackbirds experience intense exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. In nature, subadult I. ricinus ticks found feeding on these birds generally contain no spirochetes, although infection is universal in those found on black-striped mice (Apodemus agrarius). Those found on yellow-necked mice (A. flavicollis) are less frequently infected. Ticks lose infection in the course of feeding on blackbirds and fail to infect them. Subadult I. ricinus ticks readily feed on blackbirds, black-striped mice, and jirds (Meriones unguiculatus), but engorge less fully on the bird than on the rodents. Although birds may burden human health by establishing new infestations of I. ricinus ticks, our observations indicate that particular birds may benefit health by locally diminishing transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  4. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  5. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. PMID:22888805

  6. Tick vectors of Cercopithifilaria bainae in dogs: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato versus Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Brianti, Emanuele; Annoscia, Giada; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-08-01

    Recently, dermal microfilariae of a Cercopithifilaria species (Spirurida, Onchocercidae), namely Cercopithifilaria bainae , were detected in dogs from several geographical areas of the Mediterranean basin. Evidence from both laboratory and field studies support the role of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, as an intermediate host of this nematode. In the present study, we investigated the competence of Ixodes ricinus nymphs as vectors of C. bainae. On November 2012, fully engorged nymphs of I. ricinus (n = 174) and R. sanguineus s.l. (n = 10) were collected from a dog infected by C. bainae. The presence of C. bainae in I. ricinus was assessed by both microscopic dissection of specimens and detection of nematode DNA (PCR), at days 3, 10, 20 and 30 (T1-T4) post-collection; due to the small number of specimens available, R. sanguineus s.l. were examined using the same methods at T4 only. No developing larva of C. bainae was detected in I. ricinus specimens at different time points (T1-T4), even if four of these specimens were PCR-positive at T1. Seven out of ten R. sanguineus s.l. were positive for C. bainae third-stage larvae (L3) at both microscopical and molecular analysis at T4. This study indicates that C. bainae does not develop in I. ricinus nymphs, which preclude the role of this tick as an intermediate host of this parasite. Data presented herein provide new insights into the biology of this filarioid species and will lead to a better understanding of the role of different tick species as vectors of nematodes.

  7. OGS Water ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-21

    ISS020-E-033496 (21 Aug. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, is pictured with the oxygen generator system (OGS) rack cover in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. Nyberg with OGS R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-19

    ISS036-E-021797 (18 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, performs a remove and replace of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen (H2) Sensor in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  9. Recognition factors of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA(1)).

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Lai, Li-Ju; Yang, Zhangung; Herp, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) is one of the most important applied lectins that has been widely used as a tool to study cell surfaces and to purify glycans. Although the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 has been described, the information obtained was mainly focused on inhibition of simple Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides and simple clusters. Here, all possible recognition factors of RCA1 of glycan binding were examined by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays, using known mammalian Gal/GalNAc carbohydrate structural units and natural polyvalent glycans. Among the glycoproteins (gps) tested and expressed as 50% nanogram inhibition, the high-density polyvalent Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) glycotopes occurring in natural gps, such as Pneumococcus type 14 capsular polysaccharide which is composed of repeating poly II residues, resulted in 9.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.3 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(4)-fold higher affinities to RCA1 than the monomeric Gal, linear I/II and Tri-antennary-II (Tri-II). Of the ligands tested and expressed as nanomoles of 50% inhibition, Tri-II was the best, being about 2, 4, 25.6 and 33.3 times better inhibitor than Di-II, II, I (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc) and Gal, respectively. From the results of this study, it is concluded that: (a) Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and other Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides are essential for lectin binding and their polyvalent form in macromolecules should be the most important recognition factor for RCA1; (b) the combining site of RCA1 may be a groove type, recognizing Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) as the major binding site; (c) its combining size may be large enough to accommodate a tetrasaccharide of beta-anomeric Gal at the non-reducing end and most complementary to human blood group I Ma active trisaccharide (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6Gal) and lacto-N-neotetraose (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc); (d) RCA1 has a preference for the beta-anomer of Gal oligosaccharides with a Galbeta1-4 linkage > Galbeta1-6 > or = Galbeta

  10. Male contraceptive efficacy of Ricinus communis L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sushmita; Dutta Choudhury, Manabendra; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Misro, Man Mohan

    2013-08-26

    Ricinus communis L. (Rc), of Euphorbiaceae family is a widespread plant in tropical regions and it is used in traditional medicines as an antifertility agent in India and different parts of the world. The aim of the present study is to revalidate the ethnobotanical knowledge by evaluating the activity of only crude stem bark extracts of Rc. In this study, effects of extracts on male contraceptive efficacy were experimented in vitro with human sperm sample. The work is based on primordial and contemporary therapeutic uses of this plant. In this study, dose of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, acetone extract and lyophilised aqueous extract of Rc were added to fresh human semen in 1:1 volumetric ratio. As the aqueous extract showed a promising result in 1:1 ratio, therefore, the Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS), Nuclear chromatin decondensation test (NCD) and Acrosomal status and function test (AFT) were also carried out with the aqueous extract of Rc. The sperm immobilisation effects of the extract appeared immediately in a dose-dependent manner when the samples were treated with four different extracts of this plant. At a concentration of 100mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) sperms lost their progressive motility. At a concentration of 300 mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) became immotile when treated with aqueous extract. There was 88% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) morphological deformities in sperm sample due the effect of aqueous extract when they were tested for HOS and 91% (p<0.05) sperms behaved against NCD as compared to control group. Also there was a distinct decline (p<0.05) in AFT with increase in dosage concentration. The findings of the study revealed that aqueous stem bark extract of the plant showed dose dependent loss of sperm motility by influencing the morphological deformation, blockage in nuclear envelope and distinct declination in acrosomal status of spermatozoa. This research, thus, opens up scope for future exploration of bark of the

  11. OGS Hydrogen Sensor ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-18

    ISS030-E-236919 (18 April 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, works with the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) rack in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Burbank unpowered the OGS, purged the hydrogen sensor Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) with the Hydrogen Sensor ORU Purge Adapter (HOPA) for return to Earth, and replaced the hydrogen sensor with a new spare, then cleaned the rack Avionics Air Assembly (AAA).

  12. Ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to Amblyomma americanum AV422: Determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.

    PubMed

    Mihaljica, Darko; Marković, Dragana; Radulović, Željko; Mulenga, Albert; Ćakić, Sanja; Sukara, Ratko; Samardžić, Jelena; Tomanović, Snežana

    2017-03-01

    Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I. ricinus (Prostriata) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Metastriata) larvae. Our data demonstrate that rIrAV422 specifically bound to antibodies from sera of rats used for both I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae feeding, but not to antibodies from control serum, emphasizing its specificity since tick bites were the sole cause of sera reactivity.

  13. Comparative population dynamics of a generalist (Ixodes ricinus) and specialist tick (I. hexagonus) species from European hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, M; Petney, T; Skuballa, J; Taraschewski, H

    2011-06-01

    Although the population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus are relatively well studied, those of other Western European tick species are largely unknown. Moreover, there is very little information related to the interactions between I. ricinus and other ticks. Such knowledge, however, is of special interest in respect to the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp. We compared the dynamics of the generalist I. ricinus with the nest-dwelling hedgehog specialist, I. hexagonus. Both species were collected from hedgehogs from a naturally infested experimental population between 2006 and 2008. Ticks were collected once a month from March to October from each hedgehog counted and the life history stage and species determined. All hedgehogs harboured both tick species. Nymphs, females and males of I. ricinus showed clear bimodal seasonal distributions with peaks in spring and autumn, while larvae peaked only in summer. The density of I. hexagonus life stages was low during the whole investigation period and seasonal fluctuations of population density were much weaker compared to I. ricinus. Nymphs and larvae showed comparatively little change in population size and no consistent period of peak density. Females showed a single peak in summer and males were found only occasionally on hedgehogs. We suggest density-dependent mechanisms regulating the population density of the specialist I. hexagonus but not of the generalist I. ricinus.

  14. Environmental drivers of Ixodes ricinus abundance in forest fragments of rural European landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Liira, Jaan; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-09-06

    The castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) transmits infectious diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, which constitutes an important ecosystem disservice. Despite many local studies, a comprehensive understanding of the key drivers of tick abundance at the continental scale is still lacking. We analyze a large set of environmental factors as potential drivers of I. ricinus abundance. Our multi-scale study was carried out in deciduous forest fragments dispersed within two contrasting rural landscapes of eight regions, along a macroclimatic gradient stretching from southern France to central Sweden and Estonia. We surveyed the abundance of I. ricinus, plant community composition, forest structure and soil properties and compiled data on landscape structure, macroclimate and habitat properties. We used linear mixed models to analyze patterns and derived the relative importance of the significant drivers. Many drivers had, on their own, either a moderate or small explanatory value for the abundance of I. ricinus, but combined they explained a substantial part of variation. This emphasizes the complex ecology of I. ricinus and the relevance of environmental factors for tick abundance. Macroclimate only explained a small fraction of variation, while properties of macro- and microhabitat, which buffer macroclimate, had a considerable impact on tick abundance. The amount of forest and the composition of the surrounding rural landscape were additionally important drivers of tick abundance. Functional (dispersules) and structural (density of tree and shrub layers) properties of the habitat patch played an important role. Various diversity metrics had only a small relative importance. Ontogenetic tick stages showed pronounced differences in their response. The abundance of nymphs and adults is explained by the preceding stage with a positive relationship, indicating a cumulative effect of drivers. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem disservices of tick-borne diseases, via the

  15. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price's world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host.

  16. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price’s world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host. PMID:26902646

  17. Survival dynamics of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Slovák, Mirko; Kazimírová, Mária; Siebenstichová, Marta; Ustaníková, Katarína; Klempa, Boris; Gritsun, Tamara; Gould, Ernest A; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2014-10-01

    Biotic factors contributing to the survival of tick-borne viruses in nature are poorly understood. Using tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and its principal European vector, Ixodes ricinus, we examined the relative roles of salivary gland infection, co-feeding transmission, and moulting in virus survival. Virus titres in the salivary glands increased after blood-feeding in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This was observed in ticks infected by inoculation but not in ticks infected by the natural route of co-feeding. Amplification of infection prevalence occurred via co-feeding. However, when larvae or nymphs subsequently moulted, the infection prevalence dramatically declined although this was not observed when ticks were infected by inoculation. Trans-stadial survival is a hitherto overlooked parameter that may contribute to the low incidence of TBEV infection in field-collected I. ricinus ticks.

  18. Evidence of the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Huder, Jon B.; Weber, Rainer; Braun, Ueli; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A total of 1,667 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in Switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. The ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested PCR. Twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males, and 12 (1.9%) were adult females. The number of positive ticks varied with the stage of development and with the geographical origin. Nucleotide sequencing of the isolated PCR products identified these products as part of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia. In addition, these products had 100% homology with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The occurrence of this agent in I. ricinus in Switzerland presents a potential danger of transmission of granulocytic ehrlichiosis to dogs, horses, and humans. PMID:10203481

  19. [Terpenoids and sterols from Ricinus communis and their activities against diabetes].

    PubMed

    Li, Shen-Hua; Deng, Qing; Zhu, Li; Lai, Chun-Hua; Wang, Heng-Shan; Tan, Qin-Gang

    2014-02-01

    Seven terpenoids and three sterols were isolated from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Ricinus communis by chromatography methods and their structures were identified by spectra analysis as ficusic acid( 1), phytol(2), callyspinol(3) , lupeol(4), 30-norlupan-3beta-ol-20-one(5) , lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol(6) , acetylaleuritolic acid( 7), stigmast4-en-3-one(8) , stig-mast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one(9) , and stigmast4-en-3,6-dione(10). Compounds 1-3 and 5-10 were obtained from this species for the first time and 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitive activity and good selectivity against 11beta-HSD of mouse and human in vitro. [Key words] Ricinus communis; terpenoids; sterols; 11beta-HSD

  20. Removal of Ni (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Ricinus communis seed shell activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasu, P; Karunakaran, K

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption studies on the removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution using Ricinus communis seed shells activated carbon and polypyrrole coated Ricinus communis seed shells activated carbon were carried out under various experimental conditions. The effects of various process parameters have been investigated by following the batch adsorption technique. Adsorption data was modeled with Freundlich, Langmuir and tempkin adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamics parameters such as DeltaH0, DeltaS0, and DeltaG0 were calculated indicating that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic nature. A mechanism, involving intra particle diffusion and surface adsorption, has been proposed for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto the adsorbent. Adsorbent used in this study is characterized by FTIR and SEM before and after the adsorption of metal ions.

  1. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture.

    PubMed

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1992-08-01

    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  2. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Egyed, László; Elő, Péter; Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Zoltán; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Sréter, Tamás

    2012-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.

  3. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri

    PubMed Central

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors. PMID:26901622

  4. Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Azeem, Muhammad; Khalil, Nasr S; Sakr, Hanem H; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Awang, Khalijah; Saeed, Aamer; Farag, Mohamed A; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2017-09-01

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm(2) and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  5. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. PMID:23593573

  6. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  7. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  8. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  9. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Leo; Gassner, Fedor; van der Plas, Carin Lombaers; Kastelein, Pieter; Nunes-da Rocha, Ulisses; Takken, Willem

    2008-10-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were located near Amsterdam (Beech-Oak), Ede (Birch-Oak) and Veldhoven (Birch-Oak). Analysis of nine 16S rRNA gene clone libraries made from individual ticks showed nearest matches with presumed pathogens Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Rickettsia australis and arthropod endosymbionts Wolbachia pipientis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii. Total bacterial species diversity (Shannon index) and Borrelia species infections were determined in I. ricinus by, respectively, PCR-denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis and PCR-reverse line blot with probes specific for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia ruski. Bacterial diversity differed significantly per area and was lowest in Ede. In contrast, Borrelia species-infected ticks were more abundant in Ede, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis-infected ticks in Ede and Veldhoven, and R. australis-infected ticks in Amsterdam. Borrelia afzelii was the most common Borrelia species found in all three areas. Bacterial tick diversity was influenced by local differences in forest structure, which is proposed to modulate animal populations that are commonly parasitized by I. ricinus.

  10. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

  11. Biological control of Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs with Metarhizium anisopliae blastospores.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Selzer, Philipp; Steidle, Johannes L M; Mackenstedt, Ute

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biological pest control agent against various arthropod species, including ticks. However, the efficacy depends on tick species, tick stage and fungus strain. We studied the effect of M. anisopliae on engorged larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant tick species in Europe, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. A significant reduction of engorged larvae and nymphs could be shown under laboratory as well as under semi-field conditions. Only 3.5% of the larvae treated in the lab and only 18.5% kept under semi-field conditions were able to develop into nymphs compared to the recovered nymphs of the control groups, which were regarded as 100%. Only 7.1% of nymphs were recovered as adult ticks after fungal treatment under semi-field conditions compared to the control (100%). The efficacy of blastospores of M. anisopliae against engorged larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus under semi-field conditions was demonstrated in this study, showing their high potential as a biological control agent of ticks. Further studies will have to investigate the effect of this agent against other stages of I. ricinus as well as other tick species before its value as a biological control agent against ticks can be fully assessed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine-A Summary of Real Cases

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B.; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis. PMID:22069699

  13. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    PubMed

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  14. OGS Water ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-21

    ISS020-E-033472 (21 Aug. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, prepares to perform in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the oxygen generator system (OGS) rack in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  15. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. Methods To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958–2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. Results The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. Conclusions If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the ‘uninfected areas’ surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory

  16. Genome scaffolding and annotation for the pathogen vector Ixodes ricinus by ultra-long single molecule sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cramaro, Wibke J; Hunewald, Oliver E; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Muller, Claude P

    2017-02-08

    Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I. ricinus tick is necessary. To facilitate such studies, we recently published the first reference genome of this highly prevalent pathogen vector. Here, we further extend these studies by scaffolding and annotating the first reference genome by using ultra-long sequencing reads from third generation single molecule sequencing. In addition, we present the first genome size estimation for I. ricinus ticks and the embryo-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19. 235,953 contigs were integrated into 204,904 scaffolds, extending the currently known genome lengths by more than 30% from 393 to 516 Mb and the N50 contig value by 87% from 1643 bp to a N50 scaffold value of 3067 bp. In addition, 25,263 sequences were annotated by comparison to the tick's North American relative Ixodes scapularis. After (conserved) hypothetical proteins, zinc finger proteins, secreted proteins and P450 coding proteins were the most prevalent protein categories annotated. Interestingly, more than 50% of the amino acid sequences matching the homology threshold had 95-100% identity to the corresponding I. scapularis gene models. The sequence information was complemented by the first genome size estimation for this species. Flow cytometry-based genome size analysis revealed a haploid genome size of 2.65Gb for I. ricinus ticks and 3.80 Gb for the cell line. We present a first draft sequence map of the I. ricinus genome based on a PacBio-Illumina assembly. The I. ricinus genome was shown to be 26% (500 Mb) larger than the genome of its

  17. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  18. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  19. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  20. Expression analysis of a sucrose carrier in the germinating seedling of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Bick, J A; Neelam, A; Smith, E; Nelson, S J; Hall, J L; Williams, L E

    1998-10-01

    This study describes the expression of a sucrose carrier at various developmental stages in Ricinus communis. A partial-length cDNA clone, RcSUT1, was isolated by RT-PCR from Ricinus seedling RNA. This is almost identical to a sucrose carrier cDNA, Rscr1, which has previously been isolated by library screening. However, we have observed a very different expression pattern in the seedling to that previously reported. Northern analysis, with RcSUT1 as a probe, revealed high expression of a 2 kb transcript in the cotyledons of the germinating seedling; transcript levels were similar in cotyledons harvested 3-6 days after germination. A much lower level of this transcript was detected in the root, hypocotyl and endosperm RNA of the seedling and very low levels were also present in the sink and source leaves of the mature plant. This pattern of expression was also reflected at the protein level with an antipeptide antibody raised to part of the RcSUT1 deduced amino acid sequence. Tissue print hybridisation analysis of the hypocotyl revealed that the sucrose carrier transcripts were localised to the phloem cells of the vascular bundles. A more detailed analysis of sucrose carrier gene expression in the cotyledons of the germinating seedling was carried out by in situ hybridisation; the strongest signals were observed from the lower epidermal layer and the phloem, consistent with an active loading role for these cells. An ultrastructural study of the cells in the lower epidermis showed that they have wall ingrowths which are characteristic of transfer cells. The results are discussed in relation to the physiological role of the sucrose carrier in the Ricinus seedling and to the pathways of sucrose movement from endosperm to the sieve elements in the cotyledons.

  1. Development of a novel set of microsatellite markers for castor bean, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Kiihl, Tammy Aparecida Manabe; Batista, Carlos Eduardo Araújo; Monteiro, Mariza; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) to investigate genetic diversity and population structure, and to provide support to germplasm management. Eleven microsatellite loci were isolated using an enrichment cloning protocol and used to characterize castor bean germplasm from the collection at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC). In a survey of 76 castor bean accessions, the investigated loci displayed polymorphism ranging from two to five alleles. The information derived from microsatellite markers led to significant gains in conserved allelic richness and provides support to the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies for castor bean.

  2. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  3. IgG subclasses of specific antibodies in Ixodes ricinus-borne borreliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, I; Hammarström, L; Smith, C I; Hovmark, A; Asbrink, E

    1987-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus-borne borreliosis may run a protracted course. In this study we investigated the different IgG subclasses of antibodies to borreliae at different stages of the disease. In addition to the dominant subclass IgG1 and IgG3 response was found in most cases. This antibody subclass pattern with contributions of IgG2 often persists into the late stage of the disease and may last for decades. The IgG subclass response elicited by this spirochaetosis does not conform to the expected IgG4 restricted response after chronic antigenic stimulation. PMID:3665187

  4. Detection of Babesia EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Bonoli, Cristina; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Tessarin, Cinzia; Marcer, Federica; Galuppi, Roberta

    2010-07-15

    Babesia EU1, a potentially important emerging zoonotic pathogen, already detected in ticks and wild ruminants of different European Countries, was found in three pools of Ixodes ricinus nymphs in three different sites located in a single District of north-eastern Italy. Totally 356 ticks (60 pools) were collected from the environment during a surveillance activity in the year 2006. Babesia EU1 estimated individual tick prevalence in the area is 0.85%. The finding that also in northern Italy the tick population is carrying Babesia EU1 suggests a wide geographical spreading of this zoonotic pathogen in Europe. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronology of alveolar healing following immediate implantation of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin: histometric analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, T L; Teófilo, J M; Araújo, C A; Brentegani, L G

    1997-12-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether granules of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin implanted immediately after tooth extraction interfere with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Progressive bone neoformation in parallel to a decrease in the volume fraction of connective tissue was quantified by a histometric method 1, 2, 3, and 6 weeks after tooth extraction. In spite of the biocompatible nature, the presence of polyurethane resin granules in the cervical third led to a small (9-22%) but significant delay in bone formation in the middle and apical alveolar thirds from the second week on, as compared to controls.

  6. Isolation and fractionation of the endoplasmic reticulum from castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm for proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Simon, William J; Maltman, Daniel J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the preparation and isolation of highly purified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from the endosperm of developing and germinating castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds to provide a purified organelle fraction for differential proteomic analyses. The method uses a two-step ultracentrifugation protocol first described by Coughlan (1) and uses sucrose density gradients and a sucrose flotation step to yield purified ER devoid of other contaminating endomembrane material. Using a combination of one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis the complexity and reproducibility of the protein profile of the purified organelle is evaluated prior to detailed proteomic analyses using mass spectrometry based techniques.

  7. High-speed counter-current chromatographic isolation of ricinine, an insecticide from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Cazal, Cristiane de Melo; Batalhão, Jaqueline Raquel; Domingues, Vanessa de Cássia; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Filho, Edson Rodrigues; Forim, Moacir R; da Silva, Maria Fátima G Fernandes; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, João Batista

    2009-05-08

    The alkaloid ricinine, an insecticide for leaf-cutting ant (Atta sexdens rubropilosa), was obtained from Ricinus communis. A two-phase solvent system composed of CH(2)Cl(2)/EtOH/H(2)O (93:35:72, v/v/v) was used for high-speed counter-current chromatographic (HSCCC) isolation of ricinine in high yield and with over 96% purity, as determined by liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS). Identification of ricinine was performed by comparison of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS/MS data.

  8. Seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, E; Jaulhac, B; Garcia-Bonnet, N; Hunfeld, K-P; Féménia, F; Huet, D; Goulvestre, C; Vaillant, V; Deffontaines, G; Abadia-Benoist, G

    2016-08-01

    In order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern France. The global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for Borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for Francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 1.7% (48/2908) for Bartonella henselae. The seroprevalences of Babesia divergens and Babesia microti studied in a subgroup of participants seropositive for at least one of these latter pathogens were 0.1% (1/810) and 2.5% (20/810), respectively. Borrelia burgdorferi sl seroprevalence was significantly higher in Alsace and Lorraine and F. tularensis seroprevalence was significantly higher in Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté. The results of this survey also suggest low rates of transmission of Bartonella henselae and F. tularensis by ticks and a different west/east distribution of Babesia species in France. The frequency and potential severity of these diseases justify continued promotion of methods of prevention of I. ricinus bites.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus Complex (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies. PMID:24714063

  10. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log K ow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds. PMID:26301249

  11. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  12. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Model Ixodes ricinus Habitat Suitability.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Raphaël; McGrath, Guy; McMahon, Barry J; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2017-06-19

    Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them). The western part of Ireland and the Wicklow mountains in the East were estimated to be the most suitable areas for I. ricinus in the island. There was a good level of agreement between results from the MCDA and recorded tick presence. The different scenarios did not affect the spatial outputs substantially. The current study suggests that tick habitat suitability can be mapped accurately at a coarse scale in a data-scarce context using knowledge-based methods. It can serve as a guideline for future countrywide sampling that would help to determine local risk of tick presence and refining knowledge on tick habitat suitability in Ireland.

  13. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-14

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  14. Transport of Babesia venatorum-infected Ixodes ricinus to Norway by northward migrating passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B.venatorum have been described. The objective of this study was to determine whether birds can introduce Babesia-infected ticks. There are between 30 and 85 million passerine birds that migrate to Norway every spring. Methods Passerine birds were examined for ticks at four bird observatories along the southern Norwegian coast during the spring migrations of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The presence of Babesia was detected in the nymphs of Ixodes ricinus by real-time PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using PCR, cloning and phylogenetic analyses. Results Of 512 ticks examined, real-time PCR revealed five to be positive (1.0%). Of these, four generated products that indicated the presence of Babesia spp.; each of these were confirmed to be from Babesia venatorum (EU1). Two of the four B. venatorum-positive ticks were caught from birds having an eastern migratory route (P< 0.001). Conclusions Birds transport millions of ticks across the North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat every year. Thus, even with the low prevalence of Babesia-infected ticks, a substantial number of infected ticks will be transported into Norway each year. Therefore, there is a continuous risk for introduction of new Babesia spp. into areas where I. ricinus can survive. PMID:21699719

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Aerial Parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Zaib, Sumera; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Afsar; Bibi, Irum; Suleman, Saba

    2012-01-01

    Context. Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Objective. The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various extracts of aerial parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis. Materials and Methods. In vitro antioxidant activities of the plant extract were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Superoxide anion radical activity was measured by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium as compared with standard antioxidants. Total phenolic contents and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and serial tube dilution method, respectively. Results. Plants showed significant radical scavenging activity. The results were expressed as IC50. n-Propyl gallate and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole were used as standards for antioxidant assay. All the extracts of both plants showed comparable IC50 to those of standards. Plants extract exhibited high phenolic contents and antibacterial activities were comparable with standard drug, Ciprofloxacin. Discussion and Conclusion. The present study provides evidence that Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis prove to be potent natural antioxidants and could replace synthetic antioxidants. Plants can also be used against pathogenic bacterial strains. PMID:22919511

  16. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p'-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p'-DDT < p,p'-DDT by increasing order of log K ow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  17. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  18. RNA-seq analyses of the midgut from blood- and serum-fed Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Jan; Provazník, Jan; Schrenková, Jana; Urbanová, Veronika; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Adult females of the genus Ixodes imbibe blood meals exceeding about 100 times their own weight within 7‒9 days. During this period, ticks internalise components of host blood by endocytic digest cells that line the tick midgut epithelium. Using RNA-seq, we aimed to characterise the midgut transcriptome composition in adult Ixodes ricinus females during early and late phase of engorgement. To address specific adaptations to the haemoglobin-rich diet, we compared the midgut transcriptomes of genetically homogenous female siblings fed either bovine blood or haemoglobin-depleted serum. We noted that tick gut transcriptomes are subject to substantial temporal-dependent expression changes between day 3 and day 8 of feeding. In contrast, the number of transcripts significantly affected by the presence or absence of host red blood cells was low. Transcripts relevant to the processes associated with blood-meal digestion were analysed and involvement of selected encoded proteins in the tick midgut physiology discussed. A total of 7215 novel sequences from I. ricinus were deposited in public databases as an additional outcome of this study. Our results broaden the current knowledge of tick digestive system and may lead to the discovery of potential molecular targets for efficient tick control. PMID:27824139

  19. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  20. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Mateus, Christiano; Orivaldo Chierice, Gilberto; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2011-09-01

    Histological evaluation is an effective method in the behavioral description of the qualitative and quantitative implanted materials. The research validated the performance of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus on bone regeneration with the histomorphological analysis results. Were selected 30 rabbits, females, divided into 3 groups of 10 animals (G1, G2, G3) with a postoperative time of 45, 70 and 120 days respectively. Each animal is undergone 2 bone lesions in the ilium, one implemented in the material: Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus and the other for control. After the euthanasia, the iliac bone was removed, identified and subjected to histological procedure. The evaluation histological, histomorphological results were interpreted and described by quantitative and qualitative analysis based facts verified in the three experimental groups evaluating the rate of absorption of the material in the tissue regeneration, based on the neo-bone formation. The histomorphologic results classified as a material biocompatible and biologically active. Action in regeneration by bone resorption occurs slowly and gradually. Knowing the time and rate of absorption and neo-formation bone biomaterial, which can be determined in the bone segment applicable in the clinical surgical area.

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Modelling the effect of temperature variation on the seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus tick populations.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Penelope A; Brackley, Robert; Palmer, Stephen C F

    2011-04-01

    Seasonal variation in temperature is known to drive annual patterns of tick activity and can influence the dynamics of tick-borne diseases. An age-structured model of the dynamics of Ixodes ricinus populations was developed to explore how changes in average temperature and different levels of temperature variability affect seasonal patterns of tick activity and the transmission of tick-borne diseases. The model produced seasonal patterns of tick emergence that are consistent with those observed throughout Great Britain. Varying average temperature across a continuous spectrum produced a systematic pattern in the times of peak emergence of questing ticks which depends on cumulative temperature over the year. Examination of the effects of between-year stochastic temperature variation on this pattern indicated that peak emergence times are more strongly affected by temperature stochasticity at certain levels of average temperature. Finally the model was extended to give a simple representation of the dynamics of a tick-borne disease. A threshold level of annual cumulative temperature was identified at which disease persistence is sensitive to stochastic temperature variation. In conclusion, the effect of changing patterns of temperature variation on the dynamics of I. ricinus ticks and the diseases they transmit may depend on the cumulative temperature over the year and will therefore vary across different locations. The results also indicate that diapause mechanisms have an important influence on seasonal patterns of tick activity and require further study. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens.

  4. 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii', an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sassera, Davide; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio; Bouman, Edwin A P; Sacchi, Luciano; Fabbi, Massimo; Lo, Nathan

    2006-11-01

    An intracellular bacterium with the unique ability to enter mitochondria exists in the European vector of Lyme disease, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the bacterium formed a divergent lineage within the Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Here, we present additional phylogenetic evidence, based on the gyrB gene sequence, that confirms the phylogenetic position of the bacterium. Based on these data, as well as electron microscopy (EM), in situ hybridization and other observations, we propose the name 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii' for this bacterium. The symbiont appears to be ubiquitous in females of I. ricinus across the tick's distribution, while lower prevalence is observed in males (44%). Based on EM and in situ hybridization studies, the presence of 'Candidatus M. mitochondrii' in females appears to be restricted to ovarian cells. The bacterium was found to be localized both in the cytoplasm and in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria of ovarian cells. 'Candidatus M. mitochondrii' is the first bacterium to be identified that resides within animal mitochondria.

  5. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  6. Prevalence and Diversity among Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway

    PubMed Central

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. The overall infection rate varied from 2.83% to 3.32%, but there were no significant differences (p = 0.01) in the overall infection rate in 2010, 2011, or 2012. A multilocus sequencing analysis was performed to further characterise the isolates. The genotyping of 27 strains resulted in classification into 19 different sequences types (ST), none of which was found in the MLST database. The nucleotide diversity was for every locus <0.01, and the number of SNPs was between 1 and 2.8 per 100 bp. The majority of SNPs were synonymous. A goeBURST analysis demonstrated that the strains from northwest Norway cluster together with other Norwegian strains in the MLST database and the strains that are included in this study constitute clonal complexes (CC) 9, 10, and 11 in addition to the singleton. PMID:25215241

  7. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Central Bohemia.

    PubMed

    Klubal, Radek; Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Thomayerova, Jana; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%). The phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences showed two groups related to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Spiroplasma melliferum, respectively. Using group-specific primers, the following potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected: Borellia (in 20% of the 142 samples), Rickettsia (12%), Spiroplasma (5%), Diplorickettsia (5%) and Anaplasma (2%). In total, 68% of I. ricinus samples (97/142) contained detectable bacteria and 13% contained two or more putative pathogenic groups. The prevalence of tick-borne bacteria was similar to the observations in other European countries.

  8. Differential diagnosis of three common Ixodes spp. ticks infesting songbirds of Western Europe: Ixodes arboricola, I. frontalis and I. ricinus.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Dieter; De Coninck, Eliane; Jansen, Famke; Madder, Maxime

    2014-10-01

    The three most common Ixodes spp. ticks found on songbirds in Western Europe are Ixodes frontalis, I. arboricola and I. ricinus. As the latter species is a generalist, it shares several avian hosts with the two strictly ornithophilic species. Infestations of the three species can overlap in time and space, implying that tick-borne pathogens maintained by the ornithophilic ticks and their hosts could be bridged by I. ricinus to non-avian hosts. Whereas the endophilic Ixodes arboricola only occurs in cavities, I. frontalis has been collected frequently by flagging methods from understory vegetation, which is also the habitat of the field-dwelling I. ricinus. As the latter two species have rather similar morphological characteristics, they can easily be confused with each other. In this study, we present scanning electron photomicrographs of all developmental stages of I. arboricola and I. frontalis, and provide a differential diagnosis key to distinguish the ornithophilic ticks from I. ricinus. In addition, we interpreted their phylogenetic associations based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA with other Ixodes spp. ticks (I. lividus, I. turdus, I. brunneus, I. vespertilionis, I. trianguliceps, I. hexagonus, I. scapularis).

  9. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.

  10. Role of the Lizard Teira dugesii as a Potential Host for Ixodes ricinus Tick-Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, I. Lopes; Santos, A. S.; Bernardes, C.; Milhano, N.; Jesus, J.; Menezes, D.; Núncio, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    PCR screening of ticks and tissue samples collected from 151 Teira dugesii lizards seems to indicate a potential role of this lizard species in the maintenance and transmission cycle of some Ixodes ricinus tick-borne agents, such as Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia helvetica, and Borrelia lusitaniae, that are circulating on Madeira Island. PMID:22407681

  11. Integration of Ixodes ricinus genome sequencing with transcriptome and proteome annotation of the naïve midgut.

    PubMed

    Cramaro, Wibke J; Revets, Dominique; Hunewald, Oliver E; Sinner, Regina; Reye, Anna L; Muller, Claude P

    2015-10-28

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the most important vectors of diseases threatening humans, livestock, wildlife and companion animals. Nevertheless, genomic sequence information is missing and functional annotation of transcripts and proteins is limited. This lack of information is restricting studies of the vector and its interactions with pathogens and hosts. Here we present and integrate the first analysis of the I. ricinus genome with the transcriptome and proteome of the unfed I. ricinus midgut. Whole genome sequencing was performed on I. ricinus ticks and the sequences were de novo assembled. In parallel, I. ricinus ticks were dissected and the midgut transcriptome sequenced. Both datasets were integrated by transcript discovery analysis to identify putative genes and genome contigs were screened for homology. An alignment-based and a motif-search-based approach were combined for the annotation of the midgut transcriptome. Additionally, midgut proteins were identified and annotated by mass spectrometry with public databases and the in-house built transcriptome database as references and results were cross-validated. The de novo assembly of 1 billion DNA sequences to a reference genome of 393 Mb length provides an unprecedented insight into the I. ricinus genome. A homology search revealed sequences in the assembled genome contigs homologous to 89% of the I. scapularis genome scaffolds indicating coverage of most genome regions. We identified moreover 6,415 putative genes. More than 10,000 transcripts from naïve midgut were annotated with respect of predicted function and/or cellular localization. By combining an alignment-based with a motif-search-based annotation approach, we doubled the number of annotations throughout all functional categories. In addition, 574 gel spots were significantly identified by mass spectrometry (p<0.05) and 285 distinct proteins expressed in the naïve midgut were annotated functionally and/or for cellular localization. Our

  12. The influence of red deer space use on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the landscape.

    PubMed

    Qviller, Lars; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Loe, Leif Egil; Meisingset, Erling L; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-10-13

    Many wingless ectoparasites have a limited capacity for active movement and are therefore primarily dependent on hitchhiking on their hosts for transportation. The distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus is expected to depend mainly on transportation by hosts and tick subsequent survival in areas where they drop off. In Europe, the most important hosts of adult female I. ricinus are cervids. The extensive space use of large hosts provides a much larger dispersal potential for I. ricinus than that of smaller mammalian hosts. We aim to determine the contribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) space use on the spatial distribution of I. ricinus, after accounting for landscape factors. We analysed the spatial distribution of I. ricinus with generalised mixed effects models (GLMMs) based on data from extensive field surveys of questing density in two coastal regions in Norway, from which home range data from 73 red deer with GPS collars were available. Red deer home ranges were derived using the kernel method to identify areas most frequently used by deer. We first fitted a baseline model with tick questing densities relative to landscape features that are likely to affect local climate conditions and hence, survival. We then added deer space use variables to the baseline model with only landscape variables to test whether areas more frequently used by red deer had higher questing tick densities. Questing I. ricinus density was predicted by several landscape features, such as elevation, distance to the fjord and topographic slope. In addition, we found that areas more heavily used within the red deer home ranges, correlated with higher questing tick densities. Increased effects of deer space use were additive to the landscape model, suggesting that correlations were more than just shared landscape preferences between deer and ticks. Our results imply that the distribution of I. ricinus is controlled by a complex set of factors that include both local conditions related to

  13. Toxic and repellent activity of selected monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and linalool) against the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Maggi, Filippo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-15

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is a species of medical and veterinary importance. The use of synthetic acaricides for tick control has led to development of resistance, residues in the environment and animal products, and public health concerns. In this regard, plant essential oils and their main constituents represent an appealing alternative strategy to combat ticks. The phenols thymol and carvacrol and the alcohol linalool are monoterpenoids occurring in essential oils of several aromatic and medicinal plants, such as thyme, oregano, savory, lavender and coriander. Recent studies have shown toxicity of these monoterpenoids against selected mosquito vectors and other arthropod pests. However, information on their bioactivity on I. ricinus is not available. On this basis, here we evaluated the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellency effects of these compounds against I. ricinus. Concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% were sprayed on the egg masses, then hatching rates were noted. Larvicidal assays were conducted on unengorged larvae, following the larval packet technique. The repellency was determined by measuring the vertical migration behavior of ticks in laboratory conditions. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested led to a significant hatching decrease, showing an efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas linalool did not cause any significant effect. In the larvae treated with carvacrol and thymol (1, 2 and 5%), mortality rates reached 100% after 24h, showing a larvicidal efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas no effect was seen in the larval groups treated with linalool. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested showed >90% repellency on I. ricinus. Linalool was scarcely effective (50.24% repellency) only at the concentration of 5%. Overall, based on these results, the phenols carvacrol and thymol can be considered as candidate ingredients for the development of novel acaricidal formulations to control the populations of I. ricinus

  14. Deer presence rather than abundance determines the population density of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Dutch forests.

    PubMed

    Hofmeester, Tim R; Sprong, Hein; Jansen, Patrick A; Prins, Herbert H T; van Wieren, Sipke E

    2017-09-19

    Understanding which factors drive population densities of disease vectors is an important step in assessing disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that the density of ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, which are important vectors for tick-borne diseases, is determined by the density of deer, as adults of these ticks mainly feed on deer. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate I. ricinus density across 20 forest plots in the Netherlands that ranged widely in deer availability to ticks, and performed a deer-exclosure experiment in four pairs of 1 ha forest plots in a separate site. Ixodes ricinus from all stages were more abundant in plots with deer (n = 17) than in plots without deer (n = 3). Where deer were present, the density of ticks did not increase with the abundance of deer. Experimental exclosure of deer reduced nymph density by 66% and adult density by 32% within a timeframe of two years. In this study, deer presence rather than abundance explained the density of I. ricinus. This is in contrast to previous studies and might be related to the relatively high host-species richness in Dutch forests. This means that reduction of the risk of acquiring a tick bite would require the complete elimination of deer in species rich forests. The fact that small exclosures (< 1 ha) substantially reduced I. ricinus densities suggests that fencing can be used to reduce tick-borne disease risk in areas with high recreational pressure.

  15. The integration of multiple independent data reveals an unusual response to Pleistocene climatic changes in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Mona, Stefano; Epis, Sara; Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    In the last few years, improved analytical tools and the integration of genetic data with multiple sources of information have shown that temperate species exhibited more complex responses to ice ages than previously thought. In this study, we investigated how Pleistocene climatic changes affected the current distribution and genetic diversity of European populations of the tick Ixodes ricinus, an ectoparasite with high ecological plasticity. We first used mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the phylogeographic structure of the species and its Pleistocene history using coalescent-based methods; then we used species distribution modelling to infer the climatic niche of the species at last glacial maximum; finally, we reviewed the literature on the I. ricinus hosts to identify the locations of their glacial refugia. Our results support the scenario that during the last glacial phase, I. ricinus never experienced a prolonged allopatric divergence in separate glacial refugia, but persisted with interconnected populations across Southern and Central Europe. The generalist behaviour in host choice of I. ricinus would have played a major role in maintaining connections between its populations. Although most of the hosts persisted in separate refugia, from the point of view of I. ricinus, they represented a continuity of 'bridges' among populations. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific ecology in affecting responses to Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Together with other cases in Europe and elsewhere, it contributes to setting new hypotheses on how species with wide ecological plasticity coped with Pleistocene climatic changes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mechanical tools for the removal of Ixodes ricinus female ticks--differences of instruments and pulling or twisting?

    PubMed

    Duscher, G G; Peschke, R; Tichy, A

    2012-10-01

    The fast and safe removal of ticks is of medical and veterinary importance since many tick-borne pathogens require time to be transmitted. In the past, many tools and applications were used to remove ticks from the skin of humans and pets. Choking the ticks by blocking their respiratory system with chemicals cannot be recommended due to the low respiratory rate of ticks. Mechanical devices to remove ticks are usually recommended; however, they vary with regard to their mechanism of seizing and holding the tick and in the way of extraction (pulling or twisting). In this study, five commercial tick removal devices with different mechanisms were tested on pets according to their practicability, injury of the mouthparts, and the idiosoma of female Ixodes ricinus ticks. Therefore, 22 veterinarians and four pet owners removed 596 ticks from various animals by using the different devices and filled in a questionnaire for each case. The tick species and instars were determined, and for the female I. ricinus ticks (n = 527) the condition of the mouthparts as well as the idiosoma was evaluated. Twisting of the female I. ricinus ticks reduced the force required for extraction, the adverse reaction of the animal and the time needed for removal. The device with a "V"-shaped slot which allows a grabbing of the mouthparts delivered the best results according to the condition of the mouthparts and the intactness of the female I. ricinus tick's body. Therefore, grabbing the mouthparts and twisting can be recommended for removal of I. ricinus females from pets.

  17. Abiotic predictors and annual seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus, the major disease vector of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Milan; Malý, Marek; Danielová, Vlasta; Kříž, Bohumír; Nuttall, Patricia

    2015-09-18

    Abiotic conditions provide cues that drive tick questing activity. Defining these cues is critical in predicting biting risk, and in forecasting climate change impacts on tick populations. This is particularly important for Ixodes ricinus nymphs, the vector of numerous pathogens affecting humans. A 6-year study of the questing activity of I. ricinus was conducted in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic, from 2001 to 2006. Tick numbers were determined by weekly flagging the vegetation in a defined 600 m(2) field site. After capture, ticks were released back to where they were found. Concurrent temperature data and relative humidity were collected in the microhabitat and at a nearby meteorological station. Data were analysed by regression methods. During 208 monitoring visits, a total of 21,623 ticks were recorded. Larvae, nymphs, and adults showed typical bimodal questing activity curves with major spring peaks and minor late summer or autumn peaks (mid-summer for males). Questing activity of nymphs and adults began with ~12 h of daylight and ceased at ~9 h daylight, at limiting temperatures close to freezing (in early spring and late autumn); questing occurred during ~70 % calendar year without cessation in summer. The co-occurrence of larvae and nymphs varied annually, ranging from 31 to 80 % of monitoring visits, and depended on the questing activity of larvae. Near-ground temperature, day length, and relative air humidity were all significant predictors of nymphal activity. For 70 % of records, near-ground temperatures measured in the microhabitat were 4-5 °C lower than those recorded by the nearby meteorological observatory, although they were strongly dependent. Inter-annual differences in seasonal numbers of nymphs reflected extreme weather events. Weather predictions (particularly for temperature) combined with daylight length, are good predictors of the initiation and cessation of I. ricinus nymph questing activity, and hence of the risk period to humans

  18. Repellency and efficacy of 65% permethrin and 9.7% fipronil against Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Endris, R G; Matthewson, M D; Cooke, M D; Amodie, D

    2000-01-01

    Two topically applied spot-on products--65% permethrin (Defend Exspot Treatment for Dogs, Schering-Plough Animal Health, Union, NJ) and 9.7% fipronil (Frontline Spot On Dog, Merial Limited, Iselin, NJ)--used for canine flea and tick control were evaluated for repellency against Ixodes ricinus, the tick species that is the primary vector of Lyme disease in Europe. Eighteen dogs were randomly assigned to the following treatment groups (n = 6): (1) 65% permethrin, (2) 9.7% fipronil, or (3) untreated control. Dogs were exposed to ticks in individually assigned cages with a carpet that covered =70% of the cage bottom. Dogs in treatment groups 1 and 2 were treated in accordance with label directions for each re-spective product on study day 0. Fifty unfed, male and female adult ticks were placed in the cages 15 to 30 minutes before the dogs. The dogs were placed in the cages for a 2-hour exposure period at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 41 days after treatment. After a 2-hour exposure period, dogs were removed from the cages and live (attached and unattached) and dead ticks were counted on the dogs, on the carpets, and in the cages. Cages were thoroughly cleaned and new carpet was used for each tick exposure period. Treatment of dogs with 65% permethrin reduced tick numbers on dogs by 99.1% at 2 days, 99.0% at 1 week, 95.9% at 2 weeks, 88.5% at 3 weeks, 87.1% at 4 weeks, and 48.0% at 6 weeks after application. In contrast, treatment of dogs with 9.7% fipronil reduced tick numbers on dogs by 61.4% at 2 days, 51.6% at 1 week, 37.0% at 2 weeks, 33.7% at 3 weeks, 10.8% at 4 weeks, and 0% at 6 weeks after application. The efficacy of 65% permethrin was significant (P < or = .05) when compared to the control at all challenges, whereas the efficacy of 9.7% fipronil was not significant as compared to controls at 21, 28, 35, and 41 days after treatment. The 65% permethrin killed significantly more Ixodes ricinus ticks (P < or = .05) than 9.7% fipronil from 2 to 41 days after treatment

  19. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  1. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  2. Effect of vanadate on proton-sucrose cotransport in Ricinus cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Vreugdenhil, D.; Spanswick, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The effects of orthovanadate on the uptake of sucrose by Ricinus cotyledons and on sucrose-coupled proton influx were measured in order to gain insight into the relationship to the plasma membrane proton pump. Vanadate had no effect on short-term sucrose uptake. In long-term experiments (> 30 min) sucrose uptake was progressively inhibited, but only at high external sucrose concentrations. Vanadate did not affect proton efflux pumping in the absence of sucrose and neither did it change the initial rate of sucrose-coupled proton influx. However, it enhanced the maximal level of sucrose-induced alkalization of the medium at all sucrose concentrations tested. This is interpreted as an inhibiting effect of vanadate on the proton pump that recycles protons during sucrose-proton cotransport. The sensitivity towards vanadate indicates that this proton pump is an ATPase. A second proton-translocating system, that is insensitive to vanadate, is postulated to function in the absence of sucrose.

  3. Characterization of the 11S globulin gene family in the castor plant Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Chileh, Tarik; Esteban-García, Belén; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-01-13

    The 11S globulin (legumin) gene family has been characterized in the castor plant Ricinus communis L. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of two diverged subfamilies (RcLEG1 and RcLEG2) comprising a total of nine genes and two putative pseudogenes. The expression of castor legumin genes has been studied, indicating that it is seed specific and developmentally regulated, with a maximum at the stage when cellular endosperm reaches its full expansion (around 40-45 DAP). However, conspicuous differences are appreciated in the expression timing of individual genes. A characterization of the 5'-proximal regulatory regions for two genes, RcLEG1-1 and RcLEG2-1, representative of the two legumin subfamilies, has also been performed by fusion to the GUS reporter gene. The results obtained from heterologous expression in tobacco and transient expression in castor, indicating seed-specific regulation, support the possible utility of these promoters for biotechnological purposes.

  4. Phytochemical investigation characterisation and anticonvulsant activity of Ricinus communis seeds in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Avinash Chandra; Gupta, Rajiv; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2011-11-01

    The ethanol extract of the dried, powdered hull portion of Ricinus communis seeds indicated the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolics, amongst others. Ricinine was isolated as an active constituent and characterised by various chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The anticonvulsant activity of the isolated compound was evaluated in mice using the maximal electroshock (MES) model. The isolated compound at a dose of 60 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, orally, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the extensor tonus phase of convulsion by MES-induced seizures in albino mice when compared with the standard drug diazepam (30 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, orally). The results of this study support the folkloric use of the plant in epileptic remedies.

  5. Forensic applications of light-element stable isotope ratios of Ricinus communis seeds and ricin preparations.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Helen W; West, Jason B; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin preparations can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples worldwide and measured the C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of the whole seeds and oil. We prepared ricin by three different procedures, acetone extraction, salt precipitation, and affinity chromatography, and compared their isotope ratios to those of the source seeds. The N isotope ratios of the ricin samples and source seeds were virtually identical. Therefore, N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pairwise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Time-course proteome analysis of developing extrafloral nectaries of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohibullah; Teixeira, Fabiano M; Soares, Emanoella L; Soares, Arlete A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Domont, Gilberto B; Thornburg, Robert W; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Campos, Francisco A P

    2016-02-01

    Floral and extrafloral nectaries are unique organs that secrete energy rich chemical components, but their contribution for nectar production is largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative proteome dataset of four developmental stages of the extrafloral nectaries from castor plant (Ricinus communis), an important biofuel crop. Respectively, from stage I-IV, we identified 626, 613, 449 and 356 proteins, respectively, summing up 882 nonredundant proteins. Surprisingly, we identified two isoforms of the potent toxin ricin, indicating that ricin expression is not limited to seeds, but it may serve a general defense purpose for the castor plant. To date, this is the most complete dataset of proteins either from floral or extrafloral nectaries, thus contributing to lay the foundations for investigations on their ecological and evolutionary importance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Bioactivity of the Stable Peptide RCB-1 from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Delgerbat; Gunasekera, Sunithi; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-11-25

    The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable.

  8. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Kovářová, Zuzana; Chmelař, Jindřich; Sanda, Miloslav; Brynda, Jiří; Mareš, Michael; Rezáčová, Pavlína

    2010-11-01

    IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. It is produced in the salivary glands of the tick and its anti-inflammatory activity suggests that it plays a role in parasite-host interaction. Recombinant IRS-2 prepared by heterologous expression in a bacterial system was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4(3) and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Mass-spectrometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed that IRS-2 was cleaved by contaminating proteases during crystallization. This processing of IRS-2 mimicked the specific cleavage of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form (the so-called relaxed conformation), which produced well diffracting crystals. Activity profiling with specific substrates and inhibitors demonstrated traces of serine and cysteine proteases in the protein stock solution.

  9. Concanavalin A and ricinus communis receptor sites in normal human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dabelsteen, E; Fejerskov, O; Norén, O; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescein conjugates of concanavalin A (Con-A) and Ricinus communis fraction 120 (RCA120) were shown to bind to the cell surfaces of basal and spinous cell layers in oral buccal mucosa. Palatal epithelium showed distinct binding to basal and spinous cells; cell membranes in the granular layer occasionally bound Con-A and always RCA120. The ultrastructural localization of Con-A binding sites on exfoliated buccal cells was detected by the Con-A peroxidase staining method. The Con-A receptors were seen on the cell surface in association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The reaction products appeared as a homogeneous, electron-dense layer containing irregularly distributed globules.

  10. Graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine what structural changes are associated with the onset of graviresponsiveness by plant roots, we have monitored the quantitative ultrastructures of columella (i.e., graviperceptive) cells in primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis. The relative volumes of cellular components in lateral (i.e., minimally graviresponsive) roots were not significantly different from those of primary roots. The relative volumes of cellular components in secondary roots growing laterally were not significantly different from those of graviresponsive secondary roots. Therefore, the onset of graviresponsiveness by secondary roots of R. communis is not correlated with changes in organellar concentrations in columella cells. These results are discussed relative to a model for the differential graviresponsiveness of plant roots.

  11. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  12. Phloem mobility and translocation of fluorescent conjugate containing glucose and NBD in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhiwei; Wang, Jie; Mao, Genlin; Wen, Yingjie; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-03-05

    Phloem mobility is an important factor for long-distance transport of systemic pesticides in plants. Our previous study revealed that a fluorescent glucose-insecticide conjugate, N-{3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-iodo-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-N-{[1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}-N-{[1-((N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-amine))-propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}amine (IPGN), can be transported in tobacco cells. Several studies have also indicated that glucose moieties can guide the conjugates into plant cells. In this study, we investigated the phloem mobility of IPGN within castor bean seedlings. Cotyledon uptake experiment results show that IPGN could enter the phloem of the mid-veins of cotyledons. The results of further quantitative analysis show that IPGN was present in small amounts in the phloem sap despite the inconsistencies of physicochemical properties with diffusion through the plasma membrane. Its concentration in the phloem sap (about 370nM at 5h) was much lower than that in the incubation medium (100μM), which suggests that IPGN exhibited weak phloem mobility. After the leaves of Ricinus plantlets were treated with IPGN, green fluorescence could be observed in the phloem of the petioles, bud apical nodes, bud mid-veins, and mid-veins of the untreated leaves. The localization of the fluorescent conjugate at various levels of Ricinus plantlets indicates that it was translocated at a distance to sink organs via sieve tubes. The results proved that introducing a glucose group is a feasible approach to modify non-phloem-mobile pesticides and produce phloem-mobile pesticides.

  13. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus.

    PubMed

    Moutailler, S; Popovici, I; Devillers, E; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Eloit, M

    2016-05-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens-including bacteria, parasites and viruses-than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S)-rrl (23S) intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%), followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%), B. afzelii (8.3%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%). Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe. PMID:21054890

  15. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public. PMID:23281838

  16. [Mapping of parasitological environmental data: the tick Ixodes ricinus--a case of study].

    PubMed

    Kiewra, Dorota; Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    While the mapping of health data is not new for epidemiologists the incorporation of differentiated environmental factors, e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, elevation, vegetation type, host abundance and distribution, zoonotic reservoirs of infection can create a new opportunities for parasitologists. Suitable tools for spatial modeling of health problems and pathogen occurrence in space and time are provided by geographic information system (GIS). It is computer-based system which integrates, storages, edits, analyses, shares and displays information. This software system is based on connection between information--data and their location. GIS applications allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data and maps. GIS is very useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for the ticks which are strong depended on environmental conditions. Mapping not only enables to create maps based on field monitoring but also to create forecasting maps for prevention and control strategies on small and large scale. Up to now ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) having strong relationship with the ecosystem are highly amenable to predictive mapping. The aim of study is the characterization of procedural steps with regard to entering field environmental data to GIS database and their visualization on digital maps. The field date of tick monitoring conducted in April 2008 in the Wrocław area (the Osobowicki Forest) made possible to create digital database. ArcView as one of three separate software products of ArcGIS (a scalable framework for implementing GIS) was used to create an interactive maps. Visualization of the data which are stored in tables of attributes made possible to show legibly the distribution of I. ricinus on the analysed area. Mapping of I. ricinus occurrence on digital maps enable to indicate areas of the highest risk of biting and potential tick-borne diseases.

  17. Adenosine stimulates anabolic metabolism in developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Flörchinger, Martin; Zimmermann, Marc; Traub, Michaela; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    In previous experiments it was shown that Castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm releases carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleoside derivatives, which are subsequently imported into the developing cotyledons (Kombrink and Beevers in Plant Physiol 73:370-376, 1983). To investigate the importance of the most prominent nucleoside adenosine for the metabolism of growing Ricinus seedlings, we supplied adenosine to cotyledons of 5-days-old seedlings after removal of the endosperm. This treatment led to a 16% increase in freshweight of intact seedlings within 16 h, compared to controls. Using detached cotyledons, we followed uptake of radiolabelled adenosine and identified 40% of label in solubles (mostly ATP and ADP), 46% incorporation in RNA and 2.5% in DNA, indicating a highly active salvage pathway. About 7% of freshly imported adenosine entered the phloem, which indicates a major function of adenosine for cotyledon metabolism. Import and conversion of adenosine improved the energy content of cotyledons as revealed by a substantially increased ATP/ADP ratio. This effect was accompanied by slight increases in respiratory activity, decreased levels of hexose phosphates and increased levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphates. These alterations indicate a stimulation of glycolytic flux by activation of phosphofructokinase, and accordingly we determined a higher activity of this enzyme. Furthermore the rate of [(14)C]-sucrose driven starch biosynthesis in developing castor-bean is significantly increased by feeding of adenosine. In conclusion, our data indicate that adenosine imported from mobilizing endosperm into developing castor-bean cotyledons fulfils an important function as it promotes anabolic reactions in this rapidly developing tissue.

  18. [Spatial and temporal variability of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus infection with the Lyme disease agent in Moscow Region].

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Iu S; Kislenko, G S; Burenkova, L A; Rudnikova, N A; Karan', L S

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of long-term data on the infection rated of the taxonomic complex Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus from Moscow Region is carried out. More than 14 000 tick specimens were examined by dark-field microscopy and 704 specimens were investigated by PCR. Two borrelia genospicies, B. afzelii (6.3%) and B. garinii (20%) proved the most prevalent. The genospecies could form a mixtinfection (11%). Borrelia miyamotoi, B. valaisiana, and B. burgdorferi s. s. were also found in the studied territory, with the total ratio lesser than 6%. Acarotropism of Borrelia proved 2.4 times higher with respect to I. persulcatus, than to I. ricinus. Average long-term infection rates of these tick species were 27.3 and 11.3% respectively. Spatial variability of the infection rate in ticks significantly exceeds interannual fluctuations with the variation coefficients 66 and 26% respectively.

  19. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus sampled in northeastern, central, and insular areas of Italy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lyda R; Gabrielli, Simona; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating in Italy, carried/transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, one of the most abundant tick species in the country. A total of 447 specimens sampled in five areas of northeastern, central and insular Italy were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae, borreliae and babesiae. Several rickettsial species of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern and other zoonotic pathogens were found, such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Babesia venatorum. These findings confirm a wide distribution of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan species in Italy, and highlight the sanitary importance of I. ricinus, often recorded as feeding on humans.

  20. Detection of a non-pathogenic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus from La Rioja, Spain.

    PubMed

    Portillo, A; Santos, A S; Santibáñez, S; Pérez-Martínez, L; Blanco, J R; Ibarra, V; Oteo, J A

    2005-12-01

    Our aim was to identify variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene sequences among products amplified from Ixodes ricinus collected in La Rioja, Spain. A. phagocytophilum AP-variant 1, reported as non-pathogenic, was detected in 12 samples (two adults and ten nymphs). This finding could justify the low incidence of human anaplasmosis in our area, despite the high prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks.

  1. Detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Areas in Switzerland Where Tick-Borne Fever Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive. PMID:9705425

  2. A Density Map of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Lyme Borreliosis Vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) for Germany.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Katharina; Boehnke, Denise; Petney, Trevor; Dobler, Gerhard; Pfeffer, Martin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schaub, Günter A; Pinior, Beate; Dautel, Hans; Kahl, Olaf; Pfister, Kurt; Süss, Jochen; Rubel, Franz

    2016-11-01

    The castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) is the principal vector for a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens causing a growing public-health issue over the past decades. However, a national density map of I. ricinus is still missing. Here, I. ricinus nymphs in Germany were investigated by compiling a high-resolution map depicting the mean annually accumulated nymphal density, as observed by monthly flagging an area of 100 m(2) Input data comprise ticks collected at 69 sampling sites. The model domain covers an area of about 357,000 km(2) (regional scale). Two negative binomial regression models were fitted to the data to interpolate the tick densities to unsampled locations using bioclimatic variables and land cover, which were selected according to their significance by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). The default model was fitted to the complete dataset resulting in AIC = 842. An optimized model resulted in a significantly better value of AIC = 732. Tick densities are very low in urban (green) areas. Maximum annual densities up to 1,000 nymphs per 100 m(2) are observed in broad-leaved forests. The tick maps were verified by leave-one-out cross-validation. Root mean square errors of RMSE = 137 and RMSE = 126 nymphs per 100 m(2) were estimated for the two models, respectively. These errors are of the order of the interannual variation of the tick densities. The compilation of a high-resolution density map of unfed nymphal I. ricinus for Germany provides a novel, nationwide insight into the distribution of an important disease vector. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in I. ricinus ticks collected from autumn migratory birds in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kazarina, Alisa; Japiņa, Kristīne; Keišs, Oskars; Salmane, Ineta; Bandere, Dace; Capligina, Valentina; Ranka, Renāte

    2015-03-01

    Birds have a potential of spreading ticks via bird migration routes. In this study, we screened 170 ticks removed during autumn 2010 from 55 birds belonging to 10 species for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In total, TBEV RNA was detected in 14% of I. ricinus tick samples obtained from different birds species. The results of this study indicate the possible role of migrating birds in the dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks along the southward migration route.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in larval Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on blackbirds in northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Alessandro; Nebbia, Patrizia; Tramuta, Clara; Grego, Elena; Tomassone, Laura; Ainardi, Romina; Venturini, Lucia; De Meneghi, Daniele; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe

    2005-03-01

    Birds belonging to 59 species (n = 1,206) were live captured in Piemonte, northwestern Italy, in 2001. Ixodes ricinus (L.) larvae were collected from 59 birds belonging to nine species, and nymphs were recovered on 79 birds belonging to 10 species. Eurasian blackbirds, Turdus merula L., had significantly higher levels of infestation by ticks than other passerine species. Larval I. ricinus of blackbirds peaked in summer, when prevalence was 39% (95% confidence interval 24.2-55.5) and mean number of ticks per host was 3.3 (1.6-7.2), whereas nymphs peaked in spring, when prevalence was 72.2% (54.8-85.8) and mean number of ticks per host was 6.9 (4.4-10.7). Immature I. ricinus were coincidentally aggregated on blackbirds, with 15 blackbirds feeding 67.4% of nymphs and 40.3% of larvae, and coinfestation by both stages was relatively high in summer: Kappa = 0.64 (0.40-0.88). Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 58.3% (35.9-78.5) of larvae with engorgement ratio > or = 3 that were collected from blackbirds. Larvae that were collected from other passerine species gave negative PCR results. Sixteen of 21 PCR-positive samples belonged to B. garinii (76.2%), and five (23.8%) were Borrelia valaisiana. Results of this study suggest that blackbirds play an important role as hosts for immature I. ricinus and as reservoir of Borrelia garinii in northwestern Italy.

  5. Saturation deficit and deer density affect questing activity and local abundance of Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tagliapietra, V; Rosà, R; Arnoldi, D; Cagnacci, F; Capelli, G; Montarsi, F; Hauffe, H C; Rizzoli, A

    2011-12-29

    The wood tick Ixodes ricinus, one of the most common arthropod-borne disease vectors, is of increasing relevance for human and animal health in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of several abiotic and biotic factors potentially affecting questing activity and local abundance of I. ricinus in Italy, considering the scale at which these factors interact with the host-seeking ticks. Within EDEN, a large-scale EU collaborative project on eco-epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, we collected questing ticks for three consecutive years using a standard protocol at eleven sites in the Italian Alps and Apennines. A total of 25 447 I. ricinus were collected. All sites showed the same annual pattern of tick activity (bimodal for nymphs and unimodal for larvae and adults), although the abundance of nymphs was statistically different between sites and years. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model and a Linear Mixed Model fitted to data for nymphs, showed that while the principal variables affecting the local abundance of questing ticks were saturation deficit (an index combining temperature and relative humidity) and red deer density, the most important variable affecting questing nymph activity was saturation deficit. As for the timing of seasonal emergence, we confirmed that the threshold temperature at this latitude for larvae is 10°C (mean maximum) while that for nymphs is 8°C.

  6. Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin.

    PubMed

    Lomash, V; Parihar, S K; Jain, N K; Katiyar, A K

    2010-02-09

    We studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and Ricinus communis root bark using chicken skin as model. Leaves of these plants were dried under shade and powdered. 5% Ethanol extracts were prepared using Soxhlet and injected intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg) 1 hour prior to the induction of inflammation. Inflammatory lesion were induced by intradermal injection of 0.02 ml 0.05%w/v histamine (0-2 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and 6 hr) and 1% w/v carrageenan (0-2 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 48 hr) in different group of birds. Increase in vascular permeability was studied using Evans blue as a permeability marker both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cellular events were studied in skin lesions at various time intervals and cells were counted at high power objective under microscope. Both, extracts exhibited significant decrease in permeability response at an early stage (0-2 min) of histamine as well as in carrageenan induced inflammatory lesions. There was a significant (p< 0.05) suppression in the emigration of heterophils, monocytoid cells, basophils and total leukocytosis in Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis pretreated chicken skin lesions as compared to the control. The present study suggested antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis.

  7. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  8. Uptake and phloem transport of glucose-fipronil conjugate in Ricinus communis involve a carrier-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Xiang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Huang, Ting; Yao, Guang-Kai; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-06-20

    Some compounds containing glucose are absorbed via the monosaccharide transporters of the plasma membrane. A glucose-fipronil conjugate, N-[3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GTF), has been synthesized in our previous work. GTF exhibits moderate phloem mobility in Ricinus communis. In the current paper, we demonstrate that the uptake of GTF by Ricinus seedling cotyledon discs is partly mediated by an active carrier system (K(m)1 = 0.17 mM; V(max)1 = 2.2 nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). Four compounds [d-glucose, sucrose, phloridzin, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)] were examined for their effect on GTF uptake. Phloridzin as well as CCCP markedly inhibit GTF uptake, and d-glucose weakly competes with it. The phloem transport of GTF in Ricinus seedlings is found to involve an active carrier-mediated mechanism that effectively contributes to the GTF phloem loading. The results prove that adding a glucose core is a reasonable and feasible approach to confer phloem mobility to fipronil by utilizing plant monosaccharide transporters.

  9. Transport of Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia species to Norway by northward-migrating passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Midthjell, Liv; Røed, Knut Håkon; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2011-03-01

    Birds are capable of transporting ticks and, consequently, tick-borne pathogens over long distances and across geographical barriers such as oceans and deserts. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Borrelia spp. in ticks transported by birds by using PCR. A total of 9768 northward-migrating passerine birds was examined for ticks at 4 bird observatories along the southern Norwegian coast during their spring migration in 2003-2005. Two of the bird observatories were located on islands where flagging revealed very few or no ticks (Akerøya and Store Færder), while the other 2 were located in areas with established dense tick populations: an island, Jomfruland (>100 ticks per hour of flagging) and a mainland locality, Lista (40 ticks in one hour of flagging). Borrelia spp. were found in 70 (13.6%) of 513 examined Ixodes ricinus nymphs (19 B. afzelii, 38 B. garinii, two B. turdi, and 11 B. valaisiana) and in 14 (8.1%) of 172 examined I. ricinus larvae (ten B. garinii, one B. turdi, and three B. valaisiana). This report is the first to identify B. turdi in Europe. Ticks collected from birds of the genus Turdus (T. merula, T. philomelos, and T. iliacus) had a higher prevalence of Borrelia spp. than ticks from the other passerine genera. Ticks that were cofeeding with a Borrelia-infected tick had an increased probability of being infected with the same Borrelia species. Ticks collected on birds from the south-western locality Lista were less likely to have Borrelia than ticks found on birds from the other, more eastern localities. The Turdus spp. are particularly important, both because they carry many ticks per bird and because ticks carried by these species have a higher prevalence of Borrelia. This higher prevalence may be related to Borrelia infection of the birds or transmission of Borrelia through cofeeding. The prevalence of the different Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds may be related to migration routes.

  10. Effect of landscape features on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus ticks and their small mammal hosts.

    PubMed

    Perez, Grégoire; Bastian, Suzanne; Agoulon, Albert; Bouju, Agnès; Durand, Axelle; Faille, Frédéric; Lebert, Isabelle; Rantier, Yann; Plantard, Olivier; Butet, Alain

    2016-01-15

    The consequences of land use changes are among the most cited causes of emerging infectious diseases because they can modify the ecology and transmission of pathogens. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases which depend on abiotic (e.g. climate) and biotic conditions (i.e. hosts and vectors). In this study, we investigated how landscape features affect the abundances of small mammals and Ixodes ricinus ticks, and how they influence their relationship. From 2012 to 2014, small mammals and questing I. ricinus ticks were sampled in spring and autumn in 24 sites located in agricultural and forest landscapes in Brittany, France. We tested the effects of landscape features (composition and configuration) on the abundances of small mammal species and immature ticks and their relationship. Additionally, we quantified the larval tick burden of small mammals in 2012 to better describe this relationship. The nymph abundance was positively influenced by the larval occurrence and the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus abundance the previous spring because they hosted tenfold more larvae than the bank vole Myodes glareolus. The bank vole abundance in spring and autumn had a negative and positive effect, respectively, on the nymph abundance. In agricultural landscapes, wood mice were positively influenced by woodland cover and woodland/hedgerow-grassland ecotone, whereas bank voles showed the opposite or non-significant responses to these landscape variables. The woodland cover had a positive effect on immature ticks. The landscape configuration, likely by affecting the landscape connectivity, influences the small mammal communities in permanent habitats. Our study showed that the wood mouse, due to its dominance and to its tolerance to ticks, feeds a substantial proportion of larvae. The acquired resistance to ticks in the bank vole can reduce its role as a trophic resource over time. The nymph abundance seems indirectly influenced by landscape features via their

  11. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  12. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  13. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel, against the ticks, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, on cats.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, E; Prullage, J; Knaus, M; Visser, M; Manavella, C; Chester, S T; Young, David; Everett, William R; Rosentel, J

    2014-04-28

    Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dehydration of model membranes induced by lectins from Ricinus communis and Viscum album.

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Pohl, E E; Evtodienko, V Y; Agapov, I I; Tonevitsky, A G

    1998-01-01

    The effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Ricinus communis and from Viscum album on the water permeability, Pf, and the surface dielectric constant, epsilon, of model membranes were studied. Pf was calculated from microelectrode measurements of the ion concentration distribution in the immediate vicinity of a planar membrane, and epsilon was obtained from the fluorescence of dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated into unilamellar vesicles. Pf and epsilon of fully saturated phosphatidylcholine membranes were affected only in the presence of a lectin receptor (monosialoganglioside, GM1) in the bilayer. It is suggested that the membrane area occupied by clustered lectin-receptor complexes is markedly less permeable to water. Protein binding to the receptor was not a prelude for hydrophobic lipid-protein interactions when the membranes were formed from a mixture of natural phospholipids with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. These membranes, characterized by a high initial water permeability, were found to interact with the RIPs unspecifically. From a decrease of both Pf and epsilon it was concluded that not only water partitioning but also protein adsorption correlates with looser packing of polyunsaturated lipids at the lipid-water interface. PMID:9826608

  15. Identification and expression profiles of the WRKY transcription factor family in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Liang-Bo; Guo, Dong; Li, Chang-Zhu; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2012-07-25

    In plants, WRKY proteins constitute a large family of transcription factors. They are involved in many biological processes, such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. A large number of WRKY transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of castor bean (Ricinus communis) has allowed a genome-wide search for R. communis WRKY (RcWRKY) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. A total of 47 WRKY genes were identified in the castor bean genome. According to the structural features of the WRKY domain, the RcWRKY are classified into seven main phylogenetic groups. Furthermore, putative orthologs of RcWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice could now be assigned. An analysis of expression profiles of RcWRKY genes indicates that 47 WRKY genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns under normal growth conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX AND CASTOR OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS) POLYURETHANE IMPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial. PMID:19089203

  17. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus from Moldova collected in 1960.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Toderas, Ion; Uspenskaia, Inga; Conovalov, Jurii

    2013-06-01

    This study is the first report about the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens, as well as their (co-)infection rates, in the museum-archived I. ricinus female ticks collected in Moldova in 1960. A total of 16.7% (21/126) ticks was mono-infected. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was revealed as the most abundant species (4.8%) followed by B. garinii (1.6%), B. afzelii (0.8%), B. valaisiana (0.8%), and B. lusitaniae (0.8%). DNA of Rickettsia helvetica (2.4%), R. monacensis (2.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4%), 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' (0.8%), and Babesia microti (0.8%) were also detected, indicating the occurrence of these emerging tick-borne microorganisms in Moldova since 1960 at least. In this study, we detected a co-infection (0.8%; 1/126 tested ticks) between B. microti and R. helvetica. Additional investigations are warranted to further characterize a historical snapshot of the distribution of tick-borne pathogens in Europe.

  18. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  19. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, Joanna K; Gaździcka, Jadwiga; Cuber, Piotr; Asman, Marek; Trapp, Gizela; Gołąbek, Karolina; Zalewska-Ziob, Marzena; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof; Wiczkowski, Andrzej; Solarz, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    In 2008-2011 ticks were collected from southern Poland. Out of 6336 individuals collected and identified as Ixodes ricinus, 768 (2 larvae, 84 nymphs, 417 females, 265 males) were included in molecular study. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and types of genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the presence of pathogens in ticks. Subsequently the amplified DNA was digested with TasI enzyme. The infection rate was 15% (116) of examined ticks. PCR-RFLP analysis allowed distinguishing three genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l.: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. garinii. RFLP analyses of 116 positive samples revealed 96 (83%) monoinfections and 13 (11%) coinfections, whereas unidentified genospecies were present in 7 (6%) of positive samples. In the case of monoinfections, B. burgdorferi s.s. was the predominant species of pathogen in infected ticks - 61.4%. Other genospecies: B. garinii and B. afzelii were detected in 22.9% and 15.6% of the samples, respectively. To sum up, 15 % of ticks were infected by B. burgdorferi s.l which increases the risk of human infections in the recreational areas of southern Poland. Furthermore, there is a need to increase public awareness and implement more preventive measures concerning Lyme disease.

  20. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  1. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Loo, F.J.; Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C.

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  3. Climate and environmental change drives Ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range margin.

    PubMed

    Jore, Solveig; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Isaksen, Ketil; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Woldehiwet, Zerai; Johansen, Bernt; Brun, Edgar; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Westermann, Sebastian; Larsen, Inger-Lise; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Hofshagen, Merete

    2014-01-08

    Global environmental change is causing spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of species and the associated diseases of humans, domesticated animals and wildlife. In the on-going debate on the influence of climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases, there is a lack of a comprehensive interdisciplinary multi-factorial approach utilizing high quality spatial and temporal data. We explored biotic and abiotic factors associated with the latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in the distribution of Ixodes ricinus observed during the last three decades in Norway using antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep as indicators for tick presence. Samples obtained from 2963 sheep from 90 farms in 3 ecologically different districts during 1978 - 2008 were analysed. We modelled the presence of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum to climatic-, environmental and demographic variables, and abundance of wild cervids and domestic animals, using mixed effect logistic regressions. Significant predictors were large diurnal fluctuations in ground surface temperature, spring precipitation, duration of snow cover, abundance of red deer and farm animals and bush encroachment/ecotones. The length of the growth season, mean temperature and the abundance of roe deer were not significant in the model. Our results highlight the need to consider climatic variables year-round to disentangle important seasonal variation, climatic threshold changes, climate variability and to consider the broader environmental change, including abiotic and biotic factors. The results offer novel insight in how tick and tick-borne disease distribution might be modified by future climate and environmental change.

  4. Molecular detection of Bartonella henselae in 11 Ixodes ricinus ticks extracted from a single cat.

    PubMed

    Regier, Yvonne; Ballhorn, Wibke; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2017-03-13

    Bartonella henselae is a highly prevalent, vector-borne pathogen. Transmission to humans and animals by ticks is discussed controversially. Here, we present a case report, where eleven Ixodes ricinus ticks all harbouring B. henselae DNA were removed from one single cat. The first feeding tick was tested positive for B. henselae DNA. The cat was also found to be seropositive for anti-B. henselae IgG antibodies (titer 1:640). Bartonella henselae was not cultivatable from cat blood. Ten more feeding ticks removed 7 months later contained also B. henselae DNA. Sequence analysis of the 16SrDNA and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed 100% sequence homology between all ticks. Bartonella adhesin A (badA) and VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (virB) DNA were also detected in all ticks. Our results indicate that cats may serve as a reservoir for adult ticks to acquire B. henselae. Whether this observation implies an increased threat for human and animal health needs to be resolved.

  5. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of Ricinus communis agglutinin affinity adsorbents using polymeric supports.

    PubMed

    Cartellieri, S; Helmholz, H; Niemeyer, B

    2001-08-01

    A practicable and efficient procedure for preparation of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) affinity adsorbents has been developed. For immobilization of RCA two different polymer-based supports, Toyopearl and TSKgel (TosoHaas), were used. RCA has been successfully immobilized onto these supports with amounts of coupled ligand between 15 and 23 mg/g dry support and corresponding coupling yields of 69-93% (w/w). The prepared affinity adsorbents were characterized concerning their binding capacity for the glycoprotein asialofetuin (ASF) and accessibility of the ligand binding sites. The high accessibility of 80% showed that steric hindrance was negligible at the present ligand density. RCA-Toyopearl was successfully applied in affinity chromatography of glycoproteins indicating its high specificity. A long-term stability test proved no change in capacity for a period of at least 12 months. High-performance affinity chromatography (HPLAC) was carried out using RCA-TSKgel. Experimental results showed that the prepared adsorbents are suitable for selective separation of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides and therefore can be used for investigations of adsorption characteristics of glycoconjugates and for laboratory-scale preparations.

  7. Towards an Evolutionary Understanding of Questing Behaviour in the Tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Tomkins, Joseph L.; Aungier, Jennifer; Hazel, Wade; Gilbert, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus finds its hosts by climbing vegetation and adopting a sit-and-wait tactic. This “questing” behaviour is known to be temperature-dependent, such that questing increases with temperature up to a point where the vapor pressure deficit (drying effect) forces ticks down to rehydrate in the soil or mat layer. Little if any attention has been paid to understanding the questing of ticks from an evolutionary perspective. Here we ask whether populations from colder climatic conditions respond differently in terms of the threshold temperature for questing and the rate of response to a fixed temperature. We find significant variation between populations in the temperature sensitivity of questing, with populations from cooler climates starting questing at lower temperatures than populations from warmer temperatures. Cool climate populations also quest sooner when the temperature is held constant. These patterns are consistent with local adaptation to temperature either through direct selection or acclimation and challenge the use of fixed thresholds for questing in modeling the spread of tick populations. Our results also show how both time and temperature play a role in questing, but we are unable to explain the relationship in terms of degree-time used to model Arthropod development. We find that questing in response to temperature fits well with a quantitative genetic model of the conditional strategy, which reveals how selection on questing may operate and hence may be of value in understanding the evolutionary ecology of questing. PMID:25333919

  8. Mitochondrial, plastid, and cytosolic isozymes of hexokinase from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1983-10-15

    Ion-filtration chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.5 resolved the total hexokinase activity in a 27,000g supernatant prepared from developing castor oil (Ricinus communis L., cv. Baker 296) seeds into three distinct peaks. These were designated one, two, and three in order of elution from the column. Ion-filtration chromatography of various subcellular fractions demonstrated that isozyme one is associated with the mitochondria, isozyme two with the leucoplasts, and isozyme three is located in the cytosol. Organelle-subfractionation studies showed that hexokinase one is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, and hexokinase two is located in the plastid stroma. Isozyme one could be specifically solubilized from the mitochondrial outer membrane by incubation with nucleoside triphosphates or hexose monophosphates. In addition to differences in net charge and localization, the three hexokinase isozymes could be distinguished by pH optima, substrate specificity, and response to sulfhydryl-directed inhibitors. Mr values, determined by gel permeation using Sephacryl S-200, were identical for all three isozymes at 38,000. The preferred divalent metal ion for each of the hexokinases is Mg+2, and none was affected by Na+, K+, or NH+4 at their pH optima, nor by Al+3 at pH 6.6 or 7.8.

  9. Comparison of chelates for enhancing Ricinus communis L. phytoremediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Xin; Shao, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    We studied chelate effects on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth. These effects included Cd and Pb accumulation in plant tissues and the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb in the plant rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Tests were conducted in a glasshouse using the rhizobag method. Two castor bean cultivars (Zibo-3 and Zibo-9) were grown in soil contaminated with 3.53mg/kg Cd and 274mg/kg Pb. The soil was treated with citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5mmol/kg). EDDS-treated soil produced 28.8% and 59.4% greater biomass for Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 respectively. In contrast, CA and EDTA inhibited the growth of the two cultivars. Zibo-9 had greater tolerance than Zibo-3 to chelate toxicity. Based on Cd and Pb plant uptake, EDDS could substitute for EDTA for phytoremediation of Cd in soil. EDTA was the most effective of the three chelates for Pb phytoremediation but it is less suitable for field use due to toxicology environmental persistence. Acid extractable Cd and Pb in the rhizosphere or reducible Cd and Pb in the non-rhizosphere of soil were the main influences on Cd and Pb accumulation in castor bean. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of experimental cleanser solution of Ricinus communis: effect on soft denture liner properties.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marina Xavier; da Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena Freitas Oliveira; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Macedo, Ana Paula

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated colour stability, hardness and roughness of soft denture liners after immersion in various cleansers. Thirty specimens (14 mm × 4 mm) of Elite Soft Relining (ES) and Mucopren Soft (MS) were randomly immersed in distilled water at 37°C, sodium hypochlorite 1%, and an experimental Ricinus communis solution (RC) for 7, 15 and 183 continuous days. anova (p < 0.05) and Tukey's test indicated that after T7 (μ =8.79 ± 7.36); T15 (μ = 4.23 ± 2.62) and T183 (μ = 8.78 ± 3.16), MS presented a higher increase in hardness than ES. After T7, MS underwent an increase in roughness (μ = 0.09 ± 0.80); ES underwent a decrease (μ = -0.08 ± 0.16). RC caused the smallest variation in roughness. After T15, both materials presented an increase in roughness. After T183, ES (μ = -0.30 ± 0.48) presented a higher roughness variation than MS (μ = -0.07 ± 0.32). Hypochlorite caused an increase in roughness (μ = 0.02 ± 0.19). After all periods ES presented higher colour alteration than MS; highest colour alteration was caused by hypochlorite. Both materials were more stable after immersion in RC. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis of Ricinus communis extracts for cultivar identification.

    PubMed

    Ovenden, Simon P B; Pigott, Eloise J; Rochfort, Simone; Bourne, David J

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of Ricinus communis contain the toxic protein ricin, a 64 kD heterodimeric type II ribosome-inactivating protein that has been used in several high-profile poisoning incidents. The ability to determine which cultivar the toxin was isolated from via an LC-MS method would be of significant use to law enforcement and forensic agencies. To analyse via LC-MS and chemometrics (principal components analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)) extracts of R. communis to identify compounds specific to a particular cultivar. Seeds from eight specimens of six cultivars of R. communis ('carmencita', 'dehradun', 'gibsonii', 'impala', 'sanguineus' and 'zanzibariensis') were extracted using a standard methodology. These extracts were analysed by LC-MS then subjected to chemometric analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Identified compounds of importance were subjected to high-resolution Fourier transform (HRFT) MS and MS/MS to elucidate their structures. This analysis identified 17 ions as potential cultivar determinators. Through accurate mass measurement and MS/MS, molecular formulae for 13 ions were determined, including two known and 11 new peptides. Unique ions in extracts of 'carmencita', 'dehradun', 'gibsonii', 'impala' and 'zanzibariensis' were identified that would allow an individual cultivar to be distinguished from other cultivars in this study. Although 'sanguineus' extracts contained no unique compounds, a unique LC-MS profile would allow for cultivar assignment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Watanabe, Evandro; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Lovato-Silva, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Ricinus communis-based experimental dentifrice for denture hygiene against the following standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed with R. communis in pure oil at 2.5%. Only E. coli was not inhibited by R. communis, but the MIC (0.0781%) was effective against the other microorganisms. From these results it was determined the R. communis concentrations for experimental dentifrices, 1, 2, 5 and 10%, which were evaluated by the test-well diffusion in agar. The commercial dentifrices Colgate, Trihydral and Corega Brite were tested for comparative purposes. The diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a rule under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Neither the commercial nor the experimental dentifrices were effective against E. coli. The experimental dentifrices containing R. communis at 2, 5 and 10% presented action against S. mutans, S. aureaus and E. faecallis. The experimental dentifrices showed no antimicrobial activity against Candida spp. and E. coli in any of the tested concentrations. Trihydral was the most effective. Comparing the experimental dentifrices, the product with 10% R. communis produced the largest zones of bacterial growth inhibition and had similar antimicrobial activity to the commercial dentifrices, except against S. aureus.

  14. acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and insecticidal activity of an endophytic Alternaria sp. from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Chadha, B S; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2012-11-01

    Keeping in view the vast potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive molecules, this study aimed at isolating and screening endophytes for the production of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Fifty-four endophytic fungi were isolated from Ricinus communis and screened for their AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric assay method. Six isolates were found to possess AChE inhibitory activity with maximum inhibition of 78 % being evinced by culture Cas1 which was identified to be Alternaria sp. on the basis of molecular as well as microscopic methods. Optimization of inhibitor production was carried out using one factor at a time approach. Maximum production of inhibitor was obtained on potato dextrose broth after 10 days incubation. The IC(50) of the chloroform extract was observed to be 40 μg/ml. The extract was purified on silica gel and eluted stepwise with a gradient of chloroform/methanol. The insecticidal potential of the extract was evaluated by feeding the larvae of Spodoptera litura on diet containing varying concentrations of the extract. It was observed that with increase in the concentration of the extract, mortality of the larvae increased. The culture has the potential of being exploited in medicine as well as a biocontrol agent.

  15. The phytoremediation potential of bioenergy crop Ricinus communis for DDTs and cadmium co-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huagang; Yu, Ning; Wang, Lijun; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yan, Xingchu; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) or its metabolite residues are frequently detected in agricultural soils and food, posing a threat to human health. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of 23 genotypes of Ricinus communis in mobilizing and uptake of Cd and DDTs (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) in the co-contaminated soil. The plant genotypes varied largely in the uptake and accumulation of DDTs and Cd, with mean concentrations of 0.37, 0.43 and 70.51 for DDTs, and 1.22, 2.27 and 37.63 mg kg(-1) dw for Cd in leaf, stem and root, respectively. The total uptake of DDTs and Cd varied from 83.1 to 267.8 and 66.0 to 155.1 μg per pot, respectively. These results indicate that R. communis has great potential for removing DDTs and Cd from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for both DDTs and Cd. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  17. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  18. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog.

    PubMed Central

    van de Loo, F J; Broun, P; Turner, S; Somerville, C

    1995-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with approximately 67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624314

  19. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis.

  20. Effect of experimental Ricinus communis solution for denture cleaning on the properties of acrylic resin teeth.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marina Xavier; Macedo, Ana Paula; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated Knoop hardness, surface roughness and color alteration of artificial teeth for dentures after immersion in water, 1% sodium hypochlorite and an experimental solution of 2% Ricinus communis (RC). Thirty specimens of Vipi, Biolux and Trilux were analyzed. Tests of Knoop hardness, surface roughness and color alteration were conducted immediately after specimen preparation (T0) and after two immersion protocols for 15 days (ΔT(15)) and 183 days (ΔT(183)). Data variation (ΔT) were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). At ΔT(15), Vipi presented hardness increase and Biolux presented the highest variation (p=0.01). RC caused the highest increase in hardness (p=0) and the lowest increase (p=0.005) in roughness. Biolux presented the lowest color alteration (p =0). At ΔT(183), Trilux underwent the highest hardness variation (p=0). Biolux presented an increase in roughness (p=0). There was no significant differences in color alteration among the artificial teeth (p=0.06) and among solutions (p=0.08) after 183 days of immersion. All solutions (distilled water, 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% RC) caused alterations on the analyzed properties. Both immersion protocols caused alterations on the analyzed properties.

  1. Bone cell responses to the composite of Ricinus communis polyurethane and alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Marcio Mateus; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Tagliani, Marcela Martini; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of osteoblastic cells to the composite of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) incubated in synthetic body fluid (SBF). RCP pure (RCPp) and RCP blended with ALP 6 mg/mL polymer (RCP+ALP) were incubated in SBF for 17 days. Four groups of RCP were tested: RCPp, RCP+ALP, and RCPp and RCP+ALP incubated in SBF (RCPp/SBF and RCP+ALP/SBF). Stem cells from rat bone marrow were cultured in conditions that allowed osteoblastic differentiation on RCP discs and were evaluated: cell adhesion, culture growth, cell viability, total protein content, ALP activity, and bone-like nodule formation. Data were compared by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. The group RCP+ALP was highly cytotoxic and, therefore, was not considered here. Cell adhesion (p = 0.14), culture growth (p = 0.39), viability (p = 0.46) and total protein content (p = 0.12) were not affected by either RCP composition or incubation in SBF. ALP activity was affected (p = 0.0001) as follows: RCPp < RCPp/SBF < RCP+ALP/SBF. Bone-like nodule formation was not observed on all evaluated groups. The composite RCP+ALP prior to SBF incubation is cytotoxic and must not be considered as biomaterial, but the incorporation of ALP to the RCP followed by SBF incubation could be a useful alternative to improve the biological properties of the RCP.

  2. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L

    2013-12-22

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time.

  3. Borrelia miyamotoi is widespread in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Rollum, Rikke; Korslund, Lars; Slettan, Audun; Tveitnes, Dag

    2015-06-01

    From April to October 2007, host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from four locations in southern Norway; Farsund, Mandal, Søgne and Tromøy, respectively. Larvae (n=210), nymphs (n=1130) and adults (n=449) were investigated for infection with Borrelia miyamotoi by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of part of the 16S rRNA gene. Results were verified by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S)-rrl (23S) intergenetic spacer. B. miyamotoi was detected at all sites and throughout the period of questing activity, with infection prevalence (≤1.26%) similar to what has been seen in other European countries. Detection of the relapsing fever spirochete at all locations indicates a wide distribution in southern Norway. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi prevalence in ticks collected from Norway. As not much is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of this relatively recently discovered pathogen, the conclusions of this study significantly add to the knowledge regarding B. miyamotoi in this region.

  4. Dehydration of model membranes induced by lectins from Ricinus communis and Viscum album.

    PubMed

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Pohl, E E; Evtodienko, V Y; Agapov, I I; Tonevitsky, A G

    1998-12-01

    The effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Ricinus communis and from Viscum album on the water permeability, Pf, and the surface dielectric constant, epsilon, of model membranes were studied. Pf was calculated from microelectrode measurements of the ion concentration distribution in the immediate vicinity of a planar membrane, and epsilon was obtained from the fluorescence of dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated into unilamellar vesicles. Pf and epsilon of fully saturated phosphatidylcholine membranes were affected only in the presence of a lectin receptor (monosialoganglioside, GM1) in the bilayer. It is suggested that the membrane area occupied by clustered lectin-receptor complexes is markedly less permeable to water. Protein binding to the receptor was not a prelude for hydrophobic lipid-protein interactions when the membranes were formed from a mixture of natural phospholipids with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. These membranes, characterized by a high initial water permeability, were found to interact with the RIPs unspecifically. From a decrease of both Pf and epsilon it was concluded that not only water partitioning but also protein adsorption correlates with looser packing of polyunsaturated lipids at the lipid-water interface.

  5. From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecular Structure and Bioactivity of Repellents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Simone Del; Nazzi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the “gold standard” repellent DEET) appears to be very promising from a practical point of view. PMID:23805329

  6. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  7. Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin subunits are all derived from a single-size polypeptide precursor.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, A G; Lord, J M

    1983-12-01

    Antibodies have been raised in rabbits against the individually purified A and B subunits of the toxic castor bean lectin, ricin, and against the A' and B' subunits of Ricinus communis agglutinin type I. Each of the antisera recognised a single polypeptide species of Mr 60 500 when maturing castor bean endosperm mRNA was translated in vitro in a rabbit-reticulocyte-derived system. When dog pancreatic microsomal vesicles were included in the translational system, each subunit antiserum precipitated a group of 66 000-68 000-Mr core-glycosylated polypeptides which had been translocated into the lumen of the vesicles. The 60 500-Mr polypeptide appeared to be a common precursor to all four individual lectin subunits since (a) its glycosylated (66 000-68 000-Mr) forms were readily detected in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction isolated from maturing castor bean endosperm and (b) pulse-chase studies showed that the glycosylated precursors disappeared from the endoplasmic reticulum fraction with the concomittant appearance of authentic lectin subunits in a soluble protein fraction which included protein body matrix components. Antiserum prepared against whole R. communis agglutinin, type I, also precipitated the 65 000-Mr precursor in vitro and in vivo, but in addition precipitated a non-glycosylated 34 000-Mr polypeptide. This smaller protein is not a lectin subunit precursor, contradicting an earlier suggestion. It is most probably a precursor to the 2-S albumin storage proteins found in castor bean endosperm protein bodies.

  8. Molecular evidence of Leishmania infantum in Ixodes ricinus ticks from dogs and cats, in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Daniela; Aureli, Sara; Baldelli, Raffaella; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta

    2014-12-29

    Leishmaniosis, caused by Leishmania infantum, is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean basin. To date, phlebotomine sand flies are the only accepted biological vectors of Leishmania parasites to dogs and humans. The absence of the primary vector in autochthonous Leishmania outbreaks suggests a possible role of fleas or ticks as alternative vectors. In this study, 119 ticks were collected between August 2007-June 2008 and between March 2010-October 2010 from various animal species and humans living in Italian areas where canine leishmaniosis is endemic (i.e. rural areas of the North) and were tested for the presence of L. infantum DNA. Nine (7.5%) out of 119 ticks resulted PCR positive. All ticks were morphologically identified as Ixodes ricinus ticks, 3 from 1 cat, 6 from 4 dogs. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of L. infantum DNA in ticks from cat, suggesting that the debate about the epidemiological role of ticks in canine leishmaniosis might be extended to feline leishmaniosis.

  9. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  10. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  11. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  12. A phloem-enriched cDNA library from Ricinus: insights into phloem function.

    PubMed

    Doering-Saad, C; Newbury, H J; Couldridge, C E; Bale, J S; Pritchard, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify genes that are expressed in the phloem. Increased knowledge of phloem regulation will contribute to our understanding of its many roles, from transport of solutes to information about interactions with pathogens. A cDNA library constructed from phloem-enriched sap exuding from cut Ricinus communis (L.) hypocotyls was sequenced. To assess contamination from other tissues, two libraries were constructed: one using the first 15 min of exudation and the other from sap collected after 120 min of exudation had elapsed. Of 1012 clones sequenced, 158 unique transcripts were identified. The presence of marker molecules such as profilin, the low occurrence of chloroplast-related mRNAs, and the sieve element localization of constituent mRNA using in situ hybridization were consistent with a phloem origin of the sap. Functional analysis of the cDNAs revealed classifications including ribosomal function, interaction with the environment, transport, DNA/RNA binding, and protein turnover. An analysis of the closest Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) homologue for each clone indicated that genes involved in cell localization, protein synthesis, tissue localization, organ localization, organ differentiation, and cell fate were represented at twice the level occurring in the whole Arabidopsis genome. The transcripts found in this phloem-enriched library are discussed in the context of phloem function and the relationship between the companion cell and sieve element.

  13. Anticonceptive and estrogenic effects of a seed extract of Ricinus communis var. minor.

    PubMed

    Okwuasaba, F K; Osunkwo, U A; Ekwenchi, M M; Ekpenyong, K I; Onwukeme, K E; Olayinka, A O; Uguru, M O; Das, S C

    1991-09-01

    An ether-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Ricinus communis var. minor seeds administered subcutaneously to adult female rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2 g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively, in divided doses showed anti-implantation and anticonceptive activities. Laparotomy performed on Day 10 and Day 15 of pregnancy on mated female rats and rabbits treated with the extract did not reveal any uterine implantation sites. The animals were protected against pregnancy for over three gestation periods and among those that later delivered, there was no evidence of abnormality in the pups. In ovariectomized young female rats as well as in immature mice, the extract dose-dependently increased uterine wet weight. Furthermore, the extract induced premature opening of the vagina, increased the number of epithelial cells and cornified cells and decreased the leucocyte number in the vaginal smear. The estrogen-like activities exhibited by the extract were dose-dependent and the anticonceptive effect may be due at least in part to such estrogenic action.

  14. Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions.

    PubMed

    Shokeen, Poonam; Anand, Prachi; Murali, Y Krishna; Tandon, Vibha

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of roots of Ricinus communis (RCRE) along with its bioassay-guided purification. Five-hundred milligram per kilogram body weight appeared to be the effective dose as it caused the maximum lowering of the fasting blood glucose, both in normal as well as type 1 diabetic animals. The maximum hypoglycemic effect was always observed at the 8th h up to which the study has been conducted. Administration of the effective dose of RCRE to the diabetic rats for 20 days showed favorable effects not only on fasting blood glucose, but also on total lipid profile and liver and kidney functions on 10th and 20th day. RCRE was purified using silica gel column chromatography. Out of several different fractions tested, only one fraction (R-18) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity. RCRE seemed to have a high margin of safety as no mortality and no statistically significant difference in alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and total protein was observed even after the administration of the extract at a dose of 10 g/kg b.wt. Thus R. communis seems to have a promising value for the development of a potent phytomedicine for diabetes.

  15. Graviresponsiveness and cap dimensions of primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    After branching from the primary root, secondary roots of castor bean (Ricinus communis) grow laterally for 15-20 mm, after which they bend downward (i.e., become positively gravitropic). During the first 10 mm of growth, the lengths of caps of secondary roots increase from 120 +/- 26 to 220 +/- 28 micrometers. Although this increase is statistically significant (P < 0.1%), the resulting secondary roots are only minimally graviresponsive. A subsequent doubling of the lengths and widths of the root caps (i.e., to 420 +/- 34 and 450 +/- 41 micrometers, respectively) is positively correlated with the onset of gravicurvature. The graviresponsiveness and dimensions of caps of positively gravitropic secondary roots are not significantly different from those of positively gravitropic primary roots. These results indicate that (i) a statistically significant increase in the length and length : width ratio of a root cap does not necessarily result in the root becoming positively gravitropic, (ii) there may be a minimum cap length and (or) width necessary for graviresponsiveness, and (iii) the degree of graviresponsiveness exhibited by a particular root may be related to the size of its root cap.

  16. Relationship between Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 binding and nucleolar organizer regions in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Niikawa, S; Hara, A; Shirakami, S; Zhang, W; Sakai, N; Yamada, H; Shimokawa, K

    1993-06-01

    Histochemical staining using lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA-1), Arachis hypogaea, and Canavalia ensiformis was investigated in 40 human gliomas, three central neurocytomas, one human neuroblastoma cell line (IMR-32), and two normal brain tissues. Staining was uniform in low-grade gliomas, but heterogeneous in high-grade gliomas, particularly with RCA-1. The correlation between RCA-1 reactivity and cellular proliferative potential was investigated in 10 high-grade gliomas using a combined staining technique: the silver colloid method for nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and histochemistry with RCA-1. The mean number of Ag-NORs counted on a simple preparation was significantly greater in the nuclei of RCA-1-negative cells than in those of RCA-1-positive cells (p < 0.001). The staining intensity of inflammatory cells was obviously higher than that of neoplastic cells, and therefore inflammatory cells were easily discriminated from neoplastic cells. Combined RCA-1 histochemical and Ag-NOR silver colloid staining revealed heterogeneous expression of RCA-1 receptor in high-grade gliomas with changes in Ag-NOR number. This result seems to show that high-grade gliomas express heterogeneous cellular carbohydrate structure and proliferative potential even within the same tumor.

  17. Graviresponsiveness and the development of columella tissue in primary and lateral roots of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    Half-tipped primary and lateral roots of Ricinus communis cv Hale bend toward the side of the root on which the intact half-tip remains. Therefore, the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots is not due to the inability of their caps to produce growth effectors (presumably inhibitors). The columella tissues of primary (i.e. graviresponsive) roots are (a) 4.30 times longer, (b) 2.95 times wider, (c) 37.4 times more voluminous, and (d) composed of 17.2 times more cells than those of lateral roots. The onset of positive gravitropism by lateral roots is positively correlated with a (a) 2.99-fold increase in length, (b) 2.63-fold increase in width, (c) 20.7-fold increase in volume of their columella tissues. We propose that the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots is due to the small size of their columella tissues, which results in their caps being unable to (a) establish a concentration gradient of the effector sufficient to induce gravicurvature and (b) produce as much as the effector as caps of graviresponsive roots.

  18. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks.

    PubMed

    Jensen, W I; Allen, J P

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  19. Cytotoxic, cell agglutinating, and syncytium forming effect of purified lectins from Ricinus communis on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Ohtsu, M; Funatsu, G

    1979-10-01

    The toxicity of lectins from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), ricin-D, ricin-E, and castor bean hemagglutinin, was investigated on five cultured cell lines. The differential effect of their constituent polypeptide chains was also investigated using these cell lines. Ricin-D, ricin-E, and castor bean hemagglutinin (CBH) possessed cytoagglutinating activity and cytotoxic activity to all five cell lines. These lectins showed the strongest toxicity to L5178Y cells, which are leukemic cells. The toxic activity of ricin-D was stronger than that of CBH in all cell lines. The constituent polypebtide chains of ricin-D and CBH were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and designated as isoleucine chain and alanine chain denoted by their N-terminal amino acids. Only alanine chain of ricin-D was toxic to cells grown in vitro, whereas isoleucine chain of ricin-D and alanine chain of CBH were not toxic to the cells. Moreover, it was found that both lectins caused syncytium formation in NIH3T3 cells infected with Moloney leukemia virus and this cell fusion activity was shown to be exclusively associated with the alanine chain. Cytotoxic, cell agglutinating, and syncytium forming effect of the lectins is due to binding of the alanine chain of ricin-D to galactose-like residues of the membrane constituents of these cells.

  20. Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (Ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial.

  1. In vivo biocompatibility of three different chemical compositions of Ricinus communis polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Barros, Valdemar M R; Rosa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Márcio M; Chierice, Gilberto

    2003-10-01

    Alteration in the chemical composition of a biomaterial may be undertaken to improve its biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biocompatibility of three chemical compositions of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP): RCPp (pure RCP), RCP + CaCO(3), and RCP +Ca(3)(PO(4))(2). RCP cylinders were surgically implanted in rabbit femurs. After 8, 12, and 16 weeks, the femurs were removed, fixed, sectioned, ground, and stained by Stevenel's blue/Alizarin red S for light microscopy and histomorphometry. The osseointegration and osseoconductivity were calculated by means of image analysis and the data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test. Osseointegration was already completed after 8 weeks on RCP + Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) because similar values were found from week 8 to 16, whereas it showed a time-dependent increase on RCPp and RCP +CaCO(3). The osseointegration was greater on RCP + Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) in all periods when compared with RCPp, and after 8 and 12 weeks when compared with RCP + CaCO(3). None of the RCP samples presented osseoconductivity. The present results showed that RCP blended with calcium phosphate improved the biocompatibility by both enhancing and accelerating its osseointegration. Based on the absence of osseoconductivity, RCP was considered to be a bioinert material.

  2. Temporal and spatial expression of 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Chen, Grace Q

    2007-11-28

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed development, showing a bell-shaped temporal pattern. Residual levels of the transcript were present in the mature seed and degraded rapidly upon germination. Immunodetection analysis was performed using an anti-2S albumin antibody under reducing conditions. During seed development, the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein began to be synthesized at 26 days after pollination (DAP); the pro-protein was thereafter processed to mature proteins at 40 DAP, suggesting that the post-translation modification of 2S albumin takes place during this time period. Both the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein and the mature proteins accumulated throughout seed maturation and desiccation stages. During seed germination, both forms of the 2S albumin proteins were present in endosperm and cotyledon until the completion of germination and degraded rapidly afterwards. However, the antibody also detected a group of proteins/peptides in endosperm and cotyledon when the seeds progressed to germination and post-germination stages. A 14 kDa protein in the leaves of fully developed seedlings and mature plants also reacted to the anti-2S albumin antibody. The identity of the proteins accumulated in germinating seed and leaf remains unknown.

  3. The vector tick Ixodes ricinus feeding on an arboreal rodent-the edible dormouse Glis glis.

    PubMed

    Fietz, Joanna; Langer, Franz; Havenstein, Nadine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Richter, Dania

    2016-04-01

    The reservoir competence and long life expectancy of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks to acquire and perpetuate LD spirochetes. To define the potential role of this small arboreal hibernator in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we examined their rate and density of infestation with subadult ticks throughout the season of activity. Of the 1081 edible dormice that we captured at five study sites in Southern Germany and inspected for ticks at 2946 capture occasions, 26 % were infested with at least one and as many as 26 subadult ticks on their ear pinnae. The distribution of ticks feeding on edible dormice was highly aggregated. Although only few individuals harbored nymphal ticks soon after their emergence from hibernation, the rate of nymphal infestation increased steadily throughout the season and reached about 35 % in September. Dormice inhabiting a site with few conspecifics seemed more likely to be infested by numerous ticks, particularly nymphs, than those individuals living in densely populated sites. Male dormice were more likely to be parasitized by numerous nymphs than were females, independent of their age and body mass. Our observation that season, population density, and sex affect the rates of ticks feeding on edible dormice suggests that the contribution of edible dormice to the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes depends mainly on their ranging behavior and level of activity.

  4. Phloem transport in Ricinus: Its dependence on the water balance of the tissues.

    PubMed

    Hall, S M; Milburn, J A

    1973-03-01

    Phloem exudation from Ricinus has been examined in plants subjected to changes in water balance induced by a number of means. The results have provided a clear demonstration that the phloem system can operate osmotically. When the availability of water in the xylem is reduced by withholding water, the rate of exudation decreases sharply and this is accompanied by a rise in the sap concentration. On removing the water stress, the rate increases rapidly with a corresponding fall in sap concentration.Small variations in water availability do not give significant results and may be buffered by responses from the plant itself. This could also explain the insignificant changes in sap composition during exudation previously reported, where exudation rate, which should bear some relation to sieve tube turgor pressure, seems independent of sap concentration. Fluctuations in exudation rate are large in comparison with the changes in sap concentration when severe water stresses are applied. This result, coupled with the observation that exudation will occur from plants under considerable water stress suggests the operation of a "sugar pump" capable of maintaining a high turgor pressure at the source against a considerable water potential gradient. The main "pump" is probably located in the leaves.Thus interpreted, the results seem to accord with the Münch pressure flow hypothesis in all significant aspects.

  5. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Peuke, Andreas D.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. PMID:27440939

  6. Ricinus communis L. A Value Added Crop for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Kripal; Singh, Rana P

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a global environmental problem and therefore its remediation is of paramount importance. Cadmium (Cd) is a potential toxicant to living organisms and even at very low concentrations. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Ricinus communis for remediation of Cd contaminated soils. For this, growth and biomass of R. communis and Cd accumulation, translocation and partitioning in different plant parts were investigated after 8 months of plant growth in Cd contaminated soil (17.50 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Eight months old plants stabilized 51 % Cd in its roots and rest of the metal was transferred to the stem and leaves. There were no significant differences in growth, biomass and yield between control and Cd treated plants, except fresh weight of shoots. The seed yield per plant was reduced only by 5 % of Cd contaminated plants than control. The amount of Cd translocated to the castor seeds was nominal i.e. 0.007 µg Cd g−1 seeds. The bioconcentration factor reduced significantly in shoots and seeds in comparison to roots. The data indicates that R. communis is highly tolerant to Cd contamination and can be used for remediation of heavy metal polluted sites.

  7. Detection and Characterization of the Emerging Relapsing Fever Pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi, from the Ixodes ricinus Tick in the Rural Trakya (Thrace) Region of Northwestern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Keiko; Şen, Ece; Sato, Kozue; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohashi, Norio; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-12-01

    The hard tick-borne relapsing fever agent, Borrelia miyamotoi infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled from Istanbul and the countryside of Kirklareli in northwestern Turkey, was examined by TaqMan-PCR targeting 16S rDNA, nested PCR targeting 16S rDNA, the flagellin gene (flaB), and the 16S and 23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS), and sequencing analyses of these amplicons. B. miyamotoi was detected in 1 out of 248 I. ricinus ticks (infection rate 0.4%). The tick infected with B. miyamotoi was collected in Longos, Kirklareli province on the European side of Turkey near the Bulgarian border. The 16S rDNA, flaB, and IGS sequences from the infected tick showed high similarities to those of B. miyamotoi detected in I. ricinus in Europe.

  8. Diurnal changes in assimilate concentrations and fluxes in the phloem of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Kallarackal, Jose; Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2012-07-01

    Reports about diurnal changes of assimilates in phloem sap are controversial. We determined the diurnal changes of sucrose and amino acid concentrations and fluxes in exudates from cut aphid stylets on tansy leaves (Tanacetum vulgare), and sucrose, amino acid and K(+) concentrations and fluxes in bleeding sap of castor bean pedicel (Ricinus communis). Approximately half of the tansy sieve tubes exhibited a diurnal cycle of sucrose concentrations and fluxes in phloem sap. Data from many tansy plants indicated an increased sucrose flux in the phloem during daytime in case of low N-nutrition, not at high N-nutrition. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap of young Ricinus plants changed marginally between day and night, whereas the sucrose flux increased 1.5-fold during daytime (but not in old Ricinus plants). The amino acid concentrations and fluxes in tansy sieve tubes exhibited a similar diurnal cycle as the sucrose concentrations and fluxes, including their dependence on N-nutrition. The amino acid fluxes, but not the concentrations, in phloem sap of Ricinus were higher at daytime. The sucrose/amino acid ratio showed no diurnal cycle neither in tansy nor in Ricinus. The K(+)-concentrations in phloem sap of Ricinus, but not the K(+) fluxes, decreased slightly during daytime and the sucrose/K(+)-ratio increased. In conclusion, a diurnal cycle was observed in sucrose, amino acid and K(+) fluxes, but not necessarily in concentrations of these assimilates. Because of the large variations between different sieve tubes and different plants, the nutrient delivery to sink tissues is not homeostatic over time.

  9. Distribution of Ixodes ricinus L., 1758 and Ixodes persulcatus Shulze, 1930 (Parasitoformes, Ixodidae) in Russia and adjacent countries in view of observable climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasyukevich, V. V.; Kazakova, E. V.; Popov, I. O.; Semenov, S. M.

    2009-08-01

    Possible changes in the area inhabited by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus, the main transmitters of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease in Russia, caused by temperature changes in 1976-2005 compared to 1946-1975 are discussed. It is shown that these changes could result in some areal expansion of these species. In the European part of Russia, I. ricinus expanded its areal boundaries to the east 100-300 km. I. persulcatus expanded its areal in the Asian part of Russia. Its boundary moved to the north and northeast 100-300 km. Areal expansion both of species has not been observed.

  10. Influence of meteorological parameters during the preceding fall and winter on the questing activity of nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollack, Ken; Sodoudi, Sahar; Névir, Peter; Müller, Klaus; Richter, Dania

    2017-05-01

    Wood ticks, Ixodes ricinus L., serve as vectors for various pathogens and are ubiquitous throughout Central Europe. Survival and development of I. ricinus depend on biotic and abiotic factors. We examined whether relative humidity (RH), air (T a ) and soil temperatures (T s ), or snow depth during November through February affect the questing activity of ticks during their subsequent season of activity. We related the number of host-seeking nymphs to meteorological parameters measured in close proximity at minutely intervals over the period of 6 years (2010-2015) in an urban park in Berlin. We defined thresholds at which associations appeared strongest. Although the annual variations in RH, T a , and snow depth were typical of the mid-latitudes, the questing activity of nymphs during their first peak of activity (March through July) varied among the 6 years more than threefold. The accumulated hours of RH below 77% in 2 m height during November through February affected the questing activity of nymphs during the following activity peak. In contrast to T a , accumulated hours of T s below -1 °C in 0.02 m depth or below -4 °C in 0.05 m depth during the preceding period significantly influenced the average number of nymphs questing during spring. Our observations suggest that RH, T s , and snow cover during the preceding months affect the questing activity of nymphal I. ricinus during their first peak of activity. Snow cover serves as an insulator between the atmosphere and soil, which not only stabilizes T s but also appears to protect ticks from exposure to frost and frequent temperature shifts.

  11. Hepatoprotective role of Ricinus communis leaf extract against d-galactosamine induced acute hepatitis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Babu, Pappithi Ramesh; Bhuvaneswar, Cherukupalle; Sandeep, Gandham; Ramaiah, Chintha Venkata; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2017-04-01

    Ricinus communis (RC) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used by Chenchu and Yerukula tribes for treating their liver ailments. The present work is aimed to explore the hepatoprotective efficacy of Ricinus communis against d-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced hepatitis rat model and its therapeutic potential compared with standard drug, silymarin (100mg/kg.bw). In vitro antioxidant activity of Methanolic extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MERCL) was assayed through DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging activity. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of MERCL using HPLC, demonstrated that Rutin was found to be predominant bioactive compound in the extract. Hepatitis was induced by treating the rats with D-GalN at a single intraperitoneal dose of 800mg/kg.bw. Serum markers viz, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased and the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD),Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-enzymatic antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in the liver of hepatitis induced rats when compared to controls. Pre and post treatment with MERCL significantly altered the enzyme activities, GSH and MDA to normal levels. Histopathological observations also showed protective and curative effects of MERCL against D-GalN intoxication. These results demonstrated that MERCL significantly protected the liver from d-galactosamine induced hepatitis, improved the curative effect in the liver and hence, MERCL can be used as a potent hepatoprotective drug in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  13. Ixodes ricinus infestation in free-ranging cervids in Norway--a study based upon ear examinations of hunted animals.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Kjell; Qviller, Lars; Vikøren, Turid; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Lillehaug, Atle; Davidson, Rebecca K

    2013-07-01

    Prevalence, abundance and instar composition of Ixodes ricinus as found on one ear collected from 1019 moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), shot during hunting (August-December) 2001-2003, are reported. The animals originated from 15 coastal municipalities (CM), seven municipalities bordering to coastal municipalities (BCM) and four inland municipalities (IM), in Norway, between latitudes 58-66° N. I. ricinus occurred endemically in all CM and BCM up to 63°30' N, whereas it was non-endemic further north and in the IM. This geographical distribution of the tick along the coast of southern Norway was largely in accordance with that reported as far back as the 1940s. Our results therefore did not indicate any large scale northwards expansion of I. ricinus in Norway during the 60 year-period between the two studies. However, the prevalence of infestation and tick abundance were significantly higher in CM as compared to BCM. The prevalence and abundance by month were highest during August and September, gradually decreasing towards December. The considerable prevalence of ticks in November, as well as findings in December, would seem to indicate a prolonged tick season as compared with the studies carried out 60 years ago. A total of 8920 ticks were isolated from 439 of the 603 animals examined in endemic municipalities, and the maximum number of ticks found on one single ear was 204. Attached adult ticks were primarily found among the long hairs at base of the ear, whereas nymphs and larvae were seen all over the outer surface of the pinna, for larvae especially at the edge and tip of the ear. Nymphs were the dominant instar, constituting 74% of the total tick count. The proportion of larvae and adult ticks was 13% and 12%. A significantly higher proportion of adult ticks and lower proportion of immature stages were found in moose, as compared to red deer and roe deer. The same apparently size-associated preference of

  14. A comparative ultrastructural localization of concanavalin A, wheat germ and Ricinus communis on glomeruli of normal rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Bretton, R; Bariety, J

    1976-10-01

    Three lectins, concanavalin A, peroxidase labeled wheat germ and peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis have been utilized to determine the localization of various saccharide determinants in the glomerulus of the normal rat kidney. In order to obtain a homogeneous penetration of the lectins throughout the whole section, various technical parameters were studied. Only with concanavalin A, a diffuse labeling of the endoplasmic reticulum was obtained. With the three lectins, the basement membrane, mesangial matrix and the cell coat of the three cell types in the glomerulus were labeled. Differences in the labeling of the capillary wall were also noted.

  15. Biosynthesis of the Macrocyclic Diterpene Casbene in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Mark W.; Green, Terrence R.; West, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    Farnesyl transferase (farnesyl pyrophosphate: isopentenyl pyrophosphate farnesyl transferase; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase) was purified at least 400-fold from extracts of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings that were elicited by exposure for 10 h to Rhizopus stolonifer spores. The purified enzyme was free of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and phosphatase activities which interfere with prenyl transferase assays. The purified enzyme showed a broad optimum for farnesyl transfer between pH 8 and 9. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 72,000 ± 3,000 from its behavior on a calibrated G-100 Sephadex molecular sieving column. Mg2+ ion at 4 millimolar gave the greatest stimulation of activity; Mn2+ ion gave a small stimulation at 0.5 millimolar, but was inhibitory at higher concentrations. Farnesyl pyrophosphate (Km = 0.5 micromolar) in combination with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (Km = 3.5 micromolar) was the most effective substrate for the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Geranyl pyrophosphate (Km = 24 micromolar) could replace farnesyl pyrophosphate as the allylic pyrophosphate substrate, but dimethylallyl pyrophosphate was not utilized by the enzyme. One peak of farnesyl transferase activity (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase) and two peaks of geranyl transferase activity (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetases) from extracts of whole elicited seedlings were resolved by DEAE A-25 Sephadex sievorptive ion exchange chromatography. These results suggest that the pathway for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthesis in elicited castor bean seedlings involves the successive actions of two enzymes—a geranyl transferase which utilizes dimethylallypyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate as substrates and a farnesyl transferase which utilizes the farnesyl pyrophosphate produced in the first step and isopentenyl pyrophosphate as substrates. PMID:16664818

  16. Evaluation of automated and manual DNA purification methods for detecting Ricinus communis DNA during ricin investigations.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Anne S; Astwood, Michael J; Saah, J Royden; Michel, Pierre A; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2014-03-01

    In April of 2013, letters addressed to the President of United States and other government officials were intercepted and found to be contaminated with ricin, heightening awareness about the need to evaluate laboratory methods for detecting ricin. This study evaluated commercial DNA purification methods for isolating Ricinus communis DNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four commercially available DNA purification methods (two automated, MagNA Pure compact and MagNA Pure LC, and two manual, MasterPure complete DNA and RNA purification kit and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit) were evaluated. We compared their ability to purify detectable levels of R. communis DNA from four different sample types, including crude preparations of ricin that could be used for biological crimes or acts of bioterrorism. Castor beans, spiked swabs, and spiked powders were included to simulate sample types typically tested during criminal and public health investigations. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the QIAamp kit resulted in the greatest sensitivity for ricin preparations; the MasterPure kit performed best with spiked powders. The four methods detected equivalent levels by real-time PCR when castor beans and spiked swabs were used. All four methods yielded DNA free of PCR inhibitors as determined by the use of a PCR inhibition control assay. This study demonstrated that DNA purification methods differ in their ability to purify R. communis DNA; therefore, the purification method used for a given sample type can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for R. communis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser.

    PubMed

    Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Salles, Marcela Moreira; Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Nascimento, Cássio do; Souza, Raphael Freitas de; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas de Oliveira; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient's satisfaction. 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial colonies in denture surfaces. All solutions were approved by patients.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale). We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74%) followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p < 0.01). Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity. PMID:20082707

  19. The synthesis of Ricinus communis agglutinin, cotranslational and posttranslational modification of agglutinin polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L M; Lord, J M

    1981-09-01

    Polyadenylated RNA isolated from the endosperm tissue of maturing castor bean seeds was translated in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Rabbit antibodies raised against Ricinus communis agglutinin were used to identify nascent agglutinin chains. In contrast to the authentic agglutinin polypeptides with molecular weights of 31000 (A chains) and 37000 (glycosylated B chains), immunoreactive translational products of Mr 33500 and 59000 were observed. The inclusion of canine pancreatic microsomes in the translational system resulted in the cotranslational segregation of these immunoreactive products into the lumen of the vesicles and their modification, to molecular weights of 32000 and 66000--69000 respectively. These cotranslational size modifications resulted from the cleavage of leader sequences and, in the case of the larger product, concomittant core glycosylation, 32000-Mr and 66000--69000-Mr proteins were also observed amongst the immunoreactive products initially formed during the labelling of intact endosperm tissue in vivo, together with 37000-Mr and 39000-Mr proteins. Pulse-chase experiments showed that 66000--69000-Mr proteins slowly disappeared while the smaller proteins were further cleaved to chains of Mr 31000 (authentic A chain), 34000 and 37000 (authentic glycosylated B chains). It was concluded that R. communis agglutinin polypeptides were synthesized in precursor form, possibly as a 'giant' precursor in the case of the B chain, on membrane-bound polysomes. Cotranslational translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was accompanied by proteolysis to remove leader sequences and, where appropriate, core glycosylation. Even after cotranslational processing agglutinin polypeptides were still in precursor form. Processing to authentic size appeared to occur posttranslationally.

  20. Climate and environmental change drives Ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range margin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global environmental change is causing spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of species and the associated diseases of humans, domesticated animals and wildlife. In the on-going debate on the influence of climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases, there is a lack of a comprehensive interdisciplinary multi-factorial approach utilizing high quality spatial and temporal data. Methods We explored biotic and abiotic factors associated with the latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in the distribution of Ixodes ricinus observed during the last three decades in Norway using antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep as indicators for tick presence. Samples obtained from 2963 sheep from 90 farms in 3 ecologically different districts during 1978 – 2008 were analysed. We modelled the presence of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum to climatic-, environmental and demographic variables, and abundance of wild cervids and domestic animals, using mixed effect logistic regressions. Results Significant predictors were large diurnal fluctuations in ground surface temperature, spring precipitation, duration of snow cover, abundance of red deer and farm animals and bush encroachment/ecotones. The length of the growth season, mean temperature and the abundance of roe deer were not significant in the model. Conclusions Our results highlight the need to consider climatic variables year-round to disentangle important seasonal variation, climatic threshold changes, climate variability and to consider the broader environmental change, including abiotic and biotic factors. The results offer novel insight in how tick and tick-borne disease distribution might be modified by future climate and environmental change. PMID:24401487

  1. Programmed cell death in Ricinus and Arabidopsis: the function of KDEL cysteine peptidases in development.

    PubMed

    Hierl, Georg; Vothknecht, Ute; Gietl, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants is a prerequisite for development as well as seed and fruit production. It also plays a significant role in pathogen defense. A unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases, characterized by a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL CysEP), is involved in plant PCD. Genes for these endopeptidases have been sequenced and analyzed from 25 angiosperms and gymnosperms. They have no structural relationship to caspases involved in mammalian PCD and homologs to this group of plant cysteine endopeptidases have not been found in mammals or yeast. In castor beans (Ricinus communis), the CysEP is synthesized as pre-pro-enzyme. The pro-enzyme is transported to the cytosol of cells undergoing PCD in ER-derived vesicles called ricinosomes. These vesicles release the mature CysEP in the final stages of organelle disintegration triggered by acidification of the cytoplasm resulting from the disruption of the vacuole. Mature CysEP digests the hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich proteins (extensins) that form the basic scaffold of the plant cell wall. The KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated Hyp residues of the extensins. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2 and AtCEP3) are expressed in tissues undergoing PCD. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing β-glucuronidase under the control of the promoters for these three genes, cell- and tissue-specific activities were mapped during seedling, flower and seed development. KDEL CysEPs participate in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD and in tissue re-modeling such as lateral root formation.

  2. Sugar concentrations along and across the Ricinus communis L. hypocotyl measured by single cell sampling analysis.

    PubMed

    Verscht, Jutta; Tomos, Deri; Komor, Ewald

    2006-11-01

    Single cell sap sampling and analysis were used to measure the longitudinal and radial distribution of sucrose, glucose and fructose in the apical cell division zone and in the basal, elongated zone of the Ricinus hypocotyl. Sucrose and hexose increased in concentration from the apex to the base of the seedling axis. In the cell division zone low hexose and sucrose concentrations prevailed in cortex and pith, with a slightly higher hexose concentration in pith cells. The sucrose concentrations in sieve tubes and in phloem were much higher than in the cortex and pith cells. In the basal zone of the hypocotyl high levels of sucrose in phloem, cortex and pith were found, therefore radial, diffusional sucrose flow away from the phloem was considered unlikely. It is proposed that radial flow of growth-water to the hypocotyl periphery together with the down-regulation of a sucrose transporter at the phloem leads to a preferential sucrose flow to the expanding cortex. The pith cells, which do not experience flow of growth-water, are probably insufficiently supplied with sucrose from the phloem resulting eventually in cell death as the plant grows. Shortage of sucrose supply, experimentally achieved by removal of the endosperm, led to sucrose hydrolysis in the pith. The sucrose levels in the other tissues decreased less. It appears that the hydrolysis to hexose was initiated to maintain the osmotic value in the pith cell sap. It is speculated that high hexose levels in the cells are indicative of insufficient sucrose supply via the phloem and that the pith cells are confronted with that situation during early seedling development.

  3. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers.

  4. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  5. Repellency and efficacy of 65% permethrin and selamectin spot-on formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs.

    PubMed

    Endris, Richard G; Cooke, Dara; Amodie, Deborah; Sweeney, Diane L; Katz, Terry L

    2002-01-01

    Two topically applied spot-on products used for flea and tick control on dogs, 65% permethrin (Defend EXspot Treatment for Dogs, Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., Union, NJ) and selamectin (Revolution [United States] or Stronghold [Europe], Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY), were evaluated for repellency and efficacy against Ixodes ricinus, the primary vector of Lyme disease in Europe. Eighteen dogs were evenly and randomly allocated to the following treatments: 1) 65% permethrin, 2) selamectin, 3) untreated control. Dogs were treated by topical application of the assigned product in accordance with product label directions on Day 0. At 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after treatment, each dog was exposed for 2 hours to 50 unfed, adult ticks in a cage with a carpet that covered approximately 70% of the floor area. After the exposure period, dogs were removed from the cages and live and dead ticks were counted on the dogs and in the cages. The number of live ticks recovered was reduced by 90.3% to 99.5% for dogs treated with 65% permethrin (P <.0001 versus controls and selamectin), compared with 10.9% to 31.1% for dogs treated with selamectin (P >.05 versus controls). The repellency of 65% permethrin was 63.4% to 80.2% against I. ricinus ticks (P <.0001 versus controls, P <.0007 versus selamectin), compared with 0% to 10.9% repellency for selamectin (P >.05 versus controls).

  6. Phylogenetic Lineages and Postglacial Dispersal Dynamics Characterize the Genetic Structure of the Tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Northwest Europe

    PubMed Central

    Røed, Knut H.; Kvie, Kjersti S.; Hasle, Gunnar; Gilbert, Lucy; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal and gene flow are important mechanisms affecting the dynamics of vectors and their pathogens. Here, patterns of genetic diversity were analyzed in many North European populations of the tick, Ixodes ricinus. Population sites were selected within and between areas separated by geographical barriers in order to evaluate the importance of tick transportation by birds in producing genetic connectivity across open sea and mountain ranges. The phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial control region and the cytochrome b gene revealed two distinct clades with supported sub-clades, with three genetic lineages: GB and WNo associated with Great Britain and western Norway respectively, and Eu with a wider distribution across continental Europe in agreement with much lower efficiency of tick dispersal by birds than by large mammals. The results suggest different ancestry of I. ricinus colonizing Britain and the rest of northern Europe, possibly from different glacial refuges, while ticks from western Norway and continental Europe share a more recent common ancestry. Demographic history modeling suggests a period of strong increase in tick abundance coincident with progression of the European Neolithic culture, long after their post-glacial colonization of NW Europe. PMID:27907193

  7. Effects of demineralized bone matrix and a 'Ricinus communis' polymer on bone regeneration: a histological study in rabbit calvaria.

    PubMed

    Laureano Filho, José R; Andrade, Emanuel S S; Albergaria-Barbosa, José R; Camargo, Igor B; Garcia, Robson R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to histologically analyze the effects of bovine and human demineralized bone matrix and a Ricinus communis polymer on the bone regeneration process. Two surgical bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria, one on the right and the other on the left side of the parietal suture. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups. In Group I, the experimental defect was treated with bovine demineralized bone matrix, Group II with human demineralized bone matrix, and in Group III, the experimental cavity was treated with polyurethane resin derived from Ricinus communis oil. The control defects were filled with the animals' own blood. The animals were sacrificed after 7 and 15 weeks. Histological analysis revealed that in all groups (control and experimental), bone regeneration increased with time. The least time required for bone regeneration was noted in the control group, with a substantial decrease in the thickness of the defect. All materials proved to be biologically compatible, but polyurethane resorbed more slowly and demonstrated considerably better results than the demineralized bone matrices.

  8. Symbiotic bacteria in oocyte and ovarian cell mitochondria of the tick Ixodes ricinus: biology and phylogenetic position.

    PubMed

    Rymaszewska, Anna

    2007-04-01

    Under natural conditions, eukaryote cells may contain bacteria. Arthropods such as ticks, insects or mites are a group particularly favoured by the obligate intracellular bacteria. While arthropods are vectors for some of them, other bacteria inhabit invertebrate host cells having entered mutualistic interactions. Such endosymbionts dwell usually in the host cell vacuoles or cytoplasm but have been also reported from tick oocyte mitochondria. The microorganisms contribute to mitochondria degradation, but their colonies are not eliminated from the tick cells affected. So far, such bacteria have been detected in three research centres. The Italian centre has reported on results of microscope and molecular analyses, while the Polish centre published molecular data. The Danish centre registered a 16S rRNA gene fragment in GenBank. Independent comparisons of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, carried out in the Italian and Polish centres, confirmed that the nucleotide sequences of the Ixodes ricinus endosymbionts formed a single clade with certain non-identified tick bacterium species isolated from the tick Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. On the other hand, pathogenic species of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia detected in I. ricinus as well as symbionts of the genus Wolbachia present in Culex pipiens and Drosophila simulans have been placed at a different site on the phylogenetic tree.

  9. Ir-CPI, a coagulation contact phase inhibitor from the tick Ixodes ricinus, inhibits thrombus formation without impairing hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Decrem, Yves; Rath, Géraldine; Blasioli, Virginie; Cauchie, Philippe; Robert, Séverine; Beaufays, Jérôme; Frère, Jean-Marie; Feron, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Dessy, Chantal; Vanhamme, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Blood coagulation starts immediately after damage to the vascular endothelium. This system is essential for minimizing blood loss from an injured blood vessel but also contributes to vascular thrombosis. Although it has long been thought that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo, recent data obtained with genetically altered mice indicate that contact phase proteins seem to be essential for thrombus formation. We show that recombinant Ixodes ricinus contact phase inhibitor (Ir-CPI), a Kunitz-type protein expressed by the salivary glands of the tick Ixodes ricinus, specifically interacts with activated human contact phase factors (FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein) and prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in vitro. The effects of Ir-CPI were also examined in vivo using both venous and arterial thrombosis models. Intravenous administration of Ir-CPI in rats and mice caused a dose-dependent reduction in venous thrombus formation and revealed a defect in the formation of arterial occlusive thrombi. Moreover, mice injected with Ir-CPI are protected against collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Remarkably, the effective antithrombotic dose of Ir-CPI did not promote bleeding or impair blood coagulation parameters. To conclude, our results show that a contact phase inhibitor is an effective and safe antithrombotic agent in vivo. PMID:19808248

  10. Woodland biodiversity management as a tool for reducing human exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks: a preliminary study in an english woodland.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Shuttleworth, H; Copley, V; Hansford, K M; Leach, S

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings towards developing a UK-specific approach to reducing public exposure to woodland questing Ixodes ricinus tick populations by harnessing existing biodiversity-enhancing woodland ride (i.e., linear non-wooded herbaceous habitat either side of track within woodland) management strategies. This preliminary study in an English woodland firstly assesses whether ecological and environmental factors determine presence and density of questing Ixodes ricinus along woodland rides. Secondly, it sets these findings in the context of woodland ride management guidelines in England in order to understand what impact ride management strategies might have on numbers of questing ticks and tick survival. Nymph and adult I. ricinus presence and abundance were modelled in relation to relevant microclimate and ecological parameter variables. Predictor variables for increased questing nymph abundance included ride orientation, mat depth, occurrence of bracken/bramble and animal tracks, ride/path width, and sward height. Ticks thrive in the ecotonal habitat of a woodland ride, therefore we urge woodland managers to consider the impact of their ride management on ticks and human exposure to ticks. Possible recommendations for mitigating questing I. ricinus in line with biodiversity management guidelines rides are discussed in this paper and include seasonal mowing regimes, management of mulch/mat, and bracken/bramble management through use of scalloped ride edges. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L.; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  12. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  13. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  14. A Vegetation Index qualifying pasture edges is related to Ixodes ricinus density and to Babesia divergens seroprevalence in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Agoulon, Albert; Malandrin, Laurence; Lepigeon, Florent; Vénisse, Maxime; Bonnet, Sarah; Becker, Claire A M; Hoch, Thierry; Bastian, Suzanne; Plantard, Olivier; Beaudeau, François

    2012-04-30

    Babesia divergens, transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus, is the main agent of bovine piroplasmosis in France. This Apicomplexa often is present in asymptomatic carriers; however, clinical cases are rare. While numerous factors are known to influence tick density, no risk factor of contact with B. divergens has been identified for cattle. Our study aimed to explore whether a Vegetation Index could serve as an indirect indicator of within-herd B. divergens seroprevalence. In February 2007, blood samples were taken from all of the cows in 19 dairy cattle herds in Western France and IFAT serology was performed individually to measure B. divergens seroprevalence. The following spring, I. ricinus nymphs were collected by drag sampling along transects on the vegetation of each farm's pasture perimeters. Tick density was related significantly to a Vegetation Index (V.I., ranging from 1 to 5) that took into account the abundance of trees and bushes on the edge of pastures: most ticks (57%) were found in transects with the highest V.I. (covering 15% of the explored surface in the study area). At the farm level, the proportion of transects presenting I. ricinus nymphs was significantly related to B. divergens seroprevalence: the farms with more than 15% of transects with I. ricinus had a significantly higher risk of high seroprevalence. The proportion of pasture perimeters where the V.I.=5 also was significantly related to B. divergens seroprevalence: the farms where more than 20% of transects had a V.I.=5 had a significantly higher risk of high seroprevalence. Given that the Vegetation Index is a steady indicator of the potential I. ricinus density in the biotope, we recommend that the risk of high B. divergens seroprevalence in cows be evaluated using this tool rather than drag samplings.

  15. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser

    PubMed Central

    BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; SALLES, Marcela Moreira; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; do NASCIMENTO, Cássio; de SOUZA, Raphael Freitas; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas de Oliveira; SILVA-LOVATO, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The development of opportunistic infections due to poor denture hygiene conditions justified the search for effective hygiene protocols for controlling denture biofilm. Objective This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. Material and Methods It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. Results S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient’s satisfaction. Conclusions 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial

  16. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. Results Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2) and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. Conclusions The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor bean and other members

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  18. Biosynthesis of Starch in Proplastids of Germinating Ricinus communis Endosperm Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Reibach, Paul H.; Benedict, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Electron photomicrographs of endosperm tissue from germinating seed of Ricinus communis L. cv. Hale show proplastids which contain prominent starch grains. The content of starch in endosperm tissue increased from 500 micrograms per seed, in imbibed seed, to 1,100 micrograms per seed in 5-day-old seedlings. The maximum net rate of starch deposition was 1.1 nanomoles glucose incorporated per minute per seed. About 200 micrograms of starch remained in the endosperm 9 days after imbibition. Starch content followed the same developmental pattern as the content of sucrose, free reducing sugars, and other metabolic processes found in this tissue. Two key enzymes of starch synthesis, adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase and ADPG-starch glucosyl transferase (starch synthetase) exhibited maximum activities at 4 and 5 days after germination, respectively. The maximum activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase was 8.17 nanomoles ADPG formed per minute per seed, whereas starch synthetase exhibited an activity of 125 nanomoles glucose incorporated per minute per seed. These levels of enzyme activity are sufficient to account for the starch synthesis observed. Other enzymes which may be involved in starch synthesis include 3-phosphoglycerate kinase which showed an activity of 8.76 units per seed, triose-P isomerase (2.56 units per seed), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (0.99 units per seed), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (0.23 units per seed), phosphoglucose isomerase (12.6 units per seed), and phosphoglucomutase (9.72 units per seed). The activities of these enzymes were similar to previously reported values. Starch synthetase was found in association with the fraction containing proplastids isolated from endosperm tissue. Of the total starch synthetase activity in the endosperm, 38% was particulate. Forty-four% of the total particulate activity of starch synthetase placed on sucrose gradients was associated with the band containing proplastids. The proplastids contained

  19. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Results Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. Conclusions An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems

  20. Albumin and Ricinus communis agglutinin decrease endothelial permeability via interactions with matrix.

    PubMed

    Qiao, R; Siflinger-Birnboim, A; Lum, H; Tiruppathi, C; Malik, A B

    1993-08-01

    We studied the effects of albumin and the lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) on hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of bovine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (BPMVEC) because of the evidence that albumin and RCA can interfere with transendothelial albumin permeability (Siflinger-Birnboim, A., J. Schnitzer, H. Lum, F. Blumenstock, C. Shen, P. Del Vecchio, and A. Malik. J. Cell. Physiol. 149: 575-584, 1991). BPMVEC were seeded on microporous polycarbonate filters, and the liquid flux was measured by collecting effluent into a tubing of known inner diameter at transendothelial hydrostatic pressures (P) ranging from 5 to 20 cmH2O. Lp was calculated as the slope of the relationship of liquid flux per unit surface area (Jv) vs. P. Addition of RCA (50 micrograms/ml) or albumin (5 mg/ml) to the endothelial cell medium containing albumin-free Hanks' balanced saline solution (HBSS) decreased total Lp (expressed x 10(-6) cm.s-1 x cmH2O-1) from 17.2 +/- 3.6 during HBSS to 4.7 +/- 0.9 during albumin and 5.7 +/- 1.6 during RCA (P < 0.01 for both). The RCA effect, but not that of albumin, was prevented by the addition of D-galactose (0.1 M) (the cognate hapten monosaccharide of RCA). We determined the contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in decreasing the Lp by obtaining ECM after treatment of the monolayers with 0.025 M NH4OH to detach endothelial cells from the ECM. Basal ECM Lp (expressed x 10(-6) cm.s-1 x cmH2O-1) was 57.0 +/- 15.3, and it decreased to 19.7 +/- 4.3 and 17.5 +/- 2.9 during RCA and albumin, respectively (P < 0.01 for both). In contrast, RCA and albumin did not alter the filter Lp values. Another lectin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin, and the protein immunoglobulin G had no effect on Lp values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents: a review.

    PubMed

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2015-12-18

    The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I. ricinus larvae during a blood meal. The infected engorged larvae moult into infected nymphs, which can transmit the spirochaetes to rodents and humans. Interestingly, even though only about 1% of the larvae develop into a borreliae-infected nymph, the enzootic borreliae lifecycle can persist. The development from larva to infected nymph is a key aspect in this lifecycle, influencing the density of infected nymphs and thereby Lyme borreliosis risk. The density of infected nymphs varies temporally and geographically and is influenced by multi-trophic (tick-host-borreliae) interactions. For example, blood feeding success of ticks and spirochaete transmission success differ between rodent species and host-finding success appears to be affected by a B. afzelii infection in both the rodent and the tick. In this paper, we review the major interactions between I. ricinus, rodents and B. afzelii that influence this development, with the aim to elucidate the critical factors that determine the epidemiological risk of Lyme borreliosis. The effects of the tick, rodent and B. afzelii on larval host finding, larval blood feeding, spirochaete transmission from rodent to larva and development from larva to nymph are discussed. Nymphal host finding, nymphal blood feeding and spirochaete transmission from nymph to rodent are the final steps to complete the enzootic B. afzelii lifecycle and are included in the review. It is concluded that rodent density, rodent infection prevalence, and tick burden are the major factors affecting the development from larva to infected nymph and that these interact with each other. We suggest that the B. afzelii lifecycle is dependent on the aggregation of ticks among rodents, which is manipulated by the pathogen

  2. Tick Thioester-Containing Proteins and Phagocytosis Do Not Affect Transmission of Borrelia afzelii from the Competent Vector Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, Radek; Kopáček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis. To test this hypothesis we have examined complement-like reactions in the hemolymph of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus against Borrelia afzelii (the most common vector and causative agent of Lyme disease in Europe). We demonstrate that I. ricinus hemolymph does not exhibit borreliacidal effects comparable to complement-mediated lysis of bovine sera. However, after injection of B. afzelii into the tick hemocoel, the spirochetes were efficiently phagocytosed by tick hemocytes and this cellular defense was completely eliminated by pre-injection of latex beads. As tick thioester-containing proteins (T-TEPs) are components of the tick complement system, we performed RNAi-mediated silencing of all nine genes encoding individual T-TEPs followed by in vitro phagocytosis assays. Silencing of two molecules related to the C3 complement component (IrC3-2 and IrC3-3) significantly suppressed phagocytosis of B. afzelii, while knockdown of IrTep (insect type TEP) led to its stimulation. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of T-TEPs or elimination of phagocytosis by injection of latex beads in B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus nymphs had no obvious impact on the transmission of spirochetes to naïve mice, as determined by B. afzelii infection of murine tissues following tick infestation. This result supports the concept that Borrelia spirochetes are capable of avoiding complement-related reactions within the hemocoel of ticks competent to transmit Lyme disease. PMID:28361038

  3. Localization of the bacterial symbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii within the hard tick Ixodes ricinus by whole-mount FISH staining.

    PubMed

    Epis, Sara; Mandrioli, Mauro; Genchi, Marco; Montagna, Matteo; Sacchi, Luciano; Pistone, Dario; Sassera, Davide

    2013-02-01

    Here, we present an investigation on the spatial distribution of the bacterial symbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii within Ixodes ricinus, by whole mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). M. mitochondrii is a peculiar, recently discovered bacterium that resides in the mitochondria of female ticks. We applied a rapid and specific FISH protocol with oligonucleotide probes targeted on the 16S rRNA of M. mitochondrii, 12S rRNA of tick mitochondria, and a probe revealing active mitochondria. In this report that represents the first application of whole mount FISH on ticks, we observed strong, specific fluorescence signals in all the examined life stages, as the optimized protocol allowed us to overcome the autofluorescence interference of the cuticle. Cellular localization and quantification of the symbionts were also assessed with electron microscopy and specific real-time PCR, respectively.

  4. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  5. The Presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, A Relapsing Fever Spirochaete, in Questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cochez, C; Heyman, P; Heylen, D; Fonville, M; Hengeveld, P; Takken, W; Simons, L; Sprong, H

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B. miyamotoi in flagged Ixodes ricinus from Belgium and the Netherlands. B. miyamotoi was detected in nine of thirteen, and three of five locations from the Netherlands and Belgium, respectively. These outcomes indicate that B. miyamotoi is more spread than previously thought. The mean infection rate B. miyamotoi was 1.14% for Belgium and 3.84% for the Netherlands.

  6. Methyl jasmonate promotes the transient reduction of the levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in Ricinus communis plants.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Soares, Alexandra Martins; de Souza, Thiago Freitas; de Souza Domingues, Sarah Jane; Jacinto, Tânia; Tavares Machado, Olga Lima

    2004-06-01

    Jasmonates are signaling molecules that play a key role in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction and defense against insects and pathogens. This study investigated the effects of methyl jasmonate on the protein pattern of Ricinus communis plants and the activity of guaiacol peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme. Methyl jasmonate treatment caused a transient reduction in guaiacol peroxidase activity. A similar response was observed for the levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin protein. Moreover, the levels of the small and large chains of Rubisco were also reduced. The transient reduction of the levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes could account for the increase in the levels of H2O2, an important signaling molecule in plant defense.

  7. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree oil) against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Iori, A; Grazioli, D; Gentile, E; Marano, G; Salvatore, G

    2005-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine the acaricidal effect of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil, TTO) at different doses (4, 6, 8 and 10 microl) and for different exposure times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) on nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. A dose of 8 microl TTO was lethal for more than 70% of ticks when inhaled and this effect was enhanced when the dose was increased to 10 microl (> 80%). The effect was correlated with the duration of exposure of ticks to TTO, with a significant effect being observed after 90 min exposure. The findings show that TTO has acaricidal properties and could be extremely useful in controlling ticks that are efficient vectors of pathogens.

  8. Autotomy in rats after nerve section compared with nerve degeneration following intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z; Nennesmo, I; Kristensson, K

    1987-07-01

    Partial unilateral deafferentation of the hind limb of rats was carried out by section of the sciatic nerve or the intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA I). The development of autotomy was observed over a 6 week period. The axotomized animals autotomized more than those injected with RCA I. A neuroma developed on the proximal stump of the axotomized nerves. Within 7 days the axons of the RCA I-injected nerve degenerated and the cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia L4 and L5 were destroyed. Since the RCA I-injected animals autotomized, it is concluded that purely central factors have a role in the generation of this abnormal behavior. As the axotomized animals autotomized more than the RCA I-treated ones it is further concluded that abnormal impulse activity arising from a neuroma may be an additional factor in causing autotomy.

  9. Central projection of rat sciatic nerve fibres as revealed by Ricinus communis agglutinin and horseradish peroxidase tracers.

    PubMed

    Leong, S K; Tan, C K

    1987-10-01

    The central projection of afferent fibres in the rat sciatic nerve has been studied by means of the suicide transport of a lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin 60 (RCA 60), and the transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The results obtained from these two methods are similar; however, the RCA method gave a more consistent and better localisation of the primary afferent terminals than the HRP method. The present study has shown that primary afferents from the sciatic nerve project predominantly to the ipsilateral gracile nucleus. In addition, they also project to several other brainstem nuclei; these include the contralateral nucleus gracilis, the ipsilateral main cuneate nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus and the presumptive nucleus z.

  10. Characterization of ATP-Dependent Fructose 6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase Isozymes from Leaf and Endosperm Tissues of Ricinus communis1

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Vicki L.; Greyson, Maureen F.; Dennis, David T.

    1990-01-01

    Plastid and cytosolic isozymes of ATP:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFKp and PFKc, respectively) have been isolated from leaves and developing endosperm tissues of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L). Endosperm PFKp has been purified to apparent homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies raised against one of the four polypeptides associated with potato tuber PFK (molecular mass, 46 kilodaltons) immunoprecipitated developing endosperm and leaf PFKp, but not PFKc isozymes. Western blots, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analytical gel filtration show that PFKp from developing endosperm is a 220 kilodalton homotetramer composed of 57 kilodalton subunits. Kinetic studies of leaf PFKp and PFKc isozymes reveal both similarities and differences to the characteristics of the respective endosperm isozymes studied previously (WJ Garland, DT Dennis [1980] Arch Biochem Biophys 204: 302-317). The immunological and kinetic data suggest that leaf and developing endosperm PFKp are different but structurally related proteins. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667239

  11. Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop.

  12. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schwantes, Ulrich; Dautel, Hans; Jung, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA)-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO) bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection) as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied). The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied) strongly avoided the attachment of I. ricinus nymphs

  13. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schwantes, Ulrich; Dautel, Hans; Jung, Gerd

    2008-04-08

    Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis - two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA)-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO) bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N x 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection) as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied). The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours.Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied) strongly avoided the attachment of I. ricinus nymphs and adults for at least 6

  14. The TICKPRO computer program for predicting Ixodes ricinus host-seeking activity and the warning system published on websites.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Milan; Vráblík, Tomás; Valter, Jaroslav; Kríz, Bohumír; Danielová, Vlasta

    2010-12-01

    The computer program with the acronym TICKPRO (tick prognosis) facilitates medium-range forecasts of the level of host-seeking activity in ticks within a 1-4 day horizon. The program is based on the medium-range weather forecast routinely produced at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), as well as on previously developed mathematical models describing the correlation of meteorological factors with the host-seeking activity of Ixodes ricinus. These models are based on a 6-year whole-season monitoring of I. ricinus host-seeking activity on experimental fields in the Central Bohemia Region in a typical habitat, oakhornbeam forest, where tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.str., B. afzelii, and B. garinii have been found. Meteorological data provided by the CHMI meteorological station in Prague-Libus were used, and during the development of the forecasting algorithm micrometeorological data have been collected directly at the tick monitoring sites under selected synoptic weather situations. In the TICKPRO program, the two most successful models utilized ambient air temperature, quantity of atmospheric precipitation, and relative air humidity. The prediction determines 5 levels of risk of attack according to the current proportion of host-seeking ticks, and thus determines the risk of TBE infection. The levels of risk defined by the TICKPRO program are supplemented by instructions on how to prepare oneself for entering sites with potential tick occurrence, how to move around once there, and how to behave on returning home. This warning system is weekly published on websites of National Institute of Public Health and CHMI, Prague, over entire season (March-November).

  15. IrAE – an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, Jan; Sajid, Mohammed; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, Matthew; Sexton, Kelly B.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are ectoparasitic blood-feeders and important vectors for pathogens including arboviruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes and protozoa. As obligate blood-feeders, one possible strategy to retard disease transmission is disruption of the parasite’s ability to digest host proteins. However, the constituent peptidases in the parasite gut and their potential interplay in the digestion of the blood meal are poorly understood. We have characterized a novel asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus (termed IrAE), which is the first such characterization of a clan CD family C13 cysteine peptidase (protease) in arthropods. By RT-PCR of different tissues, IrAE mRNA was only expressed in the tick gut. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized IrAE in the digestive vesicles of gut cells and within the peritrophic matrix. IrAE was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris and reacted with a specific peptidyl fluorogenic substrate, and acyloxymethyl ketone and aza-asparagine Michael acceptor inhibitors. IrAE activity was unstable at pH ≥ 6.0 and was shown to have a strict specificity for asparagine at P1 using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library. The enzyme hydrolyzed protein substrates with a pH optimum of 4.5, consistent with the pH of gut cell digestive vesicles. Thus, IrAE cleaved the major protein of the blood meal, hemoglobin, to a predominant peptide of 4 kDa. Also, IrAE trans-processed and activated the zymogen form of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 – an enzyme contributing to hemoglobin digestion in the gut of that bloodfluke. The possible functions of IrAE in the gut digestive processes of I. ricinus are compared with those suggested for other hematophagous parasites. PMID:17336985

  16. Salicylic acid transport in Ricinus communis involves a pH-dependent carrier system in addition to diffusion.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Delta LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion.

  17. Salicylic Acid Transport in Ricinus communis Involves a pH-Dependent Carrier System in Addition to Diffusion1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R.; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Δ LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion. PMID:19493970

  18. De novo sequencing of RCB-1 to -3: peptide biomarkers from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Ovenden, Simon P B; Fredriksson, Sten-Ake; Bagas, Christina K; Bergström, Tomas; Thomson, Stuart A; Nilsson, Calle; Bourne, David J

    2009-05-15

    Ricinus communis (also know as the castor bean plant) whose forbears escaped from suburban gardens or commercial cultivation grow wild in many countries. In temperate and tropical climates seeds will develop to maturity, and plants may be perennial. In Australia these plants have become widespread and are regarded as noxious weeds in many localities. The seeds of R. communis contain ricin, a protein toxin which can easily be extracted into an aqueous solution. Ricin is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and injection. The history of terrorist and anarchist interest in the use of seeds from R. communis has driven the development of strategies for determination of cultivar and geographic location of the source of an extract of wild-grown castor bean seed. This forensic information is of considerable interest to law enforcement and intelligence organizations. During forensic studies of both the metabolome and proteome of extracts from eight specimens of six different cultivars of R. communis ("zanzibariensis" collected from Kenya and Tanzania, "gibsonii", "impala", "dehradun", "carmencita", and "sanguineus" collected from Spain and Tanzania), three peptide biomarkers (designated Ricinus communis biomarkers, or RCB) were identified in both the MALDI and electrospray LC-MS spectra. Two of these peptides (RCB-1 and RCB-2) were present in varying amounts in all cultivars, while RCB-3 was present only in the "carmencita" cultivar. The amino acid sequences of RCB-1 to -3 were determined using LC-MS(n) fragmentation and de novo sequencing on both the intact and the carbamidomethyl modified peptides. The connectivity of the two disulfide bonds that were present in all three RCB were determined using a strategy of partial reduction and differential alkylation using tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine with N-ethylmaleimide to reduce and alkylate the most accessible disulfide bond, followed by reduction and alkylation of the remaining disulfide bond with dithiolthreitol and

  19. Methodology for sampling questing nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), the principal vector of Lyme disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, M; Pichon, B; Cabaret, J; Figureau, C; Pérez-Eid, C

    2000-05-01

    To assess the Lyme borreliosis vector population density we set up a methodology for sampling the Ixodes ricinus L. population host questing on the vegetation. We focused on the collection of the nymphal stage, which is the principal stage of disease transmission to humans. This study was carried out in Rambouillet forest (Yvelines, France) where seven study areas were demarcated. These areas are maximally homogeneous for plant species using a finer scale than the phytosociological classification as defined by the method of landscape diagnostics. Out of 23 collections performed from March 1997 to May 1998, 2,906 I. ricinus nymphs were collected. The sampling technique chosen was the cloth lure technique. The technical parameters were studied and fixed (cloth type, cloth size, sample size, researcher position). It appeared that toweling was the best cloth type to optimize the number of ticks collected; the position of the researcher had no effect on tick samples. To satisfy the criteria for correct sampling, we studied representativity, randomness, and nonselectivity of our methodology. The spatial distribution of nymphs in a homogeneous area was close to random and thus very few subsamples were needed to obtain a relative density which was representative. No significant differences were found between random samples and following transect samples; and nonselectivity was totally satisfied because we only worked on questing nymphs. We grouped the samples that presented no significant differences to attribute a density index, which varied from 0 to 5. This methodology, applied with the same parameters, offers potential for producing comparable results from studies in different geographical areas and at different times of the years.

  20. LLCD operations using the Lunar Lasercom OGS Terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Smit, Hans; Sans, Marc; Zayer, Igor; Lanucara, Marco; Montilla, Iciar; Alonso, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the operations of ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) during the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) experiment, performed in October and November 2013 with NASA's Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environmental Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. First the transmitter and receiver designs at the OGS telescope are described, which are geometrically separated to prevent cross-talk. Problems encountered and the lesson learned will be explained. As it turned the chosen arrangement was not sufficiently stable in terms of alignment and the paper will describe the solution found. A new industrial contract has been placed for improvement of the design of two solutions will be presented, which will both be tested in a follow-up laser communication campaign, scheduled for end March 2014.

  1. Discovery of an extended bundle sheath in Ricinus communis L. and its role as a temporal storage compartment for the iron chelator nicotianamine.

    PubMed

    Rutten, T; Krüger, C; Melzer, M; Stephan, U W; Hell, R

    2003-07-01

    The extended bundle sheath (EBS) is a specialized layer of cells that enhances the lateral transport of photoassimilates within the leaf. This little-known tissue is often considered to be legume-specific. We identified an EBS in cotyledons and leaves of the non-legume Ricinus communis L. By means of cytological and immunological studies and using the localization of the iron-chelator nicotianamine as an established indicator for mass transport, we confirmed its role as a transport tissue and a temporal sink. Observations on cotyledons of Ricinus seedlings further proved that the EBS carries out these tasks from a very early stage of development onwards. This is the first time that information has been obtained on the physiological role of an EBS in a non-legume. Our results support the idea of its widespread occurrence among higher plants.

  2. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus infesting wild and domestic animals and in a botfly larva (Cephenemyia stimulator) infesting roe deer in Germany.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Patrick; Speck, Stephanie; Schwarzenberger, Rafael; Litzinger, Mark; Balczun, Carsten; Dobler, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a well-known vector of different human pathogens including Rickettsia helvetica. The role of wild mammals in the distribution and probable maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still to be determined. We therefore investigated various parasites from different wild mammals as well as companion animals for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 606 I. ricinus, 38 Cephenemyia stimulator (botfly larvae), one Dermacentor reticulatus, 24 Haematopinus suis (hog lice) and 30 Lipoptena cervi (deer flies) were collected from free-ranging animals during seasonal hunting, and from companion animals. Sample sites included hunting leases at three main sampling areas and five additional areas in West and Central Germany. All collected parasites were screened for Rickettsia spp. and I. ricinus were investigated for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in addition. While no TBEV was detected, the minimum infection rate (MIR) of I. ricinus with Rickettsia was 4.1% referring to all sampling sites and up to 6.9% at the main sampling site in Koblenz area. Sequencing of a fragment of the ompB gene identified R. helvetica. Approximately one third (29.5%) of the animals carried Rickettsia-positive ticks and the MIR in ticks infesting wild mammals ranged from 4.1% (roe deer) to 9.5%. These data affirm the widespread distribution of R. helvetica in Germany. One botfly larva from roe deer also harboured R. helvetica. Botfly larvae are obligate parasites of the nasal cavity, pharynx and throat of cervids and feed on cell fragments and blood. Based on this one might hypothesise that R. helvetica likely induces rickettsemia in cervids thus possibly contributing to maintenance and distribution of this rickettsia in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Bis(β-lactosyl)-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takeru; Saito, Akihiro; Sato, Keita; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl)-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A) caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate–protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family. PMID:25161707

  4. Bis(β-lactosyl)-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Hirofumi; Kanazawa, Takeru; Saito, Akihiro; Sato, Keita; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl)-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A) caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate-protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  5. Length of tick repellency depends on formulation of the repellent compound (icaridin = Saltidin®): tests on Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus placed on hands and clothes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study had the aim to test the repellent potential of the compound icaridin = Saltidin® against the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus using different formulations of the compound. Tests were done on backs of impregnated human hands, on impregnated linen cloth and versus impregnated dog hair. It was found that 1. Ixodes persulcatus-the common Eastern European, Russian Ixodes species is significantly sensitive to icaridin = Saltidin® as I. ricinus protecting for the test period of 5 h. This is an important finding, since I. persulcatus is the vector of agents of the severe Eastern meningoencephalitis; 2. that this repellent compound acts similarly on both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, when sprayed either on naked skin or on cloths; 3. that there are only slight differences in duration of the repellency when using different formulations containing icaridin = Saltidin®; 4. that icaridin = Saltidin® sprayed on dog hair has identical repellent effects like those seen on human skin and cloths; thus, this compound can also be used to protect animals such as dogs, cats, horses; and 5. that the icaridin = Saltidin® did not induce a bad sensation on skin, nor bad smells; furthermore, it was not sticky and did not leave residuals neither on clothes nor on dog's hair.

  6. Identification of galactose-α-1,3-galactose in the gastrointestinal tract of the tick Ixodes ricinus; possible relationship with red meat allergy.

    PubMed

    Hamsten, C; Starkhammar, M; Tran, T A T; Johansson, M; Bengtsson, U; Ahlén, G; Sällberg, M; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M

    2013-04-01

    Patients with IgE antibodies against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) have reported severe allergic reactions after consumption of red meat. Investigations have revealed associations between IgE to α-Gal and tick bites. We provide the first direct evidence that α-Gal is present within ticks thus potentially explaining the relationship between tick exposure and sensitization to α-Gal, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomena. Serum from Swedish patients with delayed severe reactions to red meat was included in the study. A dose-dependent inhibition of IgE responses to α-Gal by the tick Ixodes ricinus is demonstrated. Furthermore, using cryostat-cut sections of I. ricinus, we show that both a monoclonal and a polyclonal antibody against α-Gal stains the gastrointestinal tract of the tick. The same pattern is seen when staining with patient sera IgE positive to α-Gal. These results confirm that the α-Gal epitope is present in I. ricinus and imply host exposure to α-Gal during a tick bite. This provides further evidence that tick bites are associated with IgE responses to α-Gal and red meat allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A symbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus invades and consumes mitochondria in a mode similar to that of the parasitic bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, L; Bigliardi, E; Corona, S; Beninati, T; Lo, N; Franceschi, A

    2004-02-01

    We have recently performed molecular characterisation of an intracellular alpha-proteobacterium, named IricES1, which resides in the ovarian tissue of female Ixodes ricinus ticks from Italy. A unique characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to invade the mitochondria of the cells in which it resides. Although some ultrastructural studies have been performed on close relatives of this bacterium from I. ricinus in England and Switzerland, a number of questions remain about its movement within ovarian tissues and mitochondria. We have performed the first detailed ultrastructural examination of IricES1 in engorged female adult I. ricinus. Among our findings was that the bacterium enters mitochondria in a similar way to that employed by the 'predatory' bacterium Bdellovibro bacteriovorus, that is, between the inner and outer membranes. It then appears to multiply, with the new 'colony' consuming the mitochondrial matrix. Despite having many of their mitochondria consumed, oocytes appear to develop normally, and the bacteria are likely to be vertically transferred to all eggs.

  8. Assessment of the prophylactic speed of kill of Frontline Tri-Act® against ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the speed of kill of a single topical treatment with a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) against experimental infestations of Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs. In this parallel group designed, randomised, single centre, controlled efficacy study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups: 8 dogs were treated with the topical combination on Day 0 and the other 8 dogs served as untreated controls. Each dog was exposed in a crate to 100 I. ricinus (50 females, 50 males) and 50 R. sanguineus (25 males, 25 females) on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Ticks were counted in situ at 6 and 12 h after exposure and removed at 24 h after exposure. Frontline Tri-Act® was effective (≥90%) against both R. sanguineus and I. ricinus tick infestations at 6, 12 and 24 h after exposure, from 2 to 28 days after treatment. This is the first time that a topical ectoparasiticide has demonstrated a preventive killing effect against these two tick species in 6 h for a full month. PMID:26795064

  9. The surface glycoproteins of human skin fibroblasts detected after electrophoresis by the binding of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin and Ricinus communis (castor-bean) agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B B; Pena, S D

    1982-11-15

    A new methodology was developed to study the cell-surface glycoproteins of cultured human skin fibroblasts. This was based on the binding of a variety of biotinyl-lectins to nitrocellulose electrophoretic transfers of total fibroblast lysates after separation in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels, followed by reaction with avidin-biotinyl-peroxidase complexes and detection with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The technique proved to be very sensitive and a large number of glycoproteins were detected by binding of concanavalin A and wheat-germ agglutinin. Binding of peanut agglutinin and to a lesser extent of Ricinus communis agglutinin I were found to be dependent on prior removal of sialic acid residues from the glycoproteins. Since by treatment of intact viable cells with neuraminidase only external sialic acid residues were removed, peanut agglutinin and Ricinus communis agglutinin I could thus be utilized for selective detection of cell-surface glycoproteins. Also, because peanut agglutinin was known to bind preferentially to oligosaccharides of the O-glycosidic type, and Ricinus communis agglutinin I to those of the N-glycosidic type, the two lectins were complementary in displaying the surface glycoproteins and in providing information about their oligosaccharide composition.

  10. Targeting the dengue β-OG with serotype-specific alkaloid virtual leads.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Chakraborty, Hirak Jyoti; Datta, Abhijit

    2017-03-01

    The dengue envelope β-OG pocket is a crucial hinge for mediating virus-host fusion via conformational changes in the envelope to the fusion-competent form. The β-OG pocket is a small molecule target site for inhibition of virus-host fusion. As of date, the only structure of the β-OG pocket known is of serotype 2. Studies of β-OG inhibition by small molecules primarily target viral serotype 2. Envelope and β-OG sequence alignments, reveal dissimilarities across serotypes. In light of protein sequence-structure-function correlation, sequence variations suggest serotypic variations in β-OG druggability. This, together with the fact that dengue viral proteins do have serotype-specific variations of structure and function, lead to the study of the serotype-specificity of the dengue β-OG ligand binding behaviour. β-OG druggability was compared using comparative models of envelope proteins containing the β-OG pocket in four serotypes of the dengue virus. β-OG ligand binding was found to vary with respect to hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions with ligands and tightness of the binding site. The study also reports serotype-specific virtual leads identified from a library of 9175 alkaloids, using a consensus docking and scoring approach. The docking algorithms of Glide SP and XP, together with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm were employed for consensus docking. For consensus scoring, the Glide empirical score was employed along with the scoring function of AutoDock. A multi-dimensional lead optimisation approach was performed for optimising affinity, ligand efficiency, lipophilic ligand efficiency, ADMET and molecular torsional strains. The study proposes the serotype-specific inhibition of the β-OG for an effective inhibition of virus-host fusion, in contrast to a pan inhibitor.

  11. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Methods Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Results Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit

  12. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Sabina Wangui; Omar, Sabar; Jacob, Julia Wanjiru; Wahome, Martin; Alborn, Hans T; Spring, David R; Masiga, Daniel K; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-07-04

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit varying bioactivity against the larvae

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The acaricidal efficacy of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. Three studies, each characterized by a negative controlled randomized block design, were conducted with a total of 52 beagle or mongrel dogs of both sexes. Starting 2 days before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with approximately 50 ticks. The number of live ticks was counted at 48 h post-treatment (Day 2) as well as 48 h following each infestation on Days 9, 16, 23, and 30. Afoxolaner, administered at an average dose of 2.7 mg/kg bodyweight (range 2.5-2.9 mg/kg), rapidly eliminated the pre-existing tick infestations with over 99% acaricidal efficacy and controlled the weekly re-infestations for up to 30 days post treatment with over 96% efficacy on both tick species. Afoxolaner provides excellent acaricidal efficacy against these two major European tick species using the oral route of administration.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated.

  15. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence.

  16. Vectorization of agrochemicals: amino acid carriers are more efficient than sugar carriers to translocate phenylpyrrole conjugates in the Ricinus system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanxiang; Marhadour, Sophie; Lei, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wen; Marivingt-Mounir, Cécile; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Chollet, Jean-François

    2016-12-13

    Producing quality food in sufficient quantity while using less agrochemical inputs will be one of the great challenges of the twenty-first century. One way of achieving this goal is to greatly reduce the doses of plant protection compounds by improving the targeting of pests to eradicate. Therefore, we developed a vectorization strategy to confer phloem mobility to fenpiclonil, a contact fungicide from the phenylpyrrole family used as a model molecule. It consists in coupling the antifungal compound to an amino acid or a sugar, so that the resulting conjugates are handled by active nutrient transport systems. The method of click chemistry was used to synthesize three conjugates combining fenpiclonil to glucose or glutamic acid with a spacer containing a triazole ring. Systemicity tests with the Ricinus model have shown that the amino acid promoiety was clearly more favorable to phloem mobility than that of glucose. In addition, the transport of the amino acid conjugate is carrier mediated since the derivative of the L series was about five times more concentrated in the phloem sap than its counterpart of the D series. The systemicity of the L-derivative is pH dependent and almost completely inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). These data suggest that the phloem transport of the L-derivative is governed by a stereospecific amino acid carrier system energized by the proton motive force.

  17. The paradox of the binomial Ixodes ricinus activity and the observed unimodal Lyme borreliosis season in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Trájer, A; Bede-Fazekas, Á; Hufnagel, L; Bobvos, J; Páldy, A

    2014-01-01

    The change of ambient temperature plays a key role in determining the run of the annual Lyme season. Our aim was to explain the apparent contradiction between the annual unimodal Lyme borreliosis incidence and the bimodal Ixodes ricinus tick activity run--both observed in Hungary--by distinguishing the temperature-dependent seasonal human and tick activity, the temperature-independent factors, and the multiplicative effect of human outdoor activity in summer holiday, using data from Hungary in the period of 1998-2012. This separation was verified by modeling the Lyme incidence based on the separated factors, and comparing the run of the observed and modeled incidence. We demonstrated the bimodality of tick season by using the originally unimodal Lyme incidence data. To model the outdoor human activity, the amount of camping guest nights was used, which showed an irregular run from mid-June to September. The human outdoor activity showed a similar exponential correlation with ambient temperature to that what the relative incidence did. It was proved that summer holiday has great influence on Lyme incidence.

  18. Methodological caveats in the environmental modelling and projections of climate niche for ticks, with examples for Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Estrada-Sánchez, A; Estrada-Sánchez, D

    2015-02-28

    Interest is increasing in inferring the climate niche of health-threatening arthropods and projecting such inferences onto a territory. This approach is intended to predict the range of tick distribution and to elucidate tick responses to climate scenarios, using so-called correlative models. However, some methodological gaps might prevent achieving an adequate background for hypothesis testing. We explore, describe, and illustrate these procedural inaccuracies with examples focused on the tick Ixodes ricinus and examine how these factors might affect modelling outcomes. Our aim was to develop a backdrop of rules for developing reliable models for these parasites. The use of partial sets of tick occurrences might produce unreliable associations with climate because the algorithms cannot capture the complete niche with which the tick is associated. Reliability measures of the model cannot detect these inaccuracies, and undesirable estimations of the niche will prevail in the chain of further calculations. The use of inadequate environmental variables (covariates) may lead to inflation of the results of the model through two statistical processes, autocorrelation and colinearity. We demonstrate the high colinearity existing in climate products derived from interpolation of climate recording stations. Our explicit advice is to focus on the training of climate models with satellite-derived information of climate, from which colinearity of the time series has been removed through a harmonic regression. We also emphasize the high uncertainty if inference about the climate niche is expanded into different time slices, like projected climate scenarios.

  19. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Zanotti, Rafael F; Deflers, Carole; Fernandez, Luzimar G; Castro, Renato D de; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-08-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R. communis genotypes. Biomass allocation was assessed by measuring dry weight of roots, stems, and cotyledons of seedlings grown at three different temperatures. Root length of each seedling was measured. Biomass allocation was strongly affected by temperature. Seedlings grown at 25°C and 35°C showed greater biomass than seedlings grown at 20°C. Cotyledon and stem dry weight increased for both genotypes with increasing temperature, whereas root biomass allocation showed a genotype-dependent behavior. Genotype MPA11 showed a continuous increase in root dry weight with increasing temperature, while genotype IAC80 was not able to sustain further root growth at higher temperatures. Based on metabolite and gene expression profiles, genotype MPA11 increases its level of osmoprotectant molecules and transcripts of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins to a higher extent than genotype IAC80. This might be causal for the ability to maintain homeostasis and support root growth at elevated temperatures in genotype MPA11.

  20. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel.

  1. Trace isotope analysis of Ricinus communis seed core for provenance determination by laser ablation-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Bagas, Christina K; Scadding, Rachel L; Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Roberts, Warren; Ovenden, Simon P B

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites. Data were further analysed using multivariate statistical analysis which facilitated the potential for the identification of unique provenance isotopes. Furthermore, this analysis indicated that (59)Co was present at significant levels in Victorian and Sydney specimens only. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schieltz, David M.; McWilliams, Lisa G.; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M.; Carter, Andrew J.; Williamson, Yulanda M.; McGrath, Sara C.; Morse, Stephen A.; Barr, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R. communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity. PMID:25576235

  3. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  4. Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation, development of cells, and various diseases. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the Ricinus communis stem led to the isolation of four compounds (1-4). The TCF/β-catenin transcription activities of 1 and 3 were 2.2 and 2.5 fold higher at 20 and 30μM, respectively. Cells treated with ricinine (1) had higher β-catenin and lower of p-β-catenin (ser 33, 37, 45, Thr 41) protein levels, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) protein levels remained unchanged. Cells treated with pyrvinium, an activator of CK1α, had lower β-catenin levels. However, the combined treatment of pyrvinium and 1 led to higher β-catenin levels than those in cells treated with pyrvinium alone, which suggested that 1 inhibited CK1α activity. Furthermore, 1 increased β-catenin protein levels in zebrafish embryos. These results indicated that 1 activated the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting CK1α. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schieltz, David M; McWilliams, Lisa G; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M; Carter, Andrew J; Williamson, Yulanda M; McGrath, Sara C; Morse, Stephen A; Barr, John R

    2015-03-01

    The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R. communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, E. Christy; Jashothan, P.T. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antibacterial activity of hot and cold ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (R. communis) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922). Methods Leaf powder of R. communis L. was extracted with hot (in Soxhlet) and cold ethanol and methanol, separately. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution methods. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. Results All the four test extracts showed inhibition on both S. aureus and E. coli. Hot and cold ethanol extracts revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition on S. aureus than methanol extracts, and the hot ethanol extract had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively). E. coli was highly inhibited by hot extracts of both ethanol and methanol with the MIC and MBC of 40 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in all test extracts. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the hot and cold methanol and ethanol extracts are potential sources for control of S. aureus and E. coli. Especially, the hot and cold extracts of ethanol are more inhibitive against S. aureus even at lower concentration. Further study is needed to identify the specific bioactive compounds, their mode of action and their nontoxic nature in vivo condition. PMID:23570001

  7. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    PubMed

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity.

  8. Effects on spermatogenesis in swiss mice of a protein isolated from the roots of Ricinus communis (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Swathy, S S; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect on spermatogenesis of a 62 kDa protein (Rp) isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis in mice. A dose response study in mice revealed that 25mg/kg body weight/day was the most effective dose. Swiss strain mature male mice of 30 days old were divided into two group namely control and Rp treated (25mg/kg body weight/day). The study showed that sperm motility and count were decreased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. The fertility index of the treated groups was reduced by 100%. The activity of HMG Co A reductase and cholesterol were increased significantly in the treated group. The testicular activities of 3βHSD, 17βHSD, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme and the level of serum testosterone were decreased significantly in the treated group. The expression of 3βHSD and 17βHSD were decreased and the expression of StAR increased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. Proteolytic digestion of the native protein with trypsin and chymotrypsin showed that the proteolytic cleavage did not affect the spermicidal action of Rp. Hence this study can be concluded that Rp impaired spermatogenesis in vivo by suppressing the production of testosterone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phloem sugar flux and jasmonic acid-responsive cell wall invertase control extrafloral nectar secretion in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Millán-Cañongo, Cynthia; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) that attracts predators. The efficiency of the resulting anti-herbivore defense depends on the quantity and spatial distribution of EFN. Thus, according to the optimal defense hypothesis (ODH), plants should secrete EFN on the most valuable organs and when herbivore pressure is high. Ricinus communis plants secreted most EFN on the youngest (i.e., most valuable) leaves and after the simulation of herbivory via the application of jasmonic acid (JA). Here, we investigated the physiological mechanisms that might produce these seemingly adaptive spatiotemporal patterns. Cell wall invertase (CWIN; EC 3.2.1.26) was most active in the hours before peak EFN secretion, its decrease preceded the decrease in EFN secretion, and CWIN activity was inducible by JA. Thus, CWIN appears to be a central player in EFN secretion: its activation by JA is likely to cause the induction of EFN secretion after herbivory. Shading individual leaves decreased EFN secretion locally on these leaves with no effect on CWIN activity in the nectaries, which is likely to be because it decreased the content of sucrose, the substrate of CWIN, in the phloem. Our results demonstrate how the interplay of two physiological processes can cause ecologically relevant spatiotemporal patterns in a plant defense trait.

  10. In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jashothan, P T Justin

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate antibacterial activity of hot and cold ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (R. communis) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922). Leaf powder of R. communis L. was extracted with hot (in Soxhlet) and cold ethanol and methanol, separately. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution methods. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. All the four test extracts showed inhibition on both S. aureus and E. coli. Hot and cold ethanol extracts revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition on S. aureus than methanol extracts, and the hot ethanol extract had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively). E. coli was highly inhibited by hot extracts of both ethanol and methanol with the MIC and MBC of 40 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in all test extracts. This study demonstrates that the hot and cold methanol and ethanol extracts are potential sources for control of S. aureus and E. coli. Especially, the hot and cold extracts of ethanol are more inhibitive against S. aureus even at lower concentration. Further study is needed to identify the specific bioactive compounds, their mode of action and their nontoxic nature in vivo condition.

  11. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Santhi, T; Manonmani, S; Smitha, T

    2010-07-15

    The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1 g 50 mL(-1) and 25 mg L(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger’s positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  13. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  14. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability.

  16. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Tamas, Imre A.; Davies, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [3H]IAA, together with [14C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis. Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K+, and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  17. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS+ assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS+) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS+ free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS+ radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines. PMID:25477994

  18. Deuterium NMR used to indicate a common mechanism for the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid by Ricinus communis and Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Billault, Isabelle; Mantle, Peter G; Robins, Richard J

    2004-03-17

    Previous studies have shown that ricinoleic acid from castor bean oil of Ricinus communis is synthesized by the direct hydroxyl substitution of oleate, while it has been proposed that ricinoleate is formed by hydration of linoleate in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. The mechanism of the enzymes specific to ricinoleate synthesis has not yet been established, but hydroxylation and desaturation of fatty acids in plants apparently involve closely related mechanisms. As mechanistic differences in the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products can lead to different isotopic distributions in the product, we could expect ricinoleate isolated from castor or ergot oil to show distinct (2)H distribution patterns. To obtain information concerning the substrate and isotope effects that occur during the biosynthesis of ricinoleate, the site-specific natural deuterium distributions in methyl ricinoleate isolated from castor oil and in methyl ricinoleate and methyl linoleate isolated from ergot oils have been measured by quantitative (2)H NMR. First, the deuterium profiles for methyl ricinoleate from the plant and fungus are equivalent. Second, the deuterium profile for methyl linoleate from ergot is incompatible with this chemical species being the precursor of methyl ricinoleate. Hence, it is apparent that 12-hydroxylation in C. purpurea is consistent with the biosynthetic mechanisms proposed for R. communis and is compatible with the general fundamental mechanistic similarities between hydroxylation and desaturation previously proposed for plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

  19. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role.

  20. Receptors for the lectins wheat germ. Ricinus communis I and soybean in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, E

    1981-11-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for the lectins Wheat germ (WGA). Ricinus communis I (RCA I) and Soybean (SBA) was examined in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa from 12 patients. The study utilized fluorescein-conjugated WGA, RCA I and SBA. Cell-membrane bound receptors for these 3 lectins were demonstrated in the spinous cell layer of the normal oral mucosa. WGA and RCA I receptors were also located in the basal cell layer, whereas SBA receptors were not detectable there. Cell-membrane bound WGA receptors were shown in the epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. Titrations showed significant differences in staining reactivity related to the morphology of the peripheral epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. The distribution of RCA I and SBA receptors in the peripheral cells was also related to the morphology of these cells and was independent of the histological types of the tumours. It is suggested that the distribution of these receptors is related to cellular activities such as cell differentiation and cell migration in the tumour and therefore possibly reflects the biological behavior of the tumours.

  1. Ultrastructural identification of Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 positive cells in primary dissociated cell cultures of human embryonic brain.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Y; Ashwell, K

    1994-12-01

    While Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA-1) can be used as a specific marker to study the development and differentiation of microglial cells in human embryogenesis, little is known about the structural heterogeneity and nature of RCA-1+ cells. To analyse the structural peculiarities of RCA-1+ cells, we have used primary dissociated cultures of human embryonic brain. These have been used as models for investigating many of the aspects of central nervous system (CNS) HIV infection. We have shown that primary dissociated cultures from human embryos as young as 10 weeks gestation contain RCA-1+ cells. The RCA-1+ cells exist in two forms, those without (type I) and those with (type II) processes. The former have a poorly developed ultrastructure, while the latter have well developed ultrastructural features, such as rough endoplasmic reticulum with short cisternae, abundant ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes and vacuoles. Furthermore, some of these cells with processes have well developed cytoskeletal features. In this paper, the classification of RCA-1+ cells of embryonic human brain is considered and their morphology compared to microglia identified in rodent CNS.

  2. Binding and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Aizono, Y; Funatsu, G

    1984-08-01

    The binding of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes was studied in detail. Scatchard plots of binding of 125I-lectins to these cells gave biphasic lines except for HeLa cells at 0 degree C. The association constants of lectins for the three cell types at 37 degrees C were lower than those at 0 degree C. The numbers of total binding sites were estimated to be 7 to 16 X 10(7) per HeLa cell, 3 to 4 X 10(7) per Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cell and 0.4 to 1 X 10(6) per erythrocyte. A fraction, 16 to 27% of the total amount of cell-bound lectin at 37 degrees C, appeared to be bound irreversibly as judged by non-removal on washing with 0.1 M lactose, whereas no lectin was irreversibly bound at 0 degree C. In the case of erythrocytes, no lectin became irreversibly bound even at 37 degrees C. The toxicity of lectins on HeLa cells and Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells was investigated. The toxicity of ricin D was 50 times for Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and 140 times for HeLa cells as much as that for castor bean hemagglutinin. As to the sensitivities of both cell types to these lectins, it became apparent that Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells were more susceptible than HeLa cells.

  3. Effect of the chemical composition of Ricinus communis polyurethane on rat bone marrow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Márcio M; Hiraki, Karen R N; Barros, Valdemar M R; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2003-01-01

    Alterations in the chemical composition of a polymer may be undertaken to improve its biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP) with three different chemical compositions: RCPp (pure RCP), RCP+CaCO(3), and RCP+Ca(3)(PO(4))(2). Rat bone marrow cells were cultivated under conditions that allowed osteoblastic differentiation and were evaluated for cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology, total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bonelike nodule formation. For the evaluation of attachment, cells were cultured for 4 h. After 3 days, cell morphology was evaluated. Cell proliferation was evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Total protein content and ALP activity were evaluated after 14 days. For bonelike nodule formation, cells were cultured for 21 days. Data were compared with an analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test when appropriate. Cell attachment and ALP activity were not affected by RCP chemical composition. Proliferation, total protein content, and bonelike nodule formation were all affected by RCP chemical composition. These results suggest that initial cell events are not affected by RCP chemical composition, whereas RCPs blended with calcium carbonate or, better yet, calcium phosphate, by favoring events that promote matrix mineralization, are more biocompatible materials.

  4. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I–III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  5. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Marco; Prati, Paola; Vicari, Nadia; Manfredini, Andrea; Sacchi, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Bandi, Claudio; Epis, Sara; Fabbi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Results Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents), that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view. PMID:26244842

  6. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  7. BPhyOG: an interactive server for genome-wide inference of bacterial phylogenies based on overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingqin; Fu, Cong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Lin, Kui

    2007-07-25

    Overlapping genes (OGs) in bacterial genomes are pairs of adjacent genes of which the coding sequences overlap partly or entirely. With the rapid accumulation of sequence data, many OGs in bacterial genomes have now been identified. Indeed, these might prove a consistent feature across all microbial genomes. Our previous work suggests that OGs can be considered as robust markers at the whole genome level for the construction of phylogenies. An online, interactive web server for inferring phylogenies is needed for biologists to analyze phylogenetic relationships among a set of bacterial genomes of interest. BPhyOG is an online interactive server for reconstructing the phylogenies of completely sequenced bacterial genomes on the basis of their shared overlapping genes. It provides two tree-reconstruction methods: Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Users can apply the desired method to generate phylogenetic trees, which are based on an evolutionary distance matrix for the selected genomes. The distance between two genomes is defined by the normalized number of their shared OG pairs. BPhyOG also allows users to browse the OGs that were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships. It provides detailed annotation for each OG pair and the features of the component genes through hyperlinks. Users can also retrieve each of the homologous OG pairs that have been determined among 177 genomes. It is a useful tool for analyzing the tree of life and overlapping genes from a genomic standpoint. BPhyOG is a useful interactive web server for genome-wide inference of any potential evolutionary relationship among the genomes selected by users. It currently includes 177 completely sequenced bacterial genomes containing 79,855 OG pairs, the annotation and homologous OG pairs of which are integrated comprehensively. The reliability of phylogenies complemented by annotations make BPhyOG a powerful web server for genomic and genetic

  8. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger survey, ears from 18 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 52 moose (Alces alces) shot in the 2 southernmost counties in Norway were collected and examined for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Seventy-two adult ticks, 595 nymphs, and 267 larvae from the roe deer, and 182 adult ticks, 433 nymphs, and 70 larvae from the moose were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in 2.9% of the nymphs collected from roe deer and in 4.4% of the nymphs and 6.0% of the adults collected from moose. The spirochetes were not detected in adult ticks from roe deer, or in larvae feeding on roe deer or moose. In comparison, the mean infection prevalences in questing I. ricinus collected from the same geographical area were 0.5% infection in larvae, 24.5% in nymphs, and 26.9% in adults. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in ticks collected from roe deer was B. afzelii (76.5%), followed by B. garinii (17.6%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.9%). Only B. afzelii (76.7%) and B. garinii (23.3%) were detected in ticks collected from moose. The present study indicates a lower prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in I. ricinus ticks feeding on roe deer and moose compared to questing ticks. This is the first study to report B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in ticks removed from cervids in Norway.

  9. Human behaviors elevating the risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs in two types of lowland coniferous forests in west-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Anna; Rączka, Grzegorz; Skorupski, Maciej; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus L. is the commonest tick encountered by humans in Central Europe and the most important vector of tick-borne diseases (TBD) in Europe. Foresters represent a group at elevated risk of exposure to I. ricinus throughout Europe. Here, we employed an experimental design similar to one used previously to determine what behavioral factors heighten exposure to questing Ixodes pacificus nymphs in a hardwood forest in the far-western United States. Five activities were evaluated systematically in a coniferous forest and a mixed broadleaved forest in west-central Poland: (i) walking in low-cut running shoes; (ii) sitting atop logs; (iii) sitting on leaf litter; (iv) sitting against tree trunks; and (v) gathering firewood. In total, 540 I. ricinus ticks were collected (198 larvae, 327 nymphs, 15 adults) in spring and late summer. Many more ticks were collected in spring than in late summer, and in the mixed broadleaved forest versus the coniferous forest. The riskiest behavior for acquiring nymphs in both spring and late summer was gathering firewood, though sitting atop logs was nearly as perilous in late summer. In contrast, the riskiest behaviors for encountering larvae in spring and late summer were sitting against trunks and sitting on leaf litter, respectively. Pairwise comparisons revealed only two significant associations among the variables explored for the nymphs: season and human gender, and season and type of forest. For larval ticks, the most significant associations were gender and sitting behaviors and for type of forest and sitting on leaf litter or against tree trunks. The most commonly infested body region was the lower legs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular screening for Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-existence within Ixodes ricinus populations in central and eastern parts of Poland.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Werszko, Joanna; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Mitrus, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The presented study aimed at establishing the prevalence and co-infection rates of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the central and eastern parts of Poland. The common tick individuals were gathered in the years 2008-2009. Questing ticks were sampled by dragging a white woollen flag over lower vegetation at 17 localities within diverse types of habitats: urban recreational green areas (city parks and squares), suburban forests and rural woodlands throughout the investigated regions of Poland. Detection of B. henselae in tested tick specimens was based on PCR amplification of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene, while screening for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was carried out by analyzing fragments of two genes: the flagellin (fla) and outer surface protein A (ospA). A total number of 1,571 I. ricinus ticks were sampled: 865 (55.1%) nymphs, 377 females (24.0%) and 329 males (20.9%). The application of PCR assays revealed that 76 (4.8%) tick samples were B. henselae-positive, B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was detected in 194 specimens (12.3%), whereas the co-existence of these pathogens was evidenced in 22 tested ticks (1.4%). Furthermore, the occurrence of bartonellae and co-circulation of analysed microorganisms in I. ricinus was affirmed only within adult individuals, while presence of the screened spirochetes was ascertained in both nymphal and adult ticks. It should be stressed that the suburban woods of Warsaw and rural forests in Warsaw County characterized the highest prevalence levels of dual infection with investigated tick-borne pathogens, whereas the lowest co-infection rates were recorded in tick populations inhabiting rural forests in Płock County and forested areas in Korczew-Mogielnica (within the Nadbużański Landscape Park).

  11. Co-infection with 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' and Borrelia afzelii in an Ixodes ricinus tick that has bitten a human in Romania.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin; Zaghdoudi-Allan, Nadège; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Chitimia, Lidia

    2014-10-01

    Despite the vast importance of ticks as disease vectors, the infectious agents transmitted by ticks are still incompletely known in many areas. Here, we report for the first time the detection of the bacterium 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in Romania, in an Ixodes ricinus tick obtained from a human. Furthermore, the tick also had a co-infection with Borrelia afzelii. 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is one of the most recent discoveries of a tick-borne agent, and has been found in human patients in several European countries as well as in China.

  12. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Ana Sofia; Almeida, Victor; Barros, Silvia C; De Sousa, Rita; Núncio, Maria Sofia

    2008-08-01

    A total of 300 Ixodes ricinus ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp., and 1 (0.3%) with A. phagocytophilum. Seven (2.3%) ticks were coinfected with B. lusitaniae and Rickettsia spp., 2 (0.6%) with R. monacensis, and 5 (1.7%) with Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The results of this study suggest simultaneous transmission of multiple tick-borne agents on Madeira Island, Portugal.

  13. Effects of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil of Ricinus communis on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the effects of ricinoleic acid esters from Ricinus communis castor oil on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to hosts that were fed with commercial rabbit food containing these esters. The oocytes of ticks from the treatment group (TG) showed cytoplasmic changes that inhibited the development of oocytes I and II to the advanced stages (IV and V) in addition to preventing the maturation of oocytes V, resulting in small ones. In addition, sperm was not observed in ampoules. Our findings confirm the acaricide potential of ricinoleic acid esters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  15. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since

  16. Effects of Ricinus communis, Brassica nigra and mineral oil Kemesol on some biochemical aspects of larvae stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A; Abuldahb, Faten F

    2010-04-01

    The third instars larvae of Spodotera littoralis were topically treated with two plant oils, Ricinus communis and Brassica nigra and one mineral oil, Kemesol 95% dissolved in petroleum ether and acetone at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 2.0, 3.0 & 4 %. The results revealed that the mean values of the total haemolymph and fat body protein was reduced in larvae treated with B. nigra and Kemesol 95%. A significant decrease was observed in haemolymph and fat body protein contents in larvae treated with all tested compound, the remarked decrease was noticed at the highest dose (4%) in both two solvents.

  17. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and ricinine against the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus.

    PubMed

    Bigi, Maria Fátima; Torkomian, Vera L V; de Groote, Suzanne T C S; Hebling, Maria José A; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; da Silva, Maria Fátima G F

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this study was the identification of compounds from plant extracts for use in crop protection. This paper reports on the toxic activity of fractions of leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (Euphorbiaceae) and isolated active compounds in the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel and its symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Singer) Möller. The main compounds responsible for activity against the fungus and ant in leaf extracts of R communis were found to be fatty acids for the former and ricinine for the ants.

  18. Modelling the Phenological Relationships of Questing Immature Ixodes Ricinus (Ixodidae) Using Temperature and NDVI Data.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Carné, J; García-Martín, A; Estrada-Peña, A

    2016-02-01

    All active stages of the tick Ixodes ricinus were collected monthly at two sites in northern Spain between the years 2000 and 2007. We used percentile accumulation of the active stage in the environment to evaluate simple and coherent correlations between accumulation of the active stages of larvae and nymphs and medium-resolution MODIS satellite-derived information on the climate, including monthly and accumulated temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This framework is not intended to predict the actual abundance of ticks in the field as a measure of the hazard to humans, but to provide a basic structure for addressing the phenology of the tick in its geographic range. We demonstrated that the accumulation of larval ticks in the active stage is a sigmoid function of the accumulated temperature from the beginning of the calendar year. We also demonstrated that the accumulated temperature necessary to recruit nymphs from the questing larval stage is a function of the changes in accumulated larvae and nymphs and the accumulated temperature and NDVI recorded by the Aqua sensor. The low p-values obtained in the regressions confirmed that such recruitment can be calculated using time intervals to estimate, for example, the beginning of the questing period or the time of the year when a population peak can be expected. The comparison among predicted and actual accumulated temperatures between larvae and nymph recruitment had an averaged error of ±20 days in one complete year. The use of accumulated temperature and NDVI proposed in this study opens up the re-evaluation of reports on the phenology of the tick in Europe. This framework is intended to evaluate the same correlations along the tick's range and predict its phenological patterns in areas of pathogen transmission risk for humans.

  19. Potential application of waste from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for production for xylanase of interest in the industry.

    PubMed

    Herculano, Polyanna Nunes; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Porto, Tatiana Souza; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-12-01

    Xylanases activity (XY) from Aspergillus japonicus URM5620 produced by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) of castor press cake (Ricinus communis) on different conditions of production and extraction by PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) were investigated. XY production was influenced by substrate amount (5-10 g), initial moisture (15-35 %), pH (4.0-6.0) and temperature (25-35 °C), obtaining the maximum activity of 29,085 ± 1808 U g ds(-1) using 5.0 g of substrate with initial moisture of 15 % at 25 °C and pH 6.0, after 120 h of fermentation. The influence of PEG molar mass (1000-8000 g mol(-1)), phase concentrations (PEG 20.0-24.0 % w/w and sodium citrate 15-20 % w/w) and pH (6.0-8.0) on partition coefficient, purification factor, yield and selectivity of XY were determinate. Enzyme partitioning into the PEG rich phase was favored by M PEG 8000 (g mol(-1)), C PEG 24 % (w/w), C C 20 % (w/w) and pH 8.0, resulting in partition coefficient of 50.78, activity yield of 268 %, 7.20-fold purification factor and selectivity of 293. A. japonicus URM5620 has a potential role in the development of a bioprocess for the XY production using low-cost media. In addition, the present study proved it is feasible to extract xylanase from SSF by adopting the one step ATPS consisting of PEG/citrate.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis - a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Watanabe, Evandro; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis' solutions against specific microorganisms. Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to control denture biofilm. C. albicans was the most

  1. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  2. Established and emerging pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from birds on a conservation island in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franke, J; Meier, F; Moldenhauer, A; Straube, E; Dorn, W; Hildebrandt, A

    2010-12-01

    Tick-borne pathogens such as Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp. and Babesia spp. cause a great variety of diseases in animals and humans. Although their importance with respect to emerging human diseases is increasing, many issues about their ecology are still unclear. In spring 2007, 191 Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks were collected from 99 birds of 11 species on a bird conservation island in the Baltic Sea in order to test them for Borrelia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp. and Babesia spp. infections. Identification of the pathogens was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis. The majority of birds with ticks testing positive were European robins and thrushes. Borrelia DNA was detected in 14.1%, A. phagocytophilum in 2.6%, rickettsiae in 7.3% and Babesia spp. in 4.7% of the ticks. Co-infections with different pathogens occurred in six ticks (3.1%). The fact that 11 ticks (five larvae, six nymphs) were infected with Borrelia afzelii suggests that birds may, contrary to current opinion, serve as reservoir hosts for this species. Among rickettsial infections, we identified Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica. As we detected five Rickettsia spp. positive larvae and two birds carried more than one infected tick, transmission of those pathogens from birds to ticks appears possible. Further characterization of Babesia infections revealed Babesia divergens and Babesia microti. The occurrence of Babesia spp. in a total of five larvae suggests that birds may be able to infect ticks, at least with Ba. microti, a species considered not to be transmitted transovarially in ticks.

  3. Preliminary investigation of contractile activity of Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum extracts on isolated rabbit uterine strips.

    PubMed

    Kaluwa Kaingu, Catherine; Oduma, Jemimah Achieng; Kanui, Titus

    2012-07-13

    Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are traditionally used by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Machakos district of Kenya to induce or augment labor, manage protracted labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained after birth. Ethno-pharmacological relevance of the study will be the provision of scientific evidence and justification for the ethnic use of both plants as oxytocic agents in the initiation of labor, treatment of prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained placenta. The plants were harvested in the wild, identified and voucher specimens preserved. The root bark was processed to powder form, from which aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained. Each of the extracts was separately tested on isolated uterine muscle tissue from non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. The effect on contraction frequency (number of contractions per second) in the absence or presence of oxytocin was evaluated statistically using ANOVA. P values <0.05 were considered significant. All uteri exhibited a strong initial contraction following exposure to the aqueous and ethanol root bark extracts of both plants. After recovery, the resumed contraction frequencies varied with the plant extract and exogenous hormone. The results show that the extracts of both plants were able to stimulate uterine tissue contractility directly and to augment the tissue's response to oxytocin. The increase in uterine contractions as a percentage relative to negative controls was particularly significant in pregnant rabbit tissues in the presence of oxytocin, where increments of up to 245% were observed. Further pharmacological studies are however required to determine the active principles, possible mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety margins of the plant extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generational reproductive outcomes in Wistar rats maternally exposed to Ricinus communis oil at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-10-01

    Fetal programming hypothesis presupposes that stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of uterine growth and development may permanently alter tissue structure and function. Ricinus communis oil (RCO) has been reported to possess/used as laxative, labor-inducing and estrogenic properties. Generational reproductive effects of maternal exposure to RCO was investigated in rats. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five equal groups were treated with distilled water (control, group 1), RCO (950 mg/kg p.o.) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 7-14, 14-21 and 1-21, respectively. Birth weight, morphometric data, anogenital distance (AGD), pubertal age, sperm parameters, hormonal profile, organ weight and histopathology were determined in the first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in birth weight/morphometric data in male pups from the GD 1-7 and 7-14 groups. AGD decreased significantly in RCO-treated F1 males. Pubertal age of F1 females decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls. At postnatal day 90, F1 males from the RCO-treated group showed significant decrease in testis weight, body weight, sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased in RCO-treated F1 males, which also showed testicular interstitial edema and epididymal hypospermia. Only pubertal indexes were altered in F2 rats. Maternal exposure to RCO at early gestation periods impaired androgen-mediated reproductive end points in the first generation of rats. RCO exhibits endocrine disrupting capabilities.

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the OLE-1 high-oleic castor seed (Ricinus communis L.) mutant.

    PubMed

    Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    The natural OLE-1 high-oleic castor mutant has been characterized, demonstrating that point mutations in the FAH12 gene are responsible for the high-oleic phenotype. The contribution of each mutation was evaluated by heterologous expression in yeast, and lipid studies in developing OLE-1 seeds provided new evidence of unusual fatty acids channeling into TAGs. Ricinus communis L. is a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family well known for producing seeds whose oil has a very high ricinoleic (12-hydroxyoctadecenoic) acid content. Castor oil is considered the only commercially renewable source of hydroxylated fatty acids, which have many applications as chemical reactants. Accordingly, there has been great interest in the field of plant lipid biotechnology to define how ricinoleic acid is synthesized, which could also provide information that might serve to increase the content of other unusual fatty acids in oil crops. Accordingly, we set out to study the biochemistry of castor oil synthesis by characterizing a natural castor bean mutant deficient in ricinoleic acid synthesis (OLE-1). This mutant accumulates high levels of oleic acid and displays remarkable alterations in its seed lipid composition. To identify enzymes that are critical for this phenotype in castor oil, we cloned and sequenced the oleate desaturase (FAD2) and hydroxylase (FAH12) genes from wild-type and OLE-1 castor bean plants and analyzed their expression in different tissues. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that three modifications to the OLE-1 FAH12 protein were responsible for its weaker hydroxylase activity. In addition, we studied the expression of the genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway at different developmental stages, as well as that of other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, both in wild-type and mutant seeds.

  6. In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

    2011-06-10

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells.

  7. Transcriptome profiling identifies ABA mediated regulatory changes towards storage filling in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biodiesel plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) has been in the limelight for bioenergy research due to the availability of its genome which raises the bar for genome-wide studies claiming advances that impact the “genome-phenome challenge”. Here we report the application of phytohormone ABA as an exogenous factor for the improvement of storage reserve accumulation with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with seed filling. Results After the application of exogenous ABA treatments, we measured an increased ABA levels in the developing seeds cultured in vitro using the ELISA technique and quantified the content of major biomolecules (including total lipids, sugars and protein) in treated seeds. Exogenous ABA (10 μM) enhanced the accumulation of soluble sugar content (6.3%) followed by deposition of total lipid content (4.9 %). To elucidate the possible ABA signal transduction pathways towards overall seed filling, we studied the differential gene expression analysis using Illumina RNA-Sequencing technology, resulting in 2568 (1507-up/1061-down regulated) differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were involved in sugar metabolism (such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose 1,6 bis-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, pyruvate kinase), lipid biosynthesis (such as ACS, ACBP, GPAT2, GPAT3, FAD2, FAD3, SAD1 and DGAT1), storage proteins synthesis (such as SGP1, zinc finger protein, RING H2 protein, nodulin 55 and cytochrome P450), and ABA biosynthesis (such as NCED1, NCED3 and beta carotene). Further, we confirmed the validation of RNA-Sequencing data by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Taken together, metabolite measurements supported by genes and pathway expression results indicated in this study provide new insights to understand the ABA signaling mechanism towards seed storage filling and also contribute useful information for facilitating oilseed crop functional genomics on an aim for utilizing

  8. Ricinosomes and endosperm transfer cell structure in programmed cell death of the nucellus during Ricinus seed development.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John S; Helm, Michael; Gietl, Christine

    2005-02-08

    The ricinosome (precursor protease vesicle) is an organelle found exclusively in plant cells. Ricinosomes contain a 45-kDa pro-cysteine endopeptidase (CysEP) with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. CysEP is a member of a unique group of papain-type cysteine peptidases found specifically in senescing and ricinosome-containing tissues. During seed development in the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.), the cells of the nucellus are killed as the major seed storage organ, the cellular endosperm, expands and begins to accumulate reserves. The destruction of the maternal seed tissues is a developmentally programmed cell death. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurs in the nucellar cells adjacent to the expanding endosperm. These cells exhibit ultrastructural features consistent with programmed cell death, including vesiculation of the cytosol, development of irregularly shaped nuclei, vacuolar collapse, and shrinkage of the cytoplasm. Ricinosomes containing the CysEP were identified in the nucellar cells by light and electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Both proCysEP and mature CysEP are present in protein extracts of the nucellar tissues during seed development. Upon collapse of the nucellar cells, the content of the ricinosomes is released into the cytoplasm, where the activated CysEP digests the remaining proteinaceous cellular debris. Digestion products of the nucellar cells are presumed taken up by the outermost cells of the endosperm, which have labyrinthine ingrowths of the outer walls typical of transfer cells.

  9. Histochemical specificity of beta-galactose binding lectins from Arachis hypogaea (peanut) and Ricinus communis (castor bean).

    PubMed

    Hennigar, L M; Hennigar, R A; Schulte, B A

    1987-09-01

    Previous histochemical studies have demonstrated disparities in the binding of two lectins with a nominal specificity for terminal beta-D-galactose. Biochemical studies have shown that the most complementary structure for binding peanut agglutinin (PNA) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, whereas the most complementary structure for binding Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. However, it is not known if only these differences in affinity account for the different histochemical staining reactions observed on tissue sections. In the present study we compared the staining patterns of PNA and RCA I by inhibiting in situ the binding of each lectin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with increasing concentrations of unlabeled PNA or RCA I. The PNA-HRP conjugate did not stain most tissue sites suspected of containing an abundance of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. Moreover, unlabeled PNA failed to significantly inhibit strong RCA I-HRP staining in these sites. In loci thought to contain variable amounts of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, unlabeled RCA I decreased PNA-HRP reactivity only slightly or not at all, whereas weak to strong RCA I-HRP staining was diminished or abolished by unlabeled PNA. The results suggest that PNA staining is restricted to glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc. RCA I apparently reacts most strongly with glycoconjugates having the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc, but also stains sites containing a moderate to abundant amount of glycoconjugates with the terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc sequence.

  10. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  11. Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the sand lizard Lacerta agilis and co-infection of these bacteria in hosted Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are important tick-borne bacteria maintained in nature by transmission between ticks and vertebrate hosts. However, the potential role of lizards as hosts has not been sufficiently studied. Results The current study showed that 23 of 171 examined sand lizards Lacerta agilis were PCR positive for Anaplasmataceae. The nucleotide sequences of the several selected PCR products showed 100% homology with Anaplasma spp. found in Ixodes ricinus collected in Tunisia and Morocco (AY672415 - AY672420). 1.2% of lizard collar scale samples were PCR positive for B. lusitaniae. In addition, 12 of 290 examined I. ricinus were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 82 were PCR positive for Anaplasmatacea. The number of ticks per lizard and the number of ticks PCR positive for both microorganisms per lizard were strongly correlated. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between numbers of ticks infected with Anaplasmataceae and with B. burgdorferi s.l. living on the same lizard. However, there was no significant correlation between detection of both bacteria in the same tick. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasmataceae DNA and additionally the second report of B. burgdorferi s.l DNA detection in the sand lizard. PMID:21933412

  12. Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, E; Tälleklint, L; Polfeldt, T

    2000-02-01

    We examined whether a reported northward expansion of the geographic distribution limit of the disease-transmitting tick Ixodes ricinus and an increased tick density between the early 1980s and mid-1990s in Sweden was related to climatic changes. The annual number of days with minimum temperatures above vital bioclimatic thresholds for the tick's life-cycle dynamics were related to tick density in both the early 1980s and the mid-1990s in 20 districts in central and northern Sweden. The winters were markedly milder in all of the study areas in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s. Our results indicate that the reported northern shift in the distribution limit of ticks is related to fewer days during the winter seasons with low minimum temperatures, i.e., below -12 degrees C. At high latitudes, low winter temperatures had the clearest impact on tick distribution. Further south, a combination of mild winters (fewer days with minimum temperatures below -7 degrees C) and extended spring and autumn seasons (more days with minimum temperatures from 5 to 8 degrees C) was related to increases in tick density. We conclude that the relatively mild climate of the 1990s in Sweden is probably one of the primary reasons for the observed increase of density and geographic range of I. ricinus ticks.

  13. Application of comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy in annotation, isolation and structure elucidation of low molecular weight metabolites of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivan; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Vaismaa, Matti; Vanninen, Paula; Koskela, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Powder-like extract of Ricinus communis seeds contain a toxic protein, ricin, which has a history of military, criminal and terroristic use. As the detection of ricin in this "terrorist powder" is difficult and time-consuming, related low mass metabolites have been suggested to be useful for screening as biomarkers of ricin. To apply a comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy for annotation, isolation and structure elucidation of low molecular weight plant metabolites of Ricinus communis seeds. The seed extract was prepared with a well-known acetone extraction approach. The common metabolites were annotated from seed extract dissolved in acidic solution using (1)H NMR spectroscopy with spectrum library comparison and standard addition, whereas unconfirmed metabolites were identified using multi-step off-line HPLC-DAD-NMR approach. In addition to the common plant metabolites, two previously unreported compounds, 1,3-digalactoinositol and ricinyl-alanine, were identified with support of MS analyses. The applied comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy provided identification of the prominent low molecular weight metabolites with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of microbial communities and symbionts in Ixodes ricinus and ungulate hosts (Cervus elaphus and Ovis aries) from shared habitats on the west coast of Norway.

    PubMed

    Granquist, Erik G; Kristiansson, Malin; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Matussek, Andreas; Nødtvedt, Ane; Okstad, Wenche; Stuen, Snorre

    2014-10-01

    Recent reports suggest a potential for transmission of a newly discovered rickettsial endosymbiont, Midichloria mitochondrii, to animals and humans from feeding ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Using molecular methods; I. ricinus, sheep and red deer in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-endemic areas of Norway, were examined to see if they were infected by M. mitochondrii or related organisms like Wolbachia pipientis and Rickettsia spp. A total of 532 ticks collected from pastures, 76 blood samples from grazing lambs and 12 organ samples from hunted deer, were analyzed during the study. All larval pools, 60.4% pooled nymphs and 35.1% of adult ticks were positive for M. mitochondrii. There was a significant difference between geographical areas in the prevalence of M. mitochondrii infection among nymphs. A total of 2.2% pooled nymphs and 5.3% adult ticks were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Eleven percent of pooled nymphs were positive for Borrelia spp, 2.2% of pooled nymphs and 3.5% of adult ticks were positive for Rickettsia spp. and none of the ticks were positive for W. pipientis. The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection was 54% and 75% in grazing lambs and deer, respectively. No animals were positive for Borrelia spp., M. mitochondrii, Rickettsia spp. or W. pipientis. The reported findings suggest that M. mitochondrii is widespread in tick populations at different geographical sites, and may appear in co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ticks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, E; Tälleklint, L; Polfeldt, T

    2000-01-01

    We examined whether a reported northward expansion of the geographic distribution limit of the disease-transmitting tick Ixodes ricinus and an increased tick density between the early 1980s and mid-1990s in Sweden was related to climatic changes. The annual number of days with minimum temperatures above vital bioclimatic thresholds for the tick's life-cycle dynamics were related to tick density in both the early 1980s and the mid-1990s in 20 districts in central and northern Sweden. The winters were markedly milder in all of the study areas in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s. Our results indicate that the reported northern shift in the distribution limit of ticks is related to fewer days during the winter seasons with low minimum temperatures, i.e., below -12 degrees C. At high latitudes, low winter temperatures had the clearest impact on tick distribution. Further south, a combination of mild winters (fewer days with minimum temperatures below -7 degrees C) and extended spring and autumn seasons (more days with minimum temperatures from 5 to 8 degrees C) was related to increases in tick density. We conclude that the relatively mild climate of the 1990s in Sweden is probably one of the primary reasons for the observed increase of density and geographic range of I. ricinus ticks. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10656851

  16. Observations on changes in abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus, castor bean tick, over a 35-year period in the eastern part of its range (Russia, Tula region).

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Yu; Kozlova, T; Kozlovskaya, L

    2015-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) L. transmit a wide variety of pathogens to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne infections requires basic knowledge of the regional and local factors influencing tick population dynamics. The present study describes the results of monitoring of a questing I. ricinus population, conducted over 35 years (1977-2011) in the eastern, poorly studied part of its range (Russia, Tula region). We have found that the multiannual average abundance of ticks is small and varies depending on the biotope and degree of urban transformation. Tick abundance for the first 14 years of observations (1977-1990) was at the lower limit of the sensitivity of our methods throughout the study area (0.1-0.9 specimens per 1-km transect). In the following 21 years (1991-2011), a manifold increase in abundance was observed, which reached 18.1 ± 1.8 individuals per 1-km transect in moist floodplain terraces, and 4.8 ± 0.9 in xerophylic hill woods. Long-term growth of tick abundance occurred in spite of a relatively constant abundance of small mammals and only minor fluctuations in the abundance of large wild animals. Climate and anthropogenic changes appear to be the main contributors to increased abundance of the tick. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. The paralogous salivary anti-complement proteins IRAC I and IRAC II encoded by Ixodes ricinus ticks have broad and complementary inhibitory activities against the complement of different host species.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hélène; Daix, Virginie; Gillet, Laurent; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2007-02-01

    Several observations suggest that inhibition of the host complement alternative pathway by Ixodes tick saliva is crucial to achieve blood feeding. We recently described two paralogous anti-complement proteins called Ixodes ricinus anti-complement (IRAC) proteins I and II co-expressed in I. ricinus salivary glands. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these sequences were diversifying by a process of positive Darwinian selection, possibly leading to molecules with different biological properties. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that each paralogue may have different inhibitory activities against the complement of different natural host species, thereby contributing to broaden the host range of I. ricinus ticks. IRAC I and IRAC II were tested against the complement of eight I. ricinus natural host species (six mammals and two birds). The results demonstrate that IRAC I and IRAC II have broad and complementary inhibition activities against the complement of different host species. This report is the first description of paralogous anti-complement molecules encoded by a pathogen with broad and complementary inhibitory activities against the complement of different host species.

  18. Local-scale spatio-temporal distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae)-A case study from a riparian urban forest in Wrocław, SW Poland.

    PubMed

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stefańska-Krzaczek, Ewa; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Szczepańska, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in suburban forest intensively visited by people. The local-scale observations conducted during a 4-year study at 99 plots (of 100m(2) each) located throughout the entire area of a riparian urban forest, showed a high variation in the density of ticks from year to year. Although I. ricinus is generally permanent in the study area, spatial distribution of sample plots harbouring I. ricinus is variable, i.e. mainly random for adults and larvae, and random or clustered for nymphs. Among the most common plant species in the herb layer, there were not any species which had a statistically significant and constant impact on the occurrence of any of the development stages of I. ricinus. Also relations between the density of tick development stages and vegetation variables, including cover of the herb layer, total species number, species number of the herb layer, and percentage coverage of particular species, as well as ecological indices for light, soil moisture, reaction, and nutrients, did not show any constant and predictable pattern in subsequent years of the study. Only tree and shrub layers were found as variables positively affecting the density of ticks. Although small, suburban forests can be considered as tick-borne risk areas, it is impossible to determine in details areas of tick-borne risk.

  19. Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Fedor; Takken, Willem; Plas, Carin Lombaers-van der; Kastelein, Pieter; Hoetmer, Arno J; Holdinga, Maarten; van Overbeek, Leonard S

    2013-09-01

    Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ticks feeding on these rodents, all sampled within the same short time span of five days in three different areas in The Netherlands, were compared in order to establish the relationship between ticks, reservoir hosts, and B. burgdorferi s.l. Questing nymphs were found in all 3 areas and numbers differed per area and even per site within areas. Infection prevalence in questing nymphs ranged between 0 and 20%. Apodemus sylvaticus and Myodes glareolus were the dominant rodents captured, and their numbers differed per area. Infection prevalence, determined by ear biopsies, ranged between 0 and 33.3% for both rodent species. Larvae were most frequently found feeding on these rodents, and their Borrelia infection prevalence ranged between 0 and 6.3% (A. sylvaticus) and between 0 and 29.4% (M. glareolus). The burden of nymphs feeding on rodents was low and varied per area with only 2 of 42 nymphs infected. Comparisons made on the basis of infection prevalence indicated that there was no clear relationship between rodents and questing nymphs when sampled within the same short time span. However, a possible relationship was present when questing ticks were sampled over longer periods in time (months) within or near the same areas (range of infection prevalence between 3.7 and 39.4). Confounding factors thus play a role in the interaction between rodents, ticks, and B. burgdorferi s.l., and it is very likely that other reservoir host species are responsible for the observed fluctuations. It is concluded that the local variations in rodent-Borrelia-tick interactions only partially explain the Lyme borreliosis risk in the sites studied and that other ecological determinants, notably

  20. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  1. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A) with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He) with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly useful for both genetic

  2. Ricinoleic acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly in microsomal preparations from developing castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Bafor, M; Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stobart, K; Stymne, S

    1991-01-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) catalysed the transfer of oleate from [14C]oleoyl-CoA to phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). In the presence of NADH, radioactive ricinoleate (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoate) was synthesized from [14C]oleate, and this was largely recovered in PtdCho and as free fatty acid. The addition of unlabelled ricinoleoyl-CoA to these incubation mixtures did not increase the low [14C]ricinoleate concentration found in the acyl-CoA fraction nor decrease the [14C]ricinoleate concentration in PtdCho and free fatty acid, and thus no evidence was obtained for a hydroxylation with oleoyl-CoA as a substrate. The addition of NADH, necessary for the formation of ricinoleate, caused a decrease of the total radioactivity in PtdCho with a corresponding increase in the amount of label in free ricinoleic acid. This increase was due to the action of a phospholipase A, which released ricinoleic acid but not oleic acid from PtdCho. Such a phospholipase activity, attacking ricinoleoyl-PtdCho but not oleoyl-PtdCho, was also demonstrated in microsomal preparations from developing cotyledons of safflower and oil-seed rape. An analysis of the acyl groups at different positions in microsomal PtdCho of castor bean showed that ricinoleate was almost entirely associated with position sn-2. Likewise the [14C]ricinoleate in [14C]PtdCho formed after incubations with microsomal preparations with NADH and [14C]oleoyl-CoA resided in position sn-2 with none in position sn-1. In contrast, the [14C]linoleate formed by desaturation of [14C]oleoyl-PtdCho was present at both positions. In the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg2+, the ricinoleate acid released from PtdCho was activated to ricinoleoyl-CoA. The ricinoleoyl-CoA was an efficient acyl donor in the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) to yield phosphatidic acid and triacylglycerols. In microsomal preparations incubated with an equimolar mixture of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and

  3. Ricinoleic acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly in microsomal preparations from developing castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm.

    PubMed

    Bafor, M; Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stobart, K; Stymne, S

    1991-12-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) catalysed the transfer of oleate from [14C]oleoyl-CoA to phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). In the presence of NADH, radioactive ricinoleate (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoate) was synthesized from [14C]oleate, and this was largely recovered in PtdCho and as free fatty acid. The addition of unlabelled ricinoleoyl-CoA to these incubation mixtures did not increase the low [14C]ricinoleate concentration found in the acyl-CoA fraction nor decrease the [14C]ricinoleate concentration in PtdCho and free fatty acid, and thus no evidence was obtained for a hydroxylation with oleoyl-CoA as a substrate. The addition of NADH, necessary for the formation of ricinoleate, caused a decrease of the total radioactivity in PtdCho with a corresponding increase in the amount of label in free ricinoleic acid. This increase was due to the action of a phospholipase A, which released ricinoleic acid but not oleic acid from PtdCho. Such a phospholipase activity, attacking ricinoleoyl-PtdCho but not oleoyl-PtdCho, was also demonstrated in microsomal preparations from developing cotyledons of safflower and oil-seed rape. An analysis of the acyl groups at different positions in microsomal PtdCho of castor bean showed that ricinoleate was almost entirely associated with position sn-2. Likewise the [14C]ricinoleate in [14C]PtdCho formed after incubations with microsomal preparations with NADH and [14C]oleoyl-CoA resided in position sn-2 with none in position sn-1. In contrast, the [14C]linoleate formed by desaturation of [14C]oleoyl-PtdCho was present at both positions. In the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg2+, the ricinoleate acid released from PtdCho was activated to ricinoleoyl-CoA. The ricinoleoyl-CoA was an efficient acyl donor in the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) to yield phosphatidic acid and triacylglycerols. In microsomal preparations incubated with an equimolar mixture of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2015-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2016-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  6. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and rural environment, northern Poland, by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Joanna; Cieniuch, Stella; Lass, Anna; Biernat, Beata; Racewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. are emerging tick-borne pathogens which can threaten human health. A duplex real-time PCR and qPCRs with primers and probes targeting 97 and 116 bp fragments of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for qualitative and quantitative detection of both pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Altogether 1875 ticks (1084 adults and 791 nymphs) were collected from rural and urban habitats in northern Poland. Of them, at least 0.9% were found to be infected with A. phagocytophilum while 2.5% with Babesia spp. A comparison of the infection rates by the tick stage, the type of area, the collection site, habitats of different tick density and by the month of collection was done. The prevalence of pathogens was significantly lower in nymphs than in adult ticks (p = 0.02) and in rural areas than in urban areas (p = 0.007). Four different 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum were determine, however none of them showed 100% identity with compared sequences isolated from human patients. The dominant Babesia species was B. venatorum. Results of qPCRs with circular and linearized forms of plasmids used as the standards showed significant difference in the pathogen loads (p = 0.001). The copy numbers of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. estimated from the linear plasmids were 28.7 and 5.1 times lower, respectively, when compared with their circular forms, and were accepted as more reliable. The average number of copies of 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum in the positive I. ricinus samples were 3.39 × 10(5) ± 6.09 × 10(5). The mean copy number of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. was ~2.55 × 10(5) ± 1.04 × 10(6). We confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in I. ricinus in both rural and urban environments. The determined low infection rates suggests, however, that the risk for local population and tourists to acquire infection is also low. Moreover, we confirmed recent findings that serious

  7. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Danielová, V; Fialová, A; Kříž, B; Malý, M

    Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens. The work program included the identification of existing spectrum of spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and the conditions of their occurrence and distribution. In the areas of the Ústí nad Labem Region, Olomouc Region, South Bohemian Region, and Highlands Region, 600 m2 plots were selected in the local optimal I. ricinus habitats where tick flagging was performed every year in the spring-summer and autumn seasons of the tick questing activity. Collected adult ticks (1369 males and 1404 females) were individually screened for B. burgdorferi s. l. spirochets. Spirochetes from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex were detected in all 13 studies sites in all altitudes from 280 to 1030 meters a. s. l. The total rate of infection was determined as 11.4% (males 10.4%, females 12.4%) with range limits from 1.4% (Ústí nad Labem in 2011) to 19.7% (South Bohemian Region, 2012).Genospecies were detected in various proportions and in different combinations: Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s. s., B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. valaisiana, B. spielmanii and B. lusitaniae. The three-year observation justifies the assumption that the regional differences in infectivity of I. ricinus are based on the character of the local biocenosis of the respective region. The dynamics of its seasonal changes, conditioned by climatic factors, determines the annual differences. Three of the medically most important Borrelia species formed a core group among all detected genospecies

  8. Evidence for cytochrome b5 as an electron donor in ricinoleic acid biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stymne, S; Stobart, K

    1992-01-01

    The major b-type cytochrome in microsomal membrane preparations from developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) was cytochrome b5. Cytochrome P-450 was also present. The microsomal membranes had delta 12-hydroxylase activity and catalysed the NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylation of oleate to yield ricinoleic acid. CO had no effect on the hydroxylase activity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the hydrophilic cytochrome b5 fragment purified from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) floret microsomes. The anti-(cytochrome b5) IgG inhibited delta 12-hydroxylase, delta 12-desaturase and cytochrome c reductase activity in the microsomes. The results indicate that electrons from NAD(P)H were transferred to the site of hydroxylation via cytochrome b5 and that cytochrome P-450 was not involved. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1417766

  9. Influence of microclimate on the life cycle of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) in an open area in comparison with forest habitats.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Cerný, V; Dusbábek, F; Honzáková, E; Olejnícek, J

    1977-01-01

    Under conditions of the South-Moravian region of Pannonian climate (Valtice near Breclav), the life cycle of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) was studied and a continous recording of main elements of microclimate (temperature and humidity) was carried out in an open grassy area. Simultaneously the process of hibernation was studied in four soil layers (surface, depths of 10, 20 and 30 cm). Observations were assessed by mathematiccal-statistical tests and compared with the results obtained by the same methods in the forest biotope (tipe of thermophilic oak forest)and in the ecotone of forest margin (Daniel et al. 1976). The ticks are able to complete the developmental cycle also in the open grassy areas, where during the vegetation period the development proceeds more quickly than in the forest but with considerably higher losses. In the discussion the conclusions are compared with literary data from other parts of Czechoslovakia.

  10. Interaction of Lens culinaris lectin, concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin with the cell surface of normal and transformed rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Neupert, G; Thoss, K

    1975-01-01

    The observation of BOREK et al. (1973) on nonagglutinability of transformed rat liver cells by Lens culinaris lectin and our ultrastructural findings of a greater mobility of the Lens culinaris lectin receptors on transformed rat liver cells as compared to normal rat liver cells (ROTH 1975) initiated the present agglutination experiments on liver cells with lectins. For agglutination assay the microhemadsorption technique after FURMANSKI et al. (1973) was used with exception of several tests on EDTA-detached cells. The transformed rat liver cells exhibited, in contrast to the findings of BOREK et al. (1973), a positive microhemadsorption with Lens culinaris lectin as well as with Concanavalin A, Ricinus communis lectin and wheat germ agglutinin whereas the normal rat liver cells became positive only after a brief trypsin treatment. The significance of the difference in agglutinability of rat liver cells with Lens culinaris lectin and the other lectins used is discussed with regard to the cell-cell interaction mediated by lectins.

  11. Transport of ricin and 2S albumin precursors to the storage vacuoles of Ricinus communis endosperm involves the Golgi and VSR-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, Nicholas A; Brown, Joanna C; Neumann, Ulla; Vicré, Maïte; Bachi, Angela; Hawes, Chris; Ceriotti, Aldo; Roberts, Lynne M; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2004-09-01

    We have studied the transport of proricin and pro2S albumin to the protein storage vacuoles of developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm. Immunoelectron microscopy and cell fractionation reveal that both proteins travel through the Golgi apparatus and co-localize throughout their route to the storage vacuole. En route to the PSV, the proteins co-localize in large (>200 nm) vesicles, which are likely to represent developing storage vacuoles. We further show that the sequence-specific vacuolar sorting signals of both proricin and pro2SA bind in vitro to proteins that have high sequence similarity to members of the VSR/AtELP/BP-80 vacuolar sorting receptor family, generally associated with clathrin-mediated traffic to the lytic vacuole. The implications of these findings in relation to the current model for protein sorting to storage vacuoles are discussed.

  12. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic)--Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hönig, V; Svec, P; Halas, P; Vavruskova, Z; Tykalova, H; Kilian, P; Vetiskova, V; Dornakova, V; Sterbova, J; Simonova, Z; Erhart, J; Sterba, J; Golovchenko, M; Rudenko, N; Grubhoffer, L

    2015-07-01

    Spatial distribution of Ixodes ricinus tick host-seeking activity, as well as prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were studied in the TBE endemic area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic). High variability in tick abundance detected in a network of 30 study sites was most closely associated with characteristics of vegetation cover. Of 11,182 tested tick samples, 12% carried DNA of spirochete from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. B. afzelii and B. garinii prevailed among spirochete species. The presence of B. spielmanii in the region was confirmed. The median number of borrelial genome copies in positive samples reached 6.6 × 10(3) by real-time PCR. The total prevalence of TBEV in pooled samples reached 0.32% (20,057 samples tested), at least one TBEV positive tick was present in 21 out of 30 sampling sites.

  13. Sucrose carrier RcSCR1 is involved in sucrose retrieval, but not in sucrose unloading in growing hypocotyls of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, D A; Weig, A R

    2005-01-01

    The transport of assimilates from source to sink tissues is mediated by the phloem. Along the vascular system the phloem changes its physiological function from loading phloem to transport and unloading phloem. Sucrose carrier proteins have been identified in the transport phloem, but it is unclear whether the physiological role of these transporters is phloem unloading of sucrose or retrieval of apoplasmic sucrose back into the sieve element/companion cell complex. Here, we describe the dynamic expression of the Ricinus communis sucrose carrier RcSCR1 in the hypocotyl at different sink strengths. Our results indicate that phloem unloading in castor bean is not catalysed by the phloem loader RcSCR1. However, this sucrose carrier represents the molecular basis of the sucrose retrieval mechanism along the transport phloem, which is dynamically adjusted to the sink strength. As a consequence, we assume that other release carrier(s) exist in sink tissues, such as the hypocotyl, in R. communis.

  14. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  15. Comparative efficacy of a new spot-on combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner (Stronghold®Plus) versus fluralaner (Bravecto®) against induced infestations with Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Borowski, Stasia; Wozniakiewicz, Magda; King, Vickie; Fourie, Josephus; Liebenberg, Julian

    2017-06-29

    Ticks are increasingly reported on cats worldwide, with Ixodes ricinus being a relevant species across Europe and in near by areas of North Africa and the Middle East. Yet there are few acaracidal products with proven efficacy approved for use in cats. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new spot-on formulation containing selamectin and sarolaner with a topical application of fluralaner (Bravecto®) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats. To that end, twenty-four (24) cats were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups. The cats in the control group remained untreated. Cats in group 2 were treated with selamectin/sarolaner (Stronghold®Plus; Zoetis) at the minimum recommended dose of 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner and 6.0 mg/kg selamectin on Days 0, 30 and 60. The cats in group 3 received a fluralaner treatment (Bravecto®spot-on solution for cats, MSD) at the minimum recommended dose of 40.0 mg/kg on Day 0. Cats were infested with 50 (± 4) viable, adult, unfed I. ricinus ticks on Days 26, 54, 82 and 89 and ticks were removed for counting 48 h (± 2 h) later. Three monthly treatments with selamectin/sarolaner provided high and consistent efficacy against I. ricinus for the entire duration of the study period. In contrast, the efficacy of fluralaner declined in the second month after treatment and was below the efficacy threshold of 90% on Days 56, 84 and 91. The percentage efficacy against I. ricinus was numerically higher in the selemectin/sarolaner treated group than in the fluralaner-treated group on Days 56, 84 and 91. Furthermore, greasiness and spiking of the hair, as well as white deposits were frequently observed in the fluralaner-treated cats. The results of the present study confirm the high and consistent efficacy of a new spot-on combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner against I. ricinus in cats, and indicate a decline in fluralaner efficacy during the 91 day period after treatment.

  16. A Systems Level Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic and Proteomic Complexity in Ixodes Ricinus Midgut and Salivary Glands During Early Attachment and Feeding*

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Tenzer, Stefan; Hackenberg, Michael; Erhart, Jan; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mazur, Johanna; Kuharev, Jörg; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Although pathogens are usually transmitted within the first 24–48 h of attachment of the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, little is known about the tick's biological responses at these earliest phases of attachment. Tick midgut and salivary glands are the main tissues involved in tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission but the limited genomic information for I. ricinus delays the application of high-throughput methods to study their physiology. We took advantage of the latest advances in the fields of Next Generation RNA-Sequencing and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics to deliver an unprecedented, quantitative description of the gene expression dynamics in the midgut and salivary glands of this disease vector upon attachment to the vertebrate host. A total of 373 of 1510 identified proteins had higher expression in the salivary glands, but only 110 had correspondingly high transcript levels in the same tissue. Furthermore, there was midgut-specific expression of 217 genes at both the transcriptome and proteome level. Tissue-dependent transcript, but not protein, accumulation was revealed for 552 of 885 genes. Moreover, we discovered the enrichment of tick salivary glands in proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, which agrees with the secretory role of this tissue; this finding also agrees with our finding of lower tick t-RNA representation in the salivary glands when compared with the midgut. The midgut, in turn, is enriched in metabolic components and proteins that support its mechanical integrity in order to accommodate and metabolize the ingested blood. Beyond understanding the physiological events that support hematophagy by arthropod ectoparasites, we discovered more than 1500 proteins located at the interface between ticks, the vertebrate host, and the tick-borne pathogens. Thus, our work significantly improves the knowledge of the genetics underlying the transmission lifecycle of this tick species, which is an essential step for

  17. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  18. Evaluation of the in vitro expression of ATP binding-cassette (ABC) proteins in an Ixodes ricinus cell line exposed to ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Carlo; Vismarra, Alice; Kramer, Laura; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Porretta, Daniele; Otranto, Domenico; Epis, Sara; Grandi, Giulio

    2016-04-18

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens causing human and animal disease. Acaricides are used to control tick infestation, although there are increasing reports of resistance. Recently, over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (P-glycoproteins, PgP) has been implicated in resistance to the acaricide ivermectin in the ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ixodid tick cell lines have been used to investigate drug resistance mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of several PgPs in the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19 and to determine modulation of expression following treatment with ivermectin. IRE/CTVM19 cells were treated with different concentrations of ivermectin (0, 11, 22 or 33 μM) and incubated for 10 days. Evaluation of viability and relative expression of ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCB8 and ABCB10 genes were carried out at day 10 post treatment. Cell viability ranged between 84% and 92% with no significant differences between untreated and treated cells. qRT-PCR showed that ABC pump expression was not significantly modulated by ivermectin treatment. Expression of the ABCB8 PgP subfamily revealed a biphasic trend, based on the ivermectin concentration. ABCB6 and ABCB10 gene expression was not modulated by ivermectin treatment and ABCB1 expression was not detected. This is the first report of PgP expression in an I. ricinus-derived tick cell line. Development of an in vitro model for the study of acaricide resistance mechanisms would greatly facilitate screening for drug resistance in ticks.

  19. The High Prevalence and Diversity of Chlamydiales DNA within Ixodes ricinus Ticks Suggest a Role for Ticks as Reservoirs and Vectors of Chlamydia-Related Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pilloux, Ludovic; Aeby, Sébastien; Gaümann, Rahel; Burri, Caroline; Beuret, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Chlamydiales order is composed of nine families of strictly intracellular bacteria. Among them, Chlamydia trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci are established human pathogens, whereas Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae have emerged as new pathogens in humans. However, despite their medical importance, their biodiversity and ecology remain to be studied. Even if arthropods and, particularly, ticks are well known to be vectors of numerous infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria, virtually nothing is known about ticks and chlamydia. This study investigated the prevalence of Chlamydiae in ticks. Specifically, 62,889 Ixodes ricinus ticks, consolidated into 8,534 pools, were sampled in 172 collection sites throughout Switzerland and were investigated using pan-Chlamydiales quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of Chlamydiales DNA. Among the pools, 543 (6.4%) gave positive results and the estimated prevalence in individual ticks was 0.89%. Among those pools with positive results, we obtained 16S rRNA sequences for 359 samples, allowing classification of Chlamydiales DNA at the family level. A high level of biodiversity was observed, since six of the nine families belonging to the Chlamydiales order were detected. Those most common were Parachlamydiaceae (33.1%) and Rhabdochlamydiaceae (29.2%). “Unclassified Chlamydiales” (31.8%) were also often detected. Thanks to the huge amount of Chlamydiales DNA recovered from ticks, this report opens up new perspectives on further work focusing on whole-genome sequencing to increase our knowledge about Chlamydiales biodiversity. This report of an epidemiological study also demonstrates the presence of Chlamydia-related bacteria within Ixodes ricinus ticks and suggests a role for ticks in the transmission of and as a reservoir for these emerging pathogenic Chlamydia-related bacteria. PMID:26386066

  20. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  1. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The castor plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, providing a useful source of medicine, lamp fuel and lubricant long before petroleum came into wide use. The oil content of castor seed ranges from 45 to 60%, with most cultivars closer to 50% oil content. The presence of the hydroxy fatty...

  2. From Black Power to Hip-Hop: Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    While history for most conjures up images of places and experiences far removed, for Dr. Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar, the field provides a "wonderful medium" to illuminate contemporary issues as well. Much of Ogbar's current research centers on events occurring in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the civil rights and Black power…

  3. Coleman works at the AR OGS Rack in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-08

    ISS026-E-025143 (8 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, works at the Atmosphere Revitalization / Oxygen Generation System (AR OGS) rack in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Coleman collected recirculation loop samples for subsequent analysis for pH value.

  4. Coleman works at the AR OGS Rack in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-08

    ISS026-E-025142 (8 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, works at the Atmosphere Revitalization / Oxygen Generation System (AR OGS) rack in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Coleman collected recirculation loop samples for subsequent analysis for pH value.

  5. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  6. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  7. SNP-based real-time pyrosequencing as a sensitive and specific tool for identification and differentiation of Rickettsia species in Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rickettsioses are caused by pathogenic species of the genus Rickettsia and play an important role as emerging diseases. The bacteria are transmitted to mammal hosts including humans by arthropod vectors. Since detection, especially in tick vectors, is usually based on PCR with genus-specific primers to include different occurring Rickettsia species, subsequent species identification is mainly achieved by Sanger sequencing. In the present study a real-time pyrosequencing approach was established with the objective to differentiate between species occurring in German Ixodes ticks, which are R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. massiliae, and R. felis. Tick material from a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based study on Rickettsia-infections in I. ricinus allowed direct comparison of both sequencing techniques, Sanger and real-time pyrosequencing. Methods A sequence stretch of rickettsial citrate synthase (gltA) gene was identified to contain divergent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites suitable for Rickettsia species differentiation. Positive control plasmids inserting the respective target sequence of each Rickettsia species of interest were constructed for initial establishment of the real-time pyrosequencing approach using Qiagen’s PSQ 96MA Pyrosequencing System operating in a 96-well format. The approach included an initial amplification reaction followed by the actual pyrosequencing, which is traceable by pyrograms in real-time. Afterwards, real-time pyrosequencing was applied to 263 Ixodes tick samples already detected Rickettsia-positive in previous qPCR experiments. Results Establishment of real-time pyrosequencing using positive control plasmids resulted in accurate detection of all SNPs in all included Rickettsia species. The method was then applied to 263 Rickettsia-positive Ixodes ricinus samples, of which 153 (58.2%) could be identified for their species (151 R. helvetica and 2 R. monacensis) by previous custom Sanger sequencing. Real

  8. Vertical distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens in the northern Moravian mountains correlated with climate warming (Jeseníky Mts., Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Milan; Materna, Jan; Honig, Václav; Metelka, Ladislav; Danielová, Vlasta; Harcarik, Josef; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-09-01

    A study of the vertical distribution of the common tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens--tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.--was performed in the highest part of the Jeseniky mountain area (the Hrubý Jesenik Mts. with the highest summit Praded, 1,491 m above see level). Altogether 1,253 specimens of all tick stages (607 larvae, 614 nymphs, 8 females and 24 males) were collected at the altitude 990-1,300 m above sea level on 12 collection sites by the flagging method. Altogether 1,207 ticks (8 females, 24 males, 568 nymphs and 607 larvae) were examined for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus and B. burgdorferi s.l. None of the samples contained TBEV, 35 samples (6% of adult ticks, 5% of nymphs, 0.7% of larvae) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. The most prevalent genospecies were B. afzelii (44%), B. garinii (28%), less frequent were B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5%), B. valaisiana (3%). The rather large number of ticks (in absolute numbers as well as recounted to the index: average number of nymphs/worker/collection hour) and the presence of all developmental stages clearly demonstrate that there are viable local tick populations in all the sites, and that recorded ticks were not randomly individuals brought into higher altitudes by birds or game animals. The results are compared with the long-term (2002-2007) monitoring of the tick altitudinal distribution in the Krkonose Mts. and the conditions, which allow ticks to establish local populations up to the timberline in both mountain areas, are discussed. Simultaneously, changes in climatic conditions (especially the air temperature) monitored at 3 meteorological stations in the area of the Jeseníky Mts. were compared with the records from another 8 stations in other mountain areas in the Czech Republic. A very similar statistically significant trend of increasing mean air temperatures during the last three decades is found at all analyzed

  9. Molybdenum (Mo) increases endogenous phenolics, proline and photosynthetic pigments and the phytoremediation potential of the industrially important plant Ricinus communis L. for removal of cadmium from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir; Fuller, Michael Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soil negatively affects crops yield and compromises food safety. Remediation of polluted soil is necessary for the re-establishment of sustainable agriculture and to prevent hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for decontamination of polluted soil. The present study investigated the effect of molybdenum (Mo) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on endogenous production of total phenolics and free proline, plant biomass and photosynthetic pigments in Ricinus communis plants grown in Cd (25, 50 and 100 ppm) contaminated soils and the potential for Cd phytoextraction. Mo was applied via seed soaking, soil addition and foliar spray. Foliar sprays significantly increased plant biomass, Cd accumulation and bioconcentration. Phenolic concentrations showed significantly positive correlations with Cd accumulation in roots (R (2) = 0.793, 0.807 and 0.739) and leaves (R (2) = 0.707, 721 and 0.866). Similarly, proline was significantly positively correlated with Cd accumulation in roots (R (2) = 0.668, 0.694 and 0.673) and leaves (R (2) = 0.831, 0.964 and 0.930). Foliar application was found to be the most effective way to deliver Mo in terms of increase in plant growth, Cd accumulation and production of phenolics and proline.

  10. Vectorisation of agrochemicals via amino acid carriers: influence of the spacer arm structure on the phloem mobility of phenylpyrrole conjugates in the Ricinus system.

    PubMed

    Marhadour, Sophie; Wu, Hanxiang; Yang, Wen; Marivingt-Mounir, Cécile; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Chollet, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    Excessive agrochemical use poses significant threats to environmental safety and human health. Reducing pesticide use without reducing yield is necessary for sustainable agriculture. Therefore, we developed a vectorisation strategy to enhance agrochemical delivery through plant amino acid carriers. In addition to a fenpiclonil conjugate recently described, three new amino acid conjugates were synthesised by coupling fenpiclonil to an l-α-amino acid. Phloem mobility of these conjugates, which exhibit different structures of the spacer arm introduced between fenpiclonil and the α-amino acid function, was studied using the Ricinus model. Conjugate L-14, which contains a triazole ring with the shortest amino acid chain, showed the best phloem systemicity among the four conjugates. By contrast, removing the triazole ring in the spacer arm did not improve systemicity. L-14 exhibited phloem systemicity at all reported pH values (pH values from 5.0 to 6.5) of the foliar apoplast, while acidic derivatives of fenpiclonil were translocated only at pH values near 5.0. The conjugates were recognised by a pH-dependent transporter system and translocated at distance in the phloem. They exhibited a broader phloem systemicity than fenpiclonil acidic derivatives within the pH value range of the foliar apoplast. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Tick receptor for outer surface protein A from Ixodes ricinus — the first intrinsically disordered protein involved in vector-microbe recognition

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Szpotkowski, Kamil; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The tick receptor for outer surface protein A (TROSPA) is the only identified factor involved in tick gut colonization by various Borrelia species. TROSPA is localized in the gut epithelium and can recognize and bind the outer surface bacterial protein OspA via an unknown mechanism. Based on earlier reports and our latest observations, we considered that TROSPA would be the first identified intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in the interaction between a vector and a pathogenic microbe. To verify this hypothesis, we performed structural studies of a TROSPA mutant from Ixodes ricinus using both computational and experimental approaches. Irrespective of the method used, we observed that the secondary structure content of the TROSPA polypeptide chain is low. In addition, the collected SAXS data indicated that this protein is highly extended and exists in solution as a set of numerous conformers. These features are all commonly considered hallmarks of IDPs. Taking advantage of our SAXS data, we created structural models of TROSPA and proposed a putative mechanism for the TROSPA-OspA interaction. The disordered nature of TROSPA may explain the ability of a wide spectrum of Borrelia species to colonize the tick gut. PMID:27112540

  12. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity.

  13. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  14. Aza-peptidyl Michael acceptor and epoxide inhibitors--potent and selective inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni and Ixodes ricinus legumains (asparaginyl endopeptidases).

    PubMed

    Ovat, Asli; Muindi, Fanuel; Fagan, Crystal; Brouner, Michelle; Hansell, Elizabeth; Dvorák, Jan; Sojka, Daniel; Kopácek, Petr; McKerrow, James H; Caffrey, Conor R; Powers, James C

    2009-11-26

    Aza-peptide Michael acceptors and epoxides with the general structure of YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-trans-CH horizontal lineCHCOR and YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-EP-COR, respectively, are shown to be potent inhibitors of asparaginyl endopeptidases (legumains) from the bloodfluke, Schistosoma mansoni (SmAE), and the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus (IrAE). Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were determined for a set of 41 aza-peptide Michael acceptors and eight aza-peptide epoxides. Both enzymes prefer disubstituted amides to monosubstituted amides in the P1' position, and potency increased as we increased the hydrophobicity of the inhibitor in this position. Extending the inhibitor to P5 resulted in increased potency, especially against IrAE, and both enzymes prefer small over large hydrophobic residues at P2. Aza-peptide Michael acceptor inhibitors are more potent than aza-peptide epoxide inhibitors, and for some of these compounds, second-order inhibiton rate constants are the fastest yet discovered. Given the central functions of these enzymes in both parasites, the data presented here may facilitate the eventual design of selective antiparasitic drugs.

  15. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  16. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  18. Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis and Bougainvillea glabra on the development of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaldas, Rania M; El Shafey, Azza S; Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Plants are promising sources of agents useful for the control of vectors of human diseases including leishmaniasis. The effect of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), on transmission of leishmaniasis was investigated using them as diets for Phlebotomus papatasi to monitor their effect on life-history traits. P. papatasi were allowed to feed separately on both plants then offered a blood-meal. Fed-females were observed daily for egg-laying and subsequent developmental stages. P. papatasi was able to feed on B. glabra (29.41% females and 46.30% males) and R. communis (5.80% females and 10.43% males). 34.28% of females died within 24-48 hours post-feeding on R. communis, whereas, it was 16.5% in females fed on B. glabra. Overall fecundity of surviving females was reduced compared to controls, reared on standard laboratory diet; however there was no effect on the sex ratio of progeny. Female P. papatasi in the control group had significantly longer life span compared to plant-fed group. Feeding on these plants not only decreased sand fly survival rates but incurred negative effects on fecundity. Findings indicate that planting high densities of R. communis and B. glabra in sand flies-endemic areas will reduce population sizes and reduce the risk of Leishmania major infections.

  19. The multigene family of lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAT)-related enzymes in Ricinus communis: cloning and molecular characterization of two LPAT genes that are expressed in castor seeds.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Chileh, Tarik; Kazachkov, Michael; Zou, Jitao; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The multigene family encoding proteins related to lysophosphatidyl-acyltransferases (LPATs) has been analyzed in the castor plant Ricinus communis. Among them, two genes designated RcLPAT2 and RcLPATB, encoding proteins with LPAT activity and expressed in the developing seed, have been cloned and characterized in some detail. RcLPAT2 groups with well characterized members of the so-called A-class LPATs and it shows a generalized expression pattern in the plant and along seed development. Enzymatic assays of RcLPAT2 indicate a preference for ricinoleoyl-CoA over other fatty acid thioesters when ricinoleoyl-LPA is used as the acyl acceptor, while oleoyl-CoA is the preferred substrate when oleoyl-LPA is employed. RcLPATB groups with B-class LPAT enzymes described as seed specific and selective for unusual fatty acids. However, RcLPATB exhibit a broad specificity on the acyl-CoAs, with saturated fatty acids (12:0-16:0) being the preferred substrates. RcLPATB is upregulated coinciding with seed triacylglycerol accumulation, but its expression is not restricted to the seed. These results are discussed in the light of a possible role for LPAT isoenzymes in the channelling of ricinoleic acid into castor bean triacylglycerol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  1. A comparison of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and insecticidal properties of Jatropha species and wild Ricinus communis L. found in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Rampadarath, Sillma; Puchooa, Daneshwar; Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, Vijayanti Mala

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the phytochemical, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties of different Jatropha species and Ricinus communis (castor) (R. communis) growing in Mauritius. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants solvent extracts. The antimicrobial sensitivity (disc diffusion method) and Antibacterial activity (MIC-microdilution method) of 13 microorganisms were studied. The insecticidal properties of the crude solvent extracts against larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae), which cause important economic losses to local fruits were also demonstrated. Ethyl acetate was proved to be a good solvent for extraction. Jatropha multifida showed very interesting activity against Bacillus algicola and Staphylococcus epidermis. Both R. communis and Jatropha multifida were proved to be very effective as biopesticide against different types of insect larvae. This study was able to demonstrate that Jatropha species as well as R. communis growing in Mauritius possess antimicrobial, phytochemical and insecticidal properties. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Components of complex lipid biosynthetic pathways in developing castor (Ricinus communis) seeds identified by MudPIT analysis of enriched endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian P; Kroon, Johan T M; Topping, Jennifer F; Robson, Joanne L; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2011-08-05

    Ricinoleic acid is a feedstock for nylon-11 (N11) synthesis which is currently obtained from castor (Ricinus communis) oil. Production of this fatty acid in a temperate oilseed crop is of great commercial interest, but the highest reported level in transgenic plant oils is 30%, below the 90% observed in castor and insufficient for commercial exploitation. To identify castor oil-biosynthetic enzymes and inform strategies to improve ricinoleic acid yields, we performed MudPIT analysis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) purified from developing castor bean endosperm. Candidate enzymes for all steps of triacylglycerol synthesis were identified among 72 proteins in the data set related to complex-lipid metabolism. Previous reported proteomic data from oilseeds had not included any membrane-bound enzyme that might incorporate ricinoleic acid into oil. Analysis of enriched ER enabled determination of which protein isoforms for these enzymes were in developing castor seed. To complement this data, quantitative RT-PCR experiments with castor seed and leaf RNA were performed for orthologues of Arabidopsis oil-synthetic enzymes, determining which were highly expressed in the seed. These data provide important information for further manipulation of ricinoleic acid content in oilseeds and peptide data for future quantification strategies.

  3. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory.

  4. Tick receptor for outer surface protein A from Ixodes ricinus — the first intrinsically disordered protein involved in vector-microbe recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Szpotkowski, Kamil; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The tick receptor for outer surface protein A (TROSPA) is the only identified factor involved in tick gut colonization by various Borrelia species. TROSPA is localized in the gut epithelium and can recognize and bind the outer surface bacterial protein OspA via an unknown mechanism. Based on earlier reports and our latest observations, we considered that TROSPA would be the first identified intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in the interaction between a vector and a pathogenic microbe. To verify this hypothesis, we performed structural studies of a TROSPA mutant from Ixodes ricinus using both computational and experimental approaches. Irrespective of the method used, we observed that the secondary structure content of the TROSPA polypeptide chain is low. In addition, the collected SAXS data indicated that this protein is highly extended and exists in solution as a set of numerous conformers. These features are all commonly considered hallmarks of IDPs. Taking advantage of our SAXS data, we created structural models of TROSPA and proposed a putative mechanism for the TROSPA-OspA interaction. The disordered nature of TROSPA may explain the ability of a wide spectrum of Borrelia species to colonize the tick gut.

  5. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediated requirements for successful seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Willems, Leo A J; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Fernandez, Luzimar G; de Castro, Renato D; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35 °C than at lower temperatures, but with compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperatures at later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our objective was to assess the biochemical and molecular requirements of R. communis germination for successful seedling establishment at varying temperatures. For that, we performed metabolite profiling (GC-TOF-MS) and measured transcript levels of key genes involved in several energy-generating pathways, such as storage oil mobilization, β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis of seeds germinated at three different temperatures. We identified a thermo-sensitive window during seed germination in which high temperatures compromise seedling development, most likely by down-regulating some energy-generating pathways. Overexpression of malate synthase (MLS) and glycerol kinase (GK) genes resulted in higher starch levels in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which highlights the importance of these genes in energy-generating pathways for seedling establishment. Additionally, we showed that GABA, which is a stress-responsive metabolite, accumulated in response to the water content of the seeds during the initial phase of imbibition. Herewith, we provide new insights into the molecular requirements for vigorous seedling growth of R. communis under different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ricinus communis agglutinin I leads to rapid down-regulation of VEGFR-2 and endothelial cell apoptosis in tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Kasman, Ian; Hu-Lowe, Dana D; McDonald, Donald M

    2010-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), a galactose-binding lectin from castor beans, binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage, but little is known about the amount and functional consequences of binding to tumor endothelial cells. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of RCA I on blood vessels of spontaneous pancreatic islet-cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. After intravenous injection, RCA I bound strongly to tumor vessels but not to normal blood vessels. At 6 minutes, RCA I fluorescence of tumor vessels was largely diffuse, but over the next hour, brightly fluorescent dots appeared as the lectin was internalized by endothelial cells. RCA I injection led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) immunoreactivity in tumor endothelial cells, with 95% loss over 6 hours. By comparison, VEGFR-3, CD31, and CD105 had decreases in the range of 21% to 33%. Loss of VEGFR-2 was followed by increased activated caspase-3 in tumor vessels. Prior inhibition of VEGF signaling by AG-028262 decreased RCA I binding and internalization into tumor vessels. These findings indicate RCA I preferentially binds to and is internalized by tumor endothelial cells, which leads to VEGFR-2 down-regulation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and tumor vessel regression. Together, the results illustrate the selective impact of RCA I on VEGF signaling in tumor blood vessels.

  7. Ricinus communis Agglutinin I Leads to Rapid Down-Regulation of VEGFR-2 and Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Tumor Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Kasman, Ian; Hu-Lowe, Dana D.; McDonald, Donald M.

    2010-01-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), a galactose-binding lectin from castor beans, binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage, but little is known about the amount and functional consequences of binding to tumor endothelial cells. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of RCA I on blood vessels of spontaneous pancreatic islet-cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. After intravenous injection, RCA I bound strongly to tumor vessels but not to normal blood vessels. At 6 minutes, RCA I fluorescence of tumor vessels was largely diffuse, but over the next hour, brightly fluorescent dots appeared as the lectin was internalized by endothelial cells. RCA I injection led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) immunoreactivity in tumor endothelial cells, with 95% loss over 6 hours. By comparison, VEGFR-3, CD31, and CD105 had decreases in the range of 21% to 33%. Loss of VEGFR-2 was followed by increased activated caspase-3 in tumor vessels. Prior inhibition of VEGF signaling by AG-028262 decreased RCA I binding and internalization into tumor vessels. These findings indicate RCA I preferentially binds to and is internalized by tumor endothelial cells, which leads to VEGFR-2 down-regulation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and tumor vessel regression. Together, the results illustrate the selective impact of RCA I on VEGF signaling in tumor blood vessels. PMID:20185574

  8. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection.

  9. Projection of forelimb nerve afferents to external cuneate nucleus of the rat as revealed by intraneural injection of a neurotoxic lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Cha, S W; Tan, C K

    1996-01-01

    This study seeks to extend the observations of previous studies of projection of primary afferent fibres from the forelimb nerves and muscles to the external cuneate nucleus (ECN) of mammals using a neurotoxic lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) to achieve chemical ganglionectomy of the dorsal root ganglia. Following intraneural injection of RCA into the three main forelimb nerves, namely the radial, ulnar and median nerves, terminal degeneration of the primary afferent fibres in the ECN was studied under the light microscope by means of the Fink-Heimer method. The results show that the primary afferent fibres from these three nerves project to the medial part of the ECN. The field of terminal degeneration take a crescentic form. The projection from the median nerve was most dorsally located whereas that from the radial nerve was the most ventral with extensive overlaps between them. Of the three nerves, the projection from the radial nerve was the most dense. Rostrocaudally, the three nerves also show extensive overlaps. The rostrocaudal extent of maximum terminal degeneration was greatest for the radial nerve and least for the median nerve. Analysis of variance showed that these differences were statistically significant. This suggests that the radial nerve has the most extensive projection to the ECN and the median nerve the least.

  10. Serum alpha-fetoprotein subfractions identified by Ricinus communis agglutinin I in hepatic malignancies, yolk sac tumor, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, T; Takahashi, Y

    1989-01-01

    Using Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I) affinity crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) subfractions were studied in sera from patients with primary hepatic cancer (PHC), hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer (HMGC), yolk sac tumor (YST), acute or chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis. Fetal AFP subfractions were also examined in amniotic fluids or in culture fluids of fetal tissues. RCA-I non-reactive subfraction was commonly found in PHC, HMGC, YST, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage. RCA-I weakly reactive (WR) or strongly reactive (SR) subfraction was noted only in malignant diseases. RCA-I has a specific affinity to terminal galactose in oligosaccharide, and the presence of sialic acid on galactose residue(s) inhibits the affinity with RCA-I. Therefore, common AFP subfraction non-reactive with RCA-I was assumed to be galactosialyl form, while RCA-I WR and SR subfractions found only in malignancies were monogalactosyl and digalactosyl, respectively. Clinically this approach to detect the RCA-I WR or SR subfraction facilitates a differential diagnosis of AFP-producing malignancies and benign conditions.

  11. Degenerative changes of neurons in the superior cervical ganglion following an injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ling, E A; Shieh, J Y; Wen, C Y; Chan, Y G; Wong, W C

    1990-02-01

    The present study describes neuronal changes in the superior cervical ganglion of hamsters following injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 (RCA-60) into the ipsilateral vagus nerve in the cervical region. There were no noticeable structural changes in the ganglion 1 day after injection. Between 3 and 15 days after injection, a small number of neurons located in the caudal part of the ganglion underwent degenerative changes including disappearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vacuolation. The structural alterations were most acute 7 days after the injection when some neurons showed signs of total vacuolation and lysis. A second phase of neuronal change occurred after longer survival periods extending from 60 to 120 days after injection. The most striking feature of such neurons was darkening of their dendrites associated with abnormally high density cytoplasm that contained mitochondria with disrupted cristae. As distinct from the early phase in which cell necrosis was observed, there was no evidence of cell death of neurons bearing darkened dendrites. Since examples of exfoliation of the affected dendrites and their phagocytosis by satellite cells were extremely rare, it is postulated that these structural alterations are probably reversible but over an extended period. The significance of the two phases of degenerative change is discussed in connection with the acute and possible chronic effects of the toxic lectin. The present study also confirms the presence of postganglionic sympathetic axons in the cervical vagus nerve.

  12. Leaf development in Ricinus communis during drought stress: dynamics of growth processes, of cellular structure and of sink-source transition.

    PubMed

    Schurr, U; Heckenberger, U; Herdel, K; Walter, A; Feil, R

    2000-09-01

    Dicot leaf growth is characterized by partly transient tip-to-base gradients of growth processes, structure and function. These gradients develop dynamically and interact with dynamically developing stress conditions like drought. In Ricinus communis plants growing under well-watered and drought conditions growth rates peaked during the late night and minimal values occurred in the late afternoon. During this diurnal course the leaf base always showed much higher rates than the leaf tip. The amplitude of this diurnal course decreased when leaves approached maturity and during drought stress without any significant alteration of the diurnal pattern and it increased during the first days after rewatering. Unique relationships between leaf size and cytological structure were observed. This provided the framework for the analysis of changes in assimilation, transpiration and dark respiration, chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, and amino acid concentrations, and of activities of sink-source-related enzymes at the leaf tip and base during leaf development in well-watered and drought-stressed plants. Gas exchange was dominated by physiological rather than by anatomical properties (stomatal density). Tip-to-base gradients in carbohydrate concentrations per dry weight and sink-source-related enzymes were absent, whereas significant gradients were found in amino acid concentrations per dry weight. During drought stress, growing leaves developed source function at smaller leaf size, before specific physiological adaptations to drought occurred. The relevance of the developmental status of individual leaves for the drought-stress response and of the structural changes for the biochemical composition changes is discussed.

  13. A metal-binding member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family transports iron in the phloem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Stephan, Udo W; Hell, Rudiger

    2002-07-12

    The transport of metal micronutrients to developing organs in a plant is mediated primarily by the sieve elements. Ligands are thought to form complexes with the free ions in order to prevent cellular damage, but no binding partners have been unequivocally identified from plants so far. This study has used the phloem-mediated transport of micronutrients during the germination of the castor bean seedling to identify an iron transport protein (ITP). It is demonstrated that essentially all (55)Fe fed to seedlings is associated with the protein fraction of phloem exudate. It is shown that ITP carries iron in vivo and binds additional iron in vitro. ITP was purified to homogeneity from minute amounts of phloem exudate using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. It preferentially binds to Fe(3+) but not to Fe(2+) and also complexes Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) in vitro. The corresponding cDNA of ITP was cloned using internal peptide fragments. The deduced protein of 96 amino acids shows high similarity to the stress-related family of late embryogenesis abundant proteins. Its predicted characteristics and its RNA expression pattern are consistent with a function in metal ion binding. The ITP from Ricinus provides the first identified micronutrient binding partner for phloem-mediated long distance transport in plants and is the first member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family shown to have such a function.

  14. Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foliage extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-08-01

    Malaria and filariases are prevalent in Sudan and their control depends largely on preventive measures against mosquito vectors. The present work aimed to investigate the larvicidal, adults emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. against the mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as a biological control means. The larval mortality was observed after 24 hours. The LC50 values calculated were 403.65, 445.66 and 498.88 ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 1091.44, 1364.58 and 1445.44 ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. 50% of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) were 374.97 and 1180.32 ppm against 3rd instar larvae of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extract showed oviposition deterrent effect against both species. Results reveal that the crude extract of R. communis possesses remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent properties against both the tested species and can be used as biological control means.

  15. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed.

  16. Ixodes ricinus and Its Transmitted Pathogens in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Europe: New Hazards and Relevance for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, Gábor; Plantard, Olivier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Špitalská, Eva; Kazimírová, Mária

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium-sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs and cats), and larger mammals (roe deer and wild boar) play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” Rickettsia helvetica, and R. monacensis), Borrelia miyamotoi, and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum, and B. microti) have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases. PMID:25520947

  17. Management of gestational trophoblastic disease: a survey of New Zealand O&G practice.

    PubMed

    Kladnitski, Maria; Kenwright, Diane

    2016-03-11

    The aim of the study was to obtain information on pathways for diagnosis and management of molar pregnancy/gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) across New Zealand, the protocols used, and, in addition, to consider the view of O&G Specialists on a national GTD reference centre. An electronic survey approved by the RANZCOG Continues Professional Development Committee was distributed amongst registered O&G Specialists currently working in New Zealand. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2011. Frequency distributions were used to determine the percentage of participants responding to the listed alternatives for each question. There were 234 potential responders, but only 68 complete questionnaires were received and available for analysis. The diagnosis of GTD requires histopathological analysis of pregnancy tissue, however only 79.7% of participants request this test routinely. Sixty-five percent of Fellows thought that a number of molar pregnancies can be missed with increasing proportion of medically-managed miscarriages, reliance on ultrasound and appearance of the tissue being contributing factors. Sixty-six percent of specialists were directly involved in the management of patients with GTD to various degrees. Follow-up responsibilities were divided between designated O&G specialists (52.3%), specialised gynaecology clinics (29.2%), acute assessment units (13.8%), nurse specialists (12%), O&G registrars (10.8%), GPs (6.2%), and others (6.2%). NZGCG guidelines were used by the majority of responders (54.8%), followed by local (29%) and RCOG (27.4%) guidelines. Seventy-two percent of specialists felt that some form of centralisation in the management of GTD is needed. In spite of the low response rate, our research demonstrates existing practice heterogeneity at every level of care. It also confirms that there is a desire for some form of centralisation in diagnosis and management of GTD, and a definite need for data collection in the form of a national

  18. MORPHOLOGIC AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ROOT CANAL APICAL THIRD CLEANING AFTER BIOMECHANICAL PREPARATION USING 3.3% RICINUS COMMUNIS DETERGENT AND 1% NaOCL AS IRRIGATING SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Meneghin, Marcos Pozzetti; Nomelini, Sylvia Maria Bin; Sousa, Manoel D.; Marchesan, Melissa Andreia; França, Suzelei Castro; dos Santos, Heid Sueli Leme

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated, by morphologic and morphometric analyses, the cleaning of apical third of root canals instrumented with nickel-titanium rotary files using different irrigating solutions. Twenty-seven single-rooted mandibular premolars were assigned to three groups (n=9), according to the irrigating solution used: Group I, distilled and deionized water; Group II, 1% NaOCl; and Group III, 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent. Biomechanical preparation was performed with Protaper Plusâ nickel-titanium files as follows: S1, SX and S2 at the cervical and middle thirds, and 25/02, 25/04, 25/06, 30/02, 30/04 and 30/06 to complete the instrumentation, operating at 1 mm from the root apex. Irrigation was done at each file change with 2 mL of irrigating solution, totalizing 20 mL for each tooth. After biomechanical preparation, the apical thirds were serially sectioned and histologically processed. The cross-sections were examined by an optical microscope (X40) connected to a computer. The images were captured and analyzed using a computer software and submitted to morphometric analysis with aid of a grid. The percentage of debris remaining at the apical third was calculated. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey test. The results showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.01) between the groups irrigated with 1% NaOCl and 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent, which presented the lowest percentage of debris at the apical third, 8.49% and 10.11%, respectively. The group irrigated with distilled and deionized water had the highest percentage of debris (15.58%) and was statistically different from the other groups (p<0.01). It may be concluded that 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent and 1% NaOCl had similar cleaning effectiveness on removal of debris from root canals. PMID:19089069

  19. Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Jani J; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Tonteri, Elina; Penttinen, Ritva

    2016-02-01

    Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous study mapping tick densities was conducted 12 years earlier. A total of 1940 ticks were collected from five different biotopes by cloth dragging during May-September 2012. The overall tick density observed was 5.2 ticks/100m(2) for nymphs and adults. Seasonal questing activity of ticks differed between biotopes and life stages: bimodal occurrences were observed especially for nymphal and adult ticks in forested biotopes, while larvae in pastures exhibited mostly unimodal occurrence. Prevalence of Borrelia and TBEV in ticks was evaluated using conventional and real-time PCR. All samples were negative for TBEV. Borrelia prevalence was 25.0% for adults (n=44) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) 5.6% for pooled nymph samples (191 samples, 1-14 individuals per sample; 30/191 positive). No Borrelia were detected in pooled larval samples (63 samples, 1-139 individuals per sample). Five species of Borrelia were identified from the samples: B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi. In Finland, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi have previously been reported from the Åland Islands but not from the mainland or inner archipelago. The results of the present study suggest an increase in I. ricinus abundance on the island.

  20. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  1. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  2. Developing Seeds of Ricinus communis L., When Detached and Maintained in an Atmosphere of High Relative Humidity, Switch to a Germinative Mode without the Requirement for Complete Desiccation.

    PubMed

    Kermode, A R; Bewley, J D

    1989-06-01

    Immature seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) removed from the capsule at 25 to 40 days after pollination (25-40 DAP) and placed in an atmosphere of high relative humidity undergo limited water loss, and germinate upon subsequent return to full hydration. This switch from a developmental to a germinative/growth mode at 40 DAP is reflected in a change in the types of proteins being synthesized in the endosperm; after partial drying, developmental protein synthesis ceases and germinative/growth-related proteins are produced. The nature and timing of these protein synthetic changes elicited upon imbibition are identical to those following premature desiccation/rehydration of 30 and 40 DAP seeds and upon imbibition of the mature dry seed. Enzymes involved in postgerminative reserve mobilization (l-leucyl-beta-naphthylamidase and isocitrate lyase) are induced upon imbibition, following partial drying at 40 DAP, to levels attained in the endosperms of germinated mature, and prematurely dried/rehydrated, seeds. The changes in protein synthesis resulting from partial drying are effected at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Upon return to full hydration some new (i.e. germination and growth-related) mRNAs are synthesized, while others (associated with development) present in the partially dried endosperm decline. Thus developing seeds of castor bean do not have to experience substantial (whole seed) water loss to acquire the ability to germinate and grow upon subsequent imbibition. Seed detachment from the mother plant alone is not sufficient to elicit a switch to germination and growth processes. However, the length of time of detachment from the mother plant, in combination with some water loss may interact to elicit the "switch" from development to germination.

  3. Long-term study of the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (Turdus merula) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryczyńska, Alicja; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2016-11-01

    Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9.8 % individuals were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. We found statistically significant growth in the prevalence of infected ticks as well as an increasing proportion of blackbirds hosting them in subsequent years of study. Ticks feeding on blackbirds were infected mainly with B. garinii (45.7 %), a genospecies commonly encountered in birds, and with B. afzelii (28.6 %), until recently considered rodent-associated. We also identified B. turdi (22.9 %), frequently found in recent years in ticks feeding on birds, and B. spielmanii (2.8 %), which had previously not been found in infected ticks feeding on blackbirds. We also found that ticks infected with genospecies associated with avian reservoir groups (B. garinii and B. turdi) were not randomly distributed on blackbirds, but instead focused on certain bird specimens. We therefore conjecture that this is a result of ticks becoming infected either from the host blackbird itself, or from other infected ticks feeding on the same host blackbird. We did not find any similar dependency for the rodent specialist B. afzelii.

  4. Family of Ricinus communis Monosaccharide Transporters and RcSTP1 in Promoting the Uptake of a Glucose-Fipronil Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Mao, Gen-Lin; Yan, Yin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Bing-Feng; Xu, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2017-08-02

    Enhancing the systemic distribution of a bioactive compound by exploiting the vascular transport system of a plant presents a means of reducing both the volume and frequency of pesticide/fungicide application. The foliar uptake of the glucose-fipronil conjugate N-[3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GTF) achieved in castor bean (Ricinus communis) and its transport via the phloem are known to be mediated by monosaccharide transporter(s) [MST(s)], although neither the identity of the key MST(s) involved nor the mechanistic basis of its movement have yet to be described. On the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana sugar transporters, the castor bean genome was concluded to harbor 53 genes encoding a sugar transporter, falling into the eight previously defined subfamilies INT, PMT, VGT, STP, ERD6, pGlucT, TMT, and SUT. Transcriptional profiling identified the product of RcSTP1 as a candidate for mediating GTF uptake, because this gene was induced by exposure of the plant to GTF. When RcSTP1 was transiently expressed in onion epidermis cells, the site of RcSTP1 deposition was shown to be the plasma membrane. A functional analysis based on RcSTP1 expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that its product has a high affinity for GTF. The long-distance root-to-shoot transport of GTF was enhanced in a transgenic soybean chimera constitutively expressing RcSTP1.

  5. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  6. In Vitro Analysis of Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resin Exposed to the Combined Hygiene Method of Brushing and Immersion in Ricinus communis and Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Salles, Marcela Moreira; de Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena Freitas Oliveira; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate a solution based on Ricinus communis (Castor oil) for denture cleansing, comparing it to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for the surface roughness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Forty polished and unpolished resin specimens (90 × 30 × 4 mm) were evaluated before and after their exposure to protocol hygiene: brushing the specimens with a specific denture brush and mild soap for 3 minutes, three times a day, and immersing them in hygiene solutions (0.25% NaOCl-S1 and 0.5% NaOCl-S2; 10% R. communis-S3; saline-S4: control) for 20 minutes. Surface roughness was evaluated by rugosimeter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the protocol. For evaluation of surface roughness, polished and unpolished surfaces were used. The roughness of the polished surface was not affected by time (p = 0.062), but was affected by solutions (p < 0.0001) and the interaction between factors (p = 0.005). For S1 and S4, the period did not influence the roughness. For S2, there was a change after 7 days, remaining stable after 14 days. For S3, there were changes, and stabilization occurred after 14 days. After 7 and 14 days, S2 and S3 promoted major changes, but after 21 days, there were no differences among solutions, except saline. The unpolished surface was not influenced by factors: period (p = 0.115), solution (p = 0.120), and their interaction (p = 0.382). SEM analysis showed similar results on the evaluation of surface roughness. The polished surface of the prosthesis was more susceptible to changes when exposed to hygiene solutions, and although the 0.5% NaOCl solution promoted an increase in the surface roughness compared with the same solution at 0.25% and R. communis at 10%, the values are clinically acceptable. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Correlation of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks with Specific Abiotic Traits in the Western Palearctic▿†

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ortega, Carmelo; Sánchez, Nely; DeSimone, Lorenzo; Sudre, Bertrand; Suk, Jonathan E.; Semenza, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis of reports examining ticks throughout the Western Palearctic region indicates a distinct geographic pattern for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in questing nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. The greatest prevalence was reported between the 5°E and 25°E longitudes based on an analysis of 123 collection points with 37,940 nymphal tick specimens (87.43% of total nymphs; 56.35% of total ticks in the set of reports over the target area). Climatic traits, such as temperature and vegetation stress, and their seasonality correlated with Borrelia prevalence in questing ticks. The greatest prevalence was associated with mild winter, high summer, and low seasonal amplitude of temperatures within the range of the tick vector, higher vegetation indices in the May-June period, and well-connected vegetation patches below a threshold at which rates suddenly drop. Classification of the target territory using a qualitative risk index derived from the abiotic variables produced an indicator of the probability of finding infected ticks in the Western Palearctic region. No specific temporal trends were detected in the reported prevalence. The ranges of the different B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies showed a pattern of high biodiversity between 4°W and 20°E, partially overlapping the area of highest prevalence in ticks. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are the dominant species in central Europe (east of ∼25°E), but B. garinii may appear alone at southern latitudes and Borrelia lusitaniae is the main indicator species for meridional territories. PMID:21498767

  8. Variable Strength of Forest Stand Attributes and Weather Conditions on the Questing Activity of Ixodes ricinus Ticks over Years in Managed Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B.; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008–2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming. PMID:23372852

  9. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  11. Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil.

    PubMed

    Boda, Ravi Kiran; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad; Suthari, Sateesh

    2017-07-09

    Ricinus communis L. (castor bean or castor oil plant) was found growing on metal-contaminated sites (4) of peri-urban Greater Hyderabad comprises of erstwhile industrial areas viz Bollaram, Patancheru, Bharatnagar, and Kattedan industrial areas. During 2013-2017, about 60 research papers have appeared focusing the role of castor bean in phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils, co-generation of biomaterials, and environmental cleanup, as bioenergy crop and sustainable development. The present study is focused on its use as a multipurpose phytoremediation crop for phytostabilization and revegetation of waste disposed peri-urban contaminated soils. To determine the plant tolerance level, metal accumulation, chlorophyll, protein, proline, lipid peroxidation, oil content, and soil properties were characterized. It was noticed that the castor plant and soils have high concentration of metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The soils have high phosphorous (P), adequate nitrogen (N), and low concentration of potassium (K). Iron (Fe) concentrations ranged from1672±50.91 to 2166±155.78 mg kg(-1) in the soil. The trend of metal accumulation Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd was found in different plant parts at polluted sites. The translocation of Cd and Pb showed values more than one in industrial areas viz Bollaram, Kattedan, and Bharatnagar indicating the plants resistance to metal toxicity. Chlorophyll and protein content reduced while proline and malondialdehyde increased due to its tolerance level under metal exposure. The content of ricinoleic acid was higher, and the fatty acids composition of polluted areas was almost similar to that of the control area. Thus, R. communis L. can be employed for reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of crude protein extracts isolated from the seed of Ricinus communis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, M Abdulla; Akter, Zerin; Uddin, Md Josim; Ferdaus, K M K B; Hoque, K M F; Ferdousi, Z; Reza, M Abu

    2016-07-12

    Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) has previously been reported to possess analgesic, antihistamine, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was designed for isolation, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial and anti-proliferative activities of R. communis seed protein. The concentration and molecular weight of R. communis seed protein were estimated by SDS-PAGE and spectrophotometric analysis, respectively. Lectin activity was evaluated by hemagglutination assay on mice blood. In vitro susceptibility of four human pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was detected using disk diffusion assay, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined using micro-dilution method. A total of twenty four Swiss albino mice containing Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells were treated with the crude protein of R. communis at 50 and 100 μg/ml/d/mouse for 6 days. Growth inhibitory activity of R. communis seed protein on EAC cells was determined by haemocytometer counting using trypan blue dye and DAPI (4΄,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining was used to assess apoptotic cells. The protein concentration of six R. communis (castor) varieties ranged between 21-35 mg/ml and molecular weight between 14-200 kDa. Castor protein agglutinated mice blood at 3.125 μg/wall. The seed protein shows considerable antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, exhibiting MIC values of 250, 125 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. Administration of seed protein led to 54 % growth inhibition of EAC cells at 100 μg/ml. DAPI staining indicates marked features of apoptosis including condensation of cytoplasm, nuclear fragmentation and aggregation of apoptotic bodies etc. Our study suggests that the lectin rich R. communis seed protein has strong antibacterial and anticancer activities.

  13. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in transcript levels of genes related with carbohydrate biosynthesis and catabolism in response to temperature. For that, we measured transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch catabolism, and gluconeogenesis in R. communis leaves, roots, and seeds grown at 20 °C and 35 °C. Transcript levels of genes involved in starch catabolism were higher in leaves grown at 20 °C than at 35 °C, but up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis seems to compensate for this and, therefore, are the likely explanation for higher levels of starch in leaves grown at 20 °C. Higher levels of soluble carbohydrates in leaves grown at 20 °C may be caused by a coordinated increase in transcript level of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. In roots, transcript levels of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis seem to be enhanced at elevated temperatures. Higher levels of starch in seeds germinated at low temperatures is associated with higher transcript levels of genes involved in starch biosynthesis. Similarly, higher transcript levels of RcPEPCK and RcFBPase are most likely causal for fructose and glucose accumulation in seeds germinated at 20 °C. This study provides important insights in the understanding of the plasticity of R. communis in response to temperature that may apply to other species as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cyclic electron flow, NPQ and photorespiration are crucial for the establishment of young plants of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Lima Neto, M C; Cerqueira, J V A; da Cunha, J R; Ribeiro, R V; Silveira, J A G

    2017-07-01

    Although plant physiological responses to drought have been widely studied, the interaction between photoprotection, photorespiration and antioxidant metabolism in water-stressed plants is scarcely addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological adjustments preserving photosynthesis and growth in two plant species with different tolerance to drought: Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis. We measured stress indicators, gas exchange, photochemistry of PSII and PSI, antioxidant enzymes, cyclic electron flow and photorespiration. Physiological stress indicators associated with reduction in growth confirmed R. communis as sensitive and J. curcas as tolerant to drought. Drought induced loss of photosynthesis in R. communis, whereas J. curcas maintained higher leaf gas exchange and photochemistry under drought. In addition, J. curcas showed higher dissipation of excess energy and presented higher cyclic electron flow when exposed to drought. Although none of these mechanisms have been triggered in R. communis, this species showed increases in photorespiration. R. communis displayed loss of Rubisco content while the Rubisco relative abundance did not change in J. curcas under drought. Accordingly, the in vivo maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate driving RuBP regeneration (Jmax ) were less affected in J. curcas. Both species displayed an efficient antioxidant mechanism by increasing activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Overall, we suggest that the modulation of different photoprotective mechanisms is crucial to mitigate the effects caused by excess energy, maintaining photosynthetic apparatus efficiency and promoting the establishment of young plants of these two species under drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  16. Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2008-03-01

    The metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains PsM6 and PjM15 isolated from a serpentine soil were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively, on the basis of their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. Assessment of plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole N source, solubilization of insoluble phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Further, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal resistant PGPB on the plant growth and the uptake of Ni, Cu and Zn by Ricinus communis. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. PsM6 or P. jessenii PjM15 increased the shoot and root biomass of R. communis grown in non-contaminated and contaminated soil. However, the maximum biomass was observed in the plants inoculated with strain PjM15. This effect can be attributed to the solubilization of phosphate and production of IAA. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. PsM6 and PjM15 did not greatly alter the organ metal concentrations except Zn which concentration was higher in root, stem and leaf of inoculated plants. The results of metal extraction with PGPB strains showed that PsM6 was more efficient at solubilizing Zn than PjM15, and that PjM15 was better at solubilising Ni and Cu than PsM6. Owing to its wide action spectrum, the metal resistant PGPB could serve as an effective metal sequestering and growth-promoting bioinoculant for plants in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  17. Which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season?

    PubMed

    Marsot, M; Henry, P-Y; Vourc'h, G; Gasqui, P; Ferquel, E; Laignel, J; Grysan, M; Chapuis, J-L

    2012-07-01

    Wild birds are important hosts for vector-borne pathogens, especially those borne by ticks. However, few studies have been conducted on the role of different bird species within a community as hosts of vector-borne pathogens. This study addressed individual and species factors that could explain the burden of Ixodes ricinus on forest birds during the reproductive periods of both vectors and hosts. The goal was to identify which bird species contribute the most to the tick population at the community level. Birds were mist-netted on four plots in 2008 and on seven plots in 2009 in two forests (Sénart and Notre Dame, near Paris, France). The dependence of the tick load per bird upon environmental conditions (questing nymph density, year and plot) and on host species traits (species, age, sex, body size, vertical space use, level of innate and acquired immunity) was analysed. Finally, the relative contribution of each bird species to the local dynamics of ticks was estimated, while accounting for their respective abundance. Tick burden differed markedly between bird species and varied according to questing nymph density. Bird species with a high body mass, those that forage low in the vegetation, and those that had a high innate immune response and a high spleen mass were more likely to have a high tick burden. Four species (the Common Blackbird, Turdus merula, the European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, the Song Thrush, Turdus philomelos, and the Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes) hosted more than 90% of the ticks in the local bird community. These species, and particularly T. merula which was host to a high proportion of the nymphs, are likely to contribute significantly to the circulation of pathogens for which they are competent, such as the agent of Lyme borreliosis. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological factors that determine Ixodes ricinus tick burdens in the great tit (Parus major), an avian reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Dieter; Adriaensen, Frank; Van Dongen, Stefan; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2013-07-01

    Although bird-tick systems affect the human risk of tick-borne diseases, very little is known about the ecological factors that shape the spatio-temporal variation of tick infestations in terrestrial songbirds. We present a risk model that explains the levels of infestation of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., during the breeding season of the great tit (Parus major), one of Europe's most abundant avian reservoir hosts of B. burgdorferi s.l. Tit tick burden were modelled as a function of variables summarising vegetation, climate, proxies for mammal abundance and characteristics of individual birds and their nests. Tick loads were positively associated with the relative humidity prior to capture of the bird and the cover of bracken inside its territory. The number of cold winter days prior to the bird's breeding season showed a negative association with tick loads. None of the proxies for mammal abundance correlated with tick loads. Tick loads decreased with age in female tits, whereas they increased with age in male tits. Tick burdens in the parental tits were positively associated with their brood size and negatively correlated with the average nestling body weight. Possible mechanisms include: how tit foraging influences tick encounter rates, host tick resistance mechanisms and the environmental conditions that simultaneously affect tick exposure risk and brood characteristics. We believe this study provides the first detailed insights into the ecological factors that shape tick burden in a terrestrial songbird. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental evidence for diel variations of the carbon isotope composition in leaf, stem and phloem sap organic matter in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Arthur; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Peuke, Andreas D; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Farquhar, Graham D

    2008-07-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation in metabolic processes following carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is not as well described as the discrimination during photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. However, post-carboxylation fractionation can influence the diel variation of delta(13)C of leaf-exported organic matter and can cause inter-organ differences in delta(13)C. To obtain a more mechanistic understanding of post-carboxylation modification of the isotopic signal as governed by physiological and environmental controls, we combined the modelling approach of Tcherkez et al., which describes the isotopic fractionation in primary metabolism with the experimental determination of delta(13)C in leaf and phloem sap and root carbon pools during a full diel course. There was a strong diel variation of leaf water-soluble organic matter and phloem sap sugars with relatively (13)C depleted carbon produced and exported during the day and enriched carbon during the night. The isotopic modelling approach reproduces the experimentally determined day-night differences in delta(13)C of leaf-exported carbon in Ricinus communis. These findings support the idea that patterns of transitory starch accumulation and remobilization govern the diel rhythm of delta(13)C in organic matter exported by leaves. Integrated over the whole 24 h day, leaf-exported carbon was enriched in (13)C as compared with the primary assimilates. This may contribute to the well-known--yet poorly explained--relative (13)C depletion of autotrophic organs compared with other plant parts. We thus emphasize the need to consider post-carboxylation fractionations for studies that use delta(13)C for assessing environmental effects like water availability on ratio of mole fractions of CO(2) inside and outside the leaf (e.g. tree ring studies), or for partitioning of CO(2) fluxes at the ecosystem level.

  20. Vascularization of syngenic intracerebral RG2 and F98 rat transplantation tumors. A histochemical and morphometric study by use of ricinus communis agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Seitz, R J; Deckert, M; Wechsler, W

    1988-01-01

    The vascularization of intracerebral transplantation tumors of the two rat glioma clones RG2 and F98 was studied in various stages of progressive tumor growth by use of biotinylated Ricinus communis agglutinin I (B-RCA I) in avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC)-histochemistry. The tumors were induced by stereotactic implantation of 1000 glioma cells into the right caudate nucleus of 26 adult CDF-rats and examined after 10, 14, 18, and 21 days following controlled intracardial perfusion of the host animals. Our histochemical results on paraffin sections demonstrate that B-RCA I selectively stains vascular endothelial cells of arteries, veins, and capillaries not only in the normal rat brain but also in the transplantation tumors. Subsequently morphometric measurements of the B-RCA I-stained sections were performed to define the tumor vascularization in quantitative terms. There was an increase in the mean tumor vessel diameters during tumor growth in both transplantation tumor types leading to values about two times above those of the normal rat striatum. On the contrary, the mean vessel density and the mean vessel surface per tumor area were markedly reduced in the late stages of both tumor types when compared to the normal striatum. The RG2 and F98 transplantation tumors differed with regard to the intercapillary distance, which was two times higher in the F98 transplantation tumors than in the RG2 tumors on day 21. In conclusion, B-RCA I is a very sensitive histochemical marker for rat vascular endothelia on paraffin sections. Moreover, this method appears to provide the possibility for qualitative and quantitative study of the development of vasculature in intracerebral transplantation systems including tumors.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a lupeol synthase involved in the synthesis of epicuticular wax crystals on stem and hypocotyl surfaces of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Guhling, Ortwin; Hobl, Barbara; Yeats, Trevor; Jetter, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids are a large group of secondary metabolites found in many different plant species, either as glycoside conjugates or as aglycones. The latter in many cases accumulate to high amounts in the cuticular wax and hence at the surface of plant organs. In the present work, the cuticle-specific formation of triterpenoids was investigated in Ricinus communis stems, combining analytical and molecular genetic methods. Two phenotypes of castor bean could be distinguished based on the glaucous or glossy appearance of the surfaces of all stem portions including the hypocotyls, and were due to the presence or absence of thread-shaped epicuticular wax crystals, respectively. Comparative studies showed that these crystals are formed by the triperpenoid lupeol, present in high amounts on all stem surfaces. On the hypocotyl portion of stems, lupeol was found to accumulate rapidly during early development of the surface (10-15 days after emergence). Mature hypocotyls of glossy individuals were covered with 12.5 microg/cm2 of wax containing approximately 1% of lupeol, whereas the glaucous phenotype had a wax load of 51.9 microg/cm2 with 56% of lupeol. Two oxidosqualene cyclases from castor bean were cloned, functionally expressed in yeast, and characterized as a cycloartenol synthase (RcCAS) and a lupeol synthase (RcLUS). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RcLUS is similar to two clades of known lupeol synthases, but also exhibits some similarities with beta-amyrin synthases. Both the organ-specific expression of RcLUS and the expression pattern during hypocotyl development exactly matched the accumulation of cuticular lupeol in castor bean. In contrast, RcCAS was constitutively expressed in all organs at various times. We conclude that the RcLUS enzyme is responsible for formation of the cuticular lupeol, and thus for the characteristic surface properties of R. communis stems.

  2. Infiltration of carbon-labelled monocytes into the dorsal motor nucleus following an intraneural injection of ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Ling, E A; Leong, S K

    1988-08-01

    A marked increase in the number of non-neuronal cells occurred in the neuropil of the ipsilateral dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) 6 days after an intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in the cervical region of rats. Other structural changes in the DMN were the hypertrophy and reduction in number of the neurons. In order to verify the origin of the non-neuronal cells, a single intravenous injection of carbon was administered into these rats 4 days before, simultaneously, or 4 days after, the injection of the RCA-60. Thus, in rats given carbon 4 days before the RCA-60 injection, none of the non-neuronal cells were labelled. A few labelled cells, however, were observed in rats given carbon and RCA-60 simultaneously. Labelled non-neuronal cells were most common in rats given carbon 4 days after the RCA-60 injection. They were located in the neuropil as well as in the walls of blood vessels. Some blood elements in the lumen of blood vessels in the DMN were also labelled by carbon. Histochemical study at the electron microscopical level showed that some of the non-neuronal cells present in the neuropil of DMN were stained positively for non-specific esterase. They were located in the perivascular region and in the neuropil far removed from the blood vessels. Occasional non-specific esterase-positive mononuclear cells were observed seemingly in their passage through the endothelium of blood vessels. It was concluded from this study that a small proportion of non-neuronal cells which appear in the DMN following a RCA-60 injection into the vagus nerve are derived from blood monocytes. The infiltration of these cells, which had been labelled by intravenous carbon injection, is probably elicited by the degenerating neurons destroyed by the retrograde transport of RCA-60.

  3. Localization of binding sites for concanavalin A, Ricinus communis I and Helix pomatia lectin in the Golgi apparatus of rat small intestinal absorptive cells.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, M; Ellinger, A

    1985-09-01

    Binding sites for concanvalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis I agglutinin (RCA I), and Helix pomatia lectin (HPA) were localized in the Golgi apparatus of rat small intestinal absorptive cells. A preembedment technique, a modification of the one originally used by Bernhard and Avrameas (Exp Cell Res 64:232, 1971), was employed, with horse-radish peroxidase being used for cytochemical visualization. Incubations were performed on 10 microns thick cryosections of duodenal segments that were fixed in a mixture of 4% formaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde; fixation was preceded by a 2-min rinse in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate and followed by storage in the same buffer for up to 7 days. Incubation with Con A, which binds preferably to alpha-D-mannose and alpha-D-glucose residues, caused intense reaction of the dilated cisternae of the cis Golgi side; staining was variable in intermediate and trans cisternae. RCA I, recognizing beta-D-galactose residues, could only be demonstrated in intermediate cisternae. Reaction for HPA, which indicates alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues, stained intensely 1 to 2 cisternae of the cis Golgi side, as well as being localized in the peripheral regions of the cisternae of the intermediate compartment of the stacks. Deposits of reaction product covered the luminal surface of the cisternal membranes, but usually left the lumen itself, as well as lipid particles, devoid of reaction. The differences in Con A, RCA I, and HPA reactivity between cis, intermediate, and trans cisternae suggest compositional and structural differences of the carbohydrates in the respective compartments; they may reflect conversion processes that are known to occur in the oligosaccharide side chains of glycoconjugates at the Golgi complex level.

  4. Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Shen, Jianxiu; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Chen, Hui; Shao, Chunyan

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days. This research revealed Cd accumulation characteristics in castor are root>stem>young leaf>old leaf. Castor tolerance was Cd dose exposure and the cultivars themselves dependent. Investigation of subcellular Cd partitioning showed that Cd accumulated mainly in the heat stable protein (HSP) and cellular debris fractions, followed by the Cd rich granule (MRG), heat denatured protein (HDP), and organelle fractions. With increasing Cd concentration in nutrient solution, the decreased detoxified fractions (BDM) and the increased Cd-sensitive fractions (MSF) in young leaves may indicate the increased Cd toxicity in castor cultivars. The BDM-Cd fractions or MSF-Cd in old leaves may be linked with Cd tolerance of different cultivars of castor. The antioxidant enzymes that govern Cd detoxification were not found to be active in leaves. Taken together, these results indicate Cd tolerance and toxicity in castor can be explained by subcellular partitioning.

  5. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  6. Profiling of proteolytic enzymes in the gut of the tick Ixodes ricinus reveals an evolutionarily conserved network of aspartic and cysteine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Horn, Martin; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Caffrey, Conor R; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks are vectors for a variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases in human and domestic animals. To survive and reproduce ticks feed on host blood, yet our understanding of the intestinal proteolytic machinery used to derive absorbable nutrients from the blood meal is poor. Intestinal digestive processes are limiting factors for pathogen transmission since the tick gut presents the primary site of infection. Moreover, digestive enzymes may find practical application as anti-tick vaccine targets. Results Using the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus, we performed a functional activity scan of the peptidase complement in gut tissue extracts that demonstrated the presence of five types of peptidases of the cysteine and aspartic classes. We followed up with genetic screens of gut-derived cDNA to identify and clone genes encoding the cysteine peptidases cathepsins B, L and C, an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain), and the aspartic peptidase, cathepsin D. By RT-PCR, expression of asparaginyl endopeptidase and cathepsins B and D was restricted to gut tissue and to those developmental stages feeding on blood. Conclusion Overall, our results demonstrate the presence of a network of cysteine and aspartic peptidases that conceivably operates to digest host blood proteins in a concerted manner. Significantly, the peptidase components of this digestive network are orthologous to those described in other parasites, including nematodes and flatworms. Accordingly, the present data and those available for other tick species support the notion of an evolutionary conservation of a cysteine/aspartic peptidase system for digestion that includes ticks, but differs from that of insects relying on serine peptidases. PMID:18348719

  7. Postoperative Quality of Life after Total Gastrectomy Compared with Partial Gastrectomy: Longitudinal Evaluation by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-OG25 and STO22.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Tae Han; Huh, Yeon-Ju; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-12-01

    The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire-OG25 was developed to evaluate the quality of life in patients with stomach and esophageal cancer. The following are included in the OG25 but not in the STO22: odynophagia, choked when swallowing, weight loss, trouble eating with others, trouble swallowing saliva, trouble talking, and trouble with coughing. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life of gastrectomized patients using both, the OG25 and the STO22. A total of 138 patients with partial gastrectomy (PG) (distal gastrectomy=91; pylorus-preserving gastrectomy= 47) and 44 patients with total gastrectomy (TG) were prospectively evaluated. Body weight and scores from the OG25 and STO22 were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Patients with TG had significant weight loss compared to patients with PG. At 3 months, TG was associated with worse scores for dysphagia, eating, odynophagia, trouble eating with others, trouble with taste, and weight loss on the OG25. TG was also associated with dysphagia, eating restrictions, and anxiety on the STO22. The OG25 helped differentiate between the groups with respect to weight loss, odynophagia, choked when swallowing, and trouble eating with others. The OG25 scores changed over time and were significantly different. The OG25 is a more sensitive and useful scale than the STO22 for evaluating the quality of life of gastrectomized patients, especially those with total gastrectomy.

  8. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  9. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values <27) were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 h after GlyF treatment by RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that expression levels of four AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional

  10. Evaluation of leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts from western Kenya: in vitro and in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Jumba, Bernard N; Anjili, Christopher O; Makwali, Judith; Ingonga, Johnstone; Nyamao, Rose; Marango, Sylvia; Choge, Joseph K; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher

    2015-11-05

    Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied. BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 µg mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 µg mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 µg ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects. Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than

  11. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of fluralaner spot-on solution against Ixodes ricinus and Ctenocephalides felis infestations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Taenzler, Janina; Gale, Boyd; Zschiesche, Eva; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    Fluralaner spot-on solution provides immediate and persistent efficacy against tick and flea infestations in dogs and cats for 12-weeks following topical administration. The active ingredient fluralaner is distributed systemically following transdermal absorption. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis whether water-immersion or shampooing of dogs following administration of fluralaner spot-on solution has an impact on subsequent tick and flea efficacy. Thirty-two Beagle dogs were allocated to four study groups of 8 dogs each. On day 0, dogs in the 2 treatment groups received topical administration of fluralaner (Bravecto™ spot-on solution) according to label instructions. Dogs in the 2 corresponding control groups remained untreated. On days 3, 21, 49, and 77 dogs in one treatment group and control group were water-immersed for 2-5 min, while dogs in the other treatment group and control group were shampooed 6-8 min with a commercial foaming micro-emulsion, unscented product. On days 4, 28, 56, and 84 all dogs were co-infested with 50 ± 2 female and 10 ± 2 male Ixodes ricinus and 100 ± 4 Ctenocephalides felis, with tick and flea removal and counts 48 ± 2 h post-infestation. Efficacy against ticks and fleas was calculated for each assessment time point. No treatment-related adverse event was observed in any of the 16 dogs treated with fluralaner spot-on solution during the study. Efficacy against ticks at each assessment time point was between 99.7 and 100 % in the water-immersed group and between 99.2 and 100 % in the shampooed group. Efficacy against fleas was 100 % at each assessment time point as well in the water-immersed as the shampooed group. Tick and flea reduction in both treatment groups was significant at all assessment time points (p < 0.0001). Neither water-immersion nor shampooing after single topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution had an impact on the excellent tick and flea efficacy over the 12

  12. Quantitative changes of Ricinus communis agglutinin I and Helix pomatia lectin binding sites in the acrosome of rat spermatozoa during epididymal transit.

    PubMed

    Hermo, L; Winikoff, R; Kan, F W

    1992-09-01

    During passage through the epididymis, spermatozoa undergo a number of changes which result in their acquisition of fertility and motility. Some of the changes that occur include loss of the cytoplasmic droplet and changes in sperm morphology, metabolism and properties of the nucleus and plasma membrane. Changes have also been reported in the acrosomic system of mammalian spermatozoa during their transit through the epididymis. In the present study, the quantitative changes of the glycoconjugate content in the acrosome of rat spermatozoa were examined during their passage through the epididymis using lectin-colloidal gold cytochemistry. Various regions of the epididymis (initial segment, caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis) were fixed by perfusion with 1% or 2% glutaraldehyde buffered in sodium cacodylate (0.1 M), dehydrated in ethanol and embedded without osmication in Lowicryl K4M. Lectin-colloidal gold labeling was performed on thin sections using Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I) or Helix pomatia lectin (HPL) to detect D-galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-containing glycoconjugates, respectively. The labeling density over the acrosome of the acrosomic system was evaluated as the number of gold particles per microns 2 of profile area using a Zeiss MOP-3 image analyzer. The overall mean labeling densities over the acrosome of spermatozoa for each lectin was estimated from 4 rats and over the four distinct epididymal regions. The mean labeling density of the acrosome with RCA I and HPL showed a similar pattern along the epididymis, although RCA I revealed approximately twice as many gold particles per epididymal region. In either case, there was a significant decrease in the labeling density of the acrosome of spermatozoa between the initial segment or caput epididymidis and cauda epididymidis (p less than 0.01). A similar decrease was also noted between the initial segment and corpus epididymidis (p less than 0.01). No change was found between the

  13. [Prediction of sites with an increased risk of infestation with Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne encephalitis infection in the Central Bohemia Region based satellite data].

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Kolár, J; Zeman, P; Pavelka, K; Sádlo, J

    1998-02-01

    Based on elaboration of a prediction map of sites of increased incidence of Ixodes ricinus associated with an increased risk of attack on humans and activation of the virus of tick-borne encephalitis it was assumed that different types of vegetation can serve this purpose as suitable indicators. For assessment of these sites and their location on the territory of the Central Bohemian region (on an area of 11,508 sq.km) data from spectral analysis of reflected light recorded by a scanner, Thematic Mapper, working on satellite LANDSAT 5 with a spatial resolution of 30 m, obtained in six bands of the visible and near infrared spectrum resp. was used. Digital satellite data were processed in station IBM RISC 6000 using the professional software EASI/PACE of PCI Co. Inc. Canada. First by supervised classification seven main classes describing the position of the whole area were differentiated and then by a combination of unsupervised and subsequently supervised classification the forest areas were divided into nine classes of forests (with a different structure and different composition as to species), which have a different incidence of ticks. These classes were then compared by statistical methods with the epidemiological map of risk of acquisition of the tick-borne encephalitis virus. This resulted in the finding that coniferous tree forests ("1" and "2") are practically devoid of risk, while mixed and deciduous forests ("3" to "9") involve a varying degree of risk. The maximum risk was found in class 6 which comprises very heterogeneous young deciduous growth and ecotones. The results are presented graphically on the specimen of the prediction map (part of the classified picture supplemented by topographic signs at scale 1:25,000) and on classified satellite picture of the whole area (scale of the original computer printout 1:300,000). In the legend the grade of risk of different classes is expressed verbally, corresponding to values of the Spearman coefficient of

  14. Preliminary investigation of the effects of topical mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. and Ricinus communis L. leaves extract in treatment of osteoarthritis using MIA model in rats.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, Atousa; Sahranavard, Shamim; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-05-03

    Many plants have been introduced in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of different joint problems including knee pain. Topical application of the mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves (Henna) with aqueous extract of Ricinus communis L. leaves have been mentioned to have significant effects on reducing knee pain. The present study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the mixture of these two herbs in male rats. We induced knee osteoarthritis as a model of chronic pain by intra-articular injection of mono sodium iodoacetate (MIA). Mechanical allodynia, hotplate latency test, spontaneous movements and gait analysis were used for the evaluation of analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter and the volume of the injected paw compared to contralateral paw. These tests were monitored at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of MIA administration. Histopathological evaluations were also used to assess the efficacy of the treatment on inflammation and lesions in knee tissue. In all tests, diclofenac topical gel was used as a positive control. The herbal extracts, their mixture, and vehicle or diclofenac gel were administered daily for 14 days by topical route. The mixture of these two extracts significantly reduced the knee joint width and volume of the injected paws and also improved foot prints in gait analysis after 3 days of MIA injection. Analysis of mechanical allodynia (after 21 days), hotplate latency test (after 10 days), spontaneous movements (after 7 days) and in positive control group (after 3 days in all tests and in mechanical allodynia after 14 days) compared to the vehicle group, showed significant effects. Topical usage of the selected formulation made significant histopathological changes on the knee of the rats. Compared to the vehicle group, the tests and diclofenac groups showed less reactions characterized by negligible edema and a few scattered inflammatory lymphoid

  15. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  16. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  17. A quantitative evaluation of the extent of fluralaner uptake by ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis) in fluralaner (Bravecto) treated vs. untreated dogs using the parameters tick weight and coxal index.

    PubMed

    Williams, Heike; Demeler, Janina; Taenzler, Janina; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-30

    Fluralaner is a new antiparasitic drug that was recently introduced as Bravecto chewable tablets for the treatment of tick and flea infestations in dogs. Most marketed tick products exert their effect via topical application and contact exposure to the parasite. In contrast, Bravecto delivers its acaricidal activity through systemic exposure. Tick exposure to fluralaner occurs after attachment to orally treated dogs, which induces a tick-killing effect within 12 h. The fast onset of killing lasts over the entire treatment interval (12 weeks) and suggests that only marginal uptake by ticks is required to induce efficacy. Three laboratory studies were conducted to quantify the extent of uptake by comparison of ticks' weight and coxal index obtained from Bravecto-treated and negative-control dogs. Three studies were conducted using experimental tick infestation with either Ixodes ricinus or Ixodes scapularis after oral administration of fluralaner to dogs. All studies included a treated (Bravecto chewable tablets, MSD Animal Health) and a negative control group. Each study had a similar design for assessing vitality and weighing of ticks collected from dogs of both groups. Additionally, in one study the coxal index (I. ricinus) was calculated as a ratio of tick's ventral coxal gap and dorsal width of scutum. Tick weight data and coxal indices from Bravecto-treated and negative-control groups were compared via statistical analysis. Ticks collected from Bravecto-treated dogs weighed significantly less (p ≤ 0.0108) than ticks collected from negative-control dogs, and their coxal index was also significantly lower (p < 0.0001). The difference in tick weights was demonstrated irrespective of the tick species investigated (I. ricinus, I. scapularis). At some assessments the mean tick weights of Bravecto-treated dogs were significantly lower than those of unfed pre-infestation (baseline) ticks. The demonstrated tick-killing efficacy was in the range of 94.6 - 100

  18. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  19. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  20. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  1. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  2. Do the Ticks of Birds at an Important Migratory Hotspot Reflect the Seasonal Dynamics of Ixodes ricinus at the Migration Initiation Site? A Case Study in the Danube Delta

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Attila D.; Mărcuţan, Daniel I.; D'Amico, Gianluca; Gherman, Călin M.; Dumitrache, Mirabela O.; Mihalca, Andrei D.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds play important roles as distributors of ticks within and between continents. In the Old World, the most important migratory route of birds links Asia, Europe and Africa. During their migration, birds use various stopover sites, where they feed and rest and where ticks may attach or detach, creating new natural foci for vector-borne diseases. Danube Delta is one of the most important migration hotspots and so far no studies were focused on ticks of migratory birds herein. The aim of the present study was to assess the species diversity and seasonal dynamics of ticks parasitizing migratory birds in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Migratory birds were trapped on Grindul Lupilor (44°41′N; 28°56′E) using mist nets during 4 migratory seasons (2 spring and 2 autumn) in 2011 and 2012. From each bird, all the ticks were collected and identified based on morphological features. Epidemiological parameters (prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity) were calculated and all data were analysed statistically based on the season (spring and autumn), regional status of birds (migrants and breeding) and foraging behaviour (ground feeders, reed-bed feeders, foliage feeders). A total of 1434 birds (46 species) were captured. Ticks were found on 94 birds (10 species). Significantly more migratory birds hosted ticks, compared to resident birds. The 400 collected ticks belonged to four species: Ixodes ricinus (92.25%), I. arboricola (6.25%), I. redikorzevi (1.00%) and Haemaphysalis punctata (0.50%). A higher prevalence was found for I. ricinus in spring, with higher prevalence of nymphs in this season, while larvae occurred with the same prevalence in both seasons. Larval intensity was higher during spring and nymphs were more abundant during autumn. The seasonal differences in our study may be related not to the local seasonal dynamics of ticks, but on the seasonal dynamics at the site of migration initiation. PMID:24586732

  3. Do the ticks of birds at an important migratory hotspot reflect the seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus at the migration initiation site? A case study in the Danube Delta.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; D'Amico, Gianluca; Gherman, Călin M; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds play important roles as distributors of ticks within and between continents. In the Old World, the most important migratory route of birds links Asia, Europe and Africa. During their migration, birds use various stopover sites, where they feed and rest and where ticks may attach or detach, creating new natural foci for vector-borne diseases. Danube Delta is one of the most important migration hotspots and so far no studies were focused on ticks of migratory birds herein. The aim of the present study was to assess the species diversity and seasonal dynamics of ticks parasitizing migratory birds in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Migratory birds were trapped on Grindul Lupilor (44°41'N; 28°56'E) using mist nets during 4 migratory seasons (2 spring and 2 autumn) in 2011 and 2012. From each bird, all the ticks were collected and identified based on morphological features. Epidemiological parameters (prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity) were calculated and all data were analysed statistically based on the season (spring and autumn), regional status of birds (migrants and breeding) and foraging behaviour (ground feeders, reed-bed feeders, foliage feeders). A total of 1434 birds (46 species) were captured. Ticks were found on 94 birds (10 species). Significantly more migratory birds hosted ticks, compared to resident birds. The 400 collected ticks belonged to four species: Ixodes ricinus (92.25%), I. arboricola (6.25%), I. redikorzevi (1.00%) and Haemaphysalis punctata (0.50%). A higher prevalence was found for I. ricinus in spring, with higher prevalence of nymphs in this season, while larvae occurred with the same prevalence in both seasons. Larval intensity was higher during spring and nymphs were more abundant during autumn. The seasonal differences in our study may be related not to the local seasonal dynamics of ticks, but on the seasonal dynamics at the site of migration initiation.

  4. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and ram horn peptone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdal, Murat; Gürkök, Sümeyra; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Kurbanoǧlu, Esabi Başaran

    2017-04-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are being explored as alternative low-cost nutrients for various bioprocesses. In this work, the applicability of ram horn peptone (RHP) and waste frying oil were investigated for rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The rhamnolipid yield was considerably influenced by the type of organic nitrogen source. Among the tested organic nitrogen sources, RHP proved to be the best nitrogen source for both biomass and rhamnolipid production. RHP was also tested at different concentrations and 10 g/L RHP resulted in the greatest yield of rhamnolipid (12.1 g/L) in the presence of waste frying oil as the sole carbon source. These results revealed that rhamnolipid could be produced efficiently and cost effectively by P. aeruginosa OG1 using RHP and waste frying oil.

  5. RsaOG, a new staphylococcal family of highly transcribed non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Marchais, Antonin; Bohn, Chantal; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The expression of trans-acting small RNAs in firmicutes has been poorly documented to date. This gap is being filled quickly in the genus Staphylococcus, which is both a model firmicute and an important human pathogen. Here we analyze RsaOG, a novel small RNA family specific to Staphylococcus and highly transcribed. This well conserved element, first discovered in a computational screen, was precisely mapped in the genome by RACE mapping and the identification of a putative transcriptional promoter. The proposed secondary structure presents two highly conserved unpaired sequences, part of which can form a pseudoknot. We suggest a possible involvement of the remaining conserved single stranded region in trans regulatory interactions.

  6. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe. The majority of human cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) occur in the north-eastern region of Italy. The aims of this study were to detect the occurrence of endemic and emergent pathogens in north-eastern Italy using adult tick screening, and to identify areas at risk of pathogen transmission. Based on our results, different strategies for tick collection and pathogen screening and their relative costs were evaluated and discussed. Methods From 2006 to 2008 adult ticks were collected in 31 sites and molecularly screened for the detection of pathogens previously reported in the same area (i.e., LB agents, TBE virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis"). Based on the results of this survey, three sampling strategies were evaluated a-posteriori, and the impact of each strategy on the final results and the overall cost reductions were analyzed. The strategies were as follows: tick collection throughout the year and testing of female ticks only (strategy A); collection from April to June and testing of all adult ticks (strategy B); collection from April to June and testing of female ticks only (strategy C). Results Eleven pathogens were detected in 77 out of 193 ticks collected in 14 sites. The most common microorganisms detected were Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (17.6%), Rickettsia helvetica (13.1%), and "Ca. N. mikurensis" (10.5%). Within the B. burgdorferi complex, four genotypes (i.e., B. valaisiana, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) were found. Less prevalent pathogens included R. monacensis (3.7%), TBE virus (2.1%), A. phagocytophilum (1.5%), Bartonella spp. (1%), and Babesia EU1 (0.5%). Co-infections by more than one pathogen were diagnosed in 22% of infected ticks. The prevalences of infection assessed using the

  7. Comparative Speed of Kill, Repellent (anti-feeding) and Acaricidal Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and a Fipronil/(S)-Methoprene/Eprinomectin/Praziquantel Spot-on (Broadline®) against Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) on Cats.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; de Vos, Christa; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina

    2015-08-01

    Speed of kill, repellent (anti-feeding) and acaricidal efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) /flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) and a spot-on formulation of fipronil 8.3 % (w/v) /(S)-methoprene 10 % (w/v) /eprinomectin 0.4 % (w/v) /praziquantel 8.3 % (w/v) (Broadline(®), Merial) against artificiallyinduced infestations with Ixodes ricinus on cats, were assessed in a parallel group design, randomised, controlled study. Twenty-four cats were included and randomly allocated to treatment groups or a non-treated control group. Starting on Day (D) 7 after treatment until D28, cats were each infested with 50 I. ricinus at weekly intervals. Ticks were counted in situ on the cats at 6, 12 and 24 h and upon removal 48 h after each infestation. Based on arithmetic means, Seresto(®) proved to be 100 % effective against adult I. ricinus at all assessment times (6, 12, 24 and 48 h after infestation) throughout the month-long study. Broadline(®) was 0 % to 16.7 % effective at 6 h, 26.8 % to 50.0 % effective at 12 h, while at 24 h after infestation efficacy peaked at 81.5 % on D15 declining to 31.5 % on D29. Based on the 48 h tick counts, the efficacy of Broadline(®) peaked at 100 % on D16 after treatment and decreased to 83.2 % by D30. The Seresto(®) collar provided significantly faster speed of kill and better persistent acaricidal effectiveness against Ixodes ricinus on cats compared to Broadline(®) spot-on. The additional repellent (anti-feeding) effect of Seresto(®) prevents parasites from taking a blood meal and thereby reduces the risk of vector-borne disease pathogen transmission.

  8. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  9. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  10. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional propert