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Sample records for riesgo para hantavirus

  1. [Hantaviruses and hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Dekonenko, A E; Tkachenko, E A

    2004-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HVRS) has been for decades a topical problem for healthcare systems of many countries in the Eurasian continent. Viruses triggering HVRS alongside with other related viruses (but not pathogenic to man) were discovered in 70-80-ies and formed a new genus Hantavirus of the Bunyaviridae family. The study results of a severe outbreak of the respiratory disease with the mortality rate of 60% (South-West of the USA, 1933) showed that hantaviruses were also among the causative agents. Later, the disease was designated as hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome. By now, it has been established that hantaviruses are wide spread with different rodents being their carriers. The discussed viruses cause, in rodents, a chronic asymptomatic infection and are transferred, later, to man by the aerogenic path through excretions of infected animals. Studies of hantaviruses have been restricted for a long time due to their high pathogenicity (protection equipment not below than the P-3 level is needed), because of a lack of a laboratory model of infected animals and because of a low growth in cell cultures. With the rapid development and application of molecular biological techniques of the recent years, substantial progress has been made in studies of hantaviruses. Different aspects of hantavirus ecology, molecular biology, morphology, pathogenesis and diagnostics are discussed in the offered survey.

  2. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  4. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region.

  5. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  6. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. PMID:24406800

  7. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  8. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  9. Hantaviruses and climate change.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B

    2009-06-01

    Most hantaviruses are rodent-borne emerging viruses. They cause two significant human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. Very recently, several novel hantaviruses with unknown pathogenic potential have been identified in Africa and in a variety of insectivores (shrews and a mole). Because there is very limited information available on the possible impact of climate change on all of these highly dangerous pathogens, it is timely to review this aspect of their epidemiology. It can reasonably be concluded that climate change should influence hantaviruses through impacts on the hantavirus reservoir host populations. We can anticipate changes in the size and frequency of hantavirus outbreaks, the spectrum of hantavirus species and geographical distribution (mediated by changes in population densities), and species composition and geographical distribution of their reservoir hosts. The early effects of global warming have already been observed in different geographical areas of Europe. Elevated average temperatures in West-Central Europe have been associated with more frequent Puumala hantavirus outbreaks, through high seed production (mast year) and high bank vole densities. On the other hand, warm winters in Scandinavia have led to a decline in vole populations as a result of the missing protective snow cover. Additional effects can be caused by increased intensity and frequency of extreme climatic events, or by changes in human behaviour leading to higher risk of human virus exposure. Regardless of the extent of climate change, it is difficult to predict the impact on hantavirus survival, emergence and epidemiology. Nevertheless, hantaviruses will undoubtedly remain a significant public health threat for several decades to come.

  10. Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Diagnosing HPS Diagnosing HPS in ... of patients that develop HPS from New World Hantaviruses recover completely. No chronic infection has been detected ...

  11. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Where HPS is Found Cases ... In the US and Canada, the Sin Nombre hantavirus is responsible for the majority of cases of ...

  12. Tula hantavirus in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Heyman, P; Klingström, J; de Jaegere, F; Leclercq, G; Rozenfeld, F; Escutenaire, S; Vandenvelde, C; Zizi, M; Plyusnin, A; Lundkvist, A

    2002-04-01

    European common voles (Microtus arvalis), captured in Belgium in 1999, were proven by molecular as well as by serological techniques to be infected with Tula hantavirus (TULV). This is the first evidence for the presence of TULV in this country. No indication of spill-over infections of Puumala virus, known to be highly endemic among bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) within the same geographical regions as the trapped TULV-infected common voles, was observed. Together with previous reports on the circulation of TULV in eastern/central Europe, this finding suggests a more wide-spread circulation of this hantavirus serotype throughout the continent. PMID:12002543

  13. Hantaviruses: Rediscovery and New Beginnings

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater®-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1,546 shrews (9 genera, 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera, 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980–2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:24412714

  14. Hantaviruses: rediscovery and new beginnings.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-07-17

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater(®)-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1546 shrews (9 genera and 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera and 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980-2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  15. Hantaviruses: rediscovery and new beginnings.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-07-17

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater(®)-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1546 shrews (9 genera and 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera and 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980-2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:24412714

  16. Hantaviruses--globally emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Song, Jin-Won; Klempa, Boris

    2015-03-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses which cause human disease in Africa, America, Asia, and Europe. This review summarizes the progress in hantavirus epidemiology and diagnostics during the previous decade. Moreover, we discuss the influence of ecological factors on the worldwide virus distribution and give an outlook on research perspectives for the next years.

  17. Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Guzmán, Camilo; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu

    2015-08-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. The viruses are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols of rodent excreta and secreta. Classic clinical hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurs in five phases: fever, hypotension, oliguria, polyuria, and convalescence. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe acute disease that is associated with respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. The diagnosis of hantavirus infections in humans is based on clinical and epidemiological information as well as laboratory tests. We review diagnosis for hantavirus infections based on serology, PCR, immunochemistry and virus culture.

  18. Reported Cases of HPS (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Reported Cases of HPS HPS in ... 6, 2016, a total of 690 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome have been reported in the United ...

  19. Uncovering the mysteries of hantavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2013-08-01

    Hantaviruses are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect many species of rodents, shrews, moles and bats. Infection in these reservoir hosts is almost asymptomatic, but some rodent-borne hantaviruses also infect humans, causing either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this Review, we discuss the basic molecular properties and cell biology of hantaviruses and offer an overview of virus-induced pathology, in particular vascular leakage and immunopathology.

  20. Uncovering the mysteries of hantavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2013-08-01

    Hantaviruses are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect many species of rodents, shrews, moles and bats. Infection in these reservoir hosts is almost asymptomatic, but some rodent-borne hantaviruses also infect humans, causing either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this Review, we discuss the basic molecular properties and cell biology of hantaviruses and offer an overview of virus-induced pathology, in particular vascular leakage and immunopathology. PMID:24020072

  1. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  2. Signs and Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Due to the small number ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  3. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic "capping activity". Hantaviruses therefore employ a "cap snatching" strategy acquiring short 5' RNA sequences bearing 5'cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses.

  4. Detection of different South American hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-12-01

    Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs.

  5. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic "capping activity". Hantaviruses therefore employ a "cap snatching" strategy acquiring short 5' RNA sequences bearing 5'cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576

  6. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U.; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576

  7. The evolution and emergence of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Hantaviruses are a major class of zoonotic pathogens and cause a variety of severe diseases in humans. For most of the last 50 years rodents have been considered to be the primary hosts of hantaviruses, with hantavirus evolution thought to reflect a process of virus-rodent co-divergence over a time-scale of millions of years, with occasional spill-over into humans. However, recent discoveries have revealed that hantaviruses infect a more diverse range of mammalian hosts, particularly Chiroptera (bats) and Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), and that cross-species transmission at multiple scales has played an important role in hantavirus evolution. As a consequence, the evolution and emergence of hantaviruses is more complex than previously anticipated, and may serve as a realistic model for other viral groups.

  8. The evolution and emergence of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Hantaviruses are a major class of zoonotic pathogens and cause a variety of severe diseases in humans. For most of the last 50 years rodents have been considered to be the primary hosts of hantaviruses, with hantavirus evolution thought to reflect a process of virus-rodent co-divergence over a time-scale of millions of years, with occasional spill-over into humans. However, recent discoveries have revealed that hantaviruses infect a more diverse range of mammalian hosts, particularly Chiroptera (bats) and Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), and that cross-species transmission at multiple scales has played an important role in hantavirus evolution. As a consequence, the evolution and emergence of hantaviruses is more complex than previously anticipated, and may serve as a realistic model for other viral groups. PMID:25562117

  9. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  10. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  11. Novel Insights on Hantavirus Evolution: The Dichotomy in Evolutionary Pressures Acting on Different Hantavirus Segments

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Sathish; Upadhyay, Mohita; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Vadivel, Kumaran; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Vivekanandan, Perumal; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses are important emerging zoonotic pathogens. The current understanding of hantavirus evolution is complicated by the lack of consensus on co-divergence of hantaviruses with their animal hosts. In addition, hantaviruses have long-term associations with their reservoir hosts. Analyzing the relative abundance of dinucleotides may shed new light on hantavirus evolution. We studied the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the evolutionary pressures shaping different hantavirus segments. Methods A total of 118 sequences were analyzed; this includes 51 sequences of the S segment, 43 sequences of the M segment and 23 sequences of the L segment. The relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), codon usage biases were analyzed. Standard methods were used to investigate the relative roles of mutational pressure and translational selection on the three hantavirus segments. Results All three segments of hantaviruses are CpG depleted. Mutational pressure is the predominant evolutionary force leading to CpG depletion among hantaviruses. Interestingly, the S segment of hantaviruses is GpU depleted and in contrast to CpG depletion, the depletion of GpU dinucleotides from the S segment is driven by translational selection. Our findings also suggest that mutational pressure is the primary evolutionary pressure acting on the S and the M segments of hantaviruses. While translational selection plays a key role in shaping the evolution of the L segment. Our findings highlight how different evolutionary pressures may contribute disproportionally to the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. These findings provide new insights on the current understanding of hantavirus evolution. Conclusions There is a dichotomy among evolutionary pressures shaping a) the relative abundance of different dinucleotides in hantavirus genomes b) the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. PMID:26193652

  12. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  13. Genetics of hantaviruses: implications to taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, A

    2002-04-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) represent a prime example of emerging viruses. Since isolation of the prototype Hantaan virus in the late 70s more than 20 new species have been described and the number is increasing fast thus demanding for a more refined classification. Taking into account that hantaviruses are difficult to isolate in cell culture, one should not be surprised that most of the "newcomers" were first described as distinct hantavirus genotypes. Moreover, the only "solid" characteristics of many hantavirus species still exist in the form of nucleotide sequences of their genome. The relatively short history of hantavirology can thus be taken to illustrate how genetics can contribute to (and even, perhaps, dominate) discovery, characterization and classification of viruses. In this review the following aspects of hantavirus genetics are discussed: (i) genome structure; (ii) genetic diversity and evolution; and (iii) use of genetic criteria in current taxonomy of hantaviruses. In addition, several examples of classification of hantavirus species (New York virus, Saaremaa virus and Hokkaido virus) are given, and future prospects are analyzed.

  14. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability. PMID:25566236

  15. Discovery of hantaviruses in bats and insectivores and the evolution of the genus Hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). From the period 1964-2006 almost all hantaviruses had been identified in rodents, with the exception of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) isolated from shrews sampled in India. As a consequence, rodents were considered as the natural reservoir hosts. However, over the past seven years, most of the newly found hantavirus genotypes have been from either shrews or moles. Remarkably, in recent years divergent hantaviruses have also been identified in bats sampled from both Africa and Asia. All these data indicate that hantaviruses have a broad range of natural reservoir hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the available sequences of hantaviruses suggest that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Although rodent hantaviruses cluster according to whether their hosts are members of the Murinae and Cricetidae, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, indicating that cross-species transmission events have occurred at all taxonomic levels. In sum, both cross-species transmission and co-divergence have produced the high genetic diversity of hantaviruses described to date.

  16. Discovery of hantaviruses in bats and insectivores and the evolution of the genus Hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). From the period 1964-2006 almost all hantaviruses had been identified in rodents, with the exception of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) isolated from shrews sampled in India. As a consequence, rodents were considered as the natural reservoir hosts. However, over the past seven years, most of the newly found hantavirus genotypes have been from either shrews or moles. Remarkably, in recent years divergent hantaviruses have also been identified in bats sampled from both Africa and Asia. All these data indicate that hantaviruses have a broad range of natural reservoir hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the available sequences of hantaviruses suggest that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Although rodent hantaviruses cluster according to whether their hosts are members of the Murinae and Cricetidae, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, indicating that cross-species transmission events have occurred at all taxonomic levels. In sum, both cross-species transmission and co-divergence have produced the high genetic diversity of hantaviruses described to date. PMID:24509342

  17. Hantavirus interferon regulation and virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Mackow, Erich R; Dalrymple, Nadine A; Cimica, Velasco; Matthys, Valery; Gorbunova, Elena; Gavrilovskaya, Irina

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses predominantly replicate in primary human endothelial cells and cause 2 diseases characterized by altered barrier functions of vascular endothelium. Most hantaviruses restrict the early induction of interferon-β (IFNβ) and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) within human endothelial cells to permit their successful replication. PHV fails to regulate IFN induction within human endothelial cells which self-limits PHV replication and its potential as a human pathogen. These findings, and the altered regulation of endothelial cell barrier functions by pathogenic hantaviruses, suggest that virulence is determined by the ability of hantaviruses to alter key signaling pathways within human endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that the Gn protein from ANDV, but not PHV, inhibits TBK1 directed ISRE, kB and IFNβ induction through virulence determinants in the Gn cytoplasmic tail (GnT) that inhibit TBK1 directed IRF3 phosphorylation. Further studies indicate that in response to hypoxia induced VEGF, ANDV infection enhances the permeability and adherens junction internalization of microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. These hypoxia/VEGF directed responses are rapamycin sensitive and directed by mTOR signaling pathways. These results demonstrate the presence of at least two hantavirus virulence determinants that act on endothelial cell signaling pathways: one that regulates antiviral IFN signaling responses, and a second that enhances normal hypoxia-VEGF-mTOR signaling pathways to facilitate endothelial cell permeability. These findings suggest signaling pathways as potential targets for therapeutic regulation of vascular deficits that contribute to hantavirus diseases and viral protein targets for attenuating pathogenic hantaviruses.

  18. Genetic diversity of hantaviruses in Mexico: identification of three novel hantaviruses from Neotominae rodents.

    PubMed

    Kariwa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Haruka; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz, María de Lourdes; Almazán-Catalán, José Alberto; Ramos, Celso; Miyashita, Daisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Takano, Ayako; Totani, Masashi; Murata, Ryo; Saasa, Ngonda; Ishizuka, Mariko; Sanada, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-02-01

    A variety of hantaviruses are harbored by rodents in North and South America, some of which can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. To obtain greater evolutionary insight into hantaviruses in the Americas, a total of 211 rodents were captured in the Mexican states of Guerrero and Morelos in 2006. Anti-hantavirus antibodies were detected in 27 of 211 serum samples (12.8%) by ELISA. The distribution of seropositive rodents was: 17 Peromyscus beatae, 1 Megadontomys thomasi, 1 Neotoma picta, 6 Reithrodontomys sumichrasti, and 2 Reithrodontomys megalotis. The hantavirus small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments from P. beatae, R. sumichrasti, and R. megalotis were amplified and the sequences covering the open reading frames were determined. The hantaviruses from P. beatae, R. sumichrasti, and R. megalotis were provisionally designated Montano (MTN), Carrizal (CAR), and Huitzilac (HUI), respectively. The M segment amino acid identities among the Mexican hantaviruses were 80.8-93.0%. When these M segments were compared to those of known hantaviruses, MTN virus was most closely related to Limestone Canyon (LSC) virus (88.9% amino acid identity), while the CAR and HUI viruses were most closely related to El Moro Canyon (ELMC) virus (90-91% identity). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MTN, CAR, and HUI viruses occupy a monophyletic clade with the LSC, ELMC, and Rio Segundo viruses, which are harbored by Peromyscus boylii, R. megalotis, and Reithrodontomys mexicanus, respectively. The data obtained in this study provide important information for understanding the evolution of hantaviruses in the Americas.

  19. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Shannon N.; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  20. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  1. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  2. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    PubMed

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future. PMID:26795222

  3. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    PubMed

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  4. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a concise clinical review.

    PubMed

    Vinh, Donald C; Embil, John M

    2009-06-01

    In 1978, hantaviruses were first described as the etiological agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Korea. Since then, numerous related, enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses have been identified, forming the genus Hantavirus within the family Bunyaviridae. These pathogens are distributed worldwide and thus can be classified, on the basis of phylogenetic origins, into Old World viruses or New World viruses (ie North, Central, and South America). Similarly, these viruses cause two major types of syndromes, corresponding respectively to their phylogenies: the original HFRS or the more recently described hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). As the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is the primary hantaviral disease in North America, it will thus be the focus of this review. PMID:19434035

  5. Factors driving hantavirus emergence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reusken, Chantal; Heyman, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. In Europe both the amplitude and the magnitude of outbreaks of HFRS have increased. The mechanisms that drive the incidences are complex and multi-factorial and only partially due to increased awareness and improved diagnostic tools. Risk determinants include reservoir ecology, virus ecology and anthropogenic factors. The dogma of one specific rodent species as primordial reservoir for a specific hantavirus is increasingly challenged. New hantaviruses have been discovered in shrews, moles and bats and increasing evidence points at host-switching events and co-circulation in multiple, sympatric reservoir species, challenging the strict rodent-virus co-evolution theory. Changing landscape attributes and climatic parameters determine fluctuations in hantavirus epidemiology, for instance through increased food availability, prolonged virus survival and decreased biodiversity. PMID:23384818

  6. Meeting report: Tenth International Conference on Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Vaheri, Antti; LeDuc, James W; Krüger, Detlev H; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Arikawa, Jiro; Song, Jin-Won; Markotić, Alemka; Clement, Jan; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin; Yashina, Liudmila N; Jonsson, Colleen B; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2016-09-01

    The 10th International Conference on Hantaviruses, organized by the International Society on Hantaviruses, was held from May 31-June 3, 2016 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. These conferences have been held every three years since 1980. The current report summarizes research presented on all aspects of hantavirology: ecology and epidemiology, virus replication, phylogeny, pathogenesis, immune response, clinical studies, vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:27544703

  7. Hantaviruses and cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Souza, William Marciel de; Ferrés, Marcela; Enria, Delia Alcira

    2014-07-17

    Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging health problem in South America due to urban growth and to the expansion of agriculture and cattle-raising areas into ecosystems containing most of the species of Sigmodontinae rodents that act as hantavirus reservoirs. About 4000 HCPS cases have been reported in South America up to 2013, associated with the following hantaviruses: Andes, Anajatuba, Araraquara (ARQV), Paranoá, Bermejo, Castelo dos Sonhos, Juquitiba, Araucária, Laguna Negra, Lechiguanas, Maripa, Oran, Rio Mamore and Tunari. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by contact with or through aerosols of excreta and secretions of infected rodents. Person-to-person transmission of hantavirus has also been reported in Argentina and Chile. HCPS courses with a capillary leaking syndrome produced by the hantavirus infecting lung endothelial cells and mostly with a severe inflammatory process associated with a cytokine storm. HCPS starts as a dengue-like acute febrile illness but after about 3 days progresses to respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock, leading to a high fatality rate that reaches 50% for patients infected with ARQV.

  8. Novel hantavirus identified in black-bearded tomb bats, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wu, Jianmin; He, Biao; Qin, Shaomin; Xia, Lele; Qin, Minchao; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-04-01

    Hantaviruses cause life-threatening diseases in human worldwide. Rodents, insectivores and bats are known hantaviral reservoirs, but lack of complete genomic sequences of bat-borne hantaviruses impedes phylogenetic and evolutionary comparison with those of rodents and insectivores. Here, a novel bat-borne hantavirus, Laibin virus (LBV), has been identified in a black-bearded tomb bat in China. The complete genomic sequence shows that LBV is only distantly related to all previously known bat-borne hantaviruses.

  9. Serological diagnosis with recombinant N antigen for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are causative agents of two rodent-borne zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Serological examinations to detect hantavirus antibodies have been most widely used for surveillance among humans and rodent reservoirs. Here, we will review antigenic structure of nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses and application of recombinant N protein as diagnostic antigen for screening and serotyping.

  10. Novel hantavirus identified in black-bearded tomb bats, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wu, Jianmin; He, Biao; Qin, Shaomin; Xia, Lele; Qin, Minchao; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-04-01

    Hantaviruses cause life-threatening diseases in human worldwide. Rodents, insectivores and bats are known hantaviral reservoirs, but lack of complete genomic sequences of bat-borne hantaviruses impedes phylogenetic and evolutionary comparison with those of rodents and insectivores. Here, a novel bat-borne hantavirus, Laibin virus (LBV), has been identified in a black-bearded tomb bat in China. The complete genomic sequence shows that LBV is only distantly related to all previously known bat-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25643870

  11. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  12. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles.

  13. Characterization of hantaviruses circulating in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo-Silva, Carolina R; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Bisordi, Ivani; Suzuki, Akemi; Brigido, Marcelo M

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, an outbreak of HCPS in Brazil made hantaviruses a national threat to the rural and urban population. During this outbreak, 164 cases were reported, and 18.3% of them occurred in the Federal District. In this study, hantavirus genomic sequences were amplified from seven patients who resided in Central Brazil and then sequenced and compared to other hantavirus sequences. The complete S segment sequence, which is 1847 bases long and potentially encodes the 428 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, was determined for one patient. Moreover, a 700 base-pair sequence of the S segment was obtained from two other patients, and we analyzed M segment sequences from all samples. It can be inferred by both identity and phylogenetic analysis that the sequences obtained are highly related to Araraquara variant and Maciel virus. Phylogenetic results show that hantaviruses isolated in Central Brazil can be divided into two monophyletic groups: one group that clusters with Araraquara variant and the other group that includes the complete S segment sequence obtained in this study. Therefore, we propose the name Paranoa for this variant that co-exists with the Araraquara-like hantavirus in Central Brazil.

  14. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats.

  15. Discovery of hantaviruses and of the Hantavirus genus: personal and historical perspectives of the Presidents of the International Society of Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Wang; Vaheri, Antti; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2014-07-17

    We three authors, the two past presidents (HWL and AV) and the current president (CSS) of the International Society for Hantaviruses (ISH) have attended most of the nine International Conferences on HFRS, HPS and Hantaviruses (Table 1). These conferences have provided a forum for a synergistic group of clinicians, basic researchers, mammalogists, epidemiologists and ecologists to share their expertise and interests in all aspects of hantavirus research. Much of what is now hantavirus dogma was only conjecture when HWL organized the first conference in Seoul, Korea in 1989. Herein, we provide our reflections on key events in hantavirus research. As we come from distinct areas of the world and have had individual historical experiences, we certainly have our own geocentric opinions about the key events. Nevertheless, we agree that the discovery of hantaviruses has taken an interesting and unpredictable track to where we are today.

  16. Hantavirus

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they breathe in contaminated dust from mice nests or droppings. You may come in contact with ... the building for another 30 minutes. Spray mouse nests and droppings with a 10% solution of chlorine ...

  17. Genetic detection of hantaviruses in rodents, Albania.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Rogozi, Elton; Velo, Enkelejda; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Bino, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In order to have a first insight into the epidemiology of hantaviruses in Albania, 263 small mammals (248 rodents, 15 insectivores) were captured in 352 locations in 29 districts and tested for hantavirus infection. Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) was detected in 10 of 148 (6.7%) Apodemus flavicollis rodents. DOBV-positive A. flavicollis were detected in six districts (Diber, Korce, Kolonje, Librazhd, Pogradec, and Vlore). The obtained nucleotide sequences were highly similar to each other and to DOBV sequences from northwestern Greece. Understanding the epidemiology of hantaviruses and identifying the endemic foci enables the public health strategies to minimize the risk of human infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1309-1313, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27249068

  18. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Pooja R.; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27688634

  19. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Pooja R; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-09-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27688634

  20. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Pooja R.; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts. PMID:27051047

  3. Hantaviral Proteins: Structure, Functions, and Role in Hantavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muyangwa, Musalwa; Martynova, Ekaterina V.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular Hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or in Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. In the past few years, clinical cases of the Hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the Hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins are critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the Hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins. PMID:26640463

  4. Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology.

  5. Phylogeography and evolutionary history of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Souza, W M; Bello, G; Amarilla, A A; Alfonso, H L; Aquino, V H; Figueiredo, L T M

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus (Family Bunyaviridae) are mostly associated to rodents and transmitted to man by inhalation of aerosolized infected excreta of these animals. The human infection by hantaviruses can lead to severe diseases such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Asia and Europe, and pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas. To determine the origin, spreading and evolutionary dynamics of rodent-borne hantaviruses, 190 sequences of nucleoprotein (N) of hantaviruses identified in 30 countries, from 1985 to 2010, were retrieved from the GenBank and analyzed using the BEAST program. Our evolutionary analysis indicates that current genetic diversity of N gene of rodent-borne hantaviruses probably was originated around 2000 years ago. Hantavirus harbored by Murinae and Arvicolinae subfamilies, probably, were originated in Asia 500-700 years ago and later spread toward Siberia, Europe, Africa and North America. Hantavirus carried by Neotominae subfamily, probably, emerged 500-600 years ago in Central America and spread toward North America. Finally, hantaviruses associated to Sigmodontinae occurred in Brazil 400 years ago and were, probably, originated from Neotominae-associated virus from northern South America. These data offer subsidies to understand the time-scale and worldwide dissemination dynamics of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  6. Differential Lymphocyte and Antibody Responses in Deer Mice Infected with Sin Nombre Hantavirus or Andes Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection

  7. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific.

  8. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus)

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J.; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific. PMID:26186516

  9. Hantaviruses in Finnish soricomorphs: evidence for two distinct hantaviruses carried by Sorex araneus suggesting ancient host-switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Hepojoki, Satu; Niemimaa, Jukka; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-10-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses carried by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles) and bats. In Finland, Puumala virus (PUUV) was for years the only hantavirus detected. In 2009, however, Seewis virus (SWSV) was reported from archival common shrew (Sorex araneus) samples collected in 1982 in Finland. To elucidate the diversity of hantaviruses in soricomorphs in Finland, 180 individuals were screened, representing seven species captured from 2001 to 2012: hantavirus RNA was screened using RT-PCR, and hantaviral antigen using immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against truncated SWSV nucleocapsid protein. The overall hantavirus RNA prevalence was 14% (26/180), antigen could be demonstrated in 9 of 20 SWSV RT-PCR positive common shrews. Genetic analyses revealed that four soricomorph-borne hantaviruses circulate in Finland, including Boginia virus (BOGV) in water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and Asikkala virus (ASIV) in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus). Interestingly, on two study sites, common shrews harbored strains of two different hantaviruses: Seewis virus and a new distinct, genetically distant (identity 57% at amino acid level) virus (Altai-like virus) which clusters together with viruses in the basal phylogroup I of hantaviruses with 62-67% identity at amino acid level. This is the first evidence of coexistence of two clearly distinct hantavirus species circulating simultaneously in one host species population. The findings suggest an ancient host-switching event from a yet unknown host to S. araneus. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of partial S and M segment sequences showed that SWSV in Finland represents a unique genotype in Europe.

  10. Spatial spread of the Hantavirus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinoso, José A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier

    2015-03-01

    The spatial propagation of Hantavirus-infected mice is considered a serious threat for public health. We analyze the spatial spread of the infected mice by including diffusion in the stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection recently proposed by Reinoso and de la Rubia [Phys. Rev. E 87, 042706 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.042706]. We consider a general scenario in which mice propagate in fronts from their refugia to the surroundings and find an expression for the speed of the front of infected mice. We also introduce a depletion time that measures the time scale for an appreciable impoverishment of the environment conditions and show how this new situation may change the spreading of the infection significantly.

  11. Hantavirus fever without pulmonary syndrome in Panama.

    PubMed

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns in the Hantavirus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, G.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a model of the infection of Hantavirus in deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, based on biological observations of the system in the North American Southwest. The results of the analysis shed light on relevant observations of the biological system, such as the sporadical disappearance of the infection, and the existence of foci or ``refugia'' that perform as reservoirs of the virus when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  13. Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buceta, J.; Escudero, C.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-02-01

    Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.

  14. Tula Hantavirus Infection in Immunocompromised Host, Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mrázek, Jakub; Kuhn, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    We report molecular evidence of Tula hantavirus as an etiologic agent of pulmonary-renal syndrome in an immunocompromised patient. Acute hantavirus infection was confirmed by using serologic and molecular methods. Sequencing revealed Tula virus genome RNA in the patient’s blood. This case shows that Tula virus can cause serious disease in humans. PMID:24209605

  15. Dynamics of hantavirus infection in Peromyscus leucopus of central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Luong, Lien T; Vigliotti, Beth A; Campbell, Shelley; Comer, James A; Mills, James N; Hudson, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed throughout the United States and are the etiologic agents for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Hantavirus genotypes and epidemiologic patterns vary spatially across the United States. While several longitudinal studies have been performed in the western United States, little is known about the virus in the eastern United States. We undertook a longitudinal study of hantaviruses in the primary rodent reservoir host in central Pennsylvania, Peromyscus leucopus. Prevalence of hantavirus antibodies varied both by year and site, but was not correlated with host abundance. Males were significantly more likely to have antibodies to a hantavirus than females, and both antibody sero-conversion and antibody prevalence increased with mass class (indicator for age). Our findings suggest that one or more hantaviruses are present and circulating among P. leucopus of central Pennsylvania, and understanding the dynamics in this region could help prevent zoonotic transmission to humans. Our aim was to describe the differences in epizootiology of hantavirus infection in rodents from various geographical locations to enable improved analysis of the risk of rodent-to-human transmission and obtain insights that may indicate improved means of disease intervention. PMID:21756028

  16. Dynamics of hantavirus infection in Peromyscus leucopus of central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Luong, Lien T; Vigliotti, Beth A; Campbell, Shelley; Comer, James A; Mills, James N; Hudson, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed throughout the United States and are the etiologic agents for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Hantavirus genotypes and epidemiologic patterns vary spatially across the United States. While several longitudinal studies have been performed in the western United States, little is known about the virus in the eastern United States. We undertook a longitudinal study of hantaviruses in the primary rodent reservoir host in central Pennsylvania, Peromyscus leucopus. Prevalence of hantavirus antibodies varied both by year and site, but was not correlated with host abundance. Males were significantly more likely to have antibodies to a hantavirus than females, and both antibody sero-conversion and antibody prevalence increased with mass class (indicator for age). Our findings suggest that one or more hantaviruses are present and circulating among P. leucopus of central Pennsylvania, and understanding the dynamics in this region could help prevent zoonotic transmission to humans. Our aim was to describe the differences in epizootiology of hantavirus infection in rodents from various geographical locations to enable improved analysis of the risk of rodent-to-human transmission and obtain insights that may indicate improved means of disease intervention.

  17. Sympatry of 2 hantavirus strains, paraguay, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yong Kyu; Goodin, Douglas; Owen, Robert D; Koch, David; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2009-12-01

    To explore geographic and host-taxonomic patterns of hantaviruses in Paraguay, we established sampling sites in the Mbaracayu Biosphere Reserve. We detected Jabora virus and Itapua37/Juquitiba-related virus in locations approximately 20 m apart in different years, which suggested sympatry of 2 distinct hantaviruses.

  18. Hantavirus in Indian Country: The First Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Hantavirus, caused due to close contact with mice in a dwelling, first emerged in the spring of 1993 on the Navajo Reservation and although it is by no means an Indian disease, there are four times as many cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) among non-Indians. Inadequate rural housing, especially common in western Indian Country,…

  19. Dynamics of Hantavirus Infection in Peromyscus leucopus of Central Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Vigliotti, Beth A.; Campbell, Shelley; Comer, James A.; Mills, James N.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hantaviruses are distributed throughout the United States and are the etiologic agents for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Hantavirus genotypes and epidemiologic patterns vary spatially across the United States. While several longitudinal studies have been performed in the western United States, little is known about the virus in the eastern United States. We undertook a longitudinal study of hantaviruses in the primary rodent reservoir host in central Pennsylvania, Peromyscus leucopus. Prevalence of hantavirus antibodies varied both by year and site, but was not correlated with host abundance. Males were significantly more likely to have antibodies to a hantavirus than females, and both antibody sero-conversion and antibody prevalence increased with mass class (indicator for age). Our findings suggest that one or more hantaviruses are present and circulating among P. leucopus of central Pennsylvania, and understanding the dynamics in this region could help prevent zoonotic transmission to humans. Our aim was to describe the differences in epizootiology of hantavirus infection in rodents from various geographical locations to enable improved analysis of the risk of rodent-to-human transmission and obtain insights that may indicate improved means of disease intervention. PMID:21756028

  20. Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

  1. Sympatry of 2 Hantavirus Strains, Paraguay, 2003–2007

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yong-Kyu; Goodin, Douglas; Owen, Robert D.; Koch, David

    2009-01-01

    To explore geographic and host-taxonomic patterns of hantaviruses in Paraguay, we established sampling sites in the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve. We detected Jaborá virus and Itapúa37/Juquitiba–related virus in locations ≈20 m apart in different years, which suggested sympatry of 2 distinct hantaviruses. PMID:19961679

  2. Incidence Rate for Hantavirus Infections without Pulmonary Syndrome, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Munoz, Carlos; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Kook L.; Avila, Mario; Broce, Candida; Armien, Anibal G.; Gracia, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian

    2011-01-01

    During 2001–2007, to determine incidence of all hantavirus infections, including those without pulmonary syndrome, in western Panama, we conducted 11 communitywide surveys. Among 1,129 persons, antibody prevalence was 16.5%–60.4%. Repeat surveys of 476 found that patients who seroconverted outnumbered patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by 14 to 1. PMID:22000376

  3. Expanded Host Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Gu, Se Hun

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

  4. Expanded host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  5. Expanded host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24741077

  6. Antigenic Properties of N Protein of Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus causes two important rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. Twenty-four species that represent sero- and genotypes have been registered within the genus Hantavirus by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Among the viral proteins, nucleocapsid (N) protein possesses an immunodominant antigen. The antigenicitiy of N protein is conserved compared with that of envelope glycoproteins. Therefore, N protein has been used for serological diagnoses and seroepidemiological studies. An understanding of the antigenic properties of N protein is important for the interpretation of results from serological tests using N antigen. N protein consists of about 430 amino acids and possesses various epitopes. The N-terminal quarter of N protein bears linear and immunodominant epitopes. However, a serotype-specific and multimerization-dependent antigenic site was found in the C-terminal half of N protein. In this paper, the structure, function, and antigenicity of N protein are reviewed. PMID:25123683

  7. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  8. Hantavirus immunology of rodent reservoirs: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schountz, Tony; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-03-14

    Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  9. Hantavirus infection among wild small mammals in Vellore, south India.

    PubMed

    Chandy, S; Ulrich, R G; Schlegel, M; Petraityte, R; Sasnauskas, K; Prakash, D J; Balraj, V; Abraham, P; Sridharan, G

    2013-08-01

    Wild indigenous small mammals including 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats, and house mice) and a shrew captured from multiple sites in Vellore, south India, were tested for serological and molecular evidence of hantavirus infection. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Hantaan virus (HTNV) antigen indicated hantavirus-reactive antibodies in 16 (19.3%) of 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats). Western blot (WB) using Thailand virus (THAIV) antigen confirmed hantavirus-reactive antibodies in nine of the 16 HTNV IFA-positive rodents. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of lung and kidney tissue of captured mammals resulted in the detection of partial S segment sequence in a bandicoot rat. This study complements our earlier reports on hantavirus epidemiology in south India and documents first laboratory evidence for rodent-associated hantaviruses in south India.

  10. Hantavirus immunology of rodent reservoirs: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schountz, Tony; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships. PMID:24638205

  11. Hantavirus infection among wild small mammals in Vellore, south India.

    PubMed

    Chandy, S; Ulrich, R G; Schlegel, M; Petraityte, R; Sasnauskas, K; Prakash, D J; Balraj, V; Abraham, P; Sridharan, G

    2013-08-01

    Wild indigenous small mammals including 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats, and house mice) and a shrew captured from multiple sites in Vellore, south India, were tested for serological and molecular evidence of hantavirus infection. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Hantaan virus (HTNV) antigen indicated hantavirus-reactive antibodies in 16 (19.3%) of 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats). Western blot (WB) using Thailand virus (THAIV) antigen confirmed hantavirus-reactive antibodies in nine of the 16 HTNV IFA-positive rodents. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of lung and kidney tissue of captured mammals resulted in the detection of partial S segment sequence in a bandicoot rat. This study complements our earlier reports on hantavirus epidemiology in south India and documents first laboratory evidence for rodent-associated hantaviruses in south India. PMID:22856552

  12. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  13. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gaweł, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-07-01

    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified.

  14. Surveillance of Hantaviruses in Poland: A Study of Animal Reservoirs and Human Hantavirus Disease in Subcarpathia

    PubMed Central

    Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gaweł, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava–Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava–Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

  15. Hantaviruses direct endothelial cell permeability by sensitizing cells to the vascular permeability factor VEGF, while angiopoietin 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibit hantavirus-directed permeability.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Natalie A; Mackow, Erich R

    2008-06-01

    Hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infection alone does not permeabilize endothelial cell monolayers. However, pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the function of alphav beta3 integrins on endothelial cells, and hemorrhagic disease and vascular permeability deficits are consequences of dysfunctional beta3 integrins that normally regulate permeabilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) responses. Here we show that pathogenic Hantaan, Andes, and New York-1 hantaviruses dramatically enhance the permeability of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, while the nonpathogenic hantaviruses Prospect Hill and Tula have no effect on endothelial cell permeability. Pathogenic hantaviruses directed endothelial cell permeability 2 to 3 days postinfection, coincident with pathogenic hantavirus inhibition of alphav beta3 integrin functions, and hantavirus-directed permeability was inhibited by antibodies to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). These studies demonstrate that pathogenic hantaviruses, similar to alphav beta3 integrin-deficient cells, specifically enhance VEGF-directed permeabilizing responses. Using the hantavirus permeability assay we further demonstrate that the endothelial-cell-specific growth factor angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and the platelet-derived lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibit hantavirus directed endothelial cell permeability at physiologic concentrations. These results demonstrate the utility of a hantavirus permeability assay and rationalize the testing of Ang-1, S1P, and antibodies to VEGFR2 as potential hantavirus therapeutics. The central importance of beta3 integrins and VEGF responses in vascular leak and hemorrhagic disease further suggest that altering beta3 or VEGF responses may be a common feature of additional viral hemorrhagic diseases. As a result, our findings provide a potential mechanism

  16. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats. PMID:26078322

  17. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection among Bats in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats. PMID:26078322

  18. Diversity and distribution of hantaviruses in South America.

    PubMed

    Firth, Cadhla; Tokarz, Rafal; Simith, Darlene B; Nunes, Marcio R T; Bhat, Meera; Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Palacios, Gustavo; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Lipkin, W Ian

    2012-12-01

    Hantaviruses are important contributors to disease burden in the New World, yet many aspects of their distribution and dynamics remain uncharacterized. To examine the patterns and processes that influence the diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in South America, we performed genetic and phylogeographic analyses of all available South American hantavirus sequences. We sequenced multiple novel and previously described viruses (Anajatuba, Laguna Negra-like, two genotypes of Castelo dos Sonhos, and two genotypes of Rio Mamore) from Brazilian Oligoryzomys rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and identified a previously uncharacterized species of Oligoryzomys associated with a new genotype of Rio Mamore virus. Our analysis indicates that the majority of South American hantaviruses fall into three phylogenetic clades, corresponding to Andes and Andes-like viruses, Laguna Negra and Laguna Negra-like viruses, and Rio Mamore and Rio Mamore-like viruses. In addition, the dynamics and distribution of these viruses appear to be shaped by both the geographic proximity and phylogenetic relatedness of their rodent hosts. The current system of nomenclature used in the hantavirus community is a significant impediment to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of hantaviruses; here, we suggest strict adherence to a modified taxonomic system, with species and strain designations resembling the numerical system of the enterovirus genus.

  19. Potential Geographic Distribution of Hantavirus Reservoirs in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin. PMID:24391989

  20. Shared Ancestry between a Newfound Mole-Borne Hantavirus and Hantaviruses Harbored by Cricetid Rodents ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

  1. Analysis of the nucleocapsid gene brings new insights to the classification of Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Souza, William M; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M

    2014-09-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, are the causative agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America. Hantaviruses are currently classified into species based on the guidelines provided by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. However, a new taxonomic system was proposed recently to classify Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses, which are divided currently into three phylogenetic clades corresponding to Andes, Laguna Negra, and Rio Mamore. Analyzing complete nucleocapsid gene sequences of all Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses, we propose the addition of a new clade and a fourth group to the already established Andes clade, allowing a better classification of the Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses.

  2. Puumala and Tula hantaviruses in France.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Deter, Julie; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2007-10-01

    The first genome sequences of Tula (TULV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses undoubtedly originated from France were recovered from tissue samples of European common voles and bank voles captured in Jura region. Genetic analysis of S and M segments of French PUUV strain revealed its highest similarity to strains from neighboring Belgium and Germany and also from Slovakia. On phylogenetic trees, French PUUV strain was placed within the central European lineage formed by strains from these three countries. Both of our French TULV strains clustered together and formed a distinct, well-supported genetic lineage. PMID:17532080

  3. Hantaviruses in Finnish soricomorphs: evidence for two distinct hantaviruses carried by Sorex araneus suggesting ancient host-switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Hepojoki, Satu; Niemimaa, Jukka; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-10-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses carried by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles) and bats. In Finland, Puumala virus (PUUV) was for years the only hantavirus detected. In 2009, however, Seewis virus (SWSV) was reported from archival common shrew (Sorex araneus) samples collected in 1982 in Finland. To elucidate the diversity of hantaviruses in soricomorphs in Finland, 180 individuals were screened, representing seven species captured from 2001 to 2012: hantavirus RNA was screened using RT-PCR, and hantaviral antigen using immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against truncated SWSV nucleocapsid protein. The overall hantavirus RNA prevalence was 14% (26/180), antigen could be demonstrated in 9 of 20 SWSV RT-PCR positive common shrews. Genetic analyses revealed that four soricomorph-borne hantaviruses circulate in Finland, including Boginia virus (BOGV) in water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and Asikkala virus (ASIV) in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus). Interestingly, on two study sites, common shrews harbored strains of two different hantaviruses: Seewis virus and a new distinct, genetically distant (identity 57% at amino acid level) virus (Altai-like virus) which clusters together with viruses in the basal phylogroup I of hantaviruses with 62-67% identity at amino acid level. This is the first evidence of coexistence of two clearly distinct hantavirus species circulating simultaneously in one host species population. The findings suggest an ancient host-switching event from a yet unknown host to S. araneus. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of partial S and M segment sequences showed that SWSV in Finland represents a unique genotype in Europe. PMID:24997334

  4. Hantavirus Fever without Pulmonary Syndrome in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  5. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers. PMID:16623730

  6. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, G.; Pini, N.; Bolpe, J.; Levis, S.; Mills, J.; Segura, E.; Guthmann, N.; Cantoni, G.; Becker, J.; Fonollat, A.; Ripoll, C.; Bortman, M.; Benedetti, R.; Enria, D.

    1999-01-01

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites in three disease-endemic areas. Antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus was found in six species, including the known hantavirus reservoir species. Risk for peridomestic exposure to host species that carry recognized human pathogens was high in all three major disease-endemic areas. PMID:10603213

  7. First human isolate of Hantavirus (Andes virus) in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Galeno, Hector; Mora, Judith; Villagra, Eliecer; Fernandez, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Mertz, Gregory J; Ramirez, Eugenio

    2002-07-01

    We isolated Andes virus (formal name: Andes virus [ANDV], a species in the genus Hantavirus), from serum of an asymptomatic 10-year-old Chilean boy who died 6 days later of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The serum was obtained 12 days after his grandmother died from HPS and 2 days before he became febrile. No hantavirus immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgM antibodies were detected in the serum sample. After three blind passages, ANDV antigens were detected in Vero E6 cells by immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and ANDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A fragment of the virus genome showed 96.2% nucleotide identity with that of prototype ANDV. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of any agent of hemorrhagic fever with HPS from a human and the first such isolation of hantavirus before symptoms of that syndrome or HPS began.

  8. Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St. Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Barquez, Ruben M.; Enria, Delia

    2003-01-01

    We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)–endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats. PMID:14519242

  9. Recent evidence of hantavirus circulation in the American tropic.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan D

    2014-03-14

    Hantaan virus was discovered in Korea during the 1970s while other similar viruses were later reported in Asia and Europe. There was no information about hantavirus human infection in the Americas until 1993 when an outbreak was described in the United States. This event promoted new studies to find hantaviruses in the Americas. At first, many studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay, while other Latin American countries began to report the presence of these agents towards the end of the 20th century. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil). However there was an important outbreak in 2000 in Panama and some rare events have been described in Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Since hantaviruses have only recently emerged as a potential threat in the tropical zones of the Americas, this review compiles recent hantavirus reports in Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern region of South America. These studies have generated the discovery of new hantaviruses and could help to anticipate the presentation of possible future outbreaks in the region.

  10. Kinship, dispersal and hantavirus transmission in bank and common voles.

    PubMed

    Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Galan, M; Gauffre, B; Morand, S; Henttonen, H; Laakkonen, J; Voutilainen, L; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J-F

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the main emerging infectious agents in Europe. Their mode of transmission in natura is still not well known. In particular, social features and behaviours could be crucial for understanding the persistence and the spread of hantaviruses in rodent populations. Here, we investigated the importance of kinclustering and dispersal in hantavirus transmission by combining a fine-scale spatiotemporal survey (4 km2) and a population genetics approach. Two specific host-hantavirus systems were identified and monitored: the bank vole Myodes, earlier Clethrionomys glareolus--Puumala virus and the common vole Microtus arvalis--Tula virus. Sex, age and landscape characteristics significantly influenced the spatial distribution of infections in voles. The absence of temporal stability in the spatial distributions of viruses suggested that dispersal is likely to play a role in virus propagation. Analysing vole kinship from microsatellite markers, we found that infected voles were more closely related to each other than non-infected ones. Winter kin-clustering, shared colonies within matrilineages or delayed dispersal could explain this pattern. These two last results hold, whatever the host-hantavirus system considered. This supports the roles of relatedness and dispersal as general features for hantavirus transmission.

  11. How to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are carried by rodents and insectivores in which they cause persistent and generally asymptomatic infections. Several hantaviruses can infect humans and many of them cause either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. In humans hantavirus infections are diagnosed using IgM-capture tests but also by RT-PCR detection of viral RNA. For detection of hantavirus infections in rodents and insectivores, serology followed by immunoblotting of, for example, lung tissue, and RT-PCR detection of viral RNA may be used, and if of interest followed by sequencing and virus isolation. For sero/genotyping of hantavirus infections in humans and carrier animals neutralisation tests/RNA sequencing are required. Hantaviruses are prime examples of emerging and re-emerging infections and it seems likely that many new hantaviruses will be detected in the near future.

  12. A new natural reservoir of hantavirus: isolation of hantaviruses from lung tissues of bats.

    PubMed

    Kim, G R; Lee, Y T; Park, C H

    1994-01-01

    Two species of bats were confirmed as new natural reservoirs of hantavirus. Antibodies to Hantaan virus were detected in 3.40% (23 of 677) of bats captured from 1989 to 1992 in Korea by the IFA technique. Areal distribution of immunofluorescent antibody were different, and seropositive rates were much high in sera of bats captured in summer (3.82%) and winter (5.82%). Viral antigens were observed in the lungs (3 of 16) and kidney (1 of 7). Two hantaviruses were isolated from lung tissues of E. serotinus and R. ferrum-equinum through a cell culture system, designated CUMC-92B8 and -92B48, respectively. Using Rous associated virus-2 reverse transcriptase-directed PCR and 2 oligonucleotide primer pairs, genomic sequences of the isolates were amplified. Amplified products of the isolates and reactivities to monoclonal antibodies very closely resembled those of Hantaan virus. These data suggest that the serotype of the isolates is closely related to Hantaan virus, and bats serve as reservoirs of hantavirus. PMID:8279962

  13. Hantavirus Infection Prevalence in Wild Rodents and Human Anti-Hantavirus Serological Profiles from Different Geographic Areas of South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia M.; Delfraro, Adriana; de Borba, Luana; Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Stella, Vanessa; de Araujo, Marina R.; Carstensen, Suzana; Rubio, Giselia; Maron, Angela; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

    2012-01-01

    Paraná state presents the fourth highest number of accumulated cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil. To map the risk areas for hantavirus transmission we carried out a study based on rodent trapping and determined the anti-hantavirus seroprevalence in these animals and in the inhabitants of these localities. Overall seroprevalence in rodents and humans were 2.5% and 2.4%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the seropositive rodents were genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that hantaviruses from rodent samples cluster with Araucária (Juquitiba-like) or Jaborá hantavirus genotypes. The Jaborá strain was identified in Akodon serrensis and Akodon montensis, whereas the Araucária strain was detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, A. montensis, and Akodon paranaensis, with the latter species being identified for the first time as a natural host. These findings expose the complex relationships between virus and reservoirs in Brazil, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and human epidemiology. PMID:22855773

  14. Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Los Santos, Panama, 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Vicente; Barria, Eduardo O.; Ruedas, Luis A.; Tinnin, David S.; Muñoz, Carlos; de Mosca, Itza B.; Guerrero, Gladys; Kant, Rudick; Garcia, Arsenio; Caceres, Lorenzo; Gracia, Fernando G.; Quiroz, Evelia; de Castillo, Zoila; Armien, Blas; Libel, Marlo; Mills, James N.; Khan, Ali S.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Peters, Clarence J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the province of Los Santos, Panama, in late 1999 and early 2000. Eleven cases were identified; 9 were confirmed by serology. Three cases were fatal; however, no confirmed case-patient died. Case-neighborhood serologic surveys resulted in an overall hantavirus antibody prevalence of 13% among household and neighborhood members from the outbreak foci. Epidemiologic investigations did not suggest person-to-person transmission of hantavirus infection. By use of Sin Nombre virus antigen, hantavirus antibodies were detected in Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda cherriei. This outbreak resulted in the first documented cases of human hantavirus infections in Central America. PMID:15498167

  15. Pathogenic hantaviruses direct the adherence of quiescent platelets to infected endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-05-01

    Hantavirus infections are noted for their ability to infect endothelial cells, cause acute thrombocytopenia, and trigger 2 vascular-permeability-based diseases. However, hantavirus infections are not lytic, and the mechanisms by which hantaviruses cause capillary permeability and thrombocytopenia are only partially understood. The role of beta(3) integrins in hemostasis and the inactivation of beta(3) integrin receptors by pathogenic hantaviruses suggest the involvement of hantaviruses in altered platelet and endothelial cell functions that regulate permeability. Here, we determined that pathogenic hantaviruses bind to quiescent platelets via a beta(3) integrin-dependent mechanism. This suggests that platelets may contribute to hantavirus dissemination within infected patients and provides a means by which hantavirus binding to beta(3) integrin receptors prevents platelet activation. The ability of hantaviruses to bind platelets further suggested that cell-associated hantaviruses might recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Our findings indicate that Andes virus (ANDV)- or Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected endothelial cells specifically direct the adherence of calcein-labeled platelets. In contrast, cells comparably infected with nonpathogenic Tula virus (TULV) failed to recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Platelet adherence was dependent on endothelial cell beta(3) integrins and neutralized by the addition of the anti-beta(3) Fab fragment, c7E3, or specific ANDV- or HTNV-neutralizing antibodies. These findings indicate that pathogenic hantaviruses displayed on the surface of infected endothelial cells bind platelets and that a platelet layer covers the surface of infected endothelial cells. This fundamentally changes the appearance of endothelial cells and has the potential to alter cellular immune responses, platelet activation, and endothelial cell functions that affect vascular permeability. Hantavirus-directed platelet quiescence and

  16. Seoul virus and hantavirus disease, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Dong, Xue; Li, Xin; Ma, Chao; Xiong, Hai-Ping; Yan, Guang-Jie; Gao, Na; Jiang, Dong-Mei; Li, Ming-Hui; Li, Lu-Ping; Zou, Yang; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred among students in Shenyang Pharmaceutical University in 2006. We conducted a study to characterize etiologic agents of the outbreaks and clarify the origin of hantaviruses causing infections in humans and laboratory animals. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG antibodies against Seoul virus (SEOV) were detected in the serum samples of all 8 patients. IgG antibodies against hantavirus were also identified in laboratory rats, which were used by these students for their scientific research. Phylogenetic analysis showed that partial small segment sequences recovered from humans, laboratory rats, and local wild rats belonged to SEOV. Hantavirus sequences recovered from humans and laboratory rats clustered within 1 of 3 lineages of SEOV circulating among local wild rats in Shenyang. These results suggest that the HFRS outbreak in Shenyang was caused by SEOV that was circulating among local wild rats and had also infected the laboratory rats.

  17. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  18. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  19. Hantavirus infections in humans and commensal rodents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W; Chan, Y C; Joo, Y G; Lee, H W; Lee, P W; Yanagihara, R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the extent of hantavirus infection in Singapore, serological studies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test were conducted on commensal rodents and on human patients in 4 diagnostic groups. Virus isolation using a Vero E6 cell line was performed on hantaviral antigen-positive rodent lung tissue. Of 142 rodents and 3 insectivores studied, 37 (26%) were seropositive for IFA. Rattus norvegicus was the predominant species captured, with the highest species-specific seropositive rate of 32% (36 of 113). A hantavirus strain, R36, was isolated from one R. norvegicus. Seropositive rates for human patients were: 8% respectively for dengue haemorrhagic fever suspects and for non-A non-B hepatitis patients, 3% for leptospirosis suspects and 2% for acute nephritis patients. 2 patients had marked liver dysfunction but mild renal involvement. This hepatitis-like manifestation appears to be a clinical variant of hantavirus infection.

  20. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  1. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  2. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  3. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-05-24

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection of Sigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  4. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

    2011-03-01

    An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses.

  5. High genetic structuring of Tula hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Saxenhofer, Moritz; Drewes, Stephan; Schlegel, Mathias; Wanka, Konrad M; Frank, Raphael; Klimpel, Sven; von Blanckenhagen, Felix; Maaz, Denny; Herden, Christiane; Freise, Jona; Wolf, Ronny; Stubbe, Michael; Borkenhagen, Peter; Ansorge, Hermann; Eccard, Jana A; Lang, Johannes; Jourdain, Elsa; Jacob, Jens; Marianneau, Philippe; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2016-05-01

    Tula virus (TULV) is a vole-associated hantavirus with low or no pathogenicity to humans. In the present study, 686 common voles (Microtus arvalis), 249 field voles (Microtus agrestis) and 30 water voles (Arvicola spec.) were collected at 79 sites in Germany, Luxembourg and France and screened by RT-PCR and TULV-IgG ELISA. TULV-specific RNA and/or antibodies were detected at 43 of the sites, demonstrating a geographically widespread distribution of the virus in the studied area. The TULV prevalence in common voles (16.7 %) was higher than that in field voles (9.2 %) and water voles (10.0 %). Time series data at ten trapping sites showed evidence of a lasting presence of TULV RNA within common vole populations for up to 34 months, although usually at low prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a strong genetic structuring of TULV sequences according to geography and independent of the rodent species, confirming the common vole as the preferential host, with spillover infections to co-occurring field and water voles. TULV phylogenetic clades showed a general association with evolutionary lineages in the common vole as assessed by mitochondrial DNA sequences on a large geographical scale, but with local-scale discrepancies in the contact areas. PMID:26831932

  6. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Atlantic Argentinean Patagonia region.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Fernando G; Rovasio, Jose Luis; Laguardia, Silvia; Framarini, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    The hantavirus causes a hemorrhagic disease and in 1993 was responsible for an outbreak of a pulmonary syndrome in the south of the United States of America. The disease is endemic in the north of Argentina where the Oran strain is prevalent. A fatal case of the Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) occurring in a migrant agricultural worker is reported.

  7. Reporting Hantavirus: A Study of Intercultural Environmental Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, JoAnn M.

    A study examined media coverage of hantavirus in three Southwestern regional newspapers, including interviews with journalists and sources involved in the coverage, and implications of the media's portrayal of Navajo culture. Content review of regional coverage--67 articles in three regional newspapers were reviewed in the first year of a new…

  8. Viral load of patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Carla María; Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2015-11-01

    Hantavirus causes severe illness including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and often death. At present, there is no specific treatment available. The hantavirus pathogenesis is not well understood, but most likely both virus-mediated and host-mediated mechanisms, are involved. The aim of this study was to correlate viral load in samples of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and hantavirus infected individuals, with clinical epidemiological parameters and disease outcome. The variables that could potentially be related with viral load were analyzed. The retrospective study included 73 cases or household contacts, with different clinical evolution. Viral load was measured by reverse-transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. There was no statistically significant association between blood viral RNA levels and severity of disease. However, viral load was inversely correlated with IgG response in a statistically significant manner. The level of viral RNA was significantly higher in patients infected with Andes virus South lineage, and was markedly low in persons infected with Laguna Negra virus. These results suggest that the infecting viral genotype is associated with disease severity, and that high viral load is associated with a low specific IgG response. Sex, age and disease severity were not related with viral load. Further investigations increasing strikingly the number of cases and also limiting the variables to be studied are necessary.

  9. Viral load of patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Carla María; Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2015-11-01

    Hantavirus causes severe illness including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and often death. At present, there is no specific treatment available. The hantavirus pathogenesis is not well understood, but most likely both virus-mediated and host-mediated mechanisms, are involved. The aim of this study was to correlate viral load in samples of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and hantavirus infected individuals, with clinical epidemiological parameters and disease outcome. The variables that could potentially be related with viral load were analyzed. The retrospective study included 73 cases or household contacts, with different clinical evolution. Viral load was measured by reverse-transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. There was no statistically significant association between blood viral RNA levels and severity of disease. However, viral load was inversely correlated with IgG response in a statistically significant manner. The level of viral RNA was significantly higher in patients infected with Andes virus South lineage, and was markedly low in persons infected with Laguna Negra virus. These results suggest that the infecting viral genotype is associated with disease severity, and that high viral load is associated with a low specific IgG response. Sex, age and disease severity were not related with viral load. Further investigations increasing strikingly the number of cases and also limiting the variables to be studied are necessary. PMID:26087934

  10. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Leitmeyer, K; Sibold, C; Meisel, H; Ulrich, R; Labuda, M; Krüger, D H

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first Puumala hantavirus nucleotide sequence (strain Opina-916) amplified from a bank vole trapped in Slovakia, central Europe. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-segment sequence grouped the virus within the western/central European sublineage of Puumala virus. In the neighborhood of the rodent trapping site two cases of human infection by the Puumala virus were verified. PMID:11724269

  11. Rodent-borne hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Cosson, Jean François; Chaval, Yannick; Herbreteau, Vincent; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Lundqvist, Ake; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Morand, Serge; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detected in several rodent species (Bandicota indica, B. savilei, Maxomys surifer, Mus caroli, M. cookii, Rattus exulans, R. nitidius, R. norvegicus, and R. tanezumi). When site seroprevalence was compared with site species richness, seropositive animals were found more frequently at sites with lower species richness. In order to confirm which hantavirus species were present, a subset of samples was also subjected to RT-PCR. Hantaviral RNA was detected at a single site from each country. Sequencing confirmed the presence of two hantavirus species, Thailand and Seoul viruses, including one sample (from Lao PDR) representing a highly divergent strain of Seoul virus. This is the first molecular evidence of hantavirus in Lao PDR and the first reported L segment sequence data for Thailand virus.

  12. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  13. Hantaviruses in the Americas and Their Role as Emerging Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, Brian; Torres-Pérez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The continued emergence and re-emergence of pathogens represent an ongoing, sometimes major, threat to populations. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) and their associated human diseases were considered to be confined to Eurasia, but the occurrence of an outbreak in 1993–94 in the southwestern United States led to a great increase in their study among virologists worldwide. Well over 40 hantaviral genotypes have been described, the large majority since 1993, and nearly half of them pathogenic for humans. Hantaviruses cause persistent infections in their reservoir hosts, and in the Americas, human disease is manifest as a cardiopulmonary compromise, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), with case-fatality ratios, for the most common viral serotypes, between 30% and 40%. Habitat disturbance and larger-scale ecological disturbances, perhaps including climate change, are among the factors that may have increased the human caseload of HCPS between 1993 and the present. We consider here the features that influence the structure of host population dynamics that may lead to viral outbreaks, as well as the macromolecular determinants of hantaviruses that have been regarded as having potential contribution to pathogenicity. PMID:21994631

  14. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  15. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  16. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases. PMID:25521059

  17. The broad spectrum of hantaviruses and their hosts in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B; Radosa, L; Kruger, D H

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are considered to be emerging viruses due to their increasing significance as human pathogens and their cyclic reappearance during outbreaks. Central Europe is an important endemic region for hantavirus infections. Reflecting the presence of all relevant small mammals serving as reservoir hosts, close to all recognized European hantaviruses occur also in Central Europe. Important human pathogens, Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade viruses, are present and cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome of various severities. Moreover, several of the newly recognized shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses are present. In this review, we summarize current data on molecular detection of hantaviruses in reservoir hosts as well as on molecular epidemiology of human hantavirus infections in Central Europe.

  18. Development of a diagnostic method applicable to various serotypes of hantavirus infection in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Ivanov, Leonid I; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-09-01

    Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes.

  19. Structure of the Hantavirus Nucleoprotein Provides Insights into the Mechanism of RNA Encapsidation.

    PubMed

    Olal, Daniel; Daumke, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N) of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections. PMID:26923588

  20. What Do We Know about How Hantaviruses Interact with Their Different Hosts?

    PubMed

    Ermonval, Myriam; Baychelier, Florence; Tordo, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS) are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes.

  1. Host switch during evolution of a genetically distinct hantavirus in the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Dizney, Laurie; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Ruedas, Luis A; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-05-25

    A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Oxbow virus (OXBV), was detected in tissues of an American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii), captured in Gresham, Oregon, in September 2003. Pairwise analysis of full-length S- and M- and partial L-segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences of OXBV indicated low sequence similarity with rodent-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, and host-parasite evolutionary comparisons, showed that OXBV and Asama virus, a hantavirus recently identified from the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were related to soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses from North America and Eurasia, respectively, suggesting parallel evolution associated with cross-species transmission. PMID:19394994

  2. Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  3. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  4. What Do We Know about How Hantaviruses Interact with Their Different Hosts?

    PubMed Central

    Ermonval, Myriam; Baychelier, Florence; Tordo, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS) are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes. PMID:27529272

  5. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  6. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Soraya S; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Morais, Michelle S S; Prado, Nidiane D R; Barros, Marcos L; Koishi, Andrea C; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A C A; Gonçalves, Giselle M; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stabeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus

  7. Recent discoveries of new hantaviruses widen their range and question their origins.

    PubMed

    Henttonen, Heikki; Buchy, Philippe; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Laakkonen, Juha; Chaval, Yannick; Galan, Maxime; Dobigny, Gauthier; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Michaux, Johan; Cosson, Jean-François; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family. While usually hosted by wild mammals, they are potentially pathogenic for humans, and several serologically distinct groups associated with different syndromes have been identified. Yet, investigations have mostly been conducted where human infections by hantaviruses constitute a real and well-identified public health problem, i.e., the holarctic and neotropical areas. Some hantaviruses have also been described from a Suncus murinus in India and a Bandicota indica in Thailand. In addition, recent investigations in Cambodia revealed new Hantavirus types. More recently, two new Hantavirus species were described: Sangassou from a Hylomyscus simus, and Tanganya from a Crocidura theresae, both from Africa (Guinea), thus strongly questioning the current views about geographic range, evolution, and epidemiology of hantaviruses. In such a framework, we have conducted a survey of Hantavirus diversity in Southeast Asia which allows us to isolate the Thailand virus and address questions about the taxonomy of their rodent hosts. Here we present a molecular analysis of representatives of all currently known Hantavirus species, thus allowing the comparison between the newly described ones with a large range sample of rodent hantaviruses. Our results clearly point to the presence of a particular lineage of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia. It also strongly suggests that new viruses, additional mammalian hosts and different related syndromes in humans are likely to be discovered in the near future, particularly in Southeast Asia and in Africa, where Muridae rodents are highly diversified. Furthermore, additional work is also urgently needed to investigate the hantaviruses associated with Crociduridae and Soricidae.

  8. A Global Perspective on Hantavirus Ecology, Epidemiology, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Colleen B.; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Vapalahti, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Hantaviruses are enzootic viruses that maintain persistent infections in their rodent hosts without apparent disease symptoms. The spillover of these viruses to humans can lead to one of two serious illnesses, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In recent years, there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of these viruses following an increase in the number of outbreaks in the Americas. In this review, current concepts regarding the ecology of and disease associated with these serious human pathogens are presented. Priorities for future research suggest an integration of the ecology and evolution of these and other host-virus ecosystems through modeling and hypothesis-driven research with the risk of emergence, host switching/spillover, and disease transmission to humans. PMID:20375360

  9. Hantavirus infections in Europe and their impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Voutilainen, Liina; Mustonen, Jukka; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped tri-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses each carried by a specific rodent or insectivore host species. Several different hantaviruses known to infect humans circulate in Europe. The most common is Puumala (PUUV) carried by the bank vole; another two important, genetically closely related ones are Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) and Saaremaa viruses (SAAV) carried by Apodemus mice (species names follow the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses nomenclature). Of the two hantaviral diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome, the European viruses cause only HFRS: DOBV with often severe symptoms and a high case fatality rate, and PUUV and SAAV more often mild disease. More than 10,000 HFRS cases are diagnosed annually in Europe and in increasing numbers. Whether this is because of increasing recognition by the medical community or due to environmental factors such as climate change, or both, is not known. Nevertheless, in large areas of Europe, the population has a considerable seroprevalence but only relatively few HFRS cases are reported. Moreover, no epidemiological data are available from many countries. We know now that cardiac, pulmonary, ocular and hormonal disorders are, besides renal changes, common during the acute stage of PUUV and DOBV infection. About 5% of hospitalized PUUV and 16%-48% of DOBV patients require dialysis and some prolonged intensive-care treatment. Although PUUV-HFRS has a low case fatality rate, complications and long-term hormonal, renal, and cardiovascular consequences commonly occur. No vaccine or specific therapy is in general use in Europe. We conclude that hantaviruses have a significant impact on public health in Europe.

  10. Hantavirus-infection confers resistance to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shawon; Braun, Monika; Tischler, Nicole D; Stoltz, Malin; Sundström, Karin B; Björkström, Niklas K; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Klingström, Jonas

    2013-03-01

    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome (HCPS; also called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)), both human diseases with high case-fatality rates. Endothelial cells are the main targets for hantaviruses. An intriguing observation in patients with HFRS and HCPS is that on one hand the virus infection leads to strong activation of CD8 T cells and NK cells, on the other hand no obvious destruction of infected endothelial cells is observed. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy by showing that hantavirus-infected endothelial cells are protected from cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated induction of apoptosis. When dissecting potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon, we discovered that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein inhibits the enzymatic activity of both granzyme B and caspase 3. This provides a tentative explanation for the hantavirus-mediated block of cytotoxic granule-mediated apoptosis-induction, and hence the protection of infected cells from cytotoxic lymphocytes. These findings may explain why infected endothelial cells in hantavirus-infected patients are not destroyed by the strong cytotoxic lymphocyte response.

  11. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  12. [Hantaviruses in Germany: threat for zoo, pet, companion and farm animals?].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rainer G; Imholt, Christian; Krüger, Detlev H; Krautkrämer, Ellen; Scheibe, Thomas; Essbauer, Sandra S; Pfeffer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are so-called "emerging" and "re-emerging" viruses because of the new and sudden nature of their appearance. Human infections can lead to two distinct disease patterns, the Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome. All known human pathogenic hantaviruses are transmitted through rodent hosts. There are three rodent-associated hantaviruses in Germany. The bank vole-associated Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for most of the human hantavirus infections. The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) associated with the striped field mouse is causing hantavirus disease in the North and Northeast of Germany. The human pathogenicity of Tula virus (TULV) is still controversially discussed--the virus has been mainly associated with the common vole as the reservoir, but was molecularly detected also in the field and the water vole. More recently, two shrew-borne hantaviruses were described in Germany, i. e. Seewis virus in the common shrew and Asikkala virus in the pygmy shrew. Systematic studies about hantavirus infections of zoo, pet, companion and farm animals are still lacking. Hence, the aim of this review article is to summarise the current knowledge on this topic and raise the attention of veterinarians to potentially overlooked clinical disease patterns.

  13. Comparison of innate immune responses to pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shim, So Hee; Park, Man-Seong; Moon, Sungsil; Park, Kwang Sook; Song, Jin-Won; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju

    2011-09-01

    Hantaviruses are human pathogens that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms accounting for the differences in virulence between pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses are not well known. We have examined the pathogenesis of different hantavirus groups by comparing the innate immune responses induced in the host cell following infection by pathogenic (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, and Seoul virus) and putative non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill, Tula, and Thottapalayam virus) hantaviruses. Pathogenic hantaviruses were found to replicate more efficiently in interferon-competent A549 cells than putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses. The former also suppressed the expression of the interferon-β and myxovirus resistance protein genes, while the transcription level of both genes increased rapidly within 24 h post-infection in the latter. In addition, the induction level of interferon correlated with the activation level of interferon regulatory factor-3. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed differences are correlated with viral pathogenesis and further indicate that pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses differ in terms of early interferon induction via activation of the interferon regulatory factor-3 in infected host cells.

  14. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Knap, Józef P; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Samples of 30 dead small mammals each were collected on area 'A' located in eastern Poland which is exposed to flooding by the Vistula river, and on the area 'B', also located in eastern Poland but not exposed to flooding. Kidneys and livers of the mammals were examined by the PCR and nested PCR methods for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Out of 7 species of small mammals examined, the presence of hantaviruses was detected in 4 of them. Hantavirus prevalence was low in Apodemus agrarius (2.6%), the most numerous mammal species, whereas in the remaining 3 positive species (Microtus agrestis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus) this was 12.5-100%. The presence of hantaviruses was detected only in the animals found on area 'A' exposed to flooding, and their prevalence was statistically greater compared to area 'B' not exposed to flooding (16.7% vs. 0%, p=0.0345). The overall positivity of the examined small mammals population from the areas 'A' and 'B' was 8.3%. The sequence analysis of the samples positive for hantavirus proved that the amplified products showed 77-86% homology with the L segment sequence of hantavirus Fusong-Mf-731 isolated from Microtus fortis in China. The presented study is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in small mammals from eastern Poland, and the first to demonstrate the significant relationship between flooding and the prevalence of hantaviruses in small mammals.

  15. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-03-10

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  16. Evolution of hantaviruses: co-speciation with reservoir hosts for more than 100 MYR.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, Alexander; Sironen, Tarja

    2014-07-17

    The most recent (9th) Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) lists 23 established and 30 provisional species in the genus Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) (Plyusnin et al., 2012). These virus species are harbored by altogether 51 species of rodents, shrews and moles and thus in most cases it is a relationship of "one hantavirus-one host". Such a tight bond between the two, in combination with the observed association between whole groups of hantaviruses and (sub)families of rodents, helped to develop the widely accepted view of a long-term co-evolution (co-speciation) of these viruses with their hosts. Accumulating evidence of host-switching events, both recent and ancient, however challenged some of the earlier views on hantavirus evolution. In this paper we discuss the concept of hantavirus-host co-speciation and propose a scenario of hantavirus evolution based on the currently available genetic information. This scenario is based on the hypothesis that hantaviruses are very ancient viruses which already existed at the estimated diversification point of major placental clades, of which one includes the ancestors of the order Rodentia and another the ancestors of both orders Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera; the diversification occurred approximately at 90-100 MYA. We also speculate that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses extents even deeper in the past, beyond this time-point, and included the transmission of a (pre)bunyavirus from an insect host to a mammal host.

  17. Hantavirus reservoirs: current status with an emphasis on data from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-04-29

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80 genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  18. Evolution of hantaviruses: co-speciation with reservoir hosts for more than 100 MYR.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, Alexander; Sironen, Tarja

    2014-07-17

    The most recent (9th) Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) lists 23 established and 30 provisional species in the genus Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) (Plyusnin et al., 2012). These virus species are harbored by altogether 51 species of rodents, shrews and moles and thus in most cases it is a relationship of "one hantavirus-one host". Such a tight bond between the two, in combination with the observed association between whole groups of hantaviruses and (sub)families of rodents, helped to develop the widely accepted view of a long-term co-evolution (co-speciation) of these viruses with their hosts. Accumulating evidence of host-switching events, both recent and ancient, however challenged some of the earlier views on hantavirus evolution. In this paper we discuss the concept of hantavirus-host co-speciation and propose a scenario of hantavirus evolution based on the currently available genetic information. This scenario is based on the hypothesis that hantaviruses are very ancient viruses which already existed at the estimated diversification point of major placental clades, of which one includes the ancestors of the order Rodentia and another the ancestors of both orders Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera; the diversification occurred approximately at 90-100 MYA. We also speculate that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses extents even deeper in the past, beyond this time-point, and included the transmission of a (pre)bunyavirus from an insect host to a mammal host. PMID:24463501

  19. Hantavirus reservoirs: current status with an emphasis on data from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-05-01

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80 genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens. PMID:24784571

  20. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; D’Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens. PMID:24784571

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. PMID:26541807

  2. Dynamics and drivers of hantavirus prevalence in rodent populations.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Hörnfeldt, Birger; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Olsson, Gert; Ecke, Frauke

    2014-08-01

    Human encroachment on wildlife habitats has contributed to the emergence of several zoonoses. Pathogenic hantaviruses are hosted by rodents and cause severe diseases in the Americas and Eurasia. We reviewed several factors that potentially drive prevalence (the proportion of infected rodents) in host populations. These include demography, behavior, host density, small mammal diversity, predation, and habitat and landscape characteristics. This review is the first to include a quantitative summary of the literature investigating hantavirus prevalence in rodents. Demographic structure and density were investigated the most and predation the least. Reported effects of demographic structure and small mammal diversity were consistent, whereby reproductive males were most likely to be infected and prevalence decreased with small mammal diversity. The influences of habitat and landscape properties are often complex and indirect. The relationship between density and prevalence merits more investigation. Most hantavirus hosts are habitat generalists and their control is challenging. Incorporating all potential factors and their interactions is essential to understanding and controlling infection in host populations.

  3. Hantavirus testing in small mammal populations of northcentral New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Foxx, T.

    1995-07-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993 and 1994, the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, primarily for ecological risk assessment (ecorisk) studies. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico, EST also collected blood samples from captured animals for use in determining seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region due to the recent outbreak of this virus in the four-comers region of the Southwest. The deer mouse was the most commonly captured species during the tripping sessions. Other species sampled included harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus), long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). The team collected blood samples from tripped animals following CDC`s suggested guidelines. Results of the 1993 and 1994 hantavirus testing identified a total overall seroprevalence of approximately 5.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence rates were found in deer mice seri (3--6%), but results on several species were inconclusive; further studies will be necessary, to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  4. The Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease associated with New World hantaviruses, most commonly Sin Nombre and Andes viruses in North and South America, respectively. It is characterized by fever and the sudden, rapid onset of severe respiratory distress and cardiogenic shock, which can be fatal in up to 50% of cases. Currently there are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of HPS. A major obstacle in the development of effective medical countermeasures against highly pathogenic agents like the hantaviruses is recapitulating the human disease as closely as possible in an appropriate and reliable animal model. To date, the only animal model that resembles HPS in humans is the Syrian hamster model. Following infection with Andes virus, hamsters develop HPS-like disease which faithfully mimics the human condition with respect to incubation period and pathophysiology of disease. Perhaps most importantly, the sudden and rapid onset of severe respiratory distress observed in humans also occurs in hamsters. The last several years has seen an increase in studies utilizing the Andes virus hamster model which have provided unique insight into HPS pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic and vaccine strategies to treat and prevent HPS. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of HPS disease progression in Syrian hamsters and discuss the suitability of utilizing this model to evaluate potential medical countermeasures against HPS. PMID:22705798

  5. Hantavirus Gc glycoprotein: evidence for a class II fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Nicole D; Gonzalez, Angel; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Rosemblatt, Mario; Valenzuela, Pablo D T

    2005-11-01

    Hantavirus cell entry is promoted by its envelope glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, through cell attachment and by fusion between viral and endosomal membranes at low pH. However, the role of Gn and Gc in receptor binding and cell fusion has not yet been defined. In this work, a sequence presenting characteristics similar to those of class II fusion peptides (FPs) of alphavirus E1 and flavivirus E proteins is identified within the hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. A three-dimensional comparative molecular model based on crystallographic data of tick-borne encephalitis virus E protein is proposed for the Andes virus (ANDV) Gc ectodomain, which supports a feasible class II fusion-protein fold. In vitro experimental evidence is provided for the binding activity of the ANDV FP candidate to artificial membranes, as demonstrated by fluorescence anisotropy assays. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the Gc glycoprotein of hantaviruses and of other members of the family Bunyaviridae directs the viral fusion activity and that it may be classified as a class II viral fusion protein.

  6. The continued emergence of hantaviruses: isolation of a Seoul virus implicated in human disease, United Kingdom, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Jameson, L J; Logue, C H; Atkinson, B; Baker, N; Galbraith, S E; Carroll, M W; Brooks, T; Hewson, R

    2013-01-03

    Following a suspected case of hantavirus in a patientsuffering from acute kidney injury, rodents fromthe patient’s property in Yorkshire and the Humber,United Kingdom (UK) were screened for hantaviruses.Hantavirus RNA was detected via RT-PCR in two Rattusnorvegicus. Complete sequencing and phylogeneticanalysis established the virus as a Seoul hantavirus,which we have provisionally designated as strainHumber. This is the first hantavirus isolated from wildrodents in the UK and confirms the presence of a pathogenicSeoul virus in Europe.

  7. The role of mites in the transmission and maintenance of Hantaan virus (Hantavirus: Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue-jie; Tesh, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    This review examines the evidence indicating a role for parasitic mites in the transmission and maintenance of Hantaan virus in nature. The available data, much of it from recent studies in China, indicate that both trombiculid and gamasid mites are naturally infected with Hantaan virus and that infected mites can transmit the virus by bite to laboratory mice and transovarially (vertically) through eggs to their offspring. Collectively, these findings challenge the current paradigm of hantavirus transmission, namely, that rodents serve as the reservoir of human pathogenic hantaviruses in nature and that humans are infected with these viruses by inhalation of aerosols of infectious rodent excreta. Further research is needed to confirm the mite-hantavirus association and to determine if parasitic mites are in fact the major source and principal vectors of human pathogenic hantaviruses, such as Hantaan. If the mite hypothesis is correct, then it will significantly alter current concepts about the epidemiology, prevention, and control of human hantavirus infection.

  8. Hantavirus Infection Suppresses Thrombospondin-1 Expression in Cultured Endothelial Cells in a Strain-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; St. Jeor, Stephen C.; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is associated with two frequently fatal diseases in humans: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The pathogenesis of hantavirus infection is complex and not fully understood; however, it is believed to involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in regulating blood homeostasis. Hyperresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli has also been associated with defects in the THBS1 gene. Our data suggest that hantavirus infection of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) suppress the accumulation of THBS1 in the extracellular matrix. Additionally, this suppression is dependent on virus replication, implying a direct mechanism of action. Our data also imply that the pathogenic Andes and Hantaan strains inhibit THBS1 expression while the non-pathogenic Prospect Hill strain showed little inhibition. These observations suggest that a dysregulation of THBS1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection. PMID:27486439

  9. Hantavirus Infection Suppresses Thrombospondin-1 Expression in Cultured Endothelial Cells in a Strain-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F; Morzunov, Sergey P; St Jeor, Stephen C; Rizvanov, Albert A; Lombardi, Vincent C

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is associated with two frequently fatal diseases in humans: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The pathogenesis of hantavirus infection is complex and not fully understood; however, it is believed to involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in regulating blood homeostasis. Hyperresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli has also been associated with defects in the THBS1 gene. Our data suggest that hantavirus infection of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) suppress the accumulation of THBS1 in the extracellular matrix. Additionally, this suppression is dependent on virus replication, implying a direct mechanism of action. Our data also imply that the pathogenic Andes and Hantaan strains inhibit THBS1 expression while the non-pathogenic Prospect Hill strain showed little inhibition. These observations suggest that a dysregulation of THBS1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection. PMID:27486439

  10. Discovery of hantavirus circulating among Rattus rattus in French Mayotte island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Filippone, Claudia; Castel, Guillaume; Murri, Séverine; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Ermonval, Myriam; Jallet, Corinne; Wise, Emma L; Ellis, Richard J; Marston, Denise A; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Fooks, Anthony R; Desvars, Amélie; Halos, Lénaı G; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noël

    2016-05-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause human diseases. In this study, sera from 642 mammals from La Réunion and Mayotte islands (Indian Ocean) were screened for the presence of hantaviruses by molecular analysis. None of the mammals from La Réunion island was positive, but hantavirus genomic RNA was discovered in 29/160 (18 %) Rattus rattus from Mayotte island. The nucleoprotein coding region was sequenced from the liver and spleen of all positive individuals allowing epidemiological and intra-strain variability analyses. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete coding genomic sequences showed that this Murinae-associated hantavirus is a new variant of Thailand virus. Further studies are needed to investigate hantaviruses in rodent hosts and in Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) human cases. PMID:26932442

  11. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  12. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sumibcay, Laarni; Kadjo, Blaise; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Lim, Burton K; Cook, Joseph A; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  13. Serologic survey on hantavirus in blood donors from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections.

  14. A proposal for new criteria for the classification of hantaviruses, based on S and M segment protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris; Clement, Jan; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Gajdusek, D Carleton; Krüger, Detlev H; Van Ranst, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, are the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Hantaviruses are currently demarcated into species based on the guidelines provided by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). These guidelines however, are often ignored by the descriptors of novel hantaviruses. With this study we attempted to refine the second ICTV guideline for hantavirus species demarcation by phylogenetically analyzing all in Genbank available complete sequences derived from the S, M or L segments of hantaviruses. S and M segment amino acid sequence comparison allowed clear and unequivocal distinction between different hantavirus species, and lead us to propose additional criteria for the demarcation of hantavirus species (S segment amino acid distance >10% or M segment amino acid distance >12%) and hantavirus groups (S segment amino distance >24% or M segment amino acid distance >32%). With this study, we propose to adjust the second rule of the ICTV classification guidelines ("a 7% difference in amino acid identity when comparing the complete S segment and M segment sequences") to a more appropriate rule, "a 10% difference in S segment similarity and a 12% difference in M segment similarity based on complete amino acid sequences" in accordance with the current situation in the hantavirus field.

  15. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study.

  16. Transmission Study of Andes Hantavirus Infection in Wild Sigmodontine Rodents†

    PubMed Central

    Padula, P.; Figueroa, R.; Navarrete, M.; Pizarro, E.; Cadiz, R.; Bellomo, C.; Jofre, C.; Zaror, L.; Rodriguez, E.; Murúa, R.

    2004-01-01

    Our study was designed to contribute to an understanding of the timing and conditions under which transmission of Andes hantavirus in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus reservoir populations takes place. Mice were caged in test habitats consisting of steel drums containing holding cages, where seronegative rodents were exposed to wild seropositive individuals by freely sharing the same cage or being separated by a wire mesh. Tests were also performed for potential viral transmission to mice from excrement-tainted bedding in the cages. Andes virus transmitted efficiently; from 130 attempts with direct contact, 12.3% resulted in virus transmission. However, if we consider only those rodents that proved to be infectious, from 93 attempts we obtained 16 infected animals (17.2%). Twelve of them resulted from intraspecies O. longicaudatus encounters where male mice were differentially affected and 4 resulted from O. longicaudatus to Abrothrix olivaceus. Experiments using Abrothrix longipilis as receptors were not successful. Transmission was not observed between wire mesh-separated animals, and mice were not infected from excrement-tainted bedding. Bites seemed not to be a requisite for oral transmission. Genomic viral RNA was amplified in two out of three saliva samples from seropositive rodents, but it was not detected in urine samples obtained by vesicle puncture from two other infected rodents. Immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against Andes (AND) hantavirus proteins, revealed strong reactions in the lung and salivary glands, supporting the possibility of oral transmission. Our study suggests that AND hantavirus may be principally transmitted via saliva or saliva aerosols rather than via feces and urine. PMID:15479837

  17. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in Russia.

    PubMed

    Garanina, S B; Platonov, A E; Zhuravlev, V I; Murashkina, A N; Yakimenko, V V; Korneev, A G; Shipulin, G A

    2009-08-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is the most prevalent zoonotic disease in Russia. It is caused by several hantavirus species hosted by small rodents. We describe spatial and temporal patterns of HFRS incidence in the Russian Federation, and the geographic distribution of prevalent hantavirus species: Puumala (PUUV) and Dobrava (DOBV). Partial sequencing of nucleocapsid and glycoprotein genes of 117 PUUV strains and 78 DOBV strains revealed several distinct genetic subgroups. The RNA of Volga PUUV subgroup was detected in patients with HFRS and bank voles Myodes glareolus in the Volga Federal District, where the highest HFRS incidence rate has been registered yearly. The RNA of Siberian PUUV subgroup was found in M. glareolus in the trans-Ural Tyumen and Omsk Provinces, where human HFRS cases have been rare. During an HFRS outbreak in 2007 in the Central Federal District, when more than 1000 patients were affected, specific subgroups of DOBV were discovered in patients and rodents, mainly in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius. DOBV strains might have 8–9% of nucleotide difference although they were collected at places separated by 30–100 km. The RNA of a unique DOBV subgroup was discovered in the southern semi-desert Astrakhan Province, mainly in A. agrarius and tamarisk jird Meriones tamariscinus. No human HFRS cases were diagnosed in this province. Russian PUUV and DOBV strains have no close homologues among European strains. Our DOBV strains might be genetically grouped together with Central European DOBV strains isolated from A. agrarius, but not from Apodemus flavicollis. The Volga PUUV subgroup is to some extent similar to Baltic PUUV strain, and Finnish PUUV strains resemble the strains from the Siberian PUUV subgroup. Thus, PCRbased monitoring and typing provided the opportunity to delineate and expand the area of hantaviruses in Russia and to identify their new genetic variants. PMID:19486318

  18. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study. PMID:26826986

  19. Development of a minigenome system for Andes virus, a New World hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyle S.; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The development of reverse genetics systems for negative-stranded RNA viruses is a rapidly evolving field that has greatly advanced the study of the many different aspects of the viral life cycle. Andes virus (ANDV) is a highly pathogenic hantavirus found in South America that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome but to date remains poorly characterized due to the lack of a reverse genetics system for genetic manipulation. Here, we describe the first successful minigenome system for a New World hantavirus, as well as many of the obstacles that still exist in the development of such a system. PMID:22821183

  20. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a Chilean patient with recent travel in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, R; Vial, P; Noriega, L M; Johnson, A; Nichol, S T; Rollin, P E; Wells, R; Zaki, S; Reynolds, E; Ksiazek, T G

    1998-01-01

    A case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was serologically confirmed in a critically ill patient in Santiago, Chile. The patient's clinical course had many similarities to that of other HPS patients in North and South America but was complicated by acute severe renal failure. The patient's history included self-reported urban and probable rural rodent exposure during travel in Bolivia. Comparison of a viral sequence from an acute-phase serum sample with other known hantaviruses showed that the hantavirus nucleic acid sequence from the patient was very similar to a virus recently isolated from rodents associated with HPS cases in Paraguay.

  1. [EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE HANTAVIRUS SURVIVAL IN COMPLEXES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SUBSTRATES].

    PubMed

    Iunikhina, O V; Kompanets, G G

    2016-01-01

    Survival of viruses in the environment is a very important problem in epidemiology, especially for infections with indirect transmission. This work describes the results of the experimental study of adsorption and survival of the hantavirus on different environmental substrates (natural organic and inorganic sorbents). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution (5-10%) was effective in the hantavirus elution and phosphate-buffer saline (PBS) pH- 7,2 was optimal for elution of specific RNA. Potential survival of the infectious hantavirus on environmental substrates was observed within up to 14 days at +4°C. PMID:27145598

  2. Short report: prevalence of hantavirus infection in rodents associated with two fatal human infections in California.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; Korch, G W; Rossi, C A; Sesline, D; Enge, B A; Dondero, D V; Jay, M; Ludwig, G V; Li, D; Schmaljohn, C S

    1995-02-01

    Rodents living near two fatal human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in California were surveyed for evidence of hantavirus infection. Seventeen (15%) (14 Peromyscus maniculatus and one each of P. truei, Eutamias minimus, and Microtus californicus) of 114 rodents tested had evidence (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or polymerase chain reaction) of hantavirus infection. This suggests that Peromyscus mice, and P. maniculatus in particular, may be the reservoir for the virus causing this newly recognized disease in California, as previously reported for New Mexico and Arizona. PMID:7872450

  3. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  4. Effects of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C.; Buceta, J.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-12-01

    We study the spread of Hantavirus over a host population of deer mice using a population dynamics model. We show that taking into account the internal fluctuations in the mouse population due to its discrete character strongly alters the behavior of the system. In addition to the familiar transition present in the deterministic model, the inclusion of internal fluctuations leads to the emergence of an additional deterministically hidden transition. We determine parameter values that lead to maximal propagation of the disease and discuss some implications for disease prevention policies.

  5. Effects of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Escudero, C; Buceta, J; de la Rubia, F J; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-12-01

    We study the spread of Hantavirus over a host population of deer mice using a population dynamics model. We show that taking into account the internal fluctuations in the mouse population due to its discrete character strongly alters the behavior of the system. In addition to the familiar transition present in the deterministic model, the inclusion of internal fluctuations leads to the emergence of an additional deterministically hidden transition. We determine parameter values that lead to maximal propagation of the disease and discuss some implications for disease prevention policies. PMID:15697402

  6. Development and optimization of a PCR assay for detection of Dobrava and Puumala hantaviruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Lejla; Davoren, Jon; Heyman, Paul; Cochez, Christel; Haas, Cordula; Maake, Caroline; Hukić, Mirsada

    2012-06-01

    Hantavirus-specific serology tests are the main diagnostic technique for detection of hantavirus infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to enhance hantavirus infections monitoring a sensitive PCR based assay was developed to detect Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses. Nested primer sets were designed within three different regions of the viral RNA (S and M segment of DOBV and M segment of PUUV) based on highly similar regions from a number of different European hantavirus strains. Assay conditions were optimized using cell cultures infected with DOBV Slovenia, PUUV Sotkamo and PUUV CG 18-20. This sensitive and specific assay has proven to be useful for detection of both Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses.

  7. HFRS and hantaviruses in the Balkans/South-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Avšič Županc, Tatjana; Korva, Miša; Markotić, Alemka

    2014-07-17

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is endemic in the Balkans with epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases that have been recorded yearly since the disease was first recognized. The incidence of Balkan HFRS is modest, with approximately one hundred cases reported in most years. Seroepidemiological investigations conducted in several Balkan countries revealed an overall seroprevalence of 6% in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1.6% in Croatia, 4% in Greece and 1.7% in Slovenia, respectively. The complex ecology of the Balkan Peninsula supports the existence of diverse rodent and insectivore species which harbor several pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses. Among them only Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) viruses are associated with disease in humans. Comprehensive clinical studies compared clinical signs and symptoms between patients infected with either virus. A spectrum of clinical picture of the disease ranges from mild illness typical of PUUV infections to a severe form with fulminant hemorrhagic fever and an overall mortality rate of 9.8% among DOBV infected patients. While severe DOBV cases are recognized from Slovenia in the North to Greece in the South, PUUV infections are more frequent in northern part of the area. Balkans represent an area with a potential need for hantavirus vaccines, but due to co-existence of DOBV and PUUV causing HFRS in the same region, a universal vaccine is required.

  8. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a highly endemic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R C; Sant'ana, M M; Guterres, A; Fernandes, J; Hillesheim, N L F K; Lucini, C; Gomes, R; Lamas, C; Bochner, R; Zeccer, S; DE Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the most frequently reported fatal rodent-borne disease in Brazil, with the majority of cases occurring in Santa Catarina. We analysed the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data of the 251 confirmed cases of HPS in Santa Catarina in 1999-2011. The number of cases ranged from 10 to 47 per year, with the highest incidences in 2004-2006. Gastrointestinal tract manifestations were found in >60% of the cases, potentially confounding diagnosis and leading to inappropriate therapy. Dyspnoea, acute respiratory failure, renal failure, increased serum creatinine and urea levels, increased haematocrits and the presence of pulmonary interstitial infiltrate were significantly more common in HPS patients who died. In addition, we demonstrated that the six cases from the midwest region of the state were associated with Juquitiba virus genotype. The case-fatality rate in this region, 19·2%, was lower than that recorded for other mesoregions. In the multivariate analysis increase of serum creatinine and urea was associated with death by HPS. Our findings help elucidate the epidemiology of HPS in Brazil, where mast seeding of bamboo can trigger rodent population eruptions and subsequent human HPS outbreaks. We also emphasize the need for molecular confirmation of the hantavirus genotype of human cases for a better understanding of the mortality-related factors associated with HPS cases in Brazil. PMID:26464248

  9. The hantaviruses of Europe: from the bedside to the bench.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, J.; Heyman, P.; McKenna, P.; Colson, P.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.

    1997-01-01

    In Europe, hantavirus disease can hardly be called an emerging zoonosis; it is rather a rediscovered disease. Since 1934 an epidemic condition with primarily renal involvement has been described in Sweden. Nowadays, hundreds to thousands of cases per year are registered in Fennoscandia, fluctuating with the numbers of the specific Arvicoline-rodent reservoir, the red bank vole, which carries the main European serotype, Puumala (PUU). In the early 1980s, the rat-transmitted serotype, Seoul (SEO), caused laboratory outbreaks throughout Europe, and recent reports also suggest sporadic, wild rat-spread hantavirus disease. In the Balkans, at least four serotypes are present simultaneously: PUU, SEO, the "Korean" prototype Hantaan (HTN) or HTN-like types, and Dobrava, the latter causing a mortality rate of up to 20%. Moreover, recent genotyping studies have disclosed several PUU-like genotypes spread in Europe and/or Russia by other genera of the Arvicoline-rodent subfamily: Tula, Tobetsu, Khabarovsk, and Topografov. Their importance for human pathogenicity is still unclear, but serologic cross-reactions with PUU antigen might have caused their misdiagnosis as PUU-infections in the past. PMID:9204306

  10. [En route in Switzerland - tick-borne and hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sabine; Aliyev, Eldar; Engler, Olivier; Mütsch, Margot

    2013-06-01

    Tick-borne infections are endemic in Switzerland with borreliosis being the most frequent one, followed by the vaccine-preventable tick-borne encephalitis and more rarely by anaplasmosis, rickettsioses and babesiosis. Short characteristics of these infections are presented. The main preventive measures for stays in endemic regions include not leaving forest tracks and wearing closely fitted clothes and shoes, impregnated with an insecticide. Following at-risk activities, clothes as well as the body should be searched for ticks and they have to be removed using a tick removing tool. The body area of the tick bite has to be observed and a physician visit is strongly urged in case of rising fever and/or of erythema migrans. Hantavirus infections: Nephropathia epidemica is a zoonosis caused by the Puumala type of hantavirus and transmission occurs by inhaling aerolized excretions of the bank vole. There is no known human to human transmission. The incidence of this infection varies in a cyclic fashion and typical clinical symptoms include sudden onset of fever, headache, abdominal and back pain and transient renal impairment with initial oliguria and later polyuria. At-risk activities include camping and cleaning of rodent infestations. In these cases, face masks should be worn and the excretions be moistened before cleaning is started. In Germany, 2 - 3 years-cycles of outbreaks were observed between 2005 and 2012 with regional clusters approaching Switzerland. Therefore, disease awareness of physicians and infection surveillance are essential.

  11. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a highly endemic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R C; Sant'ana, M M; Guterres, A; Fernandes, J; Hillesheim, N L F K; Lucini, C; Gomes, R; Lamas, C; Bochner, R; Zeccer, S; DE Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the most frequently reported fatal rodent-borne disease in Brazil, with the majority of cases occurring in Santa Catarina. We analysed the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data of the 251 confirmed cases of HPS in Santa Catarina in 1999-2011. The number of cases ranged from 10 to 47 per year, with the highest incidences in 2004-2006. Gastrointestinal tract manifestations were found in >60% of the cases, potentially confounding diagnosis and leading to inappropriate therapy. Dyspnoea, acute respiratory failure, renal failure, increased serum creatinine and urea levels, increased haematocrits and the presence of pulmonary interstitial infiltrate were significantly more common in HPS patients who died. In addition, we demonstrated that the six cases from the midwest region of the state were associated with Juquitiba virus genotype. The case-fatality rate in this region, 19·2%, was lower than that recorded for other mesoregions. In the multivariate analysis increase of serum creatinine and urea was associated with death by HPS. Our findings help elucidate the epidemiology of HPS in Brazil, where mast seeding of bamboo can trigger rodent population eruptions and subsequent human HPS outbreaks. We also emphasize the need for molecular confirmation of the hantavirus genotype of human cases for a better understanding of the mortality-related factors associated with HPS cases in Brazil.

  12. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  13. Hantavirus infections among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jonathan J; Fritz, Curtis L; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P; Vugia, Duc J

    2014-03-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  14. Old World hantaviruses: aspects of pathogenesis and clinical course of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Krautkrämer, Ellen; Zeier, Martin

    2014-07-17

    Hantavirus-associated diseases represent emerging infections that are ranked in the highest priority group of communicable diseases for surveillance and epidemiological research. In the last years, several novel hantavirus species were described and the number of host reservoir species harboring hantaviruses is also increasing. Reports of cases with severe or atypical clinical courses become also more frequent. These facts raise more and more questions concerning host reservoir specificity, pathogenicity and molecular mechanism of pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease is characterized by vascular leakage due to increased capillary permeability. The infection manifests often in the lung (hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome; HCPS) or in the kidney (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS). The underlying mechanisms of both syndromes are probably similar despite the difference in organ tropism. Characterization of hantaviral replication cycle and of patient-specific determinants will help to identify factors responsible for the clinical symptoms and course.

  15. Hantavirus-induced pathogenesis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Lidija; Raftery, Martin J; Voigt, Sebastian; Kühl, Anja A; Kilic, Ergin; Kurth, Andreas; Witkowski, Peter; Hofmann, Jörg; Nitsche, Andreas; Schaade, Lars; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2015-06-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans. Clinical observations suggest that human immune components contribute to hantavirus-induced pathology. To address this issue we generated mice with a humanized immune system. Hantavirus infection of these animals resulted in systemic infection associated with weight loss, decreased activity, ruffled fur and inflammatory infiltrates of lung tissue. Intriguingly, after infection, humanized mice harbouring human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted human CD8+ T cells started to lose weight earlier (day 10) than HLA class I-negative humanized mice (day 15). Moreover, in these mice the number of human platelets dropped by 77 % whereas the number of murine platelets did not change, illustrating how differences between rodent and human haemato-lymphoid systems may contribute to disease development. To our knowledge this is the first description of a humanized mouse model of hantavirus infection, and our results indicate a role for human immune cells in hantaviral pathogenesis.

  16. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves Morais, Felipe; Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  17. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from Indiana.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, N; Pruden, S; Ksiazek, T G; Morzunov, S P; Camp, J W

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine if hantaviruses were present in mice and other small mammals in Indiana (USA), small mammals were trapped in Brown, LaPorte, Tippecanoe and Whitley counties. Sixty-seven small mammals were trapped during August and September 1994. Sixty-three Peromyscus leucopus, one Microtus pennsylvanicus, one Zapus hudsonius and two Blarina brevicauda were captured and tested for hantaviruses. Six P. leucopus were found to have antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SN) by IgG ELISA, and a 139 bp fragment of SN-like hantavirus was amplified from five of them. All six of the positive P. leucopus were from LaPorte County. No other small mammals had evidence of infection with SN virus. This study presents the first report of Sin Nombre-like hantavirus in P. leucopus from Indiana. PMID:9391967

  18. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves Morais, Felipe; Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  19. Hantavirus-induced disruption of the endothelial barrier: neutrophils are on the payroll.

    PubMed

    Schönrich, Günther; Krüger, Detlev H; Raftery, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suitable treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of hantaviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro without causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the latest developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutrophils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier. PMID:25859243

  20. Sangassou virus, the first hantavirus isolate from Africa, displays genetic and functional properties distinct from those of other murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Klempa, Boris; Witkowski, Peter T; Popugaeva, Elena; Auste, Brita; Koivogui, Lamine; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Strecker, Thomas; Ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered the first indigenous African hantavirus, Sangassou virus (SANGV). The virus was isolated from an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus), trapped in a forest habitat in Guinea, West Africa. Here, we report on the characterization of the genetic and functional properties of the virus. The complete genome of SANGV was determined and showed typical hantavirus organization. The small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments containing genes encoding nucleocapsid protein, two envelope glycoproteins, and viral polymerase were found to be 1,746, 3,650, and 6,531 nucleotides long, respectively. The exact 5' and 3' termini for all three segments of the SANGV genome were determined and were predicted to form the panhandle structures typical of bunyaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of all three segment sequences confirmed SANGV as a Murinae-associated hantavirus most closely related to the European Dobrava-Belgrade virus. We showed, however, that SANGV uses β(1) integrin rather than β(3) integrin and decay-accelerating factor (DAF)/CD55 as an entry receptor. In addition, we demonstrated a strong induction of type III lambda interferon (IFN-λ) expression in type I IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells by SANGV. These properties are unique within Murinae-associated hantaviruses and make the virus useful in comparative studies focusing on hantavirus pathogenesis.

  1. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Mills, James N; Padula, Paula J; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Mendes, Wellington S; Santos, Elizabeth D; Araújo, Gisele C B; Martinez, Valeria P; Rosa, Jorge F S T; Edelstein, Alexis; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2005-01-01

    Following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Maranhao State, Brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by ELISA for antibodies to Sin Nombre and Andes hantaviruses. Antibody-positive samples were tested by RT-PCR, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. From 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 Bolomys lasiurus, 52 Holochilus sciureus, 12 Oligoryzomys fornesi, and one Proechimys guyannensis), 21 (20.2%) were antibody-positive (one B. lasiurus, five O. fornesi, and 15 H. sciureus). Hantavirus RNA was amplified by PCR from two O. fornesi and four H. sciureus. Viral sequencing identified two hantavirus genotypes. The genotype recovered from O. fornesi, is designated herein as Anajatuba (ANAJ) and the genotype recovered from H. sciureus is designated Rio Mearim (RIME). Phylogenetic analysis of a 643-nucleotide region of the N segment showed both viruses to be most closely related (94-96% nucleotide homology) to Río Mamoré virus, a virus associated with Oligoryzomys microtis in Bolivia and Peru, but not found in northern Brazil. O. fornesi was frequently captured in and around human dwellings. H. sciureus, is a semi-aquatic rodent captured only in remote areas rarely frequented by humans.

  2. Life-threatening Dobrava hantavirus infection with unusually extended pulmonary involvement.

    PubMed

    Schütt, M; Meisel, H; Krüger, D H; Ulrich, R; Dalhoff, K; Dodt, C

    2004-07-01

    In Europe, hantavirus infections usually present as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and its mild form nephropathia epidemica, while clinical cases with severe pulmonary affections are extremely rare and appear to be confined to infections by New World hanta viruses in the Americas. We report on a female patient from Northern Germany, who suffered primarily from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-like pulmonary failure due to Dobrava hantavirus infection that was complicated by acute renal insufficiency.

  3. Hantavirus Gn and Gc Glycoproteins Self-Assemble into Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L.; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera. PMID:24335294

  4. Preferential host switching and its relation with Hantavirus diversification in South America.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Paula C; González-Ittig, Raul E; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the notion of co-speciation between Hantavirus species and their hosts was discarded in favour of a more likely explanation: preferential host switching. However, the relative importance of this last process in shaping the evolutionary history of hantaviruses remains uncertain, given the present limited knowledge not only of virus-host relationships but also of the pathogen and reservoir phylogenies. In South America, more than 25 hantavirus genotypes were detected; several of them act as aetiological agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). An understanding of the diversity of hantaviruses and of the processes underlying host switching is critical since human cases of HPS are almost exclusively the result of human-host interactions. In this study, we tested if preferential host switching is the main process driving hantavirus diversification in South America, by performing a co-phylogenetic analysis of the viruses and their primary hosts. We also suggest a new level of amino acid divergence to define virus species in the group. Our results indicate that preferential host switching would not be the main process driving virus diversification. The historical geographical proximity among rodent hosts emerges as an alternative hypothesis to be tested.

  5. Sero-epidemiological study of the presence of hantaviruses in domestic dogs and cats from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Dobly, A; Cochez, C; Goossens, E; De Bosschere, H; Hansen, P; Roels, S; Heyman, P

    2012-04-01

    Hantaviruses are worldwide rodent-borne pathogens infecting humans and other animals mainly through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent excreta. Few data are available on hantavirus serology and geographical distribution in dogs and cats. We therefore screened sera from pet dogs (N=410) and cats (N=124) in two regions of Belgium, using IgG ELISA and IFA. We analysed the effect of the owner's address as well as pet gender and age on hantavirus status. Hantavirus antibodies were found in both species with a significantly higher seroprevalence in cats than in dogs (16.9% vs. 4.9%, P=0.001). More dogs were infected in highly forested southern Belgium (harbouring more rodents) than in northern Belgium (10.5% vs. 3.0%, P=0.002). In the south, hantavirus sero-positive cats were found in more densely forested localities than sero-negatives ones were (P=0.033). These results are consistent with the ecological variations of hantavirus risks in humans.

  6. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Michelly de; Souza, William Marciel de; Lauretti, Flávio; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV) using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated) and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  7. Multiple co-infections of rodents with hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-05-01

    Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found.

  8. β2 integrin mediates hantavirus-induced release of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Martin J; Lalwani, Pritesh; Krautkrӓmer, Ellen; Peters, Thorsten; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Krüger, Renate; Hofmann, Jörg; Seeger, Karl; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2014-06-30

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are emerging human pathogens that cause severe human disease. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, as hantaviruses replicate in endothelial and epithelial cells without causing any cytopathic effect. We demonstrate that hantaviruses strongly stimulated neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Hantavirus infection induced high systemic levels of circulating NETs in patients and this systemic NET overflow was accompanied by production of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. Analysis of the responsible mechanism using neutrophils from β2 null mice identified β2 integrin receptors as a master switch for NET induction. Further experiments suggested that β2 integrin receptors such as complement receptor 3 (CR3) and 4 (CR4) may act as novel hantavirus entry receptors. Using adenoviruses, we confirmed that viral interaction with β2 integrin induced strong NET formation. Collectively, β2 integrin-mediated systemic NET overflow is a novel viral mechanism of immunopathology that may be responsible for characteristic aspects of hantavirus-associated disease such as kidney and lung damage.

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Southern Chile, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-04-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995-2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate.

  10. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116

  11. Seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in California.

    PubMed Central

    Jay, M.; Ascher, M. S.; Chomel, B. B.; Madon, M.; Sesline, D.; Enge, B. A.; Hjelle, B.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E.; Kass, P. H.; Reilly, K.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to Sin Nombre virus. All nonrodent species were antibody negative. Among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. Of 1,921 Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. The highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among P. maniculatus on Santa Cruz Island, off the southern California coast. Prevalence of antibodies among deer mice trapped near sites of human cases (26.8% of 164) was significantly higher than that of mice from other sites (odds ratio = 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 11.6). Antibody prevalence increased with rising elevation (> 1,200 meters) and correlated with a spatial cluster of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the Sierra Nevada. PMID:9204301

  12. Sequence analysis of the complete S genomic segment of a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): phylogenetic relationship with other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, J W; Baek, L J; Gavrilovskaya, I N; Mackow, E R; Hjelle, B; Yanagihara, R

    1996-01-01

    Four Corners (FC) or Sin Nombre virus, a hantavirus harbored by the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Recently, a hantavirus, designated New York (NY) virus, isolated from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) captured on Shelter Island, New York, was molecularly linked to a fatal case of HPS occurring in the northeastern United States. To clarify the genetic and phylogenetic relationship between NY and FC viruses and other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses, we amplified and sequenced the entire S genomic segment of NY virus. The S segment of NY virus was 2078 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1284 nucleotides in the virus complementary strand, capable of encoding a protein of 428 amino acids, and with a 752-nucleotide long 3'-noncoding region, comprised of numerous imperfect repeats. Pairwise analysis indicated that NY virus was more similar to FC virus than to other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses, differing from strains of FC virus by 16.6-17.8% and 7.0-8.2% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. As determined by the maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods, NY virus formed a separate lineage from FC virus and was phylogenetically distinct from hantaviruses harbored by other sigmodontine rodents. Whether or not NY and FC viruses represent distinct viral species is unclear. Further analyses of hantaviruses harbored by white-footed mice are needed to clarify the genetic diversity and evolution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses.

  13. In Search for Factors that Drive Hantavirus Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Paul; Thoma, Bryan R.; Marié, Jean-Lou; Cochez, Christel; Essbauer, Sandra Simone

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are small mammal-associated zoonotic and emerging pathogens that can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Puumala virus, the main etiological agent carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus is responsible for a mild form of HFRS while Dobrava virus induces less frequent but more severe cases of HFRS. Since 2000 in Europe, more than 3000 cases of HFRS have been recorded, in average, each year, which is nearly double compared to the previous decade. In addition to this upside long-term trend, significant oscillations occur. Epidemic years appear, usually every 2–4 years, with an increased incidence, generally in localized hot spots. Moreover, the virus has been identified in new areas in the recent years. A great number of surveys have been carried out in order to assess the prevalence of the infection in the reservoir host and to identify links with different biotic and abiotic factors. The factors that drive the infections are related to the density and diversity of bank vole populations, prevalence of infection in the reservoir host, viral excretion in the environment, survival of the virus outside its host, and human behavior, which affect the main transmission virus route through inhalation of infected rodent excreta. At the scale of a rodent population, the prevalence of the infection increases with the age of the individuals but also other parameters, such as sex and genetic variability, interfere. The contamination of the environment may be correlated to the number of newly infected rodents, which heavily excrete the virus. The interactions between these different parameters add to the complexity of the situation and explain the absence of reliable tools to predict epidemics. In this review, the factors that drive the epidemics of hantaviruses in Middle Europe are discussed through a panorama of the epidemiological situation in Belgium, France, and Germany. PMID:22934002

  14. Does proficiency testing improve the quality of hantavirus serodiagnostics? Experiences with INSTAND EQA schemes.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jörg; Grunert, Hans-Peter; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Zeichhardt, Heinz; Kruger, Detlev H

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus infections in Germany appear periodically with peak numbers every 2-3 years. The reported cases in the years 2007, 2010 and 2012 exceeded many times over those in the years in-between. In order to reveal faults of certain in vitro diagnostic assays (IVDs), to harmonize the performances of the individual assays and to improve the users' competence in interpreting the results, the National Consiliary Laboratory for Hantaviruses and INSTAND e.V. (Society for Promoting Quality Assurance in Medical Laboratories e.V.) established an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for proficiency testing of hantavirus serodiagnostics. The first EQA scheme (pilot study) started in March 2009 with 58 participating laboratories from Germany and neighboring countries. Twice a year four serum samples were sent out to the participants to investigate whether the sample reflects an acute or past infection and to distinguish between infections with the hantavirus types Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), both endemic in Central Europe. In addition, samples negative for anti-hantavirus antibodies were tested in order to examine the specificity of the IVDs applied in the participating laboratories. An increasing number of laboratories participated, with a maximum of 92 in March 2014. When summarizing in total 2592 test results, the laboratories reached an overall specificity of 96.7% and a sensitivity of 95% in their detection of a hantavirus infection. A correct distinction between acute and past infections was forwarded in 90-96% of replies of laboratories. Exact serotyping (PUUV vs. DOBV) of the infection was reported in 81-96% of replies with the lowest accuracy for past DOBV infections; cross-reactivities between diagnostic antigens of the two viruses as well as persistent IgM titers in humans may interfere with exact testing. The EQAs revealed acceptable results for the serodiagnostic of hantavirus infection including serotyping but further improvement

  15. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc

    PubMed Central

    Barriga, Gonzalo P.; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L.; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H.; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Vidal, Simon E.; Tischler, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses

  16. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses

  17. New World Hantaviruses Activate IFNλ Production in Type I IFN-Deficient Vero E6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Hall, Pamela; Acuna-Retamar, Mariana; Ye, Chunyan; Wathelet, Marc G.; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN), rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon λ, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNλ. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNλ expression in this cell line. The IFNλ contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7) without inducing ISGs. Conclusions/Significance Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNλ. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNλ production in these cells

  18. Crystal Structure of the Core Region of Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Reveals the Mechanism for Ribonucleoprotein Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wang, Wenming; Sun, Yuna; Ma, Chao; Wang, Xu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Pi; Shen, Shu; Li, Baobin; Lin, Jianping; Deng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantaviruses, which belong to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infect mammals, including humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans with high mortality. Hantavirus encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to encapsidate the genome and form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with viral polymerase. Here, we report the crystal structure of the core domains of NP (NPcore) encoded by Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV), which are two representative members that cause HCPS in the New World. The constructs of SNV and ANDV NPcore exclude the N- and C-terminal portions of full polypeptide to obtain stable proteins for crystallographic study. The structure features an N lobe and a C lobe to clamp RNA-binding crevice and exhibits two protruding extensions in both lobes. The positively charged residues located in the RNA-binding crevice play a key role in RNA binding and virus replication. We further demonstrated that the C-terminal helix and the linker region connecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain and NPcore are essential for hantavirus NP oligomerization through contacts made with two adjacent protomers. Moreover, electron microscopy (EM) visualization of native RNPs extracted from the virions revealed that a monomer-sized NP-RNA complex is the building block of viral RNP. This work provides insight into the formation of hantavirus RNP and provides an understanding of the evolutionary connections that exist among bunyaviruses. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses are distributed across a wide and increasing range of host reservoirs throughout the world. In particular, hantaviruses can be transmitted via aerosols of rodent excreta to humans or from human to human and cause HFRS and HCPS, with mortalities of 15% and 50%, respectively. Hantavirus is therefore listed as a category C pathogen. Hantavirus encodes an NP that plays essential roles both in RNP formation and

  19. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys.

  20. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture.

  1. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture. PMID:27246270

  2. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys. PMID:27155935

  3. Hantaviruses in Central South America: phylogenetic analysis of the S segment from HPS cases in Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia M; Probst, Christian M; Bordignon, Juliano; Zeferino, Aurélio; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte

    2005-08-01

    We sequenced the complete S segments of hantaviruses detected from 12 HPS patients living in southern of Brazil. Samples were obtained from patients diagnosed in different years, in distinct areas, and with a broad spectrum of clinical signs. Despite these differences, all the S proteins of hantavirus from Paraná were identical, except for one amino acid substitution. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete S segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences indicated that hantaviruses from Paraná form a distinct clade from those circulating in South and North America. Other hantaviruses from Brazil were not placed in the same clade. The Oligoryzomys nigripes-associated strains ITA37 and ITA38 from Paraguay were found to belong to the same clade as the hantaviruses from Paraná. Paraguay and Paraná state are located at the same latitude and some ecosystems are similar in both places. The geographic position and common rodent hosts could explain this phylogenetic relationship.

  4. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Brocato, Rebecca L.; Bell, Todd M.; Schellhase, Christopher W.; Mraz, Steven R.; Queen, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract

  5. Mobilization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Correlates with the Clinical Course of Hantavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grouls, Stephan; Hettwer, David; Rafat, Neysan; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Zeier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Infections with hemorrhagic fever viruses are characterized by increased permeability leading to capillary leakage. Hantavirus infection is associated with endothelial dysfunction, and the clinical course is related to the degree of vascular injury. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) play a pivotal role in the repair of the damaged endothelium. Therefore, we analyzed the number of cEPCs and their mobilizing growth factors in patients suffering from hantavirus disease induced by infection with Puumala virus. The numbers of EPCs of 36 hantavirus-infected patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Concentrations of cEPC-mobilizing growth factors in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Laboratory parameters were correlated with the number of cEPCs. In patients infected with hantavirus, the number of cEPCs was significantly higher than that in healthy controls. Levels of mobilizing cytokines were upregulated in patients, and the mobilization of cEPCs is paralleled with the normalization of clinical parameters. Moreover, higher levels of cEPCs correlated with higher serum albumin levels and platelet concentrations. Our data indicate that cEPCs may play a role in the repair of hantavirus-induced endothelial damage, thereby influencing the clinical course and the severity of symptoms. PMID:24155401

  6. The effect of habitat fragmentation and species diversity loss on hantavirus prevalence in Panama.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; Marcé, Erika; Giermakowski, J Tomasz; Armién, Blas; Pascale, Juan; Mills, James; Ceballos, Gerardo; Gómez, Andres; Aguirre, A Alonso; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Armién, Anibal; Parmenter, Robert; Yates, Terry

    2008-12-01

    Habitat fragmentation and diversity loss due to increased conversion of natural habitats to agricultural uses influence the distribution and abundance of wildlife species and thus may change the ecology of pathogen transmission. We used hantaviruses in Panama as a research model to determine whether anthropogenic environmental change is associated with changes in the dynamics of viral transmission. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether hantavirus infection was correlated with spatial attributes of the landscape at both large and small scales or whether these changes are mediated by changes in community composition. When analyzed at coarse spatial scales, hantavirus reservoirs were more commonly found in disturbed habitats and edge habitats than in forested areas. At local scales, reservoir species dominance was significantly correlated with the slope of the terrain. To evaluate the effect of small-mammal diversity loss on infection dynamics, we implemented an experiment with selective species removal at experimental sites. Seroprevalence of hantavirus was higher in the community of small mammals and increased through time in the experimental sites. The higher seroprevalence in experimental plots suggests that greater diversity likely reduces encounter rates between infected and susceptible hosts. Our studies suggest that habitat loss and fragmentation and species diversity loss are altering hantavirus infection dynamics in Panama. Our work represents a multidisciplinary approach toward disease research that includes biodiversity concerns such as environmental change and degradation, human settlement patterns, and the ecology of host and nonhost species, work that may be especially important in tropical countries.

  7. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: epidemiology, prevention, and case presentation of a new viral strain.

    PubMed

    Stelzel, W

    1996-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a viral infection from a new strain of Hantavirus. The Hantavirus was first discovered in North America in 1993 after an outbreak of fatal illness on a Navajo Indian reservation in New Mexico. Since then, 122 cases of HPS (with a high mortality rate of more than 50%) have been reported in 23 states, with the highest prevalence in the Four Corners area. The reservoir for Hantavirus is small rodents, mostly field mice, vole, and chipmunks. It is transmitted through inhalation of airborne virus from dry rodent excreta and saliva. A North American strain of Hantavirus, named ain nombre virus (SNV), primarily affects the lungs, causing rapid accumulation of fluids and leading to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the prodromal stage, HPS presents with flu-like symptoms, nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal pain and is often mistaken on the first visit for other infectious diseases or gastroenteritis. In the second acute stage, rapid respiratory deterioration begins: HPS is often misdiagnosed for pneumonia, idiopathic ARDS, and pulmonary edema. HPS treatment with an experimental antiviral intravenous drug, ribavirin, is under investigation. Practitioners must possess through clinical knowledge on the diagnoses, pathology, treatment, and course of the disease to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate of this rare but serious infection. A case report based on a recent HPS death in New York State on Long island in April 1995 is presented. PMID:8784877

  8. Genetic characterization of seoul hantavirus originated from norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Heyman, Paul; Baert, Kristof; Stuyck, Jan; Cochez, Christel; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus (cardio)pulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. So far, in Europe, four pathogenic hantaviruses have been found, often in co-circulation: Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava virus (DOBV), Saaremaa virus (SAAV), and Seoul virus (SEOV). Of those, only PUUV was found in Belgium. Recently, in our search for hantaviruses in the Flanders region of Belgium we collected genetic and serological evidence for the presence of SEOV virus in local brown rats. In this article, the results of (phylo)genetic analysis of wild-type SEOV strain from the Flanders are presented. The analysis based on the complete S segment sequence and also partial M- and L-segment sequences revealed that the Belgian SEOV strain was related most closely to strains from France, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Cambodia (those associated with the species Rattus norvegicus) and Vietnam. Such a clustering was in perfect agreement with the results of direct sequence comparison and suggested the same evolutionary history for all three genome segments of the Belgian SEOV strain (i.e., no reassortment of genome segments). So far, SEOV has been found in two European countries, France and Belgium, and there is every reason to believe that the area of the virus distribution in Europe is not restricted to those countries.

  9. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  10. Ecology of hantaviruses in Mexico: genetic identification of rodent host species and spillover infection.

    PubMed

    Saasa, Ngonda; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; de Lourdes Romero-Almaraz, María; Guerrero-Ibarra, Ezequiel; Almazán-Catalán, Alberto; Yoshida, Haruka; Miyashita, Daisuke; Ishizuka, Mariko; Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Ramos, Celso; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    In our recent epidemiological survey conducted in Mexico for hantavirus infection, we identified three distinct viruses circulating in Mexican wild rodents, namely Montano virus (MTNV), Huitzilac virus (HUIV), and Carrizal virus (CARV). To gain a detailed understanding of hantavirus epidemiology and its associated hosts, 410 rodents were captured at eight collecting points in Morelos and Guerrero, Mexico, and examined for hantavirus seroprevalence, the presence of viral RNA, and rodent host species identification using cytochrome b gene sequences. Of the 32 species captured, seven species were positive for hantavirus: Peromyscus beatae (31/127; 24.4%), Reithrodontomys sumichrasti (6/15; 40%), Reithrodontomys megalotis (2/25; 8%), Peromyscus aztecus evides (1/1; 100%), Peromyscus megalops (1/41; 2.4%), Megadontomys thomasi (1/9; 11.1%), and Neotoma picta (1/6; 16.7%), with an overall prevalence of 10.5%; virus genome persisted in the majority of seropositive rodents. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses belonged mainly to the three lineages previously identified. The data showed that MTNV and CARV were primarily carried by P. beatae and R. sumichrasti, respectively. In addition, the data revealed an apparent complex interaction between hantaviruses and their hosts, suggesting active transmission and/or spillover infections within sympatric rodent species.

  11. Phylogeographic diversity of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses in slovenia.

    PubMed

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Rus, Katarina Resman; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Županc, Tatjana Avšič

    2013-12-10

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus-Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus),M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava-Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas.

  12. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  13. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778

  14. Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama.

  15. Distinct innate immune responses in human macrophages and endothelial cells infected with shrew-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-12-01

    Although hantaviruses have been previously considered as rodent-borne pathogens, recent studies demonstrate genetically distinct hantaviruses in evolutionarily distant non-rodent reservoirs, including shrews, moles and bats. The immunological responses to these newfound hantaviruses in humans are unknown. We compared the innate immune responses to Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), two shrew-borne hantaviruses, with that toward two rodent-borne hantaviruses, pathogenic Hantann virus (HTNV) and nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV). Infection of human macrophages and endothelial cells with either HTNV or MJNV triggered productive viral replication and up-regulation of anti-viral responsive gene expression from day 1 to day 3 postinfection, compared with PHV and TPMV. Furthermore, HTNV, MJNV and TPMV infection led to prolonged increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from days 3 to 7 postinfection. By contrast, PHV infection failed to induce pro-inflammatory responses. Distinct patterns of innate immune activation caused by MJNV suggest that it might be pathogenic to humans. PMID:22944108

  16. Roles for the Recycling Endosome, Rab8, and Rab11 in hantavirus release from epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Regina K.; Suszko, Jason W.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Hantavirus structural proteins are believed to localize to intracellular membranes often identified as Golgi membranes, in virus-infected cells. After virus budding into the Golgi luminal space, virus-containing vesicles are transported to the plasma membrane via trafficking pathways that are not well defined. Using the New World hantavirus, Andes virus, we have investigated the role of various Rab proteins in the release of hantavirus particles from infected cells. Rabs 8 and 11 were found to colocalize with Andes virus proteins in virus infected cells and when expressed from cDNA, implicating the recycling endosome as an organelle important for hantavirus infection. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of Rab11a alone or Rab11a and Rab11b together resulted in a decrease in infectious virus particle secretion from infected cells. Downregulation of Rab8a did not alter infectious virus release but reduction of both isoforms did. These data implicate the recycling endosome and the Rab proteins associated with vesicular transport to or from this intracellular organelle as an important pathway for hantavirus trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:18951604

  17. Coexistence of several novel hantaviruses in rodents indigenous to North America.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J E; St Jeor, S C; Riolo, J; Otteson, E W; Monroe, M C; Henderson, W W; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Nichol, S T

    1995-10-20

    Three genetically distinct members of the Hantavirus genus have been detected in Nevada rodents by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. These include Sin Nombre (SN), El Moro Canyon (ELMC), and Prospect Hill (PH)-like viruses which are primarily associated with Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), Reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse), and Microtus spp. (voles), respectively. Although this region of the United States is ecologically diverse, rodents infected with different hantaviruses appear to coexist in several different geographical and ecological zones. In two widely separated states, Nevada and North Dakota, PH-like viruses are present in three different species of vole. In addition, ELMC-like virus has been detected in both R. megalotis and M. montanus (mountain vole). SN virus is a cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome throughout much of the United States. SN virus RNA is found in 12.5% of P. maniculatus in Nevada and eastern California. Two lineages of SN virus coexist in this region and differ from SN viruses originally found in infected rodents in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. These data show the complexity of hantavirus maintenance in rodents. Distinct hantaviruses or virus lineages can coexist either in different or the same rodent species and in either different or the same geographic or ecological zones. PMID:7483255

  18. The use of chimeric virus-like particles harbouring a segment of hantavirus Gc glycoprotein to generate a broadly-reactive hantavirus-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-02-07

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80-89) or site #4 (aa 280-289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.

  19. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89) or site #4 (aa 280–289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  20. Distribution and abundance of sigmodontine rodents in relation to hantavirus in Neuquén, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Piudo, Luciana; Monteverde, Martín; González Capria, Silvana; Padula, Paula; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    In order to estimate spatial distribution, temporal variation, and prevalence of Andes hantavirus antibody in the rodent community, and especially in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus populations, four different ecosystems were trapped seasonally between spring 2001 and winter 2002 in Neuquen, northwestern Argentinean Patagonia. Five peridomestic settings were sampled within the same period. The rodent O. longicaudatus had the widest distribution in Neuquen, as it was the only species captured at every sample site except for the High Andean steppe, and it was also the most common species captured. Rodents of 13 species were tested for hantavirus antibody prevalence, but O. longicaudatus and Abrothrix longipilis were the only seropositive species. Seropositive individuals were captured during spring and summer in the Subantarctic forest and in winter 2001 in a peridomestic setting in the Patagonian steppe. The dominant presence of O. longicaudatus throughout Neuquen must be incorporated into strategies to prevent human exposure to hantavirus. PMID:16007965

  1. Anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Thailand virus detected in rodents from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafindralambo, Nadia Kaloina; Lacoste, Vincent; Olive, Marie-Marie; Barivelo, Tony Andrianaivo; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from Madagascar. To assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between October, 2008, and March, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the Anjozorobe-Angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city Antananarivo. A hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (Rattus rattus) and of the endemic Major's tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus majori). Amazingly, sequence analysis of the S (small), M (medium), and L (large) coding DNA sequence of this virus showed that the Anjozorobe strain (proposed name) was a new genetic variant of Thailand virus (THAIV) that comprises other variants found in Southeast Asia. Because THAIV is suspected of causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, ongoing studies are addressing the risk of infection by this new variant in the Malagasy population.

  2. Distribution and abundance of sigmodontine rodents in relation to hantavirus in Neuquén, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Piudo, Luciana; Monteverde, Martín; González Capria, Silvana; Padula, Paula; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    In order to estimate spatial distribution, temporal variation, and prevalence of Andes hantavirus antibody in the rodent community, and especially in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus populations, four different ecosystems were trapped seasonally between spring 2001 and winter 2002 in Neuquen, northwestern Argentinean Patagonia. Five peridomestic settings were sampled within the same period. The rodent O. longicaudatus had the widest distribution in Neuquen, as it was the only species captured at every sample site except for the High Andean steppe, and it was also the most common species captured. Rodents of 13 species were tested for hantavirus antibody prevalence, but O. longicaudatus and Abrothrix longipilis were the only seropositive species. Seropositive individuals were captured during spring and summer in the Subantarctic forest and in winter 2001 in a peridomestic setting in the Patagonian steppe. The dominant presence of O. longicaudatus throughout Neuquen must be incorporated into strategies to prevent human exposure to hantavirus.

  3. Anjozorobe Hantavirus, a New Genetic Variant of Thailand Virus Detected in Rodents from Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Razafindralambo, Nadia Kaloina; Lacoste, Vincent; Olive, Marie-Marie; Barivelo, Tony Andrianaivo; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from Madagascar. To assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between October, 2008, and March, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the Anjozorobe-Angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city Antananarivo. A hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (Rattus rattus) and of the endemic Major's tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus majori). Amazingly, sequence analysis of the S (small), M (medium), and L (large) coding DNA sequence of this virus showed that the Anjozorobe strain (proposed name) was a new genetic variant of Thailand virus (THAIV) that comprises other variants found in Southeast Asia. Because THAIV is suspected of causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, ongoing studies are addressing the risk of infection by this new variant in the Malagasy population. PMID:24575755

  4. [Spatial structure of natural foci of hantavirus on the territory of Northwestern Caucasus].

    PubMed

    Okulova, N M; Khliap, L A; Varshavskiĭ, A A; Dzagurova, T K; Iunicheva, Iu V; Riabova, T E; Baskevich, M I; Vasilenko, L E; Tkachenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    For the period from 2001 to 2011 zoological and epizootological studies in more than 100 points of Northwestern Caucasus including territories of Krasnodar Region and Republic of Adygea were carried out. 8723 specimens of small mammals represented by 20 rodent species and 7 insectivorous species were captured and examined. Organs and blood from 5057 specimens of creatures were studied for hantavirus infection. The presence of natural foci of circulation of 2 species of hantavirus--Dobrava/Belgrade and Tula--was established. Sochi viruses and presumably Kurkin with main natural hosts--Caucasian wood and field mice belong to the first species. Tula and Adler viruses with the main host--Microtus genus vole belong to the second species. Quantitative characteristics of infection of small mammals of various species during different seasons and years on the examined territories were obtained, that allowed to create a map of allocation of foci of hantavirus circulation that differ by structure. PMID:24605654

  5. Isla Vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the California vole Microtus californicus.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Torrez-Martinez, N; Irwin, W; Harrison, F J; Davis, R; Ascher, M; Jay, M; Hjelle, B

    1995-12-01

    Prospect Hill virus (PH) was isolated from a meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in 1982, and much of its genome has been sequenced. Hantaviruses of other New World microtine rodents have not been genetically characterized. We show that another Microtus species (the California vole M. californicus) from the United States is host to a genetically distinct PH-like hantavirus, Isla Vista virus (ILV). The nucleocapsid protein of ILV differs from that of PH by 11.1% and a portion of the G2 glycoprotein differs from that of PH by 19.6%. ILV antibodies were identified in five of 33 specimens of M. californicus collected in 1975 and 1994-1995. Enzymatic amplification studies showed that 1975 and 1994-1995 ILV genomes were highly similar. Secondary infection of Peromyscus californicus was identified in Santa Barbara County, California. A long-standing enzootic of a genetically distinct hantavirus lineage is present in California voles. PMID:8847529

  6. Resultado negativo de prueba del VPH es mejor predictor de riesgo bajo de cáncer de cuello uterino

    Cancer.gov

    De acuerdo con un estudio en el que participaron más de un millón de mujeres, los investigadores del NCI han determinado que el resultado negativo de una prueba para la detección del VPH proporciona mayor certeza o seguridad frente a riesgos futuros de cá

  7. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  8. Cytotoxic immune responses in the lungs correlate to disease severity in patients with hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, J; Pourazar, J; Mohamed, N; Lejon, K; Evander, M; Blomberg, A; Ahlm, C

    2016-04-01

    Hantavirus infections may cause severe and sometime life-threatening lung failure. The pathogenesis is not fully known and there is an urgent need for effective treatment. We aimed to investigate the association between pulmonary viral load and immune responses, and their relation to disease severity. Bronchoscopy with sampling of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was performed in 17 patients with acute Puumala hantavirus infection and 16 healthy volunteers acting as controls. Lymphocyte subsets, granzyme concentrations, and viral load were determined by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Analyses of BAL fluid revealed significantly higher numbers of activated CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, as well as higher concentrations of the cytotoxins granzymes A and B in hantavirus-infected patients, compared to controls. In patients, Puumala hantavirus RNA was detected in 88 % of BAL cell samples and correlated inversely to the T cell response. The magnitude of the pulmonary cytotoxic lymphocyte response correlated to the severity of disease and systemic organ dysfunction, in terms of need for supplemental oxygen treatment, hypotension, and laboratory data indicating renal failure, cardiac dysfunction, vascular leakage, and cell damage. Regulatory T cell numbers were significantly lower in patients compared to controls, and may reflect inadequate immune regulation during hantavirus infection. Hantavirus infection elicits a pronounced cytotoxic lymphocyte response in the lungs. The magnitude of the immune response was associated with disease severity. These results give insights into the pathogenesis and possibilities for new treatments. PMID:26873376

  9. Effect of Vandetanib on Andes virus survival in the hamster model of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian H; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Dodd, Kimberly A; Erickson, Bobbie R; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease caused by hantavirus infection of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells leading to microvascular leakage, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion and high case fatality. Previously, we demonstrated that Andes virus (ANDV) infection caused up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and concomitant downregulation of the cellular adhesion molecule VE-cadherin leading to increased permeability. Analyses of human HPS-patient sera have further demonstrated increased circulating levels of VEGF. Here we investigate the impact of a small molecule antagonist of the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) activation in vitro, and overall impact on survival in the Syrian hamster model of HPS. PMID:27233645

  10. The Experimental Research (In Vitro) of Carrageenans and Fucoidans to Decrease Activity of Hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Pavliga, Stanislav N; Kompanets, Galina G; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu

    2016-06-01

    The effect of carrageenans and fucoidans on the activity of Hantavirus is studied. It has been found that among carrageenans a significant antiviral effect is exerted by the ι-type, which decreases the viral titer by 2.5 log focus forming units per mL; among fucoidans, by a preparation from Laminaria cichorioides, which reduces the number of infected cells from 27.0 to 5.3 after pretreatment of both the macrophage culture and Hantavirus. The antiviral effect of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is shown to grow in direct proportion to the increase of dose of the preparation. PMID:26943130

  11. Extinction of refugia of hantavirus infection in a spatially heterogeneous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Parmenter, R. R.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2010-07-01

    We predict an abrupt observable transition, on the basis of numerical studies, of hantavirus infection in terrain characterized by spatially dependent environmental resources. The underlying framework of the analysis is that of Fisher equations with an internal degree of freedom, the state of infection. The unexpected prediction is of the sudden disappearance of refugia of infection in spite of the existence of supercritical (favorable) food resources, brought about by reduction of their spatial extent. Numerical results are presented and a theoretical explanation is provided on analytic grounds on the basis of the competition of diffusion of rodents carrying the hantavirus and nonlinearity present in the resource interactions.

  12. [The role of natural environment in spreading of hantavirus--model of the correlation between host, pathogen and human infections].

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.

  13. Dahonggou Creek virus, a divergent lineage of hantavirus harbored by the long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hantaviruses, recently detected in moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Europe, Asia, and North America would predict a broader host range and wider ecological diversity. Employing RT-PCR, archival frozen tissues from the Chinese shrew mole (Uropsilus soricipes), broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus), coast mole (Scapanus orarius), Townsend's mole (Scapanus townsendii), and long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA. Following multiple attempts, a previously unrecognized hantavirus, designated Dahonggou Creek virus (DHCV), was detected in a long-tailed mole, captured in Shimian County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, in August 1989. Analyses of a 1058-nucleotide region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding L segment indicated that DHCV was genetically distinct from other rodent-, shrew-, mole-, and bat-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic trees, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that DHCV represented a divergent lineage comprising crocidurine and myosoricine shrew-borne hantaviruses. Although efforts to obtain the S- and M-genomic segments failed, the L-segment sequence analysis, reported here, expands the genetic database of non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Also, by further mining natural history collections of archival specimens, the genetic diversity of hantaviruses will elucidate their evolutionary origins.

  14. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  15. Dahonggou Creek virus, a divergent lineage of hantavirus harbored by the long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hantaviruses, recently detected in moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Europe, Asia, and North America would predict a broader host range and wider ecological diversity. Employing RT-PCR, archival frozen tissues from the Chinese shrew mole (Uropsilus soricipes), broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus), coast mole (Scapanus orarius), Townsend's mole (Scapanus townsendii), and long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA. Following multiple attempts, a previously unrecognized hantavirus, designated Dahonggou Creek virus (DHCV), was detected in a long-tailed mole, captured in Shimian County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, in August 1989. Analyses of a 1058-nucleotide region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding L segment indicated that DHCV was genetically distinct from other rodent-, shrew-, mole-, and bat-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic trees, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that DHCV represented a divergent lineage comprising crocidurine and myosoricine shrew-borne hantaviruses. Although efforts to obtain the S- and M-genomic segments failed, the L-segment sequence analysis, reported here, expands the genetic database of non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Also, by further mining natural history collections of archival specimens, the genetic diversity of hantaviruses will elucidate their evolutionary origins. PMID:27433135

  16. Competitive Homogeneous Immunoassay for Rapid Serodiagnosis of Hantavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rusanen, Juuso; Hepojoki, Jussi; Nurmi, Visa; Vaheri, Antti; Lundkvist, Åke; Hedman, Klaus; Vapalahti, Olli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe a competitive homogeneous immunoassay that makes use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in rapid detection of pathogen-specific antibodies. The assay principle is based on competition between a monoclonal antibody (MAb) and serum antibodies to a given antigen. In the assay, named competitive FRET immunoassay (CFRET-IA), the FRET signal is induced if MAb carrying a donor label binds to an acceptor-labeled antigen. Specific antibodies in serum compete for antigen binding, resulting in reduced FRET signal. The proof-of-principle for the assay was obtained using donor-labeled Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein (PUUV-N) and acceptor-labeled anti-PUUV-N MAb. The assay was evaluated by analyzing 329 clinical samples comprising 101 from individuals with acute PUUV infection, 42 from individuals with past infection, and 186 from individuals with PUUV-seronegative sera, and the results were compared to those of reference tests. The rapid serodiagnostic test we introduced herein performed with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity for diagnosing acute hantavirus disease. PMID:25972427

  17. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland. PMID:24452006

  18. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shannon L; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Copeland, Anna Maria; Jahrling, Peter B; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC) display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII), prekallikrein (PK), and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL) and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK). Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS), we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation during

  19. Characterization of Puumala hantavirus in bank voles from two regions in the Netherlands where human cases occurred.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A; Vennema, H; Bekker, D L; Maas, M; Adema, J; Opsteegh, M; van der Giessen, J W B; Reusken, C B E M

    2016-07-01

    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the most common and widespread hantavirus in Europe and is associated with a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, called nephropathia epidemica. This study presents the molecular characterization of PUUV circulating in bank voles in two regions of the Netherlands. Most human cases of hantavirus infection are from these two regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the (partial) S, M and L-segments indicated that the Dutch strains belong to the CE lineage, which includes PUUV strains from France, Germany and Belgium. We have identified two distinct groups of PUUV, corresponding with their geographic origin and with adjoining regions in neighbouring countries. PMID:27075118

  20. New ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention--a review.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Martin; Handermann, Michaela; Bahr, Udo; Rensch, Baldur; Müller, Sandra; Kehm, Roland; Muranyi, Walter; Darai, Gholamreza

    2005-03-01

    In the last decades a significant number of so far unknown or underestimated pathogens have emerged as fundamental health hazards of the human population despite intensive research and exceptional efforts of modern medicine to embank and eradicate infectious diseases. Almost all incidents caused by such emerging pathogens could be ascribed to agents that are zoonotic or expanded their host range and crossed species barriers. Many different factors influence the status of a pathogen to remain unnoticed or evolves into a worldwide threat. The ability of an infectious agent to adapt to changing environmental conditions and variations in human behavior, population development, nutrition, education, social, and health status are relevant factors affecting the correlation between pathogen and host. Hantaviruses belong to the emerging pathogens having gained more and more attention in the last decades. These viruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are grouped into a separate genus known as Hantavirus. The serotypes Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Puumala (PUU), and Dobrava (DOB) virus predominantly cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a disease characterized by renal failure, hemorrhages, and shock. In the recent past, many hantavirus isolates have been identified and classified in hitherto unaffected geographic regions in the New World (North, Middle, and South America) with characteristic features affecting the lungs of infected individuals and causing an acute pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus outbreaks in the United States of America at the beginning of the 10th decade of the last century fundamentally changed our knowledge about the appearance of the hantavirus specific clinical picture, mortality, origin, and transmission route in human beings. The hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was first recognized in 1993 in the Four Corners Region of the United States and had a lethality of more than 50%. Although the causative virus was first termed in

  1. Retrospective serological and genetic study of the distribution of hantaviruses in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, A; Johnson, A M; Stockton, P C; Bowen, M D; Spiropoulou, C F; Alexiou-Daniel, S; Ksiazek, T G; Nichol, S T; Antoniadis, A

    1998-08-01

    A retrospective serological and genetic study of hantaviruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Greece during the last 17 years is presented. Fifty-one serum samples taken from 30 HFRS cases previously diagnosed by immunofluorescence assay were tested by ELISA for IgG (Hantaan, Dobrava, and Puumala) and IgM antibodies (Hantaan and Puumala). Results were compatible with the majority of infections being related to hantaviruses carried by rodents of the subfamily Murinae. RNA was extracted from 26 selected samples and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using primers specifically designed for the detection of hanta-viruses associated with murine (MS-N-specific, MM-G1-specific primers) or arvicoline rodents (PPT-N-specific primers). In addition, primers previously designed for the detection of the G2 coding region of the Murine-associated hanta-viruses were also used. Sequencing of the PCR products was then performed, followed by phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences. Eleven out of the 26 serum samples tested were found to be positive by PCR with the MS-N primers, whereas four were positive with the MM-G1 primers, and only two with the G2 primers. None of the samples was found positive with the PPT primers. The sequence analysis showed that the virus that was responsible for these 11 HFRS cases was the Dobrava virus, which is endemic throughout the Balkans.

  2. Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Romo, Hannah E.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Iñiguez-Dávalos, L. Ignacio; Bradley, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico. PMID:22469569

  3. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hantaviruses and leptospires in selected Italian population groups.

    PubMed

    Nuti, M; Amaddeo, D; Autorino, G L; Crovatto, M; Crucil, C; Ghionni, A; Giommi, M; Salvati, F; Santini, G F

    1992-01-01

    A study of hantaviral and leptospiral antibodies in selected population groups was performed. Among high risk subjects in the Rome area, Hantaan antibody was found in mammalogists (10%) and dialysis patients (6%), while none of the trappers, oarsmen, river policemen and firemen studied tested positive for antibodies to hantaviruses. In occupationally-exposed subjects (farmers, rangers, lumbermen, hunters) from rural and densely forested areas of northern Italian regions, the prevalence of Hantaan antibody ranged from 3.3% to 8.8%. In the positive cases the comparative antibody titration using different hantaviruses showed a predominance of Hantaan virus (titer 1:128) compared to Puumala virus (titer 1:32); no reactivity was observed with Seoul or Prospect Hill viruses. In Rome, leptospiral antibodies were found in trappers (21%) and oarsmen (5%) at a titer of 1:50 or more, with a predominance for the L. icterohaemorrhagiae serotype (85%). In the Alpine areas the leptospiral antibody prevalence was 12% and L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. bratislava were the predominant serotypes. The presence of hantavirus infections, suspected after the first epidemiological survey conducted in central Italy, is now supported by the new data obtained in northern Italian regions. Furthermore, the recent observation of one case of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in the Udine area, not far from the Yugoslavian border, strongly confirms the presence of one or more hantaviruses in Italy.

  4. Hantaviruses Induce Antiviral and Pro-Inflammatory Innate Immune Responses in Astrocytic Cells and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Song, Gabriella Shinyoung; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Lee, Ho-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although hantaviruses are not generally considered neurotropic, neurological complications have been reported occasionally in patients with hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, we analyzed innate immune responses to hantavirus infection in vitro in human astrocytic cells (A172) and in vivo in suckling ICR mice. Infection of A172 cells with pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV) or a novel shrew-borne hantavirus, known as Imjin virus (MJNV), induced activation of antiviral genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. MicroRNA expression profiles of HTNV- and MJNV-infected A172 cells showed distinct changes in a set of miRNAs. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with HTNV or MJNV, suckling ICR mice developed rapidly progressive, fatal central nervous system-associated disease. Immunohistochemical staining of virus-infected mouse brains confirmed the detection of viral antigens within astrocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neurological findings in HFRS patients may be associated with hantavirus-directed modulation of innate immune responses in the brain. PMID:24937036

  5. Successful treatment of severe hantavirus nephritis with corticosteroids: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Martinuč Bergoč, Maja; Lindič, Jelka; Kovač, Damjan; Ferluga, Dušan; Pajek, Jernej

    2013-08-01

    Hantaviruses can be associated with severe form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome although there are only a few cases reporting chronic kidney disease after hantavirus infection. We report a severe nonresolving chronic renal failure after protracted Dobrava hantavirus infection successfully treated with corticosteroids. Ten days after working in a basement a 33-year-old man fell seriously ill, with high fever, chills, diffuse myalgia, headache and abdominal pain. After hospital admission a diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava hantavirus was made. Acute oliguric kidney injury developed in the first 3 days after admission, in a few days diuresis restored and he became polyuric. Nevertheless renal failure persisted and he needed hemodialysis. Because of nonresolving kidney failure, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and renoparenchymal arterial hypertension persisting 2 months after onset of symptoms, a kidney biopsy was performed, showing severe necrotizing tubulointerstitial nephritis. High dose methylprednisolone therapy was started and his renal function significantly improved. Two months later a second renal biopsy showed persisting elements of active necrotizing tubulointerstitial nephritis. We decided to stop corticosteroid treatment and introduced aldosterone antagonist eplerenon as anti-fibrotic agent, and his renal function further improved and remained stable. Nine months later his serum creatinine concentration was 227 μmol/L, proteinuria 0.156 g/day and well controlled nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. PMID:23931879

  6. Hantaviruses induce cell type- and viral species-specific host microRNA expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms of hantavirus-induced modulation of host cellular immunity remain poorly understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of essential regulators of host immune response genes. To ascertain if differential host miRNA expression toward representative hantavirus species correlated with immune response genes, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human endothelial cells, macrophages and epithelial cells infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were observed in a cell type- and viral species-specific pattern. A subset of miRNAs, including miR-151-5p and miR-1973, were differentially expressed between Hantaan virus and Prospect Hill virus. Pathway analyses confirmed that the targets of selected miRNAs were associated with inflammatory responses and innate immune receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Our data suggest that differential immune responses following hantavirus infection may be regulated in part by cellular miRNA through dysregulation of genes critical to the inflammatory process.

  7. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo A; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan C; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Antihantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase, while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RT-qPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients, and improving other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission.

  8. Hantaviruses induce antiviral and pro-inflammatory innate immune responses in astrocytic cells and the brain.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Song, Gabriella Shinyoung; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Lee, Ho-Wang; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-08-01

    Although hantaviruses are not generally considered neurotropic, neurological complications have been reported occasionally in patients with hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, we analyzed innate immune responses to hantavirus infection in vitro in human astrocytic cells (A172) and in vivo in suckling ICR mice. Infection of A172 cells with pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV) or a novel shrew-borne hantavirus, known as Imjin virus (MJNV), induced activation of antiviral genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. MicroRNA expression profiles of HTNV- and MJNV-infected A172 cells showed distinct changes in a set of miRNAs. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with HTNV or MJNV, suckling ICR mice developed rapidly progressive, fatal central nervous system-associated disease. Immunohistochemical staining of virus-infected mouse brains confirmed the detection of viral antigens within astrocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neurological findings in HFRS patients may be associated with hantavirus-directed modulation of innate immune responses in the brain.

  9. Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein C from a Hantavirus in the Post-fusion Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Willensky, Shmuel; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Tischler, Nicole D.; Dessau, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of glycoprotein C (GC) from Puumala virus (PUUV), a representative member of the Hantavirus genus. The crystal structure shows GC as the membrane fusion effector of PUUV and it presents a class II membrane fusion protein fold. Furthermore, GC was crystallized in its post-fusion trimeric conformation that until now had been observed only in Flavi- and Togaviridae family members. The PUUV GC structure together with our functional data provides intriguing evolutionary and mechanistic insights into class II membrane fusion proteins and reveals new targets for membrane fusion inhibitors against these important pathogens. PMID:27783673

  10. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.R.; Via, Alba Valéria; D’Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Lemos, Elba Regina S.

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis). PMID:21801642

  11. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Leighanne O; Nguyen, Trong Tien; Longtin, Jean; Beaudoin, Marie-Claude; Bestman-Smith, Julie; Vinh, Donald C; Boivin, Guy; Loo, Vivian G

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada. PMID:27366160

  12. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Leighanne O.; Nguyen, Trong Tien; Longtin, Jean; Beaudoin, Marie-Claude; Bestman-Smith, Julie; Vinh, Donald C.; Boivin, Guy; Loo, Vivian G.

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada. PMID:27366160

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Nova Virus, a Hantavirus Circulating in the European Mole in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Laenen, Lies; Vergote, Valentijn; Nauwelaers, Inne; Verbeeck, Ina; Kafetzopoulou, Liana E.; Van Ranst, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a divergent hantavirus, originating from the kidney tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea) from Belgium was determined. The 3 genomic segments have a total length of 11,979 nucleotides, and nucleotide identities to other Nova viruses are between 80 and 89%. PMID:26251483

  14. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Leighanne O; Nguyen, Trong Tien; Longtin, Jean; Beaudoin, Marie-Claude; Bestman-Smith, Julie; Vinh, Donald C; Boivin, Guy; Loo, Vivian G

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada.

  15. Signatures of Host mRNA 5′ Terminus for Efficient Hantavirus Cap Snatching

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erdong

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses, similarly to other negative-strand segmented RNA viruses, initiate the synthesis of translation-competent capped mRNAs by a unique cap-snatching mechanism. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) binds to host mRNA caps and requires four nucleotides adjacent to the 5′ cap for high-affinity binding. N protects the 5′ caps of cellular transcripts from degradation by the cellular decapping machinery. The rescued 5′ capped mRNA fragments are stored in cellular P bodies by N, which are later efficiently used as primers by the hantaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for transcription initiation. We showed that N also protects the host mRNA caps in P-body-deficient cells. However, the rescued caps were not effectively used by the hantavirus RdRp during transcription initiation, suggesting that caps stored in cellular P bodies by N are preferred for cap snatching. We examined the characteristics of the 5′ terminus of a capped test mRNA to delineate the minimum requirements for a capped transcript to serve as an efficient cap donor during hantavirus cap snatching. We showed that hantavirus RdRp preferentially snatches caps from the nonsense mRNAs compared to mRNAs engaged in translation. Hantavirus RdRp preferentially cleaves the cap donor mRNA at a G residue located 14 nucleotides downstream of the 5′ cap. The sequence complementarity between the 3′ terminus of viral genomic RNA and the nucleotides located in the vicinity of the cleavage site of the cap donor mRNA favors cap snatching. Our results show that hantavirus RdRp snatches caps from viral mRNAs. However, the negligible cap-donating efficiency of wild-type mRNAs in comparison to nonsense mRNAs suggests that viral mRNAs will not be efficiently used for cap snatching during viral infection due to their continuous engagement in protein synthesis. Our results suggest that efficiency of an mRNA to donate caps for viral mRNA synthesis is primarily regulated at the translational level. PMID

  16. [Conditions for the transmission of Hantavirus in Rio Negro, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Talmon, Gabriel; Herrero, Eduardo; Arezo, Marcos; Cantoni, Gustavo; Larrieu, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease of viral etiology that affects humans causing severe acute respiratory symptoms. In Patagonia the disease is caused by the Andes Virus (AND) and transmitted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. The aim of this study was to identify those human activities that increase the risk of exposure to rodents, what we call "contagious scenarios". A retrospective study was performed with data obtained from cases in Rio Negro, which included clinic-epidemiological records and ecological/environmental assessment reports. The following variables were considered: age, sex, season, percentage of urbanization, geographic location, human settlements in rodent infested areas, probable source of exposure, type of activity and level of sanitary development. In total 32 cases were studied. Exposure was verified in 18 (56.2 %) cases in rural areas and 10 cases (31.3%) in small rural towns. In relation to anthropogenic environment, 24 (75%) cases were reported in developed settlements and 8 cases (25%) were related to slightly modified areas. Major exposition in El Bolson identified 8 cases of indoor activities of the total 18 reported in the area (44.5%), while in Bariloche 8 (57.1%) cases out of 14 were reported in outdoor surroundings. In general, activities that generated greater risk were work-related, accounting for 23 (71.9%) cases while 7 were related to recreational activities (28.1%). The identification of "contagious scenarios" at local level provided information for an effective application of available resources in terms of prevention and sanitary education. PMID:25347899

  17. Genetic Diversity of Thottapalayam Virus, a Hantavirus Harbored by the Asian House Shrew (Suncus murinus) in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent discovery of genetically divergent hantaviruses in shrews of multiple species in widely separated geographic regions, data are unavailable about the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus originally isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) captured in southern India more than four decades ago. To bridge this knowledge gap, the S, M, and L segments of hantavirus RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from archival lung tissues of Asian house shrews captured in Nepal from January to September 1996. Pair-wise alignment and comparison revealed approximately 80% nucleotide and > 94% amino acid sequence similarity to prototype TPMV. Phylogenetic analyses, generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of TPMV, similar to that observed for rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. These findings confirm that the Asian house shrew is the natural reservoir of TPMV and suggest a long-standing virus–host relationship. PMID:21896819

  18. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Maria; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Prado, Amanda; Pardini, Renata; D´Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993–2012) and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature), landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane), and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index). We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest). In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk), and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks. PMID:27780250

  19. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. Results A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Conclusions Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations. PMID:24742108

  20. Two clinical cases of renal syndrome caused by Dobrava/Saaremaa hantaviruses imported to the Netherlands from Poland and Belarus, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H.; Goeijenbier, Marco; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Litjens, Eline; Bos, Willem-Jan; Pas, Suzan D.; Medonça Melo, Mariana; Koopmans, Marion; Lundkvist, Åke; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the rare event of two imported cases in the Netherlands presenting with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava (DOBV)/Saaremaa (SAAV) hantaviruses. DOBV/SAAV hantaviruses are not circulating in the Netherlands and their clinical manifestation is typically more severe than that of the endemic Puumala virus (PUUV). This report aims to increase awareness among healthcare professionals and diagnostic laboratories to consider different hantaviruses as a cause of renal failure. PMID:26818411

  1. Two clinical cases of renal syndrome caused by Dobrava/Saaremaa hantaviruses imported to the Netherlands from Poland and Belarus, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Goeijenbier, Marco; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Litjens, Eline; Bos, Willem-Jan; Pas, Suzan D; Melo, Mariana Medonça; Koopmans, Marion; Lundkvist, Åke; Reusken, Chantal B E M

    2016-01-01

    We report the rare event of two imported cases in the Netherlands presenting with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava (DOBV)/Saaremaa (SAAV) hantaviruses. DOBV/SAAV hantaviruses are not circulating in the Netherlands and their clinical manifestation is typically more severe than that of the endemic Puumala virus (PUUV). This report aims to increase awareness among healthcare professionals and diagnostic laboratories to consider different hantaviruses as a cause of renal failure. PMID:26818411

  2. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  3. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses.

  4. Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) infections in rodents from Orange and San Diego counties, California.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S G; Webb, J P; Madon, M B; Childs, J E; Ksiazek, T G; Torrez-Martinez, N; Hjelle, B

    1999-01-01

    During a screening program to determine the extent of hantavirus activity in Orange and San Diego Counties, California, serum samples from 2,365 rodents representing nine genera and 15 species were tested for hantavirus antibodies. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on selected seropositive rodents was used to identify the specific hantavirus. Rodents positive for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) antibodies by Western blot included 86 (9.1%) of 948 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), four (1.5%) of 275 California mice (Peromyscus californicus), one (0.5%) of 196 cactus mice (Peromyscus eremicus), 51 (12.2%) of 417 harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), and five (12.5%) of 40 California voles (Microtus californicus). All other specimens tested were negative for hantavirus antibodies. There was a correlation between age and sex of the reservoir host and prevalence of SNV antibody, especially among male deer mice and harvest mice. Few seasonal trends in antibody prevalence were observed and continued maintenance of SNV and El Moro Canyon virus was found at several foci over a 4-5-year period. Isla Vista virus was also found in voles and represents the first recorded in Orange County. Microhabitat selection on the part of these rodents based on plant density, plant height, and availability of food plants may explain, to some extent, all of the hantavirus-positive foci throughout the study area over a broad geographic range and the lack of antibody-positive rodents in dense chaparral, woodland, and riparian areas. The majority of rodents positive for SNV was identified from localities along coastal bluffs and the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains, where trap success was high and P. maniculatus represented 43% of all rodents collected. Several residential, commercial, and industrial sites exist in these areas and the potential health risk should not be overlooked. This study represents an in-depth analysis of the prevalence, host distribution, and

  5. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses

  6. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  7. Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies against Clinically Important Old and New World Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Sabine; Lattwein, Erik; Hanke, Merle; Sonnenberg, Karen; Stoecker, Winfried; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Chan, Paul K. S.; Feldmann, Heinz; Dick, Daryl; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Padula, Paula; Vial, Pablo A.; Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca; Ceianu, Cornelia; Heyman, Paul; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Seoul (SEOV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Dobrava (DOBV), Sin Nombre (SNV) or Andes (ANDV). For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n = 97); SEOV (China, n = 5); DOBV (Romania, n = 7); SNV (Canada, n = 23); ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n = 52). The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n = 177; 96%) and/or IgM (n = 131; 72%), while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99%) of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71%) IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%). Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%). Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2%) showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV). PMID:23593524

  8. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d’Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Leendertz, Siv A. J.; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d’Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d’Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d’Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  9. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Sabine; Lattwein, Erik; Hanke, Merle; Sonnenberg, Karen; Stoecker, Winfried; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Chan, Paul K S; Feldmann, Heinz; Dick, Daryl; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Padula, Paula; Vial, Pablo A; Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca; Ceianu, Cornelia; Heyman, Paul; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Seoul (SEOV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Dobrava (DOBV), Sin Nombre (SNV) or Andes (ANDV). For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97); SEOV (China, n=5); DOBV (Romania, n=7); SNV (Canada, n=23); ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52). The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96%) and/or IgM (n=131; 72%), while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99%) of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71%) IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%). Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%). Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2%) showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV).

  10. A new hantavirus from the stripe-backed shrew (Sorex cylindricauda) in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shu-Qing; Gong, Zheng-Da; Fang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiu-Song; Zhao, Qiu-Min; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-05-12

    Inspired by the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses from insectivore species worldwide, we performed a small-scale search for insectivore-borne hantaviruses. In this paper, we report the discovery of a new hantavirus, which was designated the Qian Hu Shan virus (QHSV). This virus was detected in the lung tissues of three stripe-backed shrews (Sorex cylindricauda), which were captured in the Yunnan Province, China. The full-length S genomic segment of the representative QHSV strain YN05-284 was 1661 nucleotides and is predicted to encode a nucleocapsid protein of 429 amino acids that starts at nucleotide position 48. It exhibited the highest similarity with other Sorex-related hantaviruses, with 68.1%-72.8% nucleotide and 71.9%-84.4% amino acid sequence identities. An analysis of a 1430-nucleotide region of the partial M segment exhibited approximately 54.4%-79.5% nucleotide and 43.2%-90.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. A comparison of a 432-nucleotide region of the L segment also showed similar degrees of identity, with 68.9%-78.4% nucleotide and 71.1%-93.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian methods indicated that QHSV shared the most recent common ancestor with other Sorex-related hantaviruses. The host was identified using a morphological assessment and verified using mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cyt b) gene sequencing. A pair-wise comparison of the 1140-nucleotide mt-Cyt b gene sequence from the host demonstrated that the host was close to S. cylindricauda from Nepal with 94.3% identity. The virus-host association tanglegram, which was constructed using the Dendroscope software, indicated that the QHSV phylogeny and the host phylogeny were approximately matched, which suggests no evidence of host switching for QHSV. Our results contribute to a wider viewpoint regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect shrews.

  11. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  12. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  13. A survey of hantavirus antibody in small-mammal populations in selected United States National Parks.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; Johnson, J M; Ksiazek, T G; Ellis, B A; Rollin, P E; Yates, T L; Mann, M O; Johnson, M R; Campbell, M L; Miyashiro, J; Patrick, M; Zyzak, M; Lavender, D; Novak, M G; Schmidt, K; Peters, C J; Childs, J E

    1998-04-01

    Hantavirus activity in 39 National Parks in the eastern and central United States was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus. Antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. Antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), 2% of 590 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 17% of 12 rice rats (Oryzomys palustris), 3% of 31 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), and 33% of 18 western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Antibody was also found in three of six species of voles, and in one of 33 chipmunks (Tamias minimus). Prevalence among Peromyscus was highest in the northeast. Although few cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been identified from the eastern and central regions, widespread infection in reservoir populations indicates that potential exists for human infection throughout much of the United States.

  14. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta Dłutowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  15. Were the English Sweating Sickness and the Picardy Sweat Caused by Hantaviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Paul; Simons, Leopold; Cochez, Christel

    2014-01-01

    The English sweating sickness caused five devastating epidemics between 1485 and 1551, England was hit hardest, but on one occasion also mainland Europe, with mortality rates between 30% and 50%. The Picardy sweat emerged about 150 years after the English sweat disappeared, in 1718, in France. It caused 196 localized outbreaks and apparently in its turn disappeared in 1861. Both diseases have been the subject of numerous attempts to define their origin, but so far all efforts were in vain. Although both diseases occurred in different time frames and were geographically not overlapping, a common denominator could be what we know today as hantavirus infections. This review aims to shed light on the characteristics of both diseases from contemporary as well as current knowledge and suggests hantavirus infection as the most likely cause for the English sweating sickness as well as for the Picardy sweat. PMID:24402305

  16. Divergent ancestral lineages of newfound hantaviruses harbored by phylogenetically related crocidurine shrew species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoru; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Tabara, Kenji; Bennett, Shannon; Oh, Hong-Shik; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kang, Hae Ji; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the recent isolation of a novel hantavirus, named Imjin virus (MJNV), from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), targeted trapping was conducted for the phylogenetically related Asian lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura shantungensis). Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S, M and L segments of a newfound hantavirus, designated Jeju virus (JJUV), indicated remarkably low nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity with MJNV. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed divergent ancestral lineages for JJUV and MJNV, despite the close phylogenetic relationship of their reservoir soricid hosts. Also, no evidence of host switching was apparent in tanglegrams, generated by TreeMap 2.0β. PMID:22230701

  17. Stage-dependent model for Hantavirus infection: The effect of the initial infection-free period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinoso, José A.; de la Rubia, F. Javier

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stage-dependent model with constant delay to study the effect of the initial infection-free period on the spread of Hantavirus infection in rodents. We analyze the model under various extreme weather conditions, in the context of the El Niño-La Niña Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and show how these variations determine the evolution of the system significantly. When the scenario corresponds to El Niño, the system presents a demographic explosion and a delayed outbreak of Hantavirus infection, whereas if the scenario is the opposite there is a rapid decline of the population, but with a possible persistence period that may imply a considerable risk for public health, a fact that is in agreement with available field data. We use the model to simulate a historical evolution that resembles the processes that occurred in the 1990s.

  18. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, Karin; Strand, Tanja M; Verkerk, Monique; Reusken, Chantal; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; van de Goot, Frank; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV)-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe. PMID:25656468

  19. Polarized entry and release in epithelial cells of Black Creek Canal virus, a New World hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Ravkov, E V; Nichol, S T; Compans, R W

    1997-02-01

    Black Creek Canal (BCC) virus is a newly identified hantavirus from Florida which is carried by the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) and is associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). We have investigated the interaction of BCC virus with polarized epithelial cells to examine whether entry and release of this virus occur at specific plasma membrane domains. The polarized Vero C1008 monkey kidney cell line was grown on permeable filters and infected with BCC virus either through the apical or basolateral surface. As shown by indirect immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation analysis, cells infected through the apical surface demonstrated a high level of susceptibility to BCC virus infection. In contrast, Vero C1008 cells infected basolaterally exhibited a barely detectable level of BCC virus-synthesized proteins. Titration of virus from apical and basolateral media of infected cells has demonstrated that virus titers released from the apical surface are about 1,200-fold greater than the titer of virus released into the basolateral media. The site of BCC virus release from polarized cells is, therefore, different from that previously described for release of other members of the family Bunyaviridae and may reflect one of the determinants of hantavirus pathogenesis. In addition, we have shown that BCC viral glycoproteins are expressed at the plasma membrane on the apical surface of polarized cells. Electron microscopy studies of the infected cells revealed evidence of BCC virus budding at the plasma membrane. This strongly indicates that, in contrast to most other members of the Bunyaviridae, BCC virus is assembled at the plasma membrane. Since the same site of virus assembly was recently described for Sin Nombre virus, it is likely that all of the new American hantaviruses associated with HPS utilize this same type of virus maturation.

  20. Genetic analysis of the diversity and origin of hantaviruses in Peromyscus leucopus mice in North America.

    PubMed

    Morzunov, S P; Rowe, J E; Ksiazek, T G; Peters, C J; St Jeor, S C; Nichol, S T

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete M genome segments of two distinct hantavirus genetic lineages which were detected in hantavirus antibody- and PCR-positive white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) from Indiana and Oklahoma. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that although divergent from each other, the virus lineages in Indiana and Oklahoma were monophyletic and formed a newly identified unique ancestral branch within the clade of Sin Nombre-like viruses found in Peromyscus mice. Interestingly, P. leucopus-borne New York virus was found to be most closely related to the P. maniculatus-borne viruses, Sin Nombre and Monongahela, and monophyletic with Monongahela virus. In parallel, intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of P. leucopus were also determined, based on the amplification, sequencing, and analysis of the DNA fragment representing the replication control region of the rodent mitochondrial genome. P. leucopus mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were found to form four separate genetic clades, referred to here as Eastern, Central, Northwestern, and Southwestern groups. The distinct Indiana and Oklahoma virus lineages were detected in P. leucopus of the Eastern and Southwestern mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, respectively. Taken together, our current data suggests that both cospeciation of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses with their specific rodent hosts and biogeographic factors (such as allopatric migrations, geographic separation, and isolation) have played important roles in establishment of the current genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Sin Nombre-like hantaviruses. In particular, the unusual position of New York virus on the virus phylogenetic tree is most consistent with an historically recent host-switching event.

  1. Co-circulation of soricid- and talpid-borne hantaviruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010-2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0-18.8% and 0-5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1%-100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3%-100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species co-existing in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  2. Co-circulation of Soricid- and Talpid-borne Hantaviruses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010–2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0–18.8% and 0–5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1–100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3–100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species coexisting in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25445646

  3. A multistage differential transformation method for approximate solution of Hantavirus infection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Merdan, Mehmet; Yildirim, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is presented a reliable algorithm based on the standard differential transformation method (DTM), which is called the multi-stage differential transformation method (MsDTM) for solving Hantavirus infection model. The results obtanied by using MsDTM are compared to those obtained by using the Runge-Kutta method (R-K-method). The proposed technique is a hopeful tool to solving for a long time intervals in this kind of systems.

  4. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings.

  5. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. PMID:25701819

  6. Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Witkowski, Peter T; Radosa, Lukas; Dzagurova, Tamara K; Okulova, Nataliya M; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Vasilenko, Ludmila; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Malkin, Gennadiy A; Krüger, Detlev H; Klempa, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.

  7. Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Witkowski, Peter T; Radosa, Lukas; Dzagurova, Tamara K; Okulova, Nataliya M; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Vasilenko, Ludmila; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Malkin, Gennadiy A; Krüger, Detlev H; Klempa, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region. PMID:25433134

  8. Co-circulation of Hantaan, Kenkeme, and Khabarovsk Hantaviruses in Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Qiao; Gao, Jian-Hua; Li, Ming; Guo, Wen-Ping; Lu, Ming-Qing; Wang, Wen; Hu, Man-Xia; Li, Ming-Hui; Yang, Jun; Liang, Hui-Jie; Tian, Xi-Feng; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-10-13

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first recognized in far eastern Asia in the 1930s, and has been highly prevalent in this region ever since. To reveal the molecular epidemiology of hantaviruses in this region, a total of 374 small mammals (eight species of rodents and one species of shrew) were captured in the Chinese part of the Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island (Heilongjiang Province). Hantavirus sequences were recovered from three striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius), 11 Maximowicz's voles (Microtus maximowiczii), and one flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three viruses: Hantaan virus (HTNV), Khabarovsk virus (KHAV), and Kenkeme virus (KKMV). HTNV sequences recovered from A. agrarius were closely related to those identified in Apodemus mice from the surrounding areas, while a new lineage of KHAV was present in M. maximowiczii. Additionally, while the viral sequences recovered from one flat-skulled shrew were most closely related to KKMV, their divergence to the prototype strain suggests that they represent a new viral subtype. Overall, these results suggest that Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island harbors considerable hantavirus diversity.

  9. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change.

  10. A Habitat-Based Model for the Spread of Hantavirus Between Reservoir and Spillover Species

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Linda J. S.; Wesley, Curtis L.; Owen, Robert D.; Goodin, Douglas G.; Koch, David; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Shawn Hutchinson, J. M.; Paige, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    New habitat-based models for spread of hantavirus are developed which account for interspecies interaction. Existing habitat-based models do not consider interspecies pathogen transmission, a primary route for emergence of new infectious diseases and reservoirs in wildlife and man. The modeling of interspecies transmission has the potential to provide more accurate predictions of disease persistence and emergence dynamics. The new models are motivated by our recent work on hantavirus in rodent communities in Paraguay. Our Paraguayan data illustrate the spatial and temporal overlap among rodent species, one of which is the reservoir species for Jabora virus and others which are spillover species. Disease transmission occurs when their habitats overlap. Two mathematical models, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) and a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model, are developed for spread of hantavirus between a reservoir and a spillover species. Analysis of a special case of the ODE model provides an explicit expression for the basic reproduction number, ℛ0, such that if ℛ0 < 1, then the pathogen does not persist in either population but if ℛ0 > 1, pathogen outbreaks or persistence may occur. Numerical simulations of the CTMC model display sporadic disease incidence, a new behavior of our habitat-based model, not present in other models, but which is a prominent feature of the seroprevalence data from Paraguay. Environmental changes that result in greater habitat overlap result in more encounters among various species that may lead to pathogen outbreaks and pathogen establishment in a new host. PMID:19616014

  11. Maripa hantavirus in French Guiana: phylogenetic position and predicted spatial distribution of rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    de Thoisy, Benoît; Matheus, Séverine; Catzeflis, François; Clément, Luc; Barrioz, Sébastien; Guidez, Amandine; Donato, Damien; Cornu, Jean-François; Brunaux, Olivier; Guitet, Stéphane; Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-06-01

    A molecular screening of wild-caught rodents was conducted in French Guiana, South America to identify hosts of the hantavirus Maripa described in 2008 in a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) case. Over a 9-year period, 418 echimyids and murids were captured. Viral RNA was detected in two sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda, trapped close to the house of a second HPS case that occurred in 2009 and an O. fulvescens close to the fourth HPS case identified in 2013. Sequences from the rodents had 96% and 97% nucleotide identity (fragment of S and M segments, respectively) with the sequence of the first human HPS case. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the complete sequence of the S segment show that Maripa virus is closely related to Rio Mamore hantavirus. Using environmental descriptors of trapping sites, including vegetation, landscape units, rain, and human disturbance, a maximal entropy-based species distribution model allowed for identification of areas of higher predicted occurrence of the two rodents, where emergence risks of Maripa virus are expected to be higher.

  12. Multiplex Analysis of Serum Cytokines in Humans with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morzunov, Sergey P.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; St. Jeor, Stephen; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an acute zoonotic disease transmitted primarily through inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols. Hantavirus infection of endothelial cells leads to increased vascular permeability without a visible cytopathic effect. For this reason, it has been suggested that the pathogenesis of HPS is indirect with immune responses, such as cytokine production, playing a dominant role. In order to investigate their potential contribution to HPS pathogenesis, we analyzed the serum of hantavirus-infected subjects and healthy controls for 68 different cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic, and growth factors. Our analysis identified differential expression of cytokines that promote tissue migration of mononuclear cells including T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Additionally, we observed a significant upregulation of cytokines known to regulate leukocyte migration and subsequent repair of lung tissue, as well as cytokines known to increase endothelial monolayer permeability and facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of cytokines associated with platelet numbers and function, consistent with the thrombocytopenia observed in subjects with HPS. This study corroborates clinical findings and extends our current knowledge regarding immunological and laboratory findings in subjects with HPS. PMID:26379668

  13. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change. PMID:25557350

  14. Selective predation on hantavirus-infected voles by owls and confounding effects from landscape properties.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested that predators may protect human health through reducing disease-host densities or selectively preying on infected individuals from the population. However, this has not been tested empirically. We hypothesized that Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) selectively preys on hantavirus-infected individuals of its staple prey, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Bank voles are hosts of Puumala hantavirus, which causes a form of hemorrhagic fever in humans. Selective predation by owls on infected voles may reduce human disease risk. We compared the prevalence of anti-Puumala hantavirus antibodies (seroprevalence), in bank voles cached by owls in nest boxes to seroprevalence in voles trapped in closed-canopy forest around each nest box. We found no general difference in seroprevalence. Forest landscape structure could partly account for the observed patterns in seroprevalence. Only in more connected forest patches was seroprevalence in bank voles cached in nest boxes higher than seroprevalence in trapped voles. This effect disappeared with increasing forest patch isolation, as seroprevalence in trapped voles increased with forest patch isolation, but did not in cached voles. Our results suggest a complex relationship between zoonotic disease prevalence in hosts, their predators, and landscape structure. Some mechanisms that may have caused the seroprevalence patterns in our results include higher bank vole density in isolated forest patches. This study offers future research potential to shed further light on the contribution of predators and landscape properties to human health. PMID:26873607

  15. Person-to-Person Household and Nosocomial Transmission of Andes Hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Calvo, Mario; Vial, Cecilia; Mansilla, Rita; Marco, Claudia; Palma, R. Eduardo; Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Mertz, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Andes hantavirus (ANDV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile and is the only hantavirus for which person-to-person transmission has been proven. We describe an outbreak of 5 human cases of ANDV infection in which symptoms developed in 2 household contacts and 2 health care workers after exposure to the index case-patient. Results of an epidemiologic investigation and sequence analysis of the virus isolates support person-to-person transmission of ANDV for the 4 secondary case-patients, including nosocomial transmission for the 2 health care workers. Health care personnel who have direct contact with ANDV case-patients or their body fluids should take precautions to prevent transmission of the virus. In addition, because the incubation period of ANDV after environmental exposure is longer than that for person-to-person exposure, all persons exposed to a confirmed ANDV case-patient or with possible environmental exposure to the virus should be monitored for 42 days for clinical symptoms. PMID:25272189

  16. Human Puumala and Dobrava Hantavirus Infections in the Black Sea Region of Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaycioglu, Handan; Uyar, Yavuz; Sevindi, Demet Furkan; Turkyilmaz, Bedia; Çakir, Vedat; Cindemir, Cengiz; Unal, Belgin; Yağçi-Çağlayik, Dilek; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Heyman, Paul; Lundkvist, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in a province of Turkey (Giresun) where human hantavirus disease has recently been detected. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 626 blood samples from healthy people aged 15 and 84 years old were collected both in urban and rural areas in 2009. The sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting assay, and the focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). We screened the samples by an ELISA and found that 65/626 samples reacted positively for the presence of hantavirus-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG). Twenty of the 65 ELISA-positive samples could be confirmed by an immunobloting assay, and the overall seroprevalence was thereby calculated to 3.2% (20/626). The seroprevalence of the people living in wood areas or adobe houses 9/17 (52.9%) was significantly higher than among people living in concrete houses 10/47 (21.3%) (p=0.014). Finally, 3 of the 20 immunoblot-positive sera were confirmed as specific for the Puumala hantavirus serotype by FRNT, 1 serum was confirmed as Dobrava virus-specific, whereas 1 serum was found to be equally reactive to Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses. We will now focus on further investigations of the ecology and epidemiology of hantaviruses in humans and their carrier animals in Turkey, studies that have already been started and will be further intensified. PMID:23289396

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80–120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans. PMID:26892544

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of Hantaviruses Harbored by Insectivorous Bats in Côte d’Ivoire and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K.; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981–2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins. PMID:24784569

  19. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-04-29

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  1. Identification of hantavirus infection by Western blot assay and TaqMan PCR in patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Oldal, Miklós; Németh, Viktória; Madai, Mónika; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Péterfi, Zoltán; Sebők, Judit; Wittmann, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2014-06-01

    Hantaviruses, one of the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers, represent a considerable healthcare threat. In Hungary, Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) are the main circulating hantavirus species, responsible for the clinical picture known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that may be accompanied by acute kidney injury (AKI), requiring hospitalization with occasionally prolonged recovery phase. A total of 20 patient sera were collected over a 2-year period from persons hospitalized with AKI, displaying clinical signs and laboratory findings directly suggestive for hantavirus infection. Samples were tested using an immunoblot assay, based on complete viral nucleocapsid proteins to detect patients' IgM and IgG antibodies against DOBV and PUUV. In parallel, all specimens were also tested by 1-step real-time TaqMan reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to confirm infection and to determine the causative hantavirus genotype. We present here the first Hungarian clinical study spanning across 2 years and dedicated specifically to assess acute kidney injuries, in the context of hantavirus prevalence.

  2. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80-120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans. PMID:26892544

  3. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.

  4. Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)▿

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

  5. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs. PMID:24845575

  6. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins. PMID:24784569

  7. Using Geographic Information System-based Ecologic Niche Models to Forecast the Risk of Hantavirus Infection in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991

  8. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc

    PubMed Central

    Stettner, Eva; Jeffers, Scott Allen; Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Jestin, Jean-Luc; England, Patrick; Tischler, Nicole D.; Rey, Félix A.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single “fusion loop”. We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal “tail” that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:27783711

  9. Hantavirus testing in rodents of north-central New Mexico 1993-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Salisbury, M.

    1996-03-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993, 1994, and 1995 the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations using live capture-recapture methods in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, to determine seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region. EST used trapping grids in 1993 and 1994 and used trapping webs in 1995. Grids were 120 m x 120 m (400 ft x 400 ft) with 144 trap stations at each grid. Three webs consisting of 148 traps each were used in 1995. Trapping took place over 4 to 8 consecutive nights. Programs CAPTURE and Distance were used to determine density estimates for grids and webs, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control and the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The 1994 and 1995 samples were analyzed by the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most commonly captured species at all locations except one site where voles (Microtus spp.) were the most commonly captured species. Other species sampled included: harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), shrews (Sorex spp.), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). Results of the 1993, 1994, and 1995 testing identified a total overall seroprevalence rate among deer mice of approximately 5.5%, 4.2%, and 0%, respectively. Several other species tested positive for the hantavirus but it is uncertain if it is Sin Nombre virus. Further studies will be necessary to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in males than females. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  10. Characterization of the Interaction between Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein (N) and Ribosomal Protein S19 (RPS19)*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erdong; Haque, Absarul; Rimmer, Mary Ashley; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Sheema, Sheema; Little, Alex; Mir, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the Bunyaviridae family, are negative-stranded emerging RNA viruses and category A pathogens that cause serious illness when transmitted to humans through aerosolized excreta of infected rodent hosts. Hantaviruses have evolved a novel translation initiation mechanism, operated by nucleocapsid protein (N), which preferentially facilitates the translation of viral mRNAs. N binds to the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), a structural component of the 40 S ribosomal subunit. In addition, N also binds to both the viral mRNA 5′ cap and a highly conserved triplet repeat sequence of the viral mRNA 5′ UTR. The simultaneous binding of N at both the terminal cap and the 5′ UTR favors ribosome loading on viral transcripts during translation initiation. We characterized the binding between N and RPS19 and demonstrate the role of the N-RPS19 interaction in N-mediated translation initiation mechanism. We show that N specifically binds to RPS19 with high affinity and a binding stoichiometry of 1:1. The N-RPS19 interaction is an enthalpy-driven process. RPS19 undergoes a conformational change after binding to N. Using T7 RNA polymerase, we synthesized the hantavirus S segment mRNA, which matches the transcript generated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in cells. We show that the N-RPS19 interaction plays a critical role in the translation of this mRNA both in cells and rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Our results demonstrate that the N-mediated translation initiation mechanism, which lures the host translation machinery for the preferential translation of viral transcripts, primarily depends on the N-RPS19 interaction. We suggest that the N-RPS19 interaction is a novel target to shut down the N-mediated translation strategy and hence virus replication in cells. PMID:21296889

  11. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Carbajo, Aníbal E; Vera, Carolina; González, Paula LM

    2009-01-01

    Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo) is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998), trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent distribution in an equivalent

  12. Microvascular inflammation and acute tubular necrosis are major histologic features of hantavirus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Verine, Jérôme; Vrigneaud, Laurence; Glowacki, François; Ratsimbazafy, Anderson; Copin, Marie-Christine; Dewilde, Anny; Buob, David

    2015-06-01

    Hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) is an uncommon etiology of acute renal failure due to hantavirus infection. Pathological features suggestive of HVN historically reported are medullary interstitial hemorrhages in a background of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). However, interstitial hemorrhages may be lacking because of medullary sampling error. This emphasizes that other pathological criteria may be of interest. We performed a retrospective clinicopathological study of 17 serologically proven HVN cases with renal biopsy from 2 nephrology centers in northern France. Histologic analysis was completed by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD3, anti-CD68, and anti-CD34 antibodies. Three control groups were not related to hantavirus infection: acute tubular necrosis (ATN) of ischemic or toxic etiology and AIN were used for comparison. Renal biopsy analysis showed that almost all HVN cases with medullary sampling (9/10) displayed interstitial hemorrhages, whereas focal hemorrhages were detected in 2 of the 7 "cortex-only" specimens. ATN was common, as it was present in 15 (88.2%) of 17 HVN cases. By contrast, interstitial inflammation was scarce with no inflammation or only slight inflammation, representing 15 (88.2%) of 17 cases. Moreover, HVN showed inflammation of renal microvessels with cortical peritubular capillaritis and medullary vasa recta inflammation; peritubular capillaritis was significantly higher in HVN after comparison with ischemic and toxic ATN controls (P = .0001 and P = .003, respectively), but not with AIN controls. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted the involvement of T cells and macrophages in renal microvascular inflammation related to HVN. Our study showed that microvascular inflammation, especially cortical peritubular capillaritis, and ATN are important histologic features of HVN. PMID:25791582

  13. Effects of seasonality and of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenberg, Katja; Escudero, Carlos; Buceta, Javier; de la Rubia, Francisco J.

    2004-05-01

    We present an analysis of two features that generalize the original model for the spread of the Hantavirus introduced by Abramson and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. E Vol. 66, 011912 (2002)]. One, the effect of seasonal alternations, may cause the virus to spread under conditions that do not lead to an epidemic under the action of either season alone. The other, the effect of internal fluctuations, modifies the distribution of infected mice and may lead to extinction of the infected population even when the mean population is above epidemic conditions.

  14. Simulations in the mathematical modeling of the spread of the Hantavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, M. A.; Abramson, G.; Bishop, A. R.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2002-10-01

    The range of validity of a recently proposed deterministic (mean field) model of the spread of the Hantavirus infection is studied with the help of Monte Carlo simulations for the evolution of mice populations. The simulation is found to reproduce earlier results on the average but to display additional behavior stemming from discreteness in mice number and from fluctuations of the finite size system. It is shown that mice diffusion affects those additional features of the simulation in a physically understandable manner, higher diffusion constants leading to greater agreement with the mean field results.

  15. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Lenk, Matthias; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses. PMID:24576845

  16. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV. PMID:26921799

  17. More novel hantaviruses and diversifying reservoir hosts--time for development of reservoir-derived cell culture models?

    PubMed

    Eckerle, Isabella; Lenk, Matthias; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-01-01

    Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses. PMID:24576845

  18. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joseph W; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Mucker, Eric M; Brocato, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  19. Modelling zoonotic diseases in humans: comparison of methods for hantavirus in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Because their distribution usually depends on the presence of more than one species, modelling zoonotic diseases in humans differs from modelling individual species distribution even though the data are similar in nature. Three approaches can be used to model spatial distributions recorded by points: based on presence/absence, presence/available or presence data. Here, we compared one or two of several existing methods for each of these approaches. Human cases of hantavirus infection reported by place of infection between 1991 and 1998 in Sweden were used as a case study. Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Europe, circulates among bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, it causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Logistic binomial regression and boosted regression trees were used to model presence and absence data. Presence and available sites (where the disease may occur) were modelled using cross-validated logistic regression. Finally, the ecological niche model MaxEnt, based on presence-only data, was used. In our study, logistic regression had the best predictive power, followed by boosted regression trees, MaxEnt and cross-validated logistic regression. It is also the most statistically reliable but requires absence data. The cross-validated method partly avoids the issue of absence data but requires fastidious calculations. MaxEnt accounts for non-linear responses but the estimators can be complex. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. PMID:22984887

  20. Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Mills, James N.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Richardson, Kyle S.; Harris, Rachel L.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Luis, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human–reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring–summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir–human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses. PMID:26955081

  1. Statistical mechanical considerations in the theory of the spread of the Hantavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkre, V. M.

    2005-10-01

    Calculations in the theory of the spread of epidemics are described with particular focus on the estimation of motion parameters describing rodents that are the carriers of the Hantavirus epidemic. The data considered are of the “mark-recapture” kind, i.e., those collected by capturing, tagging and recapturing the animals in a prescribed finite region of space. The theoretical tool used is the Fokker-Planck equation, its characteristic quantities being the diffusion constant which describes the motion of the rodents, and the attractive potential which addresses their tendency to live near their burrows. The measurements are addressed through simple analytical calculations of the mean squared displacement of the animals relevant to the specific probing window in space corresponding to the trapping region. A Fourier prescription is provided to extract the home range of the animals from the observations. Applications of the theory to rodent movement in Panama and New Mexico are mentioned and several on-going generalizations of current models of Hantavirus epidemic spread are introduced.

  2. Theory of hantavirus infection spread incorporating localized adult and itinerant juvenile mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Giuggioli, L.; Abramson, G.; Camelo-Neto, G.

    2007-02-01

    A generalized model of the spread of the Hantavirus in mice populations is presented on the basis of recent observational findings concerning the movement characteristics of the mice that carry the infection. The factual information behind the generalization is based on mark-recapture observations reported in Giuggioli et al. [Bull. Math. Biol. 67, 1135 (2005)] that have necessitated the introduction of home ranges in the simple model of Hantavirus spread presented by Abramson and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. E 66, 11912 (2002)]. The essential feature of the model presented here is the existence of adult mice that remain largely confined to locations near their home ranges, and itinerant juvenile mice that are not so confined, and, during their search for their own homes, move and infect both other juveniles and adults that they meet during their movement. The model is presented at three levels of description: mean field, kinetic and configuration. Results of calculations are shown explicitly from the mean field equations and the simulation rules, and are found to agree in some respects and to differ in others. The origin of the differences is shown to lie in spatial correlations. It is indicated how mark-recapture observations in the field may be employed to verify the applicability of the theory.

  3. A rapid method for infectivity titration of Andes hantavirus using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples.

  4. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Joseph W.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Mucker, Eric M.; Brocato, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs. PMID:26266264

  5. Immunogenetic factors affecting susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses and the clinical course of hantaviral disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pagès, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-05-26

    We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.

  6. Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Humans and Rodents to Hantaviruses and the Clinical Course of Hantaviral Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pagès, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives. PMID:24859344

  7. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1–53.4%, 17.0–59.9% and 14.6–39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese’s shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

  8. The N-terminus of the Montano virus nucleocapsid protein possesses broadly cross-reactive conformation-dependent epitopes conserved in rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshida, Haruka; Shimizu, Kenta; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz, María de Lourdes; Koma, Takaaki; Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Ramos, Celso; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-06-20

    The hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is an important immunogen that stimulates a strong and cross-reactive immune response in humans and rodents. A large proportion of the response to N protein has been found to target its N-terminus. However, the exact nature of this bias towards the N-terminus is not yet fully understood. We characterized six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the N protein of Montano virus (MTNV), a Mexican hantavirus. Five of these mAbs recognized eight American hantaviruses and six European and Asian hantaviruses, but not the Soricomorpha-borne Thottapalayam hantavirus. The N protein-reactive binding regions of the five mAbs were mapped to discontinuous epitopes within the N-terminal 13-51 amino acid residues, while a single serotype-specific mAb was mapped to residues 1-25 and 49-75. Our findings suggest that discontinuous epitopes at the N-terminus are conserved, at least in rodent-borne hantaviruses, and that they contribute considerably to N protein cross-reactivity.

  9. 'Bedside assessment' of acute hantavirus infections and their possible classification into the spectrum of haemophagocytic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clement, J; Colson, P; Saegeman, V; Lagrou, K; Van Ranst, M

    2016-07-01

    Hantavirus infections, recently renamed 'hantavirus fever' (HTVF), belong to the most common but also most underestimated zoonoses in the world. A small number of reports described the so-called 'lipid paradox' in HTVF, i.e. the striking contrast between a very low serum total cholesterol and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and a paradoxical concomitant hypertriglyceridaemia. In a prospective study, with patients being their own control after illness, we wanted to verify if this quick and easy 'bedside test' was robust enough to warrant a preliminary diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by HTVF. The study cohort consisted of 58 Belgian cases (mean age 44 years), admitted with varying degrees of AKI and of thrombocytopaenia, both characteristic for presumptive HTVF. All cases were sero-confirmed as having acute HTVF. At or shortly after hospital admission, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of total cholesterol and HDLc was found in comparison with normalised levels in the same cohort, quantified a few days after spontaneous AKI recovery. Conversely, fasting triglyceride levels during HTVF infection were significantly (p < 0.001) higher during illness than after recovery. This 'lipid paradox' was most outspoken in severe HTVF cases, often accompanying, or even predicting, major kidney or lung complications. Thus, this 'bedside assessment' seems to hold even promise for presumptive diagnosis of more severe so-called 'hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome' (HCPS) cases, mostly described hitherto in the New World. In more severe AKI cases, the mean total cholesterol was significantly lower (p = 0.02) than in milder cases, i.e. cases with peak serum creatinine levels of < 1.5 mg/dL. Thrombocytopaenia, generally accepted as the severity index in HTVF, appeared, moreover, significantly correlated with serum levels of total cholesterol (R = 0.52, p < 0.001) and with serum levels of HDLc (R = 0.45, p < 0.01). A link

  10. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  11. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  12. Using remotely sensed data to identify areas at risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, G. E.; Cheek, J. E.; Patz, J. A.; Shields, T. M.; Doyle, T. J.; Thoroughman, D. A.; Hunt, D. K.; Enscore, R. E.; Gage, K. L.; Irland, C.; Peters, C. J.; Bryan, R.

    2000-01-01

    The 1993 U.S. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) outbreak was attributed to environmental conditions and increased rodent populations caused by unusual weather in 1991- 92. In a case-control study to test this hypothesis, we estimated precipitation at 28 HPS and 170 control sites during the springs of 1992 and 1993 and compared it with precipitation during the previous 6 years by using rainfall patterns at 196 weather stations. We also used elevation data and Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery collected the year before the outbreak to estimate HPS risk by logistic regression analysis. Rainfall at case sites was not higher during 1992-93 than in previous years. However, elevation, as well as satellite data, showed association between environmental conditions and HPS risk the following year. Repeated analysis using satellite imagery from 1995 showed substantial decrease in medium- to high-risk areas. Only one case of HPS was identified in 1996. PMID:10827113

  13. Dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in naturally infected bank voles (Clethrinomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Bernshtein, A D; Apekina, N S; Mikhailova, T V; Myasnikov, Y A; Khlyap, L A; Korotkov, Y S; Gavrilovskaya, I N

    1999-01-01

    Specific features of hantavirus infection in bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied in the endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the foothills of the Ural mountains, using long-term observations on living animals by the capture-mark-recapture (CMR) method. The results demonstrated that the infection naturally circulating in the voles is chronic (lasting for up to 15 months) and asymptomatic, with a peak of Puumala virus accumulation and release from the organism during the first month after infection. It was shown that the bank vole population includes young animals with maternal immunity, which remain resistant to the Puumala virus infection for 3-3.5 months. The infection rate in voles depended on the age and sexual maturity of animals. The greatest proportion of seropositive animals was observed among overwintered males. Seroconversion in voles was more frequent during the period of high reproductive activity.

  14. Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia. PMID:24762257

  15. Dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in naturally infected bank voles (Clethrinomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Bernshtein, A D; Apekina, N S; Mikhailova, T V; Myasnikov, Y A; Khlyap, L A; Korotkov, Y S; Gavrilovskaya, I N

    1999-01-01

    Specific features of hantavirus infection in bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied in the endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the foothills of the Ural mountains, using long-term observations on living animals by the capture-mark-recapture (CMR) method. The results demonstrated that the infection naturally circulating in the voles is chronic (lasting for up to 15 months) and asymptomatic, with a peak of Puumala virus accumulation and release from the organism during the first month after infection. It was shown that the bank vole population includes young animals with maternal immunity, which remain resistant to the Puumala virus infection for 3-3.5 months. The infection rate in voles depended on the age and sexual maturity of animals. The greatest proportion of seropositive animals was observed among overwintered males. Seroconversion in voles was more frequent during the period of high reproductive activity. PMID:10664394

  16. Antiviral efficacy of favipiravir against two prominent etiological agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P; Furuta, Yousuke; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B

    2013-10-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by infection with several Sigmodontinae- and Neotominae-borne hantaviruses and has a case fatality rate of 30 to 50%. Humans often become infected by inhalation of materials contaminated with virus-laden rodent urine or saliva, although human-to-human transmission has also been documented for Andes virus (ANDV). The ability to transmit via aerosolization, coupled with the high mortality rates and lack of therapeutic options, makes the development of medical countermeasures against HPS imperative. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) against Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and ANDV, the predominant causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. In vitro, T-705 potently inhibited SNV and ANDV, as evidenced by decreased detection of viral RNA and reduced infectious titers. For both viruses, the 90% effective concentration was estimated at ≤5 μg/ml (≤31.8 μM). In the lethal ANDV hamster model, daily administration of oral T-705 at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight diminished the detection of viral RNA and antigen in tissue specimens and significantly improved survival rates. Oral T-705 therapy remained protective against HPS when treatment was initiated prior to the onset of viremia. No disease model for SNV exists; however, using a hamster-adapted SNV, we found that daily administration of oral T-705 significantly reduced the detection of SNV RNA and antigen in tissue specimens, suggesting that the compound would also be effective against HPS in North America. Combined, these results suggest that T-705 treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing viruses and should be considered for probable exposures.

  17. Antiviral Efficacy of Favipiravir against Two Prominent Etiological Agents of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P.; Furuta, Yousuke; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by infection with several Sigmodontinae- and Neotominae-borne hantaviruses and has a case fatality rate of 30 to 50%. Humans often become infected by inhalation of materials contaminated with virus-laden rodent urine or saliva, although human-to-human transmission has also been documented for Andes virus (ANDV). The ability to transmit via aerosolization, coupled with the high mortality rates and lack of therapeutic options, makes the development of medical countermeasures against HPS imperative. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) against Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and ANDV, the predominant causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. In vitro, T-705 potently inhibited SNV and ANDV, as evidenced by decreased detection of viral RNA and reduced infectious titers. For both viruses, the 90% effective concentration was estimated at ≤5 μg/ml (≤31.8 μM). In the lethal ANDV hamster model, daily administration of oral T-705 at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight diminished the detection of viral RNA and antigen in tissue specimens and significantly improved survival rates. Oral T-705 therapy remained protective against HPS when treatment was initiated prior to the onset of viremia. No disease model for SNV exists; however, using a hamster-adapted SNV, we found that daily administration of oral T-705 significantly reduced the detection of SNV RNA and antigen in tissue specimens, suggesting that the compound would also be effective against HPS in North America. Combined, these results suggest that T-705 treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing viruses and should be considered for probable exposures. PMID:23856782

  18. Isolation of Hokkaido virus, genus Hantavirus, using a newly established cell line derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae).

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Ozaki, Yuka; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the family Bunyaviridae and are maintained in wild rodents. Although Vero E6 cells, which originate from African green monkey kidney, are used widely in hantavirus research, isolation of hantaviruses from this cell line is difficult. To develop an efficient method of propagation and isolation of hantaviruses we established a novel cell line, MRK101, derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), the natural host of Hokkaido virus (HOKV). The MRK101 cells showed a significantly higher susceptibility to Puumala virus (PUUV) hosted by Myodes glareolus than Vero E6 cells. Viral nucleocapsid protein in PUUV-infected MRK101 cells was detected earlier than in Vero E6 cells, and the viral titre in the culture fluid of MRK101 cells was higher than that of Vero E6 cells during the early phase of infection. In contrast, MRK101 cells showed no susceptibility to Hantaan virus. HOKV, which has not been isolated to date, was isolated successfully using MRK101 cells. Moreover, the newly isolated HOKV was successfully propagated in MRK101, but not Vero E6, cells. Phylogenic analyses of the S (small), M (medium) and L (large) segment sequences revealed that HOKV is related most closely to PUUV, but is distinct from other hantaviruses. These data suggest that the MRK101 cell line is a useful tool for the isolation and propagation of hantaviruses. Moreover, this is (to our knowledge) the first report of hantavirus isolation in a cell line that originated from the natural host.

  19. Hantavirus infection in rodents and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shaanxi province, China, 1984-2012.

    PubMed

    Yu, P B; Tian, H Y; Ma, C F; Ma, C A; Wei, J; Lu, X L; Wang, Z; Zhou, S; Li, S; Dong, J H; Xu, J R; Xu, B; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is deeply influenced by the reservoir and hantavirus prevalence rate. In this study, a surveillance on human HFRS cases, relative rodent abundance, and hantavirus infection prevalence was conducted in Shaanxi province, China, during 1984-2012. A generalized linear model with Poisson-distributed residuals and a log link was used to quantify the relationship between reservoir, virus and HFRS cases. The result indicated that there was a significant association of HFRS incidence with relative rodent density and the prevalence rate. This research provides evidence that the changes of infection prevalence in the reservoir could lead directly to the emergence of a new epidemic. It was concluded that the measurement of a number of these variables could be used in disease surveillance to give useful advance warning of potential disease epidemics.

  20. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies in divergent small mammals.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Karla; Schountz, Tony; Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Ferrés, Marcela; Torres-Pérez, Fernando

    2014-05-06

    We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species.

  1. Ecology and demographics of hantavirus infections in rodent populations in the Walker River Basin of Nevada and California.

    PubMed

    Boone, J D; Otteson, E W; McGwire, K C; Villard, P; Rowe, J E; St Jeor, S C

    1998-09-01

    To study the ecologic correlates of hantavirus in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), we sampled 114 sites in the Walker River Basin of Nevada and California in 1995-1996. Blood samples were tested for antibody to hantavirus, and a subset of samples was also tested for virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Average prevalence of antibody-positive mice was 17%, with heavier males the most likely to be infected. Antibody prevalence varied within repeatedly sampled sites from 0% to 50% over the course of several months, suggesting possible infection cycles. Although there was no linear correlation between deer mouse density and antibody prevalence on sample sites, more complex relationships between density and prevalence appeared likely. Specifically, infections were less likely where rodent densities were lower than a critical threshold value. However, above this value, density had no effect on prevalence. PMID:9749642

  2. Aspirina y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de muchos estudios en las últimas dos décadas permiten suponer que tomar aspirina con regularidad podría disminuir en forma considerable el riesgo de padecer cáncer o morir por la enfermedad, pero hacen falta más estudios de investigación.

  3. Interferons Induce STAT1-Dependent Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator, a Pathogenicity Factor in Puumala Hantavirus Disease.

    PubMed

    Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Klingström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Åke; Julkunen, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2016-05-15

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that show various degrees of vasculopathy in humans. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of 2 fibrinolytic parameters, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its physiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV)-infected patients and in human microvascular endothelial cells. We detected strong upregulation of tPA in the acute phase of illness and in PUUV-infected macaques and found the tPA level to positively correlate with disease severity. The median levels of PAI-1 during the acute stage did not differ from those during the recovery phase. In concordance, hantaviruses induced tPA but not PAI-1 in microvascular endothelial cells, and the induction was demonstrated to be dependent on type I interferon. Importantly, type I and II interferons directly upregulated tPA through signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), which regulated tPA gene expression via a STAT1-responsive enhancer element. These results suggest that tPA may be a general factor in the immunological response to viruses.

  4. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  5. Microhabitat characteristics of Akodon montensis, a reservoir for hantavirus, and hantaviral seroprevalence in an Atlantic forest site in eastern Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Douglas G; Paige, Robert; Owen, Robert D; Ghimire, Kabita; Koch, David E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2009-06-01

    Hantaviruses may cause serious disease when transmitted to humans by their rodent hosts. Since their emergence in the Americas in 1993, there have been extensive efforts to understand the role of environmental factors on the presence of these viruses in their host rodent populations. HPS outbreaks have been linked to precipitation, but climatic factors alone have not been sufficient to predict the spatial-temporal dynamics of the environment-reservoir-virus system. Using a series of mark-recapture sampling sites located at the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, an Atlantic Forest site in eastern Paraguay, we investigated the hypothesis that microhabitat might also influence the prevalence of Jaborá hantavirus within populations of its reservoir species, Akodon montensis. Seven trapping sessions were conducted during 2005-2006 at four sites chosen to capture variable microhabitat conditions within the study site. Analysis of microhabitat preferences showed that A. montensis preferred areas with little forest overstory and denser vegetation cover on and near the ground. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the microhabitat occupied by antibody-positive vs antibody-negative rodents, indicating that microhabitats with greater overstory cover may promote transmission and maintenance of hantavirus in A. montensis.

  6. Acidification triggers Andes hantavirus membrane fusion and rearrangement of Gc into a stable post-fusion homotrimer.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Bignon, Eduardo A; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2015-11-01

    The hantavirus membrane fusion process is mediated by the Gc envelope glycoprotein from within endosomes. However, little is known about the specific mechanism that triggers Gc fusion activation, and its pre- and post-fusion conformations. We established cell-free in vitro systems to characterize hantavirus fusion activation. Low pH was sufficient to trigger the interaction of virus-like particles with liposomes. This interaction was dependent on a pre-fusion glycoprotein arrangement. Further, low pH induced Gc multimerization changes leading to non-reversible Gc homotrimers. These trimers were resistant to detergent, heat and protease digestion, suggesting characteristics of a stable post-fusion structure. No acid-dependent oligomerization rearrangement was detected for the trypsin-sensitive Gn envelope glycoprotein. Finally, acidification induced fusion of glycoprotein-expressing effector cells with non-susceptible CHO cells. Together, the data provide novel information on the Gc fusion trigger and its non-reversible activation involving lipid interaction, multimerization changes and membrane fusion which ultimately allow hantavirus entry into cells.

  7. Preliminary selection and evaluation of the binding of aptamers against a Hantavirus antigen using fluorescence spectroscopy and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missailidis, Sotiris; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia Martins; Guterres, Alexandro; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; de Godoy, Daniela Tupy; Lemos, Elba

    2015-12-01

    In this study we have aimed to develop novel aptamers against the Hantavirus nucleoprotein N, a valid antigen already used in the Hantavirus reference laboratory of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Such aptamers, if they are found to bind with high affinity and specificity for the selected hantavirus antigen, they could be translated into novel diagnostic assays with the ability to provide early detection for hantaviroses and their related disease syndromes. In a preliminary screening, we have managed to identify three aptamer species. We have analyzed a short and a long version of these aptamer using fluorescence spectroscopy and modelled their binding. We have identified Stern-Volmer constants for the selected aptamers, which have shown affinity for their target, with a different binding between the short and the long versions of them. Short aptamers have shown to have a higher Stern-Volmer constant and the ability to potentially bind to more than one binding site on the antigen. The information provided by the spectroscopic screening has been invaluable in allowing us to define candidates for further development into diagnostic assays.

  8. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... can enter the air. People can get the disease if they breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch it from people. Early symptoms of HPS include ...

  9. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase G894T Polymorphism Associates with Disease Severity in Puumala Hantavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Sirpa; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Pessi, Tanja; Tuomisto, Sari; Huhtala, Heini; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Pörsti, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hantavirus infections are characterized by both activation and dysfunction of the endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis whether the polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS G894T, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS G2087A, are associated with the severity of acute Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. Patients and Methods Hospitalized patients (n = 172) with serologically verified PUUV infection were examined. Clinical and laboratory variables reflecting disease severity were determined. The polymorphisms of eNOS G894T (Glu298Asp, rs1799983) and iNOS G2087A (Ser608Leu, rs2297518) were genotyped. Results The rare eNOS G894T genotype was associated with the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The non-carriers of G-allele (TT-homozygotes) had higher maximum level of serum creatinine than the carriers of G-allele (GT-heterozygotes and GG-homozygotes; median 326, range 102–1041 vs. median 175, range 51–1499 μmol/l; p = 0.018, respectively). The length of hospital stay was longer in the non-carriers of G-allele than in G-allele carriers (median 8, range 3–14 vs. median 6, range 2–15 days; p = 0.032). The rare A-allele carriers (i.e. AA-homozygotes and GA-heterozygotes) of iNOS G2087A had lower minimum systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the non-carriers of A-allele (median 110, range 74–170 vs.116, range 86–162 mmHg, p = 0.019, and median 68, range 40–90 vs. 72, range 48–100 mmHg; p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions Patients with the TT-homozygous genotype of eNOS G894T had more severe PUUV-induced AKI than the other genotypes. The eNOS G894T polymorphism may play role in the endothelial dysfunction observed during acute PUUV infection. PMID:26561052

  10. The hanta hunting study: underdiagnosis of Puumala hantavirus infections in symptomatic non-travelling leptospirosis-suspected patients in the Netherlands, in 2010 and April to November 2011.

    PubMed

    Goeijenbier, M; Hartskeerl, R A; Reimerink, J; Verner-Carlsson, J; Wagenaar, J F; Goris, M G; Martina, B E; Lundkvist, Å; Koopmans, M; Osterhaus, A D; van Gorp, E C; Reusken, C B

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) are hard to distinguish clinically since these two important rodent-borne zoonoses share hallmark symptoms such as renal failure and haemorrhage. Leptospirosis is caused by infection with a spirochete while HFRS is the result of an infection with certain hantaviruses. Both diseases are relatively rare in the Netherlands. Increased incidence of HFRS has been observed since 2007 in countries that border the Netherlands. Since a similar rise in incidence has not been registered in the Netherlands, we hypothesise that due to overlapping clinical manifestations, hantavirus infections may be confused with leptospirosis, leading to underdiagnosis. Therefore, we tested a cohort of non-travelling Dutch patients with symptoms compatible with leptospirosis, but with a negative diagnosis, during 2010 and from April to November 2011. Sera were screened with pan-hantavirus IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Sera with IgM reactivity were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). ELISA (IgM positive) and IFA results were confirmed using focus reduction neutralisation tests (FRNTs). We found hantavirus-specific IgG and/or IgM antibodies in 4.3% (11/255) of samples taken in 2010 and in 4.1% (6/146) of the samples during the 2011 period. After FRNT confirmation, seven patients were classed as having acute Puumala virus infections. A review of hantavirus diagnostic requests revealed that at least three of the seven confirmed acute cases as well as seven probable acute cases of hantavirus infection were missed in the Netherlands during the study period.

  11. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia. PMID:23579795

  12. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.

  13. [Oligoryzomys longicaudatus characteristics' associated with the presence of Andes virus (Hantavirus)].

    PubMed

    Piudo, Luciana; Monteverde, Martin J; Walker, R Susan; Douglass, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    Oligoryzomys longicaudatus is the main reservoir of Andes virus (AND), which causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Patagonia. The factors associated with the presence of antibodies against AND in this species are unknown. This study used a logistic regression model to analyze which characteristics of O. longicaudatus, captured in northern Argentinean Patagonia, led to an increased probability of an animal having antibodies against AND and to relate these characteristics to possible mechanisms of transmission of the virus within the population. Sex, age, body mass, and wounds were important predictors regarding the presence of antibodies against AND within O. longicaudatus populations. The probability of a wounded male O. longicaudatus adult having AND antibodies increased in parallel with the body mass. The probability of having antibodies was more than 80% in individuals with body masses above 44 gram. However, the possible transmission mechanism of AND within O. longicaudatus population is still uncertain and further studies involving a larger number of individuals and prolonged monitoring including the process of seroconversion are needed. PMID:22689036

  14. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

  15. Endothelial Activation and Repair During Hantavirus Infection: Association with Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly-Andersen, Anne-Marie; Thunberg, Therese; Ahlm, Clas

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Endothelial activation and dysfunction play a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Hantaviral disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever and is characterized by capillary dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms for hantaviral disease are not fully elucidated. Methods.  The temporal course of endothelial activation and repair were analyzed during Puumala hantavirus infection and associated with disease outcome and a marker for hypoxia, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1). The following endothelial activation markers were studied: endothelial glycocalyx degradation (syndecan-1) and leukocyte adhesion molecules (soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and endothelial selectin). Cytokines associated with vascular repair were also analyzed (vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, angiopoietin, and stromal cell-derived factor 1). Results.  Most of the markers we studied were highest during the earliest phase of hantaviral disease and associated with clinical and laboratory surrogate markers for disease outcome. In particular, the marker for glycocalyx degradation, syndecan-1, was significantly associated with levels of thrombocytes, albumin, IGFBP-1, decreased blood pressure, and disease severity. Conclusions.  Hantaviral disease outcome was associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consequently, the endothelium warrants further investigation when designing future medical interventions. PMID:25734100

  16. Temporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in cyclic populations of bank voles

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R.; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir host populations is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human disease epidemics. The human infection risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is highest in northern Europe, where populations of the rodent host (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) undergo cyclic fluctuations. We conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture study to monitor seasonal and multiannual patterns of the PUUV infection rate in bank vole populations exhibiting a 3-year density cycle. Infected bank voles were most abundant in mid-winter months during years of increasing or peak host density. Prevalence of PUUV infection in bank voles exhibited a regular, seasonal pattern reflecting the annual population turnover and accumulation of infections within each year cohort. In autumn, the PUUV transmission rate tracked increasing host abundance, suggesting a density-dependent transmission. However, prevalence of PUUV infection was similar during the increase and peak years of the density cycle despite a twofold difference in host density. This may result from the high proportion of individuals carrying maternal antibodies constraining transmission during the cycle peak years. Our exceptionally intensive and long-term dataset provides a solid basis on which to develop models to predict the dynamic public health threat posed by PUUV in northern Europe. PMID:26887639

  17. Temporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in cyclic populations of bank voles.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir host populations is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human disease epidemics. The human infection risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is highest in northern Europe, where populations of the rodent host (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) undergo cyclic fluctuations. We conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture study to monitor seasonal and multiannual patterns of the PUUV infection rate in bank vole populations exhibiting a 3-year density cycle. Infected bank voles were most abundant in mid-winter months during years of increasing or peak host density. Prevalence of PUUV infection in bank voles exhibited a regular, seasonal pattern reflecting the annual population turnover and accumulation of infections within each year cohort. In autumn, the PUUV transmission rate tracked increasing host abundance, suggesting a density-dependent transmission. However, prevalence of PUUV infection was similar during the increase and peak years of the density cycle despite a twofold difference in host density. This may result from the high proportion of individuals carrying maternal antibodies constraining transmission during the cycle peak years. Our exceptionally intensive and long-term dataset provides a solid basis on which to develop models to predict the dynamic public health threat posed by PUUV in northern Europe. PMID:26887639

  18. Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein exhibits a metal-dependent DNA-specific endonucleolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Szczepek, Michal; Bokelmann, Marcel; Heinemann, Patrick; Raftery, Martin J; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that the nucleocapsid protein of Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV-N) has a DNA-specific endonuclease activity. Upon incubation of SNV-N with DNA in the presence of magnesium or manganese, we observed DNA digestion in sequence-unspecific manner. In contrast, RNA was not affected under the same conditions. Moreover, pre-treatment of SNV-N with RNase before DNA cleavage increased the endonucleolytic activity. Structure-based protein fold prediction using known structures from the PDB database revealed that Asp residues in positions 88 and 103 of SNV-N show sequence similarity with the active site of the restriction endonuclease HindIII. Crystal structure of HindIII predicts that residues Asp93 and Asp108 are essential for coordination of the metal ions required for HindIII DNA cleavage. Therefore, we hypothesized that homologous residues in SNV-N, Asp88 and Asp103, may have a similar function. Replacing Asp88 and Asp103 by alanine led to an SNV-N protein almost completely abrogated for endonuclease activity. PMID:27261891

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus associated with its rodent host, Myodes glareolus

    PubMed Central

    Weber de Melo, Vanessa; Sheikh Ali, Hanan; Freise, Jona; Kühnert, Denise; Essbauer, Sandra; Mertens, Marc; Wanka, Konrad M; Drewes, Stephan; Ulrich, Rainer G; Heckel, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses significantly impact human and animal health. Understanding the population dynamics of these viruses and their hosts can provide important insights for epidemiology and virus evolution. Puumala virus (PUUV) is a European hantavirus that may cause regional outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of PUUV circulating in local populations of its rodent reservoir host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) during eight years. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of all three genome segments of PUUV showed strong geographical structuring at a very local scale. There was a high temporal turnover of virus strains in the local bank vole populations, but several virus strains persisted through multiple years. Phylodynamic analyses showed no significant changes in the local effective population sizes of PUUV, although vole numbers and virus prevalence fluctuated widely. Microsatellite data demonstrated also a temporally persisting subdivision between local vole populations, but these groups did not correspond to the subdivision in the virus strains. We conclude that restricted transmission between vole populations and genetic drift play important roles in shaping the genetic structure and temporal dynamics of PUUV in its natural host which has several implications for zoonotic risks of the human population. PMID:26136821

  20. The Andes Hantavirus NSs Protein Is Expressed from the Viral Small mRNA by a Leaky Scanning Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism. PMID:22156529

  1. Development of novel immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM enzyme immunoassays based on recombinant Puumala and Dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Helga; Wolbert, Anne; Razanskiene, Ausra; Marg, Andreas; Kazaks, Andris; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Pauli, Georg; Ulrich, Rainer; Krüger, Detlev H

    2006-12-01

    Human infections with Asian and European hantaviruses can result in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes of differing severities characterized by renal dysfunction and sometimes by pulmonary symptoms. For the serological detection of human infections by hantaviruses relevant for Europe, we developed monoclonal antibody capture immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on yeast-expressed nucleocapsid proteins of Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses. Moreover, for diagnosis of acute infections, mu-capture IgM ELISAs were established with nucleocapsid proteins expressed in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells. The cutoff values of the ELISAs were determined by investigation of up to 500 human anti-hantavirus-negative serum samples. The specificities of the Puumala and Dobrava virus-specific IgM, IgA, and IgG ELISAs were found to be 100%. The sensitivities of these ELISAs were determined to be 100% with panels of characterized anti-Puumala or anti-Dobrava virus-positive human serum samples. In most cases, Puumala and Dobrava virus infections could be differentiated by ELISA reactivity alone, i.e., endpoint titration with homologous and heterologous antigens.

  2. Development of a one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara and Rio Mamore hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alex Martins; de Souza, William Marciel; de Pádua, Michelly; da Silva Rodrigues Machado, Aline Rafaela; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-09-19

    Hantaviruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are an emerging cause of disease worldwide with high lethality in the Americas. In Brazil, the diagnosis for hantaviruses is based on immunologic techniques associated with conventional RT-PCR. A novel one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR was developed for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara (ARAV) and Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). The detection limit of assay was 10 copies/μL of RNA in vitro transcribed of segment S. The specificity of assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the Araraquara virus amplified product generated a melt peak at 80.83 ± 0.89 °C without generating primer-dimers or non-specific products. The assay was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and we detected two samples undetected by conventional RT-PCR. The one-step SYBR Green real-time quantitative RT-PCR is specific, sensible and reproducible, which makes it a powerful tool in both diagnostic applications and general research of ARAV and RIOMV and possibly other Brazilian hantaviruses.

  3. Hantavirus disease in Germany due to infection with Dobrava-Belgrade virus genotype Kurkino.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, J; Meier, M; Enders, M; Führer, A; Ettinger, J; Klempa, B; Schmidt, S; Ulrich, R G; Kruger, D H

    2014-10-01

    Members of the Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) species are hantaviruses carried by different Apodemus mice as reservoir hosts and causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. In Central Europe, the Kurkino genotype of DOBV, associated with the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, is prevalent. This paper presents the first extensive study of the serological and molecular diagnostics, epidemiology and clinics of DOBV-Kurkino infections in Central Europe. Serum samples from 570 German patients living in the habitat of A. agrarius (north and northeast Germany) and exhibiting febrile disease, were analysed. All samples were tested by ELISA, subsets of samples were also analysed by immunoblot, neutralization assay, and RT-PCR. A group of 86 individuals was confirmed as DOBV-infected. The virus neutralization assay allowed a reliable identification of DOBV antibodies during both acute and convalescent phases of infection. However, differentiation of relevant DOBV genotypes was not possible by neutralization test but required molecular analysis. Whereas DOBV IgM antibodies tend to persist in the infected organism, RNAaemia seems to be short. Nucleotide sequences were amplified from four patients, and their analysis demonstrated infection by DOBV-Kurkino. With respect to the initial results, the high degree of identity of local patient-derived and A. agrarius-derived virus sequences may allow a closer allocation of the geographical place where the human infection occurred. In contrast to moderate/severe HFRS caused by the DOBV genotypes Dobrava or Sochi, all available data showed a mild clinical course of HFRS caused by DOBV-Kurkino infection without lethal outcomes.

  4. Landscape and Regional Environmental Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Hantavirus Human Cases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zeimes, Caroline Brigitte; Quoilin, Sophie; Henttonen, Heikki; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Vapalahti, Olli; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Reusken, Chantal; Swart, Arno N.; Vainio, Kirsti; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression, and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees) with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers, and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast, and the Netherlands should be kept under watch). Conclusion: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area, the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently. PMID:25874194

  5. Migration of Norway rats resulted in the worldwide distribution of Seoul hantavirus today.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats.

  6. Studies on hantavirus infection in small mammals captured in southern and central highland area of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luan, Vu Dinh; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Endo, Rika; Taruishi, Midori; Huong, Vo Thi; Dat, Dang Tuan; Tien, Pham Cong; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Nhi, Le; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Arikawa, Jiro

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the distribution of hantaviruses among animals in Southern and Central Highland area of Vietnam, a total of 1311 serum samples were obtained from rats and Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) captured at 11 locations between 2006 and 2009. A total of 1066 serum samples from rats were examined for IgG antibodies against Hantaan virus, and there were 30 antibody-positive serum samples from rats that had been captured mainly in a port area and urban area in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) (2.8%). All of the antibody-positive rats were Rattus norvegicus, and they had Seoul virus (SEOV) genome in their lungs. SEOV sequences detected from rats captured in Southern Vietnam belonged to the same lineage as those from rats captured at Haiphong Port and a market area in Hanoi City. SEOV strain CSG5 was isolated from a rat captured at Saigon Harbor. Strain CSG5 showed a cross-neutralization pattern almost the same as that of a representative strain of SEOV. A total of 245 Asian house shrews were captured in the Central Highland area and near HCMC. Sera were examined for IgG antibodies against Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), and 32 (13.1%) of the antibody-positive shrews were mainly from the Central Highland area and showed a neutralizing antibody against TPMV. These results indicated that SEOV is distributed among R. norvegicus inhabiting harbor and urban areas of Southern Vietnam and that TPMV or an antigenically related virus is distributed among Asian house shrews in Central Highland area.

  7. Platelet ligands and ADAMTS13 during Puumala hantavirus infection and associated thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Helminen, Mika; Vaheri, Antti; Lassila, Riitta; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta

    2011-09-01

    We aimed here to elucidate the role of adhesive platelet ligands and endothelial involvement during the acute phase of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. Nineteen hospital-treated patients with serologically confirmed diagnosis of acute PUUV infection were included. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical and basic laboratory data. Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo), factor VIII (FVIII:C) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 domain 13 (ADAMTS13) activities as well as fibrinogen and fibronectin were measured three times acutely and once during the recovery phase. VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo were nearly three-fold higher acutely compared with recovery (median 252 vs. 88%, and mean 267 vs. 98%, respectively; P<0.001 for both), whereas FVIII:C was only slightly elevated (median 118 vs. 88%, P=0.002) and remarkably failed to show association with VWF in the acute phase. ADAMTS13 activity and fibronectin concentration were lower in the acute compared with the recovery phase (median 56 vs. 63%, P=0.003, and median 221 vs. 330 μmol/l, P=0.001, respectively). Fibrinogen raised acutely (mean 5.0 vs. 3.3 g/l, P<0.001), negatively correlating with the platelet count (r=-0.468, P=0.043). Markedly upregulated fibrinogen and VWF together with decreased levels of ADAMTS13 activity and fibronectin were observed during acute PUUV infection. VWF and FVIII:C did not associate during the acute phase, whereas thrombocytopenia correlated negatively with fibrinogen. These findings imply several rearranged interactions between platelets and their ligands.

  8. Hoja informativa del alcohol y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume la comprobación de la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y el riesgo de varios cánceres. Incluye información de los factores que afectan el riesgo de cánceres asociados con el alcohol, como son los genes y el uso de tabaco.

  9. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  10. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and the dynamics of hantavirus using remote sensing, GIS, and a spatially explicit agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lina

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a strain of hantavirus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans, a deadly disease with high mortality rate (>50%). The primary virus host is deer mice, and greater deer mice abundance has been shown to increase the human risk of HPS. There is a great need in understanding the nature of the virus host, its temporal and spatial dynamics, and its relation to the human population with the purpose of predicting human risk of the disease. This research studies SNV dynamics in deer mice in the Great Basin Desert of central Utah, USA using multiyear field data and integrated geospatial approaches including remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and a spatially explicit agent-based model. The goal is to advance our understanding of the important ecological and demographic factors that affect the dynamics of deer mouse population and SNV prevalence. The primary research question is how climate, habitat disturbance, and deer mouse demographics affect deer mouse population density, its movement, and SNV prevalence in the sagebrush habitat. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) can be good predictors of deer mouse density and the number of infected deer mice with a time lag of 1.0 to 1.3 years. This information can be very useful in predicting mouse abundance and SNV risk. The results also showed that climate, mouse density, sex, mass, and SNV infection had significant effects on deer mouse movement. The effect of habitat disturbance on mouse movement varies according to climate conditions with positive relationship in predrought condition and negative association in postdrought condition. The heavier infected deer mice moved the most. Season and disturbance alone had no significant effects. The spatial agent-based model (SABM) simulation results show that prevalence was negatively related to the disturbance levels and the sensitivity analysis showed that

  11. Persistently highest risk areas for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: potential sites for refugia.

    PubMed

    Glass, Gregory E; Shields, Timothy; Cai, Bin; Yates, Terry L; Parmenter, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Interannual variation in the number of cases of human disease caused by hantaviruses in North America has been hypothesized to reflect environmental changes that influence rodent reservoir populations. This hypothesis postulates that when cases are rare reservoir populations are geographically restricted in patches of suitable habitat. Identifying these sites, which is needed to test the hypothesis, has proven to be a challenge. Satellite imagery of the U.S. Southwest has shown associations among the likelihood of human hantaviral disease and increases in the rodent populations, as well as increased prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations. In this study we characterize local areas that had environmental signatures that persisted as predicted highest risk sites for human disease through much of the 1990s. These areas represent a small percentage (0.3%) of the region. Exploratory analyses indicate that these areas were not randomly distributed, but were associated with certain landscape characteristics. Characteristics of elevation, slope, aspect, and land cover were associated with persistent high risk. Using multivariate Poisson regression to control for confounding effects, sites with deciduous- or mixed-forest land cover on moderate to steep slopes (>5 degrees) above 2130 m elevation were associated with increasing numbers of years at highest risk. These are candidate locations for refugia. Sites associated with cleared ground or shrubland were less often associated with high risk compared to reference conditions. The seasonal patterns of vegetation growth in persistently high-risk areas were compared to matched locations using MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) during a time of a severe drought in the region from 2002 to 2004. Despite the drought and regardless of land cover, the NDVI in persistently highest risk areas had an early onset, with significantly higher levels of green

  12. Effects of Humidity Variation on the Hantavirus Infection and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Occurrence in Subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Ru; Gao, Li-Dong; Huang, Cun-Rui; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Li, Na; Liu, Hai-Ning; Tong, Shi-Lu; Tian, Huai-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Infection rates of rodents have a significant influence on the transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, four cities and two counties with high HFRS incidence in eastern Hunan Province in China were studied, and surveillance data of rodents, as well as HFRS cases and related environmental variables from 2007 to 2010, were collected. Results indicate that the distribution and infection rates of rodents are closely associated with environmental conditions. Hantavirus infections in rodents were positively correlated with temperature vegetation dryness index and negatively correlated with elevation. The predictive risk maps based on multivariate regression model revealed that the annual variation of infection risks is small, whereas monthly variation is large and corresponded well to the seasonal variation of human HFRS incidence. The identification of risk factors and risk prediction provides decision support for rodent surveillance and the prevention and control of HFRS. PMID:26711521

  13. Hantavirus antigen detection using human serum immunoglobulin M as the capturing antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Alexeyev, O A; Elgh, F; Ahlm, C; Stigbrand, T; Settergren, B; Wadell, G; Juto, P

    1996-04-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect different hantavirus antigens in cell culture; i.e. Puumala (PUU), Hantaan (HTN), and Dobrava (DOB) viruses. The assay was based on binding human serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the solid phase by use of goat anti-IgM antibodies. The captured IgM antibodies were present in the acute phase serum from two patients: one infected in Sweden and the other in Bosnia. Antigens being bound to the solid phase by the human anti-PUU and anti-DOB/HTN IgM antibodies were detected by a broadly reacting polyclonal rabbit anti PUU-recombinant nucleocapsid protein antiserum. The IgM isotype was proven to be at least five times more efficient than IgG when used as the capturing antibody. The sensitivity of the PUU antigen ELISA was approximately 0.5 ng/ml, as measured by titration with a PUU recombinant nucleoprotein antigen. Cell-associated PUU antigen in tissue culture was seen after 48 hr by the PUU-ELISA and after 96 hr by immunofluorescent assay. When tested for capacity to discriminate between PUU, DOB, and HTN viruses, significant differences were found: the Swedish serum detected PUU antigen at high titers, whereas no reactivity was found against DOB and HTN; the Bosnian serum detected both DOB and HTN at high titers but had a low reactivity to PUU. The method was also tested for its usefulness in detecting PUU antigen in bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) lungs. Of 59 animals captured from the surroundings of patients with nephropathia epidemica, three became positive with a high activity in the PUU-ELISA, but with low reactivity in the DOB/HTN-ELISA. It is concluded that a sensitive ELISA has been developed to detect different hantaviruses in cell culture and lungs of bank voles.

  14. Molecular characterization and expression of glycoprotein gene of Hantavirus R22 strain isolated from Rattus norvegicus in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, X A; Ruo, S L; Tang, Y W; Fisher-Hoch, S P; McCormick, J B

    1991-09-01

    A cDNA containing the complete open reading frame of the M genome segment of Hantavirus R22 strain isolated from Rattus norvegicus in China, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then cloned. The M segment is 3656 nucleotides in length with a predicted region of 3402 bases encoding a precursor glycoprotein of 1134 amino acids subsequently processed into viral glycoproteins 1 and 2 (G1 and G2). A strain comparison between R22 and SR11 (isolated from a rat in Japan), and Hantaan 76-118 (isolated from Apodemus in Korea), and Hallnas B1 (isolated from a bank vole in Sweden) revealed 95%, 74%, and 53% homologies at the deduced amino acid sequence level respectively. This suggests that the rodent host species may be a more important determinant of genetic relationships than geographic proximity. Six potential asparagine linked glycosylation sites (five in G1 and one in G2) were identified, and among them all are conserved in SR11, five in Hantaan virus and four in Hallnas B1 virus. Although different degrees of homology exist among these four viruses at amino acid sequence level, more than 90% of the cysteine residues are conserved, suggesting that structural homology may be very strong between the Hantaviruses. Genetic differences in the M segment genome of R22 and SR11 viruses, within the same serotype viruses, were found as random coding changes; some limited to single amino acids, others in clusters. A recombinant vaccinia virus that contained the fully activated M segment cDNA of R22 was constructed. This recombinant virus expressed two glycoproteins G1 and G2 identical to R22 virus G1 and G2 in molecular weight, cleavage pattern and cellular immunofluorescent patterns.

  15. [Optimization of ELISA and immunoblot methods for the detection of IgG antibodies against old world hantaviruses in wild rodents].

    PubMed

    Polat, Ceylan; Karataş, Ahmet; Sözen, Mustafa; Matur, Ferhat; Abacıoğlu, Hakan; Öktem, Mehmet Ali

    2016-04-01

    Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of viral particles in infected rodents' secretions such as saliva, urine and faeces or via direct contact with infected rodents. The rodent species that are known as the carriers of Dobrava (DOBV), Puumala (PUUV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Tula (TULV) and Seoul (SEOV) viruses are found in our country. The presence of specific antibodies against hantaviruses have been demonstrated in rodents collected from Black Sea and Aegean Regions of Turkey in 2004 for the first time. The first hantavirus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases were reported in Black Sea region in 2009. The determination of the hantavirus prevalence in wild life and rodent populations in the field is crucial for the information about hantavirus-related cases and to clarify the state of risk. There is no commercial product optimized for the screening of rodent serum samples in terms of HFRS agents like DOBV and PUUV that are widely seen in Eurasia as well as Turkey. In this study, the antigens belonging to the commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immunoblot tests that are produced for the screening of human sera were used for the development of antibody screening tests against hantavirus in rodent sera and were optimized. The most appropriate serum and conjugate dilutions were determined for the optimization of ELISA (Anti-Hantavirus Pool ELISA; Euroimmun, Germany) and immunoblot (Euroline Anti-Hanta Profile 1 strips; Euroimmun, Germany) methods. Optimized ELISA method was used for the screening and optimized immunoblot method was used for the confirmation. A total of 84 wild rodent sera that belonged to Apodemus and Microtus species were evaluated with this procedure and the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of optimized ELISA method were determined. For the optimization of ELISA 1/50, 1/100 and 1/200 serum dilutions and 1/10.000, 1/20.000 and 1/40.000 conjugate dilutions were tested. For the optimization of immunoblot, 1

  16. [Optimization of ELISA and immunoblot methods for the detection of IgG antibodies against old world hantaviruses in wild rodents].

    PubMed

    Polat, Ceylan; Karataş, Ahmet; Sözen, Mustafa; Matur, Ferhat; Abacıoğlu, Hakan; Öktem, Mehmet Ali

    2016-04-01

    Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of viral particles in infected rodents' secretions such as saliva, urine and faeces or via direct contact with infected rodents. The rodent species that are known as the carriers of Dobrava (DOBV), Puumala (PUUV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Tula (TULV) and Seoul (SEOV) viruses are found in our country. The presence of specific antibodies against hantaviruses have been demonstrated in rodents collected from Black Sea and Aegean Regions of Turkey in 2004 for the first time. The first hantavirus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases were reported in Black Sea region in 2009. The determination of the hantavirus prevalence in wild life and rodent populations in the field is crucial for the information about hantavirus-related cases and to clarify the state of risk. There is no commercial product optimized for the screening of rodent serum samples in terms of HFRS agents like DOBV and PUUV that are widely seen in Eurasia as well as Turkey. In this study, the antigens belonging to the commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immunoblot tests that are produced for the screening of human sera were used for the development of antibody screening tests against hantavirus in rodent sera and were optimized. The most appropriate serum and conjugate dilutions were determined for the optimization of ELISA (Anti-Hantavirus Pool ELISA; Euroimmun, Germany) and immunoblot (Euroline Anti-Hanta Profile 1 strips; Euroimmun, Germany) methods. Optimized ELISA method was used for the screening and optimized immunoblot method was used for the confirmation. A total of 84 wild rodent sera that belonged to Apodemus and Microtus species were evaluated with this procedure and the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of optimized ELISA method were determined. For the optimization of ELISA 1/50, 1/100 and 1/200 serum dilutions and 1/10.000, 1/20.000 and 1/40.000 conjugate dilutions were tested. For the optimization of immunoblot, 1

  17. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events.

  18. Barn owl (Tyto alba) predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magrini, L; Facure, K G

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis) and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9%) and Necromys lasiurus (6.7%) being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection. PMID:19197490

  19. Barn owl (Tyto alba) predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magrini, L; Facure, K G

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis) and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9%) and Necromys lasiurus (6.7%) being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  20. Comment on Jameson et al.: Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Jan; McKenna, Paula; Vergote, Valentijn; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This British hantavirus IgG prevalence study, aimed at 119 asymptomatic farmers in England, and using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as screening technique, concluded that rat-transmitted Seoul virus (SEOV) might be the main suspect as hantaviral pathogen in the UK. Exactly the same conclusion, using the same IFA screening technique, resulted from a 1994 serosurvey in the same country, and in 627 clinical cases plus 100 healthy controls. SEOV-positive study subjects were also mainly farmers with heavy rat-exposure, but residing in Northern-Ireland, a region where all other known rodent reservoirs for pathogenic hantaviruses are known to be absent, except the wild rat. A rodent capture action in and around the farms of eight seropositives confirmed SEOV seropositivity in 21.6% of 51 rats. All SEOV seropositives were patients, hospitalized with an acute feverish condition, a majority of which having the clinical picture of hantavirus-induced nephropathy, known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Leptospirosis, often mimicking perfectly HFRS, was serologically excluded. Thus, SEOV was established as a human hantaviral pathogen in the UK and in Europe 20 years ago. PMID:25256389

  1. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; Boichuk, Sergei V.; Palotás, András; Jeor, Stephen St.; Lombardi, Vincent C.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts.

  2. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  3. Hantavirus Public Health Outreach Effectiveness in Three Populations: An Overview of Northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Marjorie S.

    2014-01-01

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS. PMID:24584027

  4. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  5. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease.

  6. Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus during a Complete Population Cycle of Its Host, the Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus)

    PubMed Central

    Razzauti, Maria; Plyusnina, Angelina; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3%) were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome) from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1) nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2) the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3) some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4) frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious) and new transient variants are continually generated; 5) reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6) prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7) reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes. PMID:23717616

  7. Environmental change and disease dynamics: effects of intensive forest management on Puumala hantavirus infection in boreal bank vole populations.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Savola, Sakeri; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Laakkonen, Juha; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Intensive management of Fennoscandian forests has led to a mosaic of woodlands in different stages of maturity. The main rodent host of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a species that can be found in all woodlands and especially mature forests. We investigated the influence of forest age structure on PUUV infection dynamics in bank voles. Over four years, we trapped small mammals twice a year in a forest network of different succession stages in Northern Finland. Our study sites represented four forest age classes from young (4 to 30 years) to mature (over 100 years) forests. We show that PUUV-infected bank voles occurred commonly in all forest age classes, but peaked in mature forests. The probability of an individual bank vole to be PUUV infected was positively related to concurrent host population density. However, when population density was controlled for, a relatively higher infection rate was observed in voles trapped in younger forests. Furthermore, we found evidence of a "dilution effect" in that the infection probability was negatively associated with the simultaneous density of other small mammals during the breeding season. Our results suggest that younger forests created by intensive management can reduce hantaviral load in the environment, but PUUV is common in woodlands of all ages. As such, the Fennoscandian forest landscape represents a significant reservoir and source of hantaviral infection in humans.

  8. Application of MODIS GPP to Forecast Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Based on Fluctuations in Reservoir Population Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehman, R.; Heinsch, F. A.; Mills, J. N.; Wagoner, K.; Running, S.

    2003-12-01

    Recent predictive models for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have used remotely sensed spectral reflectance data to characterize risk areas with limited success. We present an alternative method using gross primary production (GPP) from the MODIS sensor to estimate the effects of biomass accumulation on population density of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), the principal reservoir species for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of diagnosed HPS cases in North America are attributed to SNV, which is transmitted to humans through inhalation of excretions and secretions from infected rodents. A logistic model framework is used to evaluate MODIS GPP, temperature, and precipitation as predictors of P. maniculatus density at established trapping sites across the western United States. Rodent populations are estimated using monthly minimum number alive (MNA) data for 2000 through 2002. Both local meteorological data from nearby weather stations and 1.25 degree x 1 degree gridded data from the NASA DAO were used in the regression model to determine the spatial sensitivity of the response. MODIS eight-day GPP data (1-km resolution) were acquired and binned to monthly average and monthly sum GPP for 3km x 3km grids surrounding each rodent trapping site. The use of MODIS GPP to forecast HPS risk may result in a marked improvement over past reflectance-based risk area characterizations. The MODIS GPP product provides a vegetation dynamics estimate that is unique to disease models, and targets the fundamental ecological processes responsible for increased rodent density and amplified disease risk.

  9. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease. PMID:26371066

  10. Environmental Variables Associated with Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Small Rodent Species in Two National Parks in the Paraná Delta, Argentina: Implications for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Vadell, María Victoria; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe zoonotic disease caused by hantaviruses hosted in various rodents species. In Argentina, its transmission to humans has been associated to exposure during activities such as farming, recreation, and tourism which are carried out in wild and rural areas. The aim of this study was to analyze the macro- and micro-habitat use and spatio-temporal variation of small sylvan rodents in Pre Delta and Islas de Santa Fe national parks, located in an HPS-endemic area of Argentina. Rodent communities were studied at six sites: two islands, a riparian forest, an inland forest, a marsh, and the margins of a pond. A total of 453 individuals of five species were captured with a trapping effort of 9471 trap-nights. Maximum species richness was found at the marsh and the pond margin sites. Abundance of rodents was influenced by flooding events. Two hantavirus reservoirs, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Akodon azarae, were identified in the area. O. flavescens was captured in every habitat, but it was dominant in Islas de Santa Fe National Park where its abundance was strongly influenced by flooding. A. azarae was captured in every habitat except on the islands. A. azarae behaved as a generalist species at a micro-habitat scale in every habitat of Pre Delta National Park except for the marsh where it selected patches with low vegetation height. Based on these results, several disease prevention measures, including the use of rodent-proof containers for food, and keeping the grass short in the camp site, are proposed in order to reduce the risk to visitors and residents of contracting HPS.

  11. Environmental Variables Associated with Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Small Rodent Species in Two National Parks in the Paraná Delta, Argentina: Implications for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Vadell, María Victoria; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe zoonotic disease caused by hantaviruses hosted in various rodents species. In Argentina, its transmission to humans has been associated to exposure during activities such as farming, recreation, and tourism which are carried out in wild and rural areas. The aim of this study was to analyze the macro- and micro-habitat use and spatio-temporal variation of small sylvan rodents in Pre Delta and Islas de Santa Fe national parks, located in an HPS-endemic area of Argentina. Rodent communities were studied at six sites: two islands, a riparian forest, an inland forest, a marsh, and the margins of a pond. A total of 453 individuals of five species were captured with a trapping effort of 9471 trap-nights. Maximum species richness was found at the marsh and the pond margin sites. Abundance of rodents was influenced by flooding events. Two hantavirus reservoirs, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Akodon azarae, were identified in the area. O. flavescens was captured in every habitat, but it was dominant in Islas de Santa Fe National Park where its abundance was strongly influenced by flooding. A. azarae was captured in every habitat except on the islands. A. azarae behaved as a generalist species at a micro-habitat scale in every habitat of Pre Delta National Park except for the marsh where it selected patches with low vegetation height. Based on these results, several disease prevention measures, including the use of rodent-proof containers for food, and keeping the grass short in the camp site, are proposed in order to reduce the risk to visitors and residents of contracting HPS. PMID:27169561

  12. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  13. [Addition of an arterio-venous shunt during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in a patient with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Vinko; Espinoza, Mauricio; Torres, Javier; Abarca, Juan; Montes, José Miguel; Luppi, Mario; Concha, Andrés; Reynolds, Enrique; Laporte, Alberto; Canals, Claudio; Vial, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    A subgroup of patients infected with the Hantavirus develops a pulmonary syndrome (HPS) characterized by severe acute respiratory failure and myocardial depression, that has a high mortality rate. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could be a valuable therapeutic tool in such patients. We report a 24 years old male with HPS that was successfully managed when an arterio-venous shunt was added to a conventional veno-arterial ECLS technique. Precise criteria have been developed to predict which patients should be considered for this treatment.

  14. Faltar a sesiones de radioterapia aumenta el riesgo de que regrese el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pacientes que faltan a sesiones de radioterapia durante el tratamiento del cáncer tienen un riesgo mayor de que regrese su enfermedad, aun cuando eventualmente completen su plan de tratamiento con radiación, según un nuevo estudio.

  15. Carne cocinada a altas temperaturas y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que explica cómo algunos compuestos químicos se forman en la carne cocinada a alta temperatura y describe los resultados de estudios sobre el consumo de estos compuestos químicos y el riesgo de cáncer.

  16. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  17. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500

  18. Genovariation Study of Hantavirus in Main Endemic Areas of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Cai, Yanan; Wei, Yamei; Han, Xu; Han, Zhanying; Zhang, Yanbo; Qi, Shunxiang; Xu, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important infectious disease in Hebei Province. At present, cases from the northeast regions of the province account for >80% of the total incidences. However, studies that examine the region-specific genetic variations of the Hantavirus (HV), the causative pathogen for HFRS, have been lacking. Methods Rodents were collected in northeast Hebei Province from 2004 to 2013, and the HV strains used in this study were isolated in 1993. Lung tissues were isolated from the rodents and HV antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The M1 and M2 fragments of HV M region were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned into pMDl9-T vector, sequenced and compared with representative standard stains for homology and phylogenetic analysis. Result A total of 21 samples of HV antigen-positive were collected. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the 19 rodent lungs and two HV strains were positive for the SEO virus. 11 samples were chosen to sequence, and they shared 95.8%–99.8% in nucleotide homology, and 83.6%–99.2% when compared to the standard strains of SEO virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all strains were grouped into the same S3 subtype. Conclusion SEO was the major epidemic genotype of HV in the main HFRS endemic areas in Hebei Province, and S3 was the major subtype. There was minor genetic variation in HV over short term periods, while long term variations were higher. PMID:27442527

  19. Estimating hantavirus risk in southern Argentina: a GIS-based approach combining human cases and host distribution.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-14

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995-2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature -1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  20. Co-circulation in a single biome of the Juquitiba and Araraquara hantavirus detected in human sera in a sub-tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Jansen; Duré, Ana I L; Negrão, Raquel; Ometto, Tatiana; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease. Although HCPS has been reported in several regions of Brazil, more cases of HCPS have recently been reported in Minas Gerais than in any other state. In 2009, we analyzed 27 samples presenting antibodies against hantaviruses. These samples originated from 688 symptomatic patients, as determined based on the Hemorrhagic Fever Protocol. A subsequent SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of the virus in 22 of the samples. Among the RT-PCR-positive samples, 17 were analyzed using DNA sequencing; these sequences were compared with others deposited in GenBank and showed similarity with the Araraquara and Juquitiba virus clusters. This work describe the detection of Juquitiba virus, including three fatal cases, in Minas Gerais state, furthermore, showed that it is feasible to characterize the circulating strains using a small fragment of S segment. Finally, the results suggest the co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba virus in a single biome in Minas Gerais state.

  1. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Andes virus (ANDV), a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9) that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs, that are primarily

  2. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L.; Kwilas, Steve A.; Josleyn, Matthew D.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W.; Bradley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  3. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Haese, Nicole; Brocato, Rebecca L; Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L; Kwilas, Steve A; Josleyn, Matthew D; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W; Bradley, David S

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  4. A hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome requires gC1qR/p32 for efficient cell binding and infection

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun; Kwon, Young-Chan; Kim, Soo-In; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Ahn, Byung-Yoon

    2008-11-25

    Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a pathogenic hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). HTNV infection is mediated by {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. We used protein blots of Vero E6 cell homogenates to demonstrate that radiolabeled HTNV virions bind to gC1qR/p32, the acidic 32-kDa protein known as the receptor for the globular head domain of complement C1q. RNAi-mediated suppression of gC1qR/p32 markedly reduced HTNV binding and infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, transient expression of either simian or human gC1qR/p32 rendered non-permissive CHO cells susceptible to HTNV infection. These results suggest an important role for gC1qR/p32 in HTNV infection and pathogenesis.

  5. Temporal variation in individual factors associated with hantavirus infection in bank voles during an epizootic: implications for Puumala virus transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tersago, Katrien; Verhagen, Ron; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-06-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), the causal agent of nephropathia epidemica in humans, is one of the many hantaviruses included in the list of emerging pathogens. Hantavirus infection is not distributed evenly among PUUV reservoir hosts (i.e., bank voles [Myodes glareolus]). Besides environmental factors and local population features, individual characteristics play an important role in vole PUUV infection risk. Identifying the relative importance of these individual characteristics can provide crucial information on PUUV transmission processes. In the present study, bank voles were monitored during the nephropathia epidemica outbreak of 2005 in Belgium. Vole sera were tested for presence of immunoglobulin G against PUUV, and a logistic mixed model was built to investigate the temporal variation in individual characteristics and their relative importance to PUUV infection risk in bank voles. Relative risk calculations for individual vole characteristics related to PUUV infection in the reservoir host show that reproductive activity dominates infection risk. The gender effect is only found in reproductively active voles, where reproductively active males have the highest infection risk. Results also revealed a clear seasonal variation in the importance of reproductive activity linked to PUUV infection. In contrast to the main effect found in other trapping sessions, no difference in infection risk ratio was found between reproductively active and nonactive voles in the spring period. Combined with increased infection risk for the reproductively nonactive group at that time, these results indicate a shift in the transmission process due to changes in bank vole behavior, physiology, or climate conditions. Hence, our results suggest that mathematical models should take into account seasonal shifts in transmission mechanisms. When these results are combined with the seasonal changes in population structure during the epizootic period, we identify vole reproductive activity and

  6. Recognition of decay accelerating factor and alpha(v)beta(3) by inactivated hantaviruses: Toward the development of high-throughput screening flow cytometry assays.

    PubMed

    Buranda, Tione; Wu, Yang; Perez, Dominique; Jett, Stephen D; BonduHawkins, Virginie; Ye, Chunyan; Edwards, Bruce; Hall, Pamela; Larson, Richard S; Lopez, Gabriel P; Sklar, Larry A; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-07-15

    Hantaviruses cause two severe diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The lack of vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HFRS and HCPS and the requirement for conducting experiments in a biosafety level 3 laboratory (BSL-3) limit the ability to probe the mechanism of infection and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we developed a generalizable spectroscopic assay to quantify saturable fluorophore sites solubilized in envelope membranes of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) particles. We then used flow cytometry and live cell confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to show that ultraviolet (UV)-killed SNV particles bind to the cognate receptors of live virions, namely, decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) expressed on Tanoue B cells and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins expressed on Vero E6 cells. SNV binding to DAF is multivalent and of high affinity (K(d) approximately 26pM). Self-exchange competition binding assays between fluorescently labeled SNV and unlabeled SNV are used to evaluate an infectious unit-to-particle ratio of approximately 1:14,000. We configured the assay for measuring the binding of fluorescently labeled SNV to Tanoue B suspension cells using a high-throughput flow cytometer. In this way, we established a proof-of-principle high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for binding inhibition. This is a first step toward developing HTS format assays for small molecule inhibitors of viral-cell interactions as well as dissecting the mechanism of infection in a BSL-2 environment.

  7. Serological survey of Seewis virus antibodies in patients suspected for hantavirus infection in Finland; a cross-reaction between Puumala virus antiserum with Seewis virus N protein?

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Vaheri, Antti; Hepojoki, Satu; Levanov, Lev; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2015-07-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV, carried by Myodes glareolus) co-circulates with Seewis virus (SWSV, carried by Sorex araneus) in Finland. While PUUV causes 1000-3000 nephropathia epidemica (NE) cases annually, the pathogenicity of SWSV to man is unknown. To study the prevalence of SWSV antibodies in hantavirus fever-like patients' sera, we used recombinant SWSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen in ELISA, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunoblotting. While characterizing the recombinant SWSV N protein, we observed that a polyclonal rabbit antiserum against PUUV N protein cross-reacted with SWSV N protein and vice versa. We initially screened 486 (450 PUUV-seronegative and 36 PUUV-seropositive) samples sent to Helsinki University Hospital Laboratory for PUUV serodiagnosis during 2002 and 2007 in an SWSV N protein IgG ELISA. In total, 4.2 % (19/450) of the PUUV-seronegative samples were reactive in the SWSV N protein IgG ELISA and none of the tested samples [43 PUUV-seronegative (weakly reactive in the SWSV IgG ELISA) and 15 random] were reactive in the SWSV N protein IgM ELISA. None of the IgG reactions could be confirmed by IFA or immunoblotting. Furthermore, among the 36 PUUV-seropositive samples three were reactive in SWSV N protein IgG and ten in SWSV N protein IgM ELISA. One PUUV-seropositive sample reacted with SWSV N protein in IFA and four in immunoblotting. Finally, we applied competitive ELISA to confirm that the observed reactivity was due to cross-reactivity rather than a true SWSV response. In conclusion, no evidence of SWSV infection was found among the 486 samples studied; however, we did demonstrate that PUUV antiserum cross-reacted with shrew-borne hantavirus N protein.

  8. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern United States was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized bantavirus. The virus has been isolated from its majorreservoir, the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,and recently named Sin Nombre virus. Clinically, the disease has become known as the bantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Since May 1993, 44 fatal cases of HPS have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunobistochemical(IHC) testing of tissues from 273 patients who died of an unexplained noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In 158 cases for which suitable specimens were available, serologicaltesting and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of extracted RNA was also performed. IHC, serological, and PCR results were concordant for virtually all HPS and non-HPS patients when more than one assay was performed. The prodromal ilness of HPS is similar to that of many other viral diseases. Consistent bematological features include thrombocytopenia, bemoconcentration, neutropbilic leukocytosis with a left shift, and reactivel lymphocytes. Pulmonary bistopatbological features were similar in most of the fatal HPS cases (40/44) and consisted of an interstitial pneumonitis with a variable mononuclear cell infiltrate, edema, and focal byaline membranes. In four cases, bowever, pulmonary features were significantly different and included diffuse alveolar damage and variable degrees of severe air space disorganization. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of bantaviral antigens in endothelial cells of the microvasculature, particularly in the lung. Hantaviral antigens were also observed within follicular dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Hantaviral inclusions were observed in endothelial cells of lungs by thinsection electron microscopy, and their identity was verified by immunogold labeling. Virus-like particles were seen in pulmonary endothelial cells and macropbages. HPS is a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  9. Comprehensive panel of real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and absolute quantification of filoviruses, arenaviruses, and New World hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Adrienne R; Wachter, Leslie; Garrison, Jeffrey; Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Jahrling, Jordan; Hensley, Lisa E; Schoepp, Randal J; Norwood, David A; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N; Kulesh, David A

    2010-05-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever is caused by a diverse group of single-stranded, negative-sense or positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the families Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg), Arenaviridae (Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Guanarito), and Bunyaviridae (hantavirus). Disease characteristics in these families mark each with the potential to be used as a biological threat agent. Because other diseases have similar clinical symptoms, specific laboratory diagnostic tests are necessary to provide the differential diagnosis during outbreaks and for instituting acceptable quarantine procedures. We designed 48 TaqMan-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for specific and absolute quantitative detection of multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses. Forty-six assays were determined to be virus-specific, and two were designated as pan assays for Marburg virus. The limit of detection for the assays ranged from 10 to 0.001 plaque-forming units (PFU)/PCR. Although these real-time hemorrhagic fever virus assays are qualitative (presence of target), they are also quantitative (measure a single DNA/RNA target sequence in an unknown sample and express the final results as an absolute value (e.g., viral load, PFUs, or copies/mL) on the basis of concentration of standard samples and can be used in viral load, vaccine, and antiviral drug studies.

  10. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  11. Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman café tienen un riesgo meno

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos mayores que tomaron café, con o sin cafeína, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron café, según un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Naciona

  12. Micosis fungoide e inhibidores del TNFα: ¿riesgo o beneficio?

    PubMed

    Maroñas-Jiménez, Lidia; Burillo-Martínez, Sara; Tous-Romero, Fátima; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Ortiz de Frutos, Javier; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The growing use of anti-TNF drugs during the last years has reopened the discussion about the possible increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with such type of treatments. We present our clinical experience and critical opinion about the current situation of such issue regarding cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.El creciente uso de fármacos anti-TNF durante los últimos años ha reabierto el debate sobre el posible aumento de riesgo de linfomas no Hodgkin en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamientos. Presentamos nuestra experiencia clínica y opinión critica sobre la situación actual de este tema en relación a los linfomas cutáneos de células T. PMID:27617528

  13. Micosis fungoide e inhibidores del TNFα: ¿riesgo o beneficio?

    PubMed

    Maroñas-Jiménez, Lidia; Burillo-Martínez, Sara; Tous-Romero, Fátima; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose Luis; Ortiz de Frutos, Javier; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo Luis

    2016-05-15

    The growing use of anti-TNF drugs during the last years has reopened the discussion about the possible increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with such type of treatments. We present our clinical experience and critical opinion about the current situation of such issue regarding cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.El creciente uso de fármacos anti-TNF durante los últimos años ha reabierto el debate sobre el posible aumento de riesgo de linfomas no Hodgkin en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamientos. Presentamos nuestra experiencia clínica y opinión critica sobre la situación actual de este tema en relación a los linfomas cutáneos de células T.

  14. Para-aortic lymphocyst.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, B F; Krebs, H B; Isikoff, M B; Poliakoff, S R; Averette, H E

    1980-10-15

    Although numerous articles regarding the etiology, incidence, complications, and management of pelvic lymphocysts have been published in the American literature since 1958, there has been no mention of para-aortic lymphocyst as a complication of para-aortic node dissection. Two recent cases of symptomatic para-aortic lymphocyst have prompted a review of our para-aortic node dissection technique when this procedure is not combined with a more extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy. Our modification in technique is to use retroperitoneal para-aortic drainage by constant pressure-controlled suction following closure of the posterior parietal peritoneum, and the results in our first 15 patients are presented. There were no complications related to the drainage technique. Abdominal ultrasound and intravenous urography have proved to be excellent diagnostic tools in the initial evaluation and subsequent follow-up of para-aortic lymphocytes.

  15. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  16. Complementos de vitamina E aumentan riesgo de cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    De acuerdo a una revisión ulterior de los datos del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer (SELECT), los hombres que tomaron diariamente 400 unidades internacionales (U.I.) de vitamina E tuvieron más cánceres de próstata que los hombr

  17. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  18. A hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) DNA vaccine delivered using a spring-powered jet injector elicits a potent neutralizing antibody response in rabbits and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Kwilas, Steve; Kishimori, Jennifer M; Josleyn, Matthew; Jerke, Kurt; Ballantyne, John; Royals, Michael; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause most of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in North and South America, respectively. The chances of a patient surviving HPS are only two in three. Previously, we demonstrated that SNV and ANDV DNA vaccines encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals, and (for ANDV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In those studies, the vaccines were delivered by gene gun or muscle electroporation. Here, we tested whether a combined SNV/ANDV DNA vaccine (HPS DNA vaccine) could be delivered effectively using a disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet, Inc). PharmaJet intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) needle-free devices are FDA 510(k)-cleared, simple to use, and do not require electricity or pressurized gas. First, we tested the SNV DNA vaccine delivered by PharmaJet IM or ID devices in rabbits and NHPs. Both IM and ID devices produced high-titer anti-SNV neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits and NHPs. However, the ID device required at least two vaccinations in NHP to detect neutralizing antibodies in most animals, whereas all animals vaccinated once with the IM device seroconverted. Because the IM device was more effective in NHP, the Stratis(®) (PharmaJet IM device) was selected for follow-up studies. We evaluated the HPS DNA vaccine delivered using Stratis(®) and found that it produced high-titer anti-SNV and anti-ANDV neutralizing antibodies in rabbits (n=8/group) as measured by a classic plaque reduction neutralization test and a new pseudovirion neutralization assay. We were interested in determining if the differences between DSJI delivery (e.g., high-velocity liquid penetration through tissue) and other methods of vaccine injection, such as needle/syringe, might result in a more immunogenic DNA vaccine. To accomplish this, we compared the HPS DNA vaccine delivered by DSJI versus needle/syringe in NHPs (n=8/group). We found

  19. Aunque cerca...sano: Una guia para prevencion de los riesgos de los pesticidas (Although Nearby...Healthy: A Guide for the Prevention of Pesticide Risks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Salvador

    Intended for Spanish-speaking farmworkers with children, this publication in comic book format tells these parents how they can protect their children from pesticide risks. On returning home from work, one farmworker couple does not hug their young children. When their behavior is questioned by neighbors, the mother explains that the fields were…

  20. [Arson and (para-) suicide].

    PubMed

    Lange, E; Kirsch, M

    1988-11-01

    There have been forensic-psychiatric observations from 1963 to 1983 concerning the offenders responsibility in case of deliberate arson with 12 out of 147 suits being closely related to (para-)suicide. According the variety of relations we distinguish between fire as pure means of suicide, fire used to take along the living space or people, suicide committed in consequence of arson, furthermore arson as a symbolic suicide, and finally acting alternately with both arson as well as parasuicide.

  1. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podría reducir el riesgo de cáncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podrían reducir el riesgo de cáncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  2. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Karin B; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20-25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS.

  3. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species.

  4. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Karin B; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20-25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS. PMID:26907493

  5. Selective amplification of cDNA sequence from total RNA by cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR): application to sequencing 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.

    PubMed

    Isegawa, Y; Sheng, J; Sokawa, Y; Yamanishi, K; Nakagomi, O; Ueda, S

    1992-12-01

    A method, referred to as cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been developed to permit selective and specific amplification of cDNA sequence from total cellular RNA. This technique comprises (i) digestion of cDNA with multiple restriction enzymes, (ii) ligation of cleavage products to double-stranded DNA cassettes possessing a corresponding restriction site and (iii) amplification of cassette-ligated restriction fragments containing a short, known sequence (but not all the other ligation products) by PCR using the specific and cassette primers; the specific primer is designed to prime synthesis from the known sequence of the cDNA whereas the cassette primer anneals to one strand of the cassette. Sequencing from the cassette primer provides information to design a new primer for the next walking step. The amplified cDNA fragments are often larger than the maximum DNA fragments (500-600 bp) that can be sequenced without the need of synthesizing internal sequencing primer. Each of such large cDNA fragments is dissected into smaller DNA fragments by repeating cassette-ligation mediated PCR exploiting different restriction sites and different sets of cassette primers. This dissection process reduces the number of specific primers to a minimum, thereby increasing the speed of sequencing and minimizing the overall cost. We have successfully applied this cDNA walking and sequencing by the cassette-ligation mediated PCR to the sequencing of an entire 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  7. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  8. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  9. Chemical properties of a para-benzyne.

    PubMed

    Amegayibor, F Sedinam; Nash, John J; Lee, Anna S; Thoen, Jason; Petzold, Christopher J; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2002-10-16

    5,8-Didehydroisoquinolinium ion, a para benzyne analogue, was generated in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, and its reactivity toward various neutral reagents was examined. A direct comparison of the reaction kinetics of the para benzyne, a meta isomer, and analogous monoradicals, indicates that the para benzyne is a poorer electrophile but a more reactive radical than its meta isomer.

  10. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  11. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  12. Successful management of para-aortic lymphocyst with laparoscopic fenestration.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Cortellini, P; Pavlidis, C; Simonazzi, M; Sebastio, N

    2000-04-01

    Para-aortic lymphocyst occasionally follows retroperitoneal para-aortic node dissection for neoplastic diseases. We present a case in which the leakage of chylous fluid and then a para-aortic lymphocyst followed right nephrectomy and para-aortic node dissection for kidney cancer. Our method of treatment utilized conservative management of chylous ascites and laparoscopic internal drainage of the retroperitoneal lymphocyst.

  13. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  14. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

  15. FDA aprueba la primera inmunoterapia para linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    La FDA ha aprobado nivolumab (Opdivo®) para el tratamiento de pacientes con el linfoma clásico de Hodgkin que ha recaído o empeorado después de recibir un trasplante autólogo hematopoyético seguido de brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

  16. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  17. Mini-mastoidectomía para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con sección parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la técnica de elección para la reparación de la parálisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La técnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y sección parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Método: La porción mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una línea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrás de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la línea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porción mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado óseo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento técnicamente más sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusión: Esta es una técnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatomía. PMID:23596555

  18. Ninos en Riesgo: Boletin Informativo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    An increasing number of children in the United States are exposed to toxic chemicals because methamphetamine laboratories are being operated in or near their homes. In addition, these children often are abused or neglected by the parents, guardians, or others who operate these laboratories. The number of children found at seized methamphetamine…

  19. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  20. Para Bombay phenotype--a case report.

    PubMed

    Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Sathyabhama, S

    1997-10-01

    Bombay phenotype is peculiar in that red cells are not agglutinated by antisera A, B or H; while serum contains anti A, B and H. Existence of modifying genes at independent loci with variable expression of ABO genes is postulated. We report here a case of partial suppression where antigens could be detected by elution tests and unlike classical Bombay type, normal amount of appropriate blood group substances were present in saliva. This case of para Bombay phenotype was detected as a result of discrepancy in cell and serum group ng. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse grouping in ABO testing.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  2. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  3. ParaView: Data Analysis and Visualization Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numerous

    2011-03-01

    ParaView is an open-source, multi-platform data analysis and visualization application. ParaView users can quickly build visualizations to analyze their data using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data exploration can be done interactively in 3D or programmatically using ParaView's batch processing capabilities. ParaView was developed to analyze extremely large datasets using distributed memory computing resources. It can be run on supercomputers to analyze datasets of terascale as well as on laptops for smaller data.

  4. ParaView for climate scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, A.

    2012-12-01

    ParaView is an immensely popular scientific visualization framework that provides a variety of tools necessary for scientific visualization especially dealing with large data that ultimately leads to better understanding of simulation and non simulation data. The Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), is a powerful and complete front-end to a rich set of visual-data exploration and analysis capabilities well suited for climate-data analysis problems. This talk describes integration of Paraview within UV-CDAT framework by leveraging python interface of Paraview and various new features added to uvcdat and Paraview specifically targeting climate data such as new readers, filters and parallel spatiotemporal capabilities.

  5. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  6. Para-Kähler-Einstein structures on Walker 4-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iscan, Murat; Caglar, Gulnur

    2016-11-01

    A 4-dimensional Walker manifold (M4,g,D) is a semi-Riemannian manifold (M4,g) of signature (++--) (or neutral), which admits a field of null 2-plane. The goal of this paper is to study certain almost paracomplex structures φ on 4-dimensional Walker manifolds. We discuss when these structures are integrable and when the para-Kähler forms are symplectic. We show that such a Walker 4-manifold can carry a class of indefinite para-Kähler-Einstein 4-manifolds, examples of indefinite para-Kähler 4-manifolds, and also almost indefinite para-Hermitian-Einstein 4-manifold. Finally, we give a counterexample for the almost para-Hemitian version of Goldberg conjecture.

  7. Prevención del cáncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  8. Construction of a Para-Ortho Hydrogen Test Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, J.; Haberstroh, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In a prospective hydrogen economy it is necessary to verify the para concentration of the employed hydrogen. In case of a short storage time of about a few days only it has been shown that a partial conversion into para-hydrogen gives an optimized overall efficiency. Hence, an easy and reliable method of measuring the para-hydrogen concentration is needed. In this paper, the concept and construction of a small test cryostat are described and first results are presented. The measuring principle is based on a catalytic induced adiabatic ortho-para conversion of a hydrogen gas flow starting from a known temperature. The operation of the system only requires a certain amount of liquid nitrogen as coolant. To determine the concentration of para-hydrogen it is only necessary to measure the temperature of the gas before and after the adiabatic catalyst cell. The measuring cryostat is used for further investigation of the spontaneous para-ortho conversion in the supercritical state. In addition, the design of the cryostat allows the investigation of different catalyst materials regarding the catalytic activity and possible degradation by using a known para concentration for the measurement.

  9. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed.

  10. [Genotyping of ABO loci in para-Bombay type individuals].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian-Qiang; Luo, Guang-Ping

    2004-08-01

    To study the molecular genetic basis of ABO alleles in para-Bombay type individuals, samples from five para-Bombay type individuals identified by serologic tests including absorption-elution tests, saliva neutralizing or inhibitor substances tests, were genotyped by using PCR-SSP based ABO genotyping. Exon 6 and exon 7 at the ABO locus for all 5 samples were sequenced. The results showed that the ABO genotypes of five para-Bombay samples were A102B1, A102B1, A102O1, A102B1, B1O1 respectively, the direct DNA sequencing results were in accordance with the results genotyped by PCR-SSP method, No novel nucleotide mutation was found at the exon 6 and exon 7 of ABO gene. In conclusion, the ABO genotyping assay by PCR-SSP provide a simple, rapid and accurate method for determining the ABO type of para-Bombay cases.

  11. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  12. Parallel unstructured volume rendering in ParaView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreland, Kenneth; Avila, Lisa; Fisk, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    ParaView is a popular open-source general-purpose scientific visualization application. One of the many visualization tools available within ParaView is the volume rendering of unstructured meshes. Volume rendering is a technique that renders a mesh as a translucent solid, thereby allowing the user to see every point in three-dimensional space simultaneously. Because volume rendering is computationally intensive, ParaView now employs a unique parallel rendering algorithm to speed the processes. The parallel rendering algorithm is very flexible. It works equally well for both volumes and surfaces, and can properly render the intersection of a volume and opaque polygonal surfaces. The parallel rendering algorithm can also render images for tiled displays. In this paper, we explore the implementation of parallel unstructured volume rendering in ParaView.

  13. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, Barney J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions.

  14. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  15. Prevención del cáncer de ovario (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de información revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar cáncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir los mismos.

  16. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  17. Hormonal deficiencies during and after Puumala hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, S; Jaatinen, P; Miettinen, M; Salmi, J; Ala-Houhala, I; Huhtala, H; Hurme, M; Pörsti, I; Vaheri, A; Mustonen, J

    2010-06-01

    Previous reports have described panhypopituitarism associated with severe cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), but the prevalence of hormonal deficiencies after nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of HFRS, has not been studied. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of hormonal defects in patients with acute NE and during long-term follow-up. Fifty-four patients with serologically confirmed acute NE were examined by serum hormonal measurements during the acute NE, after 3 months, and after 1 to 10 (median 5) years. Thirty out of 54 (56%) patients had abnormalities of the gonadal and/or thyroid axis during the acute NE. After a median follow-up of 5 years, 9 (17%) patients were diagnosed with a chronic, overt hormonal deficit: hypopituitarism was found in five patients and primary hypothyroidism in five patients. In addition, chronic subclinical testicular failure was found in five men. High creatinine levels and inflammatory markers during NE were associated with the acute central hormone deficiencies, but not with the chronic deficiencies. Hormonal defects are common during acute NE and, surprisingly, many patients develop chronic hormonal deficiencies after NE. The occurrence of long-term hormonal defects cannot be predicted by the severity of acute NE. PMID:20397036

  18. Synthesis and conformational analysis of macrocyclic dihydroxystilbenes linked between the para-para positions.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Carmen; López, Vilmarí; Medarde, Manuel; Peláez, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A new family of diphenylethanes has been synthesized as conformationally restricted analogues of antimitotic combretastatins. The two phenyl rings are linked between the para-phenolic positions through a 3-oxapentamethylene or hexamethylene chain. The key macrocyclization step was achieved in moderate yields by using an intramolecular McMurry pinacol coupling of linked aromatic dialdehydes, except for the nitro-substituted compounds. The relative stereochemistry of the isomeric pinacols was determined by a combination of spectroscopic, chemical derivatization, and molecular-modeling approaches. The NMR spectra of these compounds (with a polyoxygenated crownophane skeleton) indicate severe conformational restrictions relative to their parent combretastatins; the rotation of the phenyl rings is hampered by interactions of their substituents and the linker and the conformational restrictions imposed by the substituted bridge.

  19. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  20. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  1. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

  2. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  3. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  4. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  5. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  7. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Para-alkyl-substituted phenylcyclopropanes in reaction with dinitrogen tetroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, M.M.; Geiderikh, A.V.; Mochalov, S.S.; Shabarov, Yu.S.

    1988-11-10

    The reaction of para-alkyl-substituted phenylcyclopropanes with dinitrogen tetroxide was studied. In solvents with various polarities at /minus/30/degree/C dinitrogen tetroxide only reacts with the three-carbon ring. Here the initially formed adducts are only stable at low temperatures; with increase in temperature they are converted into p-alkylcinnamaldehydes and 5-(p-alkylphenyl)isoxazolines.

  10. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  11. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  12. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  15. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-07-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  16. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  17. Cabozantinib y lenvatinib para cáncer renal

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog del NCI sobre la aprobación reciente de la FDA de cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) y de lenvatinib (Lenvima®) para el tratamiento de pacientes cuyo cáncer avanzado de riñón ha evolucionado después de tratamiento con terapias antiangiogénicas.

  18. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  19. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  20. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…