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Sample records for riesgo para mastitis

  1. Mastitis

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Mastitis By Mayo Clinic Staff Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that results in breast pain, swelling, warmth ... redness. You also might have fever and chills. Mastitis most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding ( ...

  2. Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores de la EPA es parte de una estrategia de la evaluación de los riesgos que presentan los pesticidas para las abejas a fin de mejorar la protección de los polinizadores.

  3. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  4. La EPA propone normas más rigurosas para las personas que aplican los plaguicidas de más alto riesgo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  5. Environmental mastitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, K L; Hogan, J S

    1993-11-01

    Environmental mastitis affects all dairy farms and generally is the major mastitis problem on modern, well managed dairy farms. Control measures effective against contagious pathogens are of little value in controlling of environmental pathogens. Control of environmental mastitis is achieved by reducing exposure of teat ends to environmental pathogens and by maximizing the resistance of the cow to intramammary infection. Significant sources of environmental pathogens are organic bedding materials, manure covered alleyways, and wet or damp areas in barns, exercise lots, or pastures. Milking time hygiene can influence teat-end exposure. In general, exposure is minimized when all areas of the environment are clean, cool, and dry. Resistance is maximized by providing a stress-free environment that minimizes teat-end injury, and by feeding balanced diets sufficient in vitamin E and selenium. Antibiotic therapy during lactation or the dry period is of little value in the control of environmental mastitis in dairy herds, with the exception of preventing environmental streptococcal infection during the early dry period. Effective vaccines may help reduce the impact of environmental mastitis in the near future.

  6. [Nonpuerperal mastitis].

    PubMed

    Pohl, C; Decker, K; Schindler, A E

    1985-05-01

    The medical history of 37 women with nonpuerperal mastitis, who had been treated between January 1980 and July 1983 at the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Tübingen, was reviewed because of the increasing prevalence of this disease. Defined by different history and clinical symptoms, two groups of patients were seen: 25 women with acute nonpuerperal mastitis and 12 women with chronic recurring nonpuerperal mastitis. The average age of the patients was 30 years. The inflammation was located mostly subareolar and around the nipple. The main symptoms were pain, erythema and swelling, in acute cases accompanied by fever and abscess formation. This process was strongly related to the interval between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment. Anaerobes and Staphylococcus aureus could be cultured mainly from women with acute nonpuerperal mastitis. In females with chronic recurrent mastitis, mostly anaerobes were found. Women were treated with a prolactin inhibitor (bromocriptine), if abscess formation, leukocytosis or fever were absent. In patients with leukocytosis and/or fever this regimen was combined with antibiotics. Abscesses were treated surgically, in some cases in combination with prolactin inhibition and antibiotic administration. The results show that an early conservative treatment is important to prevent abscess formation. It seems that this treatment can reduce the rate of recurrences.

  7. Lupus mastitis.

    PubMed

    Cerveira, Isabel; Costa Matos, L; Garrido, António; Oliveira, Elda; Solheiro, Helena; Bastos, Marina; Cortez Vaz, F; Nogueira Martins, F

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of a 28-year-old female with the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) referred to our breast pathology consultancy in 2002 due to a left breast nodule. Further investigation revealed bilateral coarse calcifications. Biopsy was consistent with a diagnosis of lupus mastitis.

  8. Changing trends in mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The global dairy industry, the predominant pathogens causing mastitis, our understanding of mastitis pathogens and the host response to intramammary infection are changing rapidly. This paper aims to discuss changes in each of these aspects. Globalisation, energy demands, human population growth and climate change all affect the dairy industry. In many western countries, control programs for contagious mastitis have been in place for decades, resulting in a decrease in occurrence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and an increase in the relative impact of Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli mastitis. In some countries, Klebsiella spp. or Streptococcus dysgalactiae are appearing as important causes of mastitis. Differences between countries in legislation, veterinary and laboratory services and farmers' management practices affect the distribution and impact of mastitis pathogens. For pathogens that have traditionally been categorised as contagious, strain adaptation to human and bovine hosts has been recognised. For pathogens that are often categorised as environmental, strains causing transient and chronic infections are distinguished. The genetic basis underlying host adaptation and mechanisms of infection is being unravelled. Genomic information on pathogens and their hosts and improved knowledge of the host's innate and acquired immune responses to intramammary infections provide opportunities to expand our understanding of bovine mastitis. These developments will undoubtedly contribute to novel approaches to mastitis diagnostics and control. PMID:22082032

  9. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  10. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed Central

    Going, J J; Anderson, T J; Wilkinson, S; Chetty, U

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a strong tendency for persistence or recurrence. Our cases of granulomatous mastitis all occurred in parous women, five of them within three years of pregnancy. Awareness of this condition is important, because surgery does not offer the best treatment of recurrent disease, and trials of adequate drug treatment, including corticosteroids, are required. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:3584506

  11. Sonographic Elastography of Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Sousaris, Nicholas; Barr, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Sonographic elastography has been shown to be a useful imaging modality in characterizing breast lesions as benign or malignant. However, in preliminary research, mastitis has given false-positive findings on both strain and shear wave elastography. In this article, we review the findings in mastitis with and without abscess formation on both strain and shear wave elastography. The elastographic findings in all cases were suggestive of a malignancy according to published thresholds. In cases of mastitis with abscess formation, there is a characteristic appearance, with a central very soft area (abscess cavity) and a very stiff outer rim (edema and inflammation). This appearance should raise the suspicion of mastitis with abscess formation, since these findings are rare in breast cancers.

  12. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  13. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  14. Vaccination strategies for mastitis.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J

    2012-07-01

    Presently, the most successful use of vaccination strategies as part of a dairy herd mastitis control program involves GNCABs, of which the J-5 bacterins are best understood. Immunization protocols employing this technology should be adapted to individual herd needs. Ironically, the success of these bacterins may rely, in part, on the systemic pathogensis of severe coliform mastitis. Because immune function is impaired in the mammary gland of a lactating dairy cow, and the difficulty in maintaining effective concentrations of antibodies in milk following vaccination, vaccines developed against pathogens that cause more chronic IMI, while promising, have significant obstacles to overcome.

  15. Sporadic (nonepidemic) puerperal mastitis.

    PubMed

    Niebyl, J R; Spence, M R; Parmley, T H

    1978-02-01

    Sporadic puerperal mastitis is an acute cellulitis, characterized by fever and segmental erythema in the breast. Staphylococcus aureus can be cultured in approximately one-half of the cases. With early antibiotic therapy, the infection can be cleared and abscess formation prevented. Breast engorgement may also contribute to abscess formation, and so nursing should not be discontinued. No ill effects are observed in infants who continue to nurse. Twenty women with acute puerperal mastitis had breast milk cultures, and Staphylococcus aureus was recovered in seven cases. All patients were treated with antibiotics and continued nursing. No abscesses developed, and no ill effects were observed in any infants.

  16. Feline gangrenous mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Courtney R

    2013-03-01

    A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey.

  17. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials. PMID:22081939

  18. STUDIES IN BOVINE MASTITIS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, F. S.

    1918-01-01

    Aside from the streptococci, micrococci have been the next most frequent group of organisms isolated from inflamed udders. They produce various types of disease. Some give rise to only a mild catarrh of the larger milk ducts and cystern, while others produce more or less severe parenchymatous inflammation. On the whole, the prognosis is more favorable with micrococcic infection than with that associated with streptococci. Cases of considerable severity have, however, been attributed to staphylococci. Micrococci similar in many respects to those associated with mastitis have been found to occur in the normal udder. This has led Savage to question their true etiological significance. In many instances micrococci may gain access to the udder and produce slight disturbances that are entirely overlooked. Even more severe changes may follow infection. After recovery the organisms still remain in the milk. This was observed in the case of Cow 60 infected with staphylococci. One frequently observes the elimination of streptococci from the udder even after apparent recovery from an attack of streptococcic mastitis. Doubtless streptococci and micrococci observed in these udders would be classed as belonging to the normal flora. Even though micrococci do occur in supposedly normal udders Evans has shown that many are pathogenic for rabbits. The introduction of these organisms into the udders of non-resistant individuals might well give rise to more or less intense inflammation. The multiplication would doubtless be rapid until resistance had been established. In addition to the micrococci two other groups of rod-shaped organisms have been found associated with udder inflammation. In two instances Bacillus coli has been isolated from cases of mastitis and in another Bacillus lactis aerogenes. In four, tiny motile Gramstaining microorganisms have been obtained in pure culture. Two of these strains (Nos. C.79 and M.44) have been identified as Bacillus pyogenes. PMID:19868290

  19. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  20. Antepartum Mastitis: A Rare Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sushma; Patil, Varsha Anant; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Shah, Dipti Parag

    2015-08-01

    Puerperal or lactational mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast that is commonly encountered in breastfeeding mothers. It occurs most commonly in the postpartum period, generally in the first 6 weeks of breastfeeding. In contrast, antepartum mastitis is an uncommon condition, and if not treated adequately, it may be complicated by the formation of a breast abscess. The authors present a case of a 24-year-old, second gravida mother who developed unilateral antepartum mastitis with abscess formation at 34 weeks of gestation, which was initially treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. However, her symptoms persisted over the next 2 weeks, and she was referred to the authors' institution, where she was managed with antibiotics and surgical drainage after delivering a healthy near-term infant. The abscesses healed completely 2 months later, with sequelae of residual scarring and a nonprotractile nipple. The authors wish to emphasize that health care providers should be aware of the occurrence of mastitis in the antepartum period. Early recognition with adequate treatment of mastitis is the key to avoiding complications, and this will prevent lactation issues and also reduce morbidity in the mother and neonate.

  1. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population.

  2. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  3. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep.

  4. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  5. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  6. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: rare but important.

    PubMed

    Hwang, M J; Rogers, A; Vidya, R

    2010-09-13

    A 61-year-old woman attended the breast clinic with unresolving mastitis and an associated mass, following failed treatment with antibiotics. Triple assessment confirmed idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Unresponsive to further conservative management and steroid therapy, she underwent surgical excision and made uneventful recovery. No evidence of recurrence was detected at 18 months follow-up.

  7. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  8. Granulomatous lobular mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Armin

    2016-12-16

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few weeks later she deteriorated and was found to have multiple breast abscesses. She underwent operative drainage and cultures grew Mycobacterium fortuitum. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. The definitive diagnose entails a biopsy. Other causes of chronic or granulomatous mastitis should be ruled out, including atypical or rare bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum. This is the first reported case of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum. With pathologic confirmation of granulomatous mastitis, an infectious etiology must be ruled out. Atypical bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum may not readily grow on cultures, as with our case. Medical management is appropriate, with surgical excision reserved for refractory cases or for drainage of abscesses.

  9. Granulomatous lobular mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Kamyab, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few weeks later she deteriorated and was found to have multiple breast abscesses. She underwent operative drainage and cultures grew Mycobacterium fortuitum. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. The definitive diagnose entails a biopsy. Other causes of chronic or granulomatous mastitis should be ruled out, including atypical or rare bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum. This is the first reported case of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum. With pathologic confirmation of granulomatous mastitis, an infectious etiology must be ruled out. Atypical bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum may not readily grow on cultures, as with our case. Medical management is appropriate, with surgical excision reserved for refractory cases or for drainage of abscesses. PMID:28035314

  10. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  11. Bilateral eosinophilic mastitis: an uncommon unheard entity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aminder; Kaur, Pavneet; Sood, Neena; Puri, Harpreet; Garg, Bhavna

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting a case of bilateral eosinophilic mastitis which is rare and hardly heard. It is a mimicker of carcinoma breast both clinically & radiologically. A 30 years old non diabetic female presented with bilateral breast lumps with history of rhinitis off & on and peripheral eosinophilia. Mammography was suspicious while ultrasonography was diagnostic of bilateral mastitis. Aspiration cytology exhibited inflammatory lesion rich in eosinophils. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of eosinophilic mastitis. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia and bilateralism is even rarer.

  12. Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, H; Huijps, K; Lam, T J G M

    2011-01-01

    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other

  13. Managing mastitis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Mastitis is a common clinical condition and, although not exclusive to lactating mothers, most patients with the condition seen by clinical staff fall into this group. Between 3 and 33 per cent of lactating mothers experience an episode of mastitis (Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine 2008, Jahanfar et al 2009). Most of these mothers receive treatment from their midwives or GPs, but some attend EDs and require treatment for, and education about, the condition from emergency care staff, including nurse practitioners (NPs). This article describes mastitis and the various treatment measures, and aims to improve NPs' ability and confidence in recognising and treating the condition.

  14. Tubercular mastitis - a great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Gon, Sonia; Bhattacharyya, Aditi; Majumdar, Bipasa; Kundu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a "great masquerader" in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quality consequences, and control, prevention, and therapy were included. Streptococcus agalactiae is an oblique parasite of the bovine mammary gland and is susceptible to treatment with a variety of antibiotics. Despite this fact, where state or provincial census data are available, herd prevalence levels range from 11% (Alberta, 1991) to 47% (Vermont, 1985). Infection with S. agalactiae is associated with elevated somatic cell count and total bacteria count and a decrease in the quantity and quality of milk products produced. Bulk tank milk culture has, using traditional milk culture techniques, had a low sensitivity for identifying S. agalactiae at the herd level. New culture methods, using selective media and large inocula, have substantially improved the sensitivity of bulk tank culture. Efficacy of therapy on individual cows remains high. Protocols for therapy of all infected animals in a herd are generally successful in eradicating the pathogen from the herd, especially if they are followed up with good udder hygiene techniques. PMID:9220132

  16. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  17. Interventions for preventing mastitis after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Crepinsek, Maree A; Crowe, Linda; Michener, Keryl; Smart, Neil A

    2012-10-17

    Despite the health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation and duration rates continue to fall short of international guidelines. Many factors influence a woman's decision to wean; the main reason cited for weaning is associated with lactation complications, such as mastitis. To assess the effects of preventive strategies for mastitis and the subsequent effect on breastfeeding duration. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 August 2012). We included randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing mastitis in postpartum breastfeeding women. We independently identified relevant studies and assessed the trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data and information as appropriate. We included five trials (involving 960 women). In three trials of 471 women, we found no significant differences in the incidence of mastitis between use of antibiotics and no antibiotics (risk ratio (RR) 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 1.61; or in one trial of 99 women comparing two doses (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.02 to 9.18). We found no significant differences for mastitis in three trials of specialist breastfeeding education with usual care (one trial); anti-secretory factor cereal (one trial); and mupirocin, fusidic acid ointment or breastfeeding advice (one trial).Generally we found no differences in any of the trials for breastfeeding initiation or duration; or symptoms of mastitis. There was insufficient evidence to show effectiveness of any of the interventions, including breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies, regarding the occurrence of mastitis or breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. While studies reported the incidence of mastitis, they all used different interventions. Caution needs to be applied when considering the findings of this review as the conclusion is based on studies, often with small sample sizes. An urgent need for further adequately powered research is

  18. Occurrence and reoccurrence of clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Morse, D; DeLorenzo, M A; Wilcox, C J; Natzke, R P; Bray, D R

    1987-10-01

    Clinical mastitis records for 6.5 yr (July 1977 through November 1983) from a large north Florida dairy were analyzed. Observed frequencies of clinical mastitis were calculated in 7240 Holstein and Jersey lactations. Least squares analyses used Holstein and Jersey lactations greater than 200 d and limited maximum parity to 5 (6732 lactations, 5738 episodes). Solutions for number of occurrences of clinical mastitis adjusted for month of parturition and breed effects were .47, .59, .94, 1.27, and 1.50 for parities 1 through 5. Solutions for number of occurrences across lactation in Holsteins was greater than for Jerseys (1.28 vs. .63). Solutions for occurrence of first episode in Holsteins increased from .35 in parity 1 to .71 in parity 5. Occurrence of episodes two through five increased as parity increased. Similar trends were found in Jerseys with the exception of parity 2. Correlation of residuals between specific episodes increased as episode increased. From episode 2 through 5 probability of another occurrence of clinical mastitis was greater than .75. Solutions for proportion of occurrences of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 35 d postcalving were .60, .36, .31, .30, and .28 for parities 1 through 5. Clinical mastitis in first parity cows occurred primarily during the first 35 d postcalving.

  19. Evaluation of automatic mastitis detection equipment.

    PubMed

    Gebre-Egziabher, A; Wood, H C; Robar, J D; Blankenagel, G

    1979-07-01

    An electronic sensor was evaluated as an instrument for early detection of mastitis. This method involved measuring the conductivity of milk continuously throughout the milking process and then establishing a conductivity ratio. The lowest conductivity measurement of the four quarters was a basis for assessing the degree of mastitis in the other quarters. This assumed that at least one of the quarters was normal at examination and the lowest reading was normal conductivity. The conductivity ratio was evaluated by comparison with the leukocyte concentration and combined leukocyte concentrations and cultural examiniations of milk samples from 1028 quarters. In healthy cows conductivities of milk from each of the quarters were similar. If, however, one or more quarters were infected, this milk showed higher conductivity compared to the noninfected quarter of the same cow. The conductivity ratio correctly identified 69% of the established cases of mastitis. For the Wisconsin Mastitis Test, 93.2% of the normal quarters were detected correctly by the conductivity ratio. Leukocyte counts were frequently high when there was no other evidence of mastitis. We believe the conductivity ratio is effective in detecting mastitis at an early stage of infection caused by most of the pathogenic microorganisms.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  1. Recurrent periductal mastitis: Surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Taffurelli, Mario; Pellegrini, Alice; Santini, Donatella; Zanotti, Simone; Di Simone, Domenico; Serra, Margherita

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent periductal mastitis is a benign breast disorder that often features a mammary fistula that runs between periareolar skin and the ductal mammary system. Due to the high recurrence rate of this disease, its management is controversial. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of fistulectomy (Hadfield operation), particularly with regard to its long-term outcome. We reviewed all women with recurrent periductal mastitis who underwent the Hadfield operation in the Breast Center in S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital (Bologna University) from 2005 to 2015. All but one of the patients were heavy smokers and presented with a recurrent periareolar abscess and a periareolar mammary fistula. Eighteen women underwent the Hadfield surgical treatment. Mean age at the time of presentation was 42 years; 17 of 18 women smoked >10 cigarettes/d. All patients had a breast ultrasonography or mammography. Half of the patients had undergone antibiotic therapy with one or more prior abscess drainages or another form of operative treatment. All patients who underwent operative treatment had no postoperative events and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Squamous metaplasia was always present in the specimens. After a median follow-up of 36 months, 2 patients developed a recurrence after a few months; neither had stopped smoking. Based on our review of the literature and taking into account the results of this study, it seems clear that the best treatment involves a combined total excision of the affected duct and the fistulous tract. Due to the important role of smoking in this disease, it is important to encourage patients to stop smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Alungal, J; Abdulla, M C; Narayan, R

    2016-09-09

    A 25 year-old woman presented with a painful mass in the left breast, polyarthritis and erythema nodosum. Fine needle aspiration cytology led to a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis. Oral prednisolone rapidly improved the arthritis and the erythema nodosum. Granulomatous mastitis is a very rare, chronic inflammatory disease and only ten patients with granulomatous mastitis with erythema nodosum and polyarthitis have been described.

  3. Acinetobacter baumannii neonatal mastitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Emma L; Berhane, Abeba; Zora, John Gregory; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2014-09-25

    Neonatal mastitis is a rare infection. When it does occur, infants younger than 2 months of age are typically affected and the majority of cases are caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We present the first reported case of neonatal mastitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, an unusual organism for this type of infection. A 15-day-old full-term Caucasian male neonate presented to our emergency room following fever at home and was admitted for routine neonatal sepsis evaluation. After admission, he developed purulent drainage from his right nipple, was diagnosed with mastitis, and was started on empiric therapy with clindamycin and cefotaxime with presumed coverage for S. aureus. Drainage culture identified pan-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii/haemolyticus and antibiotic therapy was changed to ceftazidime. He was discharged after 5 days of ceftazidime with complete resolution of his symptoms. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining drainage cultures in mastitis cases because of the possibility of organisms besides S. aureus causing infection. Acinetobacter baumannii is considered part of the normal human flora and is associated with serious infections in intensive care units. This is the first case report describing Acinetobacter baumannii as an etiologic agent of neonatal mastitis and highlights the importance of including unusual organisms in the differential for infectious etiologies for general practitioners.

  4. Mycoplasma mastitis: causes, transmission, and control.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lawrence K

    2012-07-01

    Mycoplasma mastitis is an emerging mastitis pathogen. Herd prevalence has increased over the past decade, and this increase parallels the increase in average dairy herd size. It has been documented that the importation of cattle into a herd can result in new cases of Mycoplasma disease in general and Mycoplasma mastitis specifically. Thus, expanding herds are likely to have a greater incidence of this disease. Transmission of the agent can result from either contact with diseased animals or with colonized or asymptomatically infected cattle. Initial transmission might occur via nose-to-nose contact and result in an outbreak of Mycoplasma mastitis, or it might occur during the milking time. This would suggest that new, incoming animals should be quarantined before being comingled with original herd animals. Quarantining does not seem to be a biosecurity strategy often practiced in control of Mycoplasma mastitis and may not be warranted in herds with excellent milking time hygiene practices. The ability to monitor for the incipient stages of an outbreak, often done through bulk tank milk culturing, is recommended.

  5. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S

    2008-07-01

    Transition from the dry period to lactation is a high risk period for the modern dairy cow. The biggest challenge at that time is mastitis. Environmental bacteria are the most problematic pathogens around parturition. Coliforms are able to cause severe infections in multiparous cows, and heifers are likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci. During the periparturient period, hormonal and other factors make the dairy cows more or less immunocompromised. A successful mastitis control programme is focused on the management of dry and calving cows and heifers. Clean and comfortable environment, proper feeding and adequate supplementation of the diet with vitamins and trace elements are essential for maintaining good udder health. Strategies which would enhance closure of the teat canal in the beginning of the dry period and would protect teat end from bacteria until the keratin plug has formed decrease the risk for mastitis after calving. Dry cow therapy has been used with considerable success. Yet, a selective approach could be recommended rather than blanket therapy. Non-antibiotic approaches can be useful tools to prevent new infections during the dry period, in herds where the risk for environmental mastitis is high. Vaccination has been suggested as a means to support the immune defence of the dairy cow around parturition. In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving.

  6. Mastitis effects on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A; Kumaresan, A; Jeyakumar, S; Sreela, L; Mooventhan, P; Sivaram, M

    2017-04-01

    The reproductive performance of dairy animals is influenced by several factors, and accumulating lines of evidence indicate that mastitis is one of the determinants. Most of the published information relating mastitis with reproduction has evolved based on retrospective approach rather than controlled clinical studies. The complex nature of both mastitis and reproduction could be a limiting factor for understanding their relationship in detail. In this review, we analyzed the available retrospective studies on the effects of clinical mastitis on reproductive function and explained the possible mechanisms by which mastitis affects reproduction in dairy animals.

  7. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    PubMed Central

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  8. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  9. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes.

  10. Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Hazlett, M J; Little, P B; Maxie, M G; Barnum, D A

    1984-01-01

    The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform mastitis, the most commonly identified type of fatal mastitis, was characterized histologically by the presence of infarcted areas in affected glands and by the lack of demonstrable bacteria, and was thus easily identified from fatal mastitis caused by S. aureus. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6722641

  11. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  12. [Subclinical mastitis in sheep milked mechanically].

    PubMed

    Vitkov, M

    1979-01-01

    Studied were the occurrence and the etiologic structure of subclinical mastitis of ewes with which mechanical milking was practiced. It was found that as many as 21,9 per cent of the animals responded positively after the Bernburg test. Eight per cent out of the 875 ewes studied were affected with subclinical mastitis. Etiologically, Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis were found to take part in the incidence of the disease. Predisposing factors contributing to the outbreak of this type of mastitis were the traumatic injuries of the udder due to the so-called blind milking and the individual deviations in the morphology of the mammary gland. Secretory troubles were found in 11.7 per cent of the sheep.

  13. Lupus mastitis - peculiar radiological and pathological features

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Fatani, Mohamed I; Shakour, Bothaina Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Lupus mastitis is a form of lupus profundus that is seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. It usually presents as a swelling (or swellings) in the breasts, with or without pain. The condition is recurrent and progresses along with the underlying disease, with fat necrosis, calcification, fibrosis, scarring, and breast atrophy. Lupus mastitis is often confused with malignancy and lymphoma and, in our part of the world, with tuberculosis. Confusion is especially likely when it occurs in an unusual clinical setting. In this article, we present a case that presented with unique radiological, pathological, and clinical features. Awareness of the various manifestations of lupus mastitis is essential if unnecessary interventions such as biopsies and surgeries, and their consequences, are to be avoided. PMID:19881078

  14. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  15. Atypical staphylococcal mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Thawley, D G; Marshall, R B; Cullinane, L; Markham, J

    1977-09-01

    A herd of cattle with a history of increased prevalence of clinical and nonclinical mastitis was investigated. Bacteriologic analysis of milk samples indicated approximately 50% of the herd was producing milk containing coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of these staphylococcal isolates, 55% had characteristics consistent with those of human strains of staphylococci, based on hemolysin production and phage patterns. Human beings in contact with the herd were nasal carriers of these staphylococci, which produced a granulartype coagulase reaction in bovine plasma, rather than the usually expected clot-type reaction. In the herd, the staphylococci caused mainly nonclinical mastitis, which was largely unresponsive to antibiotic therapy.

  16. Unusual Case of Bilateral Tubercular Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Archit; Gupta, Mudita; Gupta, Jagdish

    2017-06-22

    Bilateral involvement of the breast with tuberculosis is extremely rare. It most commonly affects young lactating multiparous females, although rarely it may be reported in prepubescent males also. We present a case of a 27-year-old nulliparous female who presented with a history of multiple pus discharging sinuses around both areolae and was diagnosed as a case of bilateral tubercular mastitis. Tubercular mastitis being a paucibacillary disease, diagnosis is often difficult. Treatment consists of antitubercular therapy with or without surgery.​.

  17. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases for Control of Mastitis Pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine mastitis results in annual losses between $1.7 billion and $2 billion in the United States alone. Among the most relevant causative agents of this disease are Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B; GBS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Group C; GCS) streptococci as well as Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  18. Identification of Prototheca zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, F; Kanani, A; Falahati, M; Fateh, R; Salimi-Asl, M; Saemi, N; Farahyar, Sh; Kheirabad, A Kargar; Nazeri, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR. Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07%) were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp) was detected in four isolates. Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well. PMID:23113230

  19. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates were genetically characterized. The algae are part of Prototheca isolates that were collected during a 6-year period, isolated from the milk of 41 dairy cows in a total of 22 herds with a history of increasing somatic cell counts, mild clinical signs of udder infection, and unsuccessful response to the usual therapy. PCR amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), amplified rDNA restriction analysis, and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rDNA sequences were performed. Thirty-seven isolates were identified as P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea and four as Prototheca blaschkeae. These data suggest a high incidence of P. zopfii var. hydrocarbonea mastitis in the region and demonstrate for the first time the involvement of P. blaschkeae with bovine mammary gland infections. PMID:18434557

  20. Corticosteroid and Azithromycin in Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Salehi, Maryam; Kalbasi, Nader; Hakamifard, Atousa; Salehi, Hassan; Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi; Sharifian, Jalil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial research carried out in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2013 on granulomatous mastitis patients. It was administered 250 mg of Azithromycin per 12 hour and 60 mg of Prednisolone per day within 2 weeks. Next, they took 40 mg/day within 8 weeks, and this dosage was tapered during 6 months and the patients clinically and radiologically followed up. The studied patients were examined within 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, from the beginning of treatment. Results: This study investigated granulomatous mastitis patients in Alzahra hospital in 2013. The mean age of these patients was 33.6 ± 8.9, and their age range was 18–56 years old. Among 26 studied patients, 24 persons (92.3%) according to follow-up the patients by physical examination and sonography responded to treatment of corticosteroid and Azithromycin. The remaining (7.7%) underwent surgery. Treatment periods in case of drug use were respectively, 8.5 ± 0.71 months. Conclusion: Treatment with corticosteroid and Azithromycin is an effective and appropriate treatment for IGM. PMID:28217653

  1. Production effects related to mastitis and mastitis economics in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Henri; Fourichon, Christine; Beaudeau, François

    2003-01-01

    Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds world-wide and is responsible for several production effects. Milk yield and composition can be affected by a more or less severe short-term depression and, in case of no cure, by a long-acting effect, and, sometimes, an overlapping effect to the next lactation. Summary values in the literature for losses of milk production were proposed at 375 kg for a clinical case (5% at the lactation level) and at 0.5 kg per 2-fold increase of crude SCC of a cow. Due to the withdrawal period after treatment, composition changes in milk can almost be neglected in economic calculations. Lethality rate for clinical mastitis is very low on the average, while anticipated culling occurs more frequently after clinical and subclinical mastitis (relative risk between 1.5 and 5.0). The economics of mastitis needs to be addressed at the farm level and, per se, depends on local and regional epidemiological, managerial and economic conditions. To assess the direct economic impact of mastitis, costs (i.e. extra resource use) and losses (i.e. reduced revenues) have to be aggregated. To support decision making for udder health control, it is necessary to use a marginal approach, based on the comparison of the losses avoided and the additional costs of modified plans, compared to the existing ones.

  2. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Seetharam; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Dave, Aniket; Pai, Deepti

    2017-01-01

    To study idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with respect to its various clinical features, etiologic factors, treatment modalities and complications. Retrospective study of all patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis from 1(st) January 2006 to 31(st) December 2014 at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India (a tertiary care referral centre). The research was performed according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was taken from the patient before invasive procedures including surgery. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 wherever appropriate. 73 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis during the time period were included. One patient was a male (1.37%), rest were all females (98.63%). The mean age of presentation was 32.67 years (range 23 to 66 years). 70 patients (95.89%) were parous females. Average duration since last childbirth was 4.6 years (range: 3 months to 33 years). 8 patients (10.95%) were lactating. History of oral contraceptive pill use was present in 40 patients (54.79%). The right breast was affected in 44 patients (60.27%), and the left breast in 29 patients (39.73%). None of the patients had bilateral disease. The most common symptom was a painless lump (61.64%). Rest of the patients (38.36%) presented with features of a breast abscess. 19 out of 39 FNACs done (48.72%) were positive for granulomatous mastitis. 59 were primarily managed surgically (lumpectomy/wide excision-33, incision & drainage-26). One patient was treated primarily with prednisolone. 13 patients did not receive specific treatment, and were only kept on regular follow-up. Patients managed with lumpectomy/wide excision had the least rate of complications & recurrence (18.18%). Patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can present with a wide variety of symptoms which mimic other more common conditions. Surgical management in the form of wide excision appears

  3. Granulomatous Mastitis in a Transgender Patient.

    PubMed

    Sam, Kenny Q; Severs, Frederick J; Ebuoma, Lilian O; Chandandeep, Nagi S; Sedgwick, Emily L

    2017-02-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare and benign inflammatory condition of the breast most commonly affecting women of child-bearing age as well as patients on oral contraceptives. This condition is important to identify due to its diagnostic mimicry of malicious entities such as breast carcinoma. Clinical and radiological findings are nonspecific and may overlap with breast carcinomas, thus pathologic confirmation is often necessary for definitive diagnosis. Although cases of granulomatous mastitis have been described in cisgender females, there have been no reported cases in the transgender patient, a growing patient population with few imaging guidelines. Transgender patients are at risk of developing this breast entity due to the use of long-term hormone treatments or presence of residual breast tissue. A trial of antibiotics or steroids may be administered. However, surgical treatment is often necessary in recurrent or refractory cases.

  4. Lupus mastitis: a mimicker of breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Richard Roger; Taylor, Donna; Segal, Amanda; Irish, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of lupus mastitis which was initially diagnosed following an incisional biopsy of a breast lump, with similar pathology found 2 years later after an ultrasound guided biopsy of the same lump. The woman had been diagnosed 7 years before with systemic lupus erythematosus. The radiological and pathological features are presented in this report with discussion of similar cases in the literature. PMID:22669997

  5. [Spiramycin and the antibacterial therapy of mastitis].

    PubMed

    Verheijden, J H; Vecht, U; van Leeuwen, W; van Miert, A S

    1984-07-01

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for 18 strains of staphylococci isolated from the national randomized mastitis surveys were determined. The antibiotics used were penicillin-G, cloxacillin and spiramycin. On the basis of these findings in addition to literature data concerning clinical efficacy trials it is concluded, that spiramycin is indicated for the treatment of persistent chronic udder infections caused by peniciline-G resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-04-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Kant et al.

  7. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  8. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n = 5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  9. Sequencing of Escherichia coli that cause persistent and transient Mastitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genomes of two strains of Escherichia coli that cause bovine mastitis were sequenced. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis: strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection....

  10. Mastitis in Chinese breastfeeding mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a common problem encountered by breastfeeding mothers. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of lactation mastitis among Chinese women. A prospective cohort study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Jiangyou, Sichuan Province, China. Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing the incidence of mastitis within 6 months postpartum. Of the 670 Chinese mothers who were breastfeeding at discharge, 42 women (6.3%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis during the first 6 months after delivery. The cumulative incidence of mastitis was 10.3%. Mothers with a cracked and sore nipple (incidence rate ratio 2.24; 95% confidence interval 1.38, 3.63) and those who felt stressed (incidence rate ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.56, 6.37) appeared to sustain more episodes of mastitis. The incidence of lactation mastitis was low among Chinese mothers. To further reduce the risk of mastitis, instructions on the correct positioning of the baby during breastfeeding should be emphasized. Providing new mothers with guidance on how to cope with stress may also prevent the recurrence of the condition.

  11. Molecular Basis of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Seyffert, Nubia; Jardin, Julien; Hernandez, David; Jan, Gwenaël; Rault, Lucie; Azevedo, Vasco; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; van de Guchte, Maarten; Even, Sergine; Berkova, Nadia; Thiéry, Richard; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11) and milder (strain O46) mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases. Conclusions/Significance Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity. PMID:22096559

  12. Vaccines and diagnostic methods for bovine mastitis: fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Yancey, R J

    1999-01-01

    A number of problems are uniquely associated with vaccination of dairy cows for mastitis. One of these is that the number of mastitis pathogens is numerous and heterogeneous. Vaccine efforts have concentrated mainly on the major mastitis pathogens. While at least one S. aureus bacterin has been commercially available for a number of years, no large-scale, independent field trials have been published in refereed journals which support the efficacy of this vaccine. Experimental vaccines for S. aureus composed of pseudocapsule-enriched bacterins supplemented with alpha- and/or beta-toxoids appear promising, but none of these has been commercialized. With S. uberis, some protection against homologous strain challenges was reported recently with a live strain and a bacterin, but other data from the same laboratory showed this vaccine would not protect against heterologous challenge strains. At this time there is only one highly effective vaccine for mastitis, the core-antigen vaccine for coliform mastitis. All of the commercially available vaccines for this indication are bacterins of rough mutants of E. coli strain J5 or Salmonella spp. Preliminary success with an experimental vaccine based on the plasminogen activator of S. uberis is a very different approach for a mastitis vaccine. Little success has been reported with vaccination against other mastitis pathogens. For diagnostic methods, the high somatic cell count, as measured by direct count or indirect assays, remains the cornerstone of mastitis diagnosis. However, for subclinical mastitis, bacterial cell culture is a reliable diagnostic method. Pathogen identification may rely on older biochemical testing methods or newer commercial identification systems, depending on the laboratory budget. ELISA assays also have been used to assess herd infection status. Epidemiologic studies have used DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping, but none of these methods has yet produced an easily utilized commercial format. Within the

  13. Genotyping and virulence factors assessment of bovine mastitis Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel

    2013-05-03

    Escherichia coli is a major agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. However, specific E. coli virulence factors associated to pathogenicity during intra-mammary infections are yet unknown and this pathotype remains uncharacterized. The objectives of the present work were to assess the presence of a wide range of known virulence factors in a large set of E. coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis (mastitis set) and to study the genotypic distribution of strains in the mastitis set in comparison to a set of strains isolated from cows' environment in dairy farms (environmental set). Virulence factors were assessed by DNA hybridization microarray. The three most prevalent virulence factors found in the mastitis set were lpfA (long polar fimbriae), iss (increased serum resistance) and astA (enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1). None, however, characterized the majority of these strains. Genotyping was assessed by ECOR phylogenetic grouping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Strains in the mastitis and environmental sets were differentially distributed into ECOR phylogenetic groups; groups A and B1 being the most prevalent ones. Multiple MLST strain types were found in the two sets of strains, but only a few were common to both, and diversity was higher in the environmental set. A variety of PFGE patterns were found in the mastitis and environmental sets. Two clusters comprising mostly highly similar mastitis strains were identified. The results confirm that mastitis E. coli strains mostly lack known E. coli virulence factors. In addition, it is shown that the genotypic diversity of mastitis strains does not reflect the diversity found in the environmental E. coli population.

  14. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optoelectronic and photonic sensors of mastitis in cow milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, M.; Niemiec, T.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Kuczyńska, B.; Doroz, P.; Urbańska, K.; Szmidt, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2013-07-01

    Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland in animals under the influence of micro-organisms causing functional disorder of udder. Mastitis causes a variety of qualitative changes in the milk, which classified as mastitis milk, has a reduced value. A number of chemical procedures and lab instruments were developed to test for mastitis, of which the widest used are the California mastitis test and the somatic cell counter. This work presents the progress in development of new photonic sensors of mastitis using a conductometer, a spectrometer and a capillary head with local heating with improved measuring procedures. We showed that the significant increase in mastitis detection sensitivity is achieved by measuring the whey acidic instead of milk. The whey can be obtained from milk in a relatively simple and inexpensive chemical process. We correlated the conductivity measurement and the measurement of the number of somatic cells in the milk. The application of the measurement of optical transmission absorption in whey instead of the classic milk measurement increases the resolution of resistance measuring more than 3 times. However, the application of the method of capillary phase-transition to whey examination increases the resolution of measurement 15 times. The changes in resistance and time of the phase transitions are linearly correlated with the number of somatic cells.

  16. Efficacy of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine for bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Madoka; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Nakatani, Keiji; Akita, Shinji; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Isobe, Naoki

    2011-05-01

    An enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine designed to prevent diarrhoea was inoculated into dairy cows, and the occurrence of clinical mastitis was investigated for 2 years. Half of 480 cows in five farms were subcutaneously inoculated with ETEC vaccine (Imocolibov) twice with a 1-month interval in 2007 and 2008. Fisher's exact test and survival (time to event) analysis with the log-rank test were used to compare vaccinates and controls. In 2007, there was no significant difference in the incidence rate of mastitis between vaccinate (20.3%) and control (17.1%) cows. The rate of death or culling due to mastitis was lower in vaccinated cows (7.4%) than in control cows (29.2%, P=0.07, Fisher's exact test; P=0.02, log-rank test). In 2008, there was no significant difference in both the incidence rate of mastitis and the rate of death or culling due to mastitis. Milk productivity was compared between vaccinates and controls in one farm. Multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for the amount of 4% fat-corrected milk, and there was no significant difference between vaccinates and controls. These results suggest that ETEC vaccine inoculation reduces death or culling due to mastitis, whereas no preventive effect on the development of mastitis was observed.

  17. Aetiology of clinical mastitis in six Somerset dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A J; Green, M J

    2001-06-02

    Clinical mastitis was monitored in six Somerset dairy herds for one year. The herds all had three-month geometric mean bulk milk somatic cell counts of less than 250,000 cells/ml. Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen isolated on all the farms and in all months of the year. Environmental pathogens accounted for 61.4 per cent of all cases of clinical mastitis and for 79.3 per cent of the mastitis cases in which an aetiological agent was identified. The mean annual incidence was 41.6 cases per 100 cows (range 14 to 75). Affected cows suffered a mean of 1.5 cases and 16.4 per cent of quarters suffered at least one repeat case. Mastitis due to E. coli was more severe than mastitis due to other causes and it tended to be more severe in early lactation and during the housing period. Mastitis was significantly more severe (grades 2 and 3) in the herd with the lowest bulk milk somatic cell count and in the herd which was kept indoors throughout the year than in the other four herds. Mastitis was fatal in 2.2 per cent of cases and resulted in the death of 0.6 per cent of the lactating cows.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of granulomatous mastitis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Amanda N; Seiler, Stephen J; Hayes, Jody C; Wooldridge, Rachel; Porembka, Jessica H

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a benign chronic inflammatory condition of the breast. This study was performed to determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating GM from malignancy. MRI findings in 12 women with clinical or histopathologically-proven GM were retrospectively reviewed. Non-mass enhancement on MRI was present in all 12 patients with clustered ring enhancement being the most common pattern (n=7, 58%). Architectural distortion (n=10, 83%), skin thickening (n=10, 83%) and focal skin enhancement (n=10, 83%) were also very common. MRI features of GM are often identical to features considered suspicious for malignancy on MRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van Soest, Felix J S; Santman-Berends, Inge M G A; Lam, Theo J G M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in controlling mastitis, and these preventive costs (PC) also need to be taken into account. To estimate the total costs of mastitis, we estimated both FC and PC. We combined multiple test-day milk records from 108 Dutch dairy farms with information on applied mastitis prevention measures and farmers' registration of clinical mastitis for individual dairy cows. The aim was to estimate the total costs of mastitis and to give insight into variations between farms. We estimated the average total costs of mastitis to be €240/lactating cow per year, in which FC contributed €120/lactating cow per year and PC contributed another €120/lactating cow per year. Milk production losses, discarded milk, and culling were the main contributors to FC, at €32, €20, and €20/lactating cow per year, respectively. Labor costs were the main contributor to PC, next to consumables and investments, at €82, €34, and €4/lactating cow per year, respectively. The variation between farmers was substantial, and some farmers faced both high FC and PC. This variation may have been due to structural differences between farms, different mastitis-causing pathogens, the time at which preventive action is initiated, stockmanship, or missing measures in PC estimates. We estimated the minimum FC to be €34 per lactating cow per yr. All farmers initiated some preventive action to control or reduce mastitis, indicating that farmers will always have mastitis-related costs, because mastitis will never be fully eradicated from a farm. Insights into both the PC and FC of a specific farm will allow veterinary advisors and farmers to assess whether current udder health strategies are appropriate or whether there

  20. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D’Andreano, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical

  1. The microbiota of water buffalo milk during mastitis.

    PubMed

    Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D'Andreano, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical

  2. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528

  3. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10%) and services (5.47%). Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents. PMID:25093203

  4. Subclinical mastitis in dairy animals: incidence, economics, and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr; Thombare, N N; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10%) and services (5.47%). Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  5. Trials of a novel mastitis sensor on experimentally infected cows.

    PubMed

    Lake, J R; Hillerton, J E; Ambler, B; Wheeler, H C

    1992-02-01

    Numerous attempts to develop in-line systems for the measurement of the electrical conductivity of milk as an aid to the detection of mastitis have been described. The major technical problem of fouling of electrodes exposed to milk has been overcome in the sensor tested here by use of an inductive system of measurement. The practical application of this system in the milking parlour is reported. The novel mastitis sensor has been shown to detect incipient mastitis before there are visible signs of abnormal milk. Conductivity measurements have the advantage over other diagnostic procedures in that the information is available immediately without additional effort. Normalized conductivity and milk yield variation results indicate the potential for developing a practical, automatic system for mastitis detection.

  6. Bovine Mastitis: A Survey of Ontario Dairy Producers, 1978

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A. H.; Goodhope, R. G.; Barnum, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A survey to assess the knowledge and perception regarding mastitis of 1200 randomly selected Ontario dairy producers was conducted using a mailed questionnaire. Other data were provided by the Ontario Milk Marketing Board and the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. In general, producers were less aware of subclinical than clinical mastitis and did not appreciate the losses in production associated with it. Approximately 40% of producers were not familiar with mastitis in its subclinical form. Many producers have not adopted practices that have been advocated for the integrated control of mastitis. For example, 35.5% of producers surveyed used single service paper towels and 38% regularly used teat dips and dry cow antibiotic therapy. PMID:7225997

  7. The National Mastitis Council: A Global Organization for Mastitis Control and Milk Quality, 50 Years and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John R; Saeman, Anne; Fox, Larry K; Lombard, Jason; Hogan, Joe S; Smith, K Larry

    2014-12-01

    The National Mastitis Council was founded in 1961 based on the desire of a forward-thinking group of individuals to bring together "all forces of organized agriculture in the United States to combat, through every practical device, the mastitis threat to the Nation's health and food safety". What started as a small organization focused on mastitis of dairy cattle in the United States has grown into a global organization for mastitis and milk quality. Over the last 50-plus years the concerted efforts of the membership have led to the synthesis and dissemination of a considerable body of knowledge regarding udder health, milk quality, and food safety which has improved dairy cattle health and well-being and farm productivity.

  8. Mastitis control in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which preventive measures targeting mastitis are implemented in Swedish dairy herds with different housing and milking systems. Data were collected through a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to 898 dairy farmers, stratified by housing and milking system, in May 2011. The questionnaire contained general questions about the herd and the person responsible for the udder health of the cows, and specific questions about perceived udder health and the implementation of preventive measures. The response rate was 48%. The median herd size of participating herds was 80 cows, and the median herd average milk yield per cow was 9,586 kg of milk. External validity was assessed by comparing participating herds with nonresponders in respect to key performance indicators in the Swedish official milk recording system; no significant differences were found. When herds with combined systems had been removed, 400 herds with tiestalls and pipeline milking, freestalls and parlor milking, and freestalls with an automatic milking system remained. Differences between herd types were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. The results showed that herd types differed in their rates of implementation of different preventive measures. Freestall herds with milking parlors implemented more preventive measures related to milking hygiene and milking routines than did tiestall herds. A milking order based on the udder health status of the cows was frequently implemented in tiestall herds, but not in most herds with an automatic milking system or most freestall herds with milking parlors. Irrespective of herd type, the proportion of herds in which cows were kept standing for at least 30 min after milking was low. A substantial proportion of herds ignored the udder health status of lactating cows when grouping them, and few herds grouped dry cows according to udder health status, although this occurred more frequently in

  9. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M; Kumar, S; Neogi, S

    2012-01-01

    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigations revealed significant peripheral eosinophilia. Open biopsy reported eosinophilic mastits, correlating with peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary symptoms. The patient responded to conservative management. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia. Asthma, Churgh-Strauss Syndrome and hyper-eosinophilic syndromes are associated. Importantly, if a clinically and radiologically malignant breast lump in asthmatic ladies with peripheral eosinophilia is not confirmed on cytology, this entity could be a diagnosis, potentially saving the patient from surgery. PMID:24960670

  10. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Garg, M; Kumar, S; Neogi, S

    2012-06-01

    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigations revealed significant peripheral eosinophilia. Open biopsy reported eosinophilic mastits, correlating with peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary symptoms. The patient responded to conservative management. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia. Asthma, Churgh-Strauss Syndrome and hyper-eosinophilic syndromes are associated. Importantly, if a clinically and radiologically malignant breast lump in asthmatic ladies with peripheral eosinophilia is not confirmed on cytology, this entity could be a diagnosis, potentially saving the patient from surgery.

  11. Mastitis detection: current trends and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Viguier, Caroline; Arora, Sushrut; Gilmartin, Niamh; Welbeck, Katherine; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Bovine mastitis, the most significant disease of dairy herds, has huge effects on farm economics due to reduction in milk production and treatment costs. Traditionally, methods of detection have included estimation of somatic cell counts, an indication of inflammation, measurement of biomarkers associated with the onset of the disease (e.g. the enzymes N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and lactate dehydrogenase) and identification of the causative microorganisms, which often involves culturing methods. These methods have their limitations and there is a need for new rapid, sensitive and reliable assays. Recently, significant advances in the identification of nucleic acid markers and other novel biomarkers and the development of sensor-based platforms have taken place. These novel strategies have shown promise, and their advantages over the conventional tests are discussed.

  12. Management of mastitis on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, P L

    2009-04-01

    This paper compares management of mastitis on organic dairy farms with that on conventional dairy farms. National standards for organic production vary by country. In the United States, usage of antimicrobials to treat dairy cattle results in permanent loss of organic status of the animal, effectively limiting treatment choices for animals experiencing bacterial diseases. There are no products approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that can be used for treatment of mastitis on organic dairy farms, and usage of unapproved products is contrary to Food and Drug Administration guidelines. In general, organic dairy farms tend to be smaller, produce less, and more likely to be housed and milked in traditional barns as compared with conventionally managed herds. It is difficult to compare disease rates between herds managed conventionally or organically because perception and detection of disease is influenced by management system. To date, no studies have been published with the defined objective of comparing animal health on organic dairy herds with that on conventional dairy herds in the United States. European studies have not documented significant differences in animal health based on adoption of organic management. Few differences in bulk tank somatic cell counts have been identified between organic and conventional herds. Farmers that have adopted organic management consistently report fewer cases of clinical mastitis, but organic farmers do not use the same criteria to detect clinical mastitis. European dairy farmers that adopt organic management report use of a variety of conventional and alternative therapies for treatment and control of mastitis. In the United States, organic farmers treat clinical mastitis using a variety of alternative therapies including whey-based products, botanicals, vitamin supplements, and homeopathy. Organic farmers in the United States use a variety of alternative products to treat cows at dry-off. Virtually no data are

  13. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area.

  14. Normal somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, I P

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk.

  15. Association of CXCR2 polymorphisms with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Youngerman, S M; Saxton, A M; Oliver, S P; Pighetti, G M

    2004-08-01

    The ability to identify objectively cows that are more or less susceptible to mastitis has been a long-standing goal. Genetic markers associated with inflammatory responses during mastitis could aid in selection of these cattle. One potential marker is CXCR2, a chemokine receptor required for neutrophil migration to infection sites, which contains single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gene. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the association of CXCR2 SNP genotypes with subclinical and clinical mastitis. Thirty-seven Holstein and 42 Jersey cows that completed at least 2 full lactations were used. Quarter foremilk samples were collected for bacteriological examination quarterly and when cows exhibited clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was defined as the presence of the same pathogen in the same quarter in at least 2 of 3 consecutive samples. A significant association was detected between CXCR2 SNP +777 genotype and percentages of subclinical mastitis cases in Holsteins. Holsteins expressing genotype GG had decreased percentages of subclinical mastitis, but genotype CC cows had increased percentages of subclinical mastitis. Significant differences in clinical mastitis incidence were not detected between genotypes for either breed. This approach of genetically identifying mastitis resistant cows may represent an effective means of marker-assisted selection for mastitis and other inflammatory diseases involving neutrophils.

  16. [Cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis due to "D" streptococci].

    PubMed

    Aleksieva, V; Todorov, D

    1981-01-01

    Cytologic and bacteriologic investigations were carried out with a total of 364 samples of cow milk and secretion from 11 farms taken from individual quarters of the udder that have reacted positively and strongly positively with the rapid mastitis test Bernburg. It was found that in 330 of the cases there were data of clinical and subclinical mastitis of varying etiology. In 43 of the cases the causative agent (as isolated in pure cultures) proved to be "D" streptococci, giving positive reaction as judged by Schermann's criteria--from 9 cases of clinical and 34 cases of subclinical mastitis. The cell count varied from 360 000 to more than 5 million per cub. cm. Detailed studies were carried out on the cultural and biochemical properties of 31 strains of "D" streptococci, 17 strains belonging to Str. faecalis var. zymogenes, 9 strains--to Str. faecalis var. faecalis, and 5 strains--to Str. faecalis var. liquefaciens.

  17. [Resistance patterns of ovine mastitis pathogens].

    PubMed

    Winter, P; Höflechner, A; Baumgartner, W

    1999-01-01

    For control of the udder health status of milk sheep the minimal inhibitory concentration of mastitis causing pathogens to 12 different chemotherapeutics was determined by means of Sensititre microplate method. 73 staphylococci- and 8 streptococci-strains was examined. Following staphylococci-strains were found: S. aureus (11), S. epidermidis (34), S. chromogenes and S. xylosus (6 each), S. hyicus and S. warneri (each 5) as well as S. sciuri and S. simulans (3 each). MIC-values to penicillin, amoxycillin and ampicillin of 2 penicillinase-positive S. aureus-strains were more than 4.0 micrograms/ml. The remaining isolates and the major part of coagulase-negative staphylococci displayed MIC-values up to 1.0 microgram/ml to beta-lactamantibiotics except cloxacillin. Against cephalosporines, cephalexin excluded, and aminoglycosides very low MIC-values concerning staphylococci were observed. In case of spiramycin MIC-levels more or less than 8.0 micrograms/ml were determined. Streptococci exhibited MIC-values in the range of 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml against beta-lactamantibiotics with exclusion of cloxacillin, cefoperazone and cefquinome and spiramycin as well.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC MASTITIS IN A BABIRUSA (BABYROUSA CELEBENSIS).

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amy B; Hanley, Christopher S; Fischer, Martha T; Padilla, Luis R

    2015-12-01

    A 1 yr 8 mo-old, previously healthy, primiparous female babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) presented acutely recumbent and minimally responsive approximately 36 hr after giving birth to a single piglet. Toxic mastitis was diagnosed based on physical examination and laboratory results. The mammary tissue was firm, discolored, and produced negligible amounts of milk. All of the teats were eventually affected, resulting in the inability to provide adequate nutrition to the piglet. Although toxic mastitis has a poor prognosis in domestic sows, this babirusa recovered completely with aggressive management, including antibiotics and supportive care.

  19. [Breast cancer treated by antibiotherapy? Granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium].

    PubMed

    Buhler, J; Grignon, Y; Gallon, F

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare disease, often associated with Corynebacterium infection. It raises the problem of diagnosis of breast tumor with a fast evolution and inflammatory character. We report two cases of granulomatous mastitis with Corynebacterium. It concerns the clinical and radiological description, followed by the therapeutic alternatives and future of the patients. The clinical presentation is variable. The treatment consists in a surgical procedure of resection. The medical treatment based of corticosteroids also proves efficient. The association between Corynebacterium presence and this pathology seems frequent and needs a specific bacteriological search.

  20. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  1. Radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H; Li, R; Liu, H; Gu, Y; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the radiological and clinical features of adult non-puerperal mastitis and to determine the most accurate method of preventing unnecessary surgical procedures. Methods: Clinical and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed in 51 females with non-puerperal mastitis, which was confirmed by biopsy/surgical pathology. All 51 patients had pre-operative MRI; 45 patients also had sonograms and 25 also had mammograms, pre-operatively. Results: Of the 51 cases with non-puerperal mastitis, 94.1% (48/51) were confirmed as having acute or chronic inflammation, and the other 3 had plasma cell mastitis; areola papillaris inflammation was found in 39.2% (20/51) of the cases. Overall, 6 of the 25 cases that were examined with mammography and 2 of the 45 cases that were examined with sonography appeared normal, but all 51 lesions were positively identified on MRI. Asymmetrical density (12/25) on mammograms and solitary or separated/contiguous, clustered, hypoechoic mass-like lesions (31/45) on ultrasound were the most common signs of non-puerperal mastitis. On enhanced MRI, 90.2% (46/51) of patients showed non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Multiple regional enhancements in the pattern of distribution (32/46) and separated or contiguous, clustered, rim-like enhancements in the pattern of internal enhancement (29/46) were the most common manifestations in non-mass-like enhanced lesions. Of the 51 patients, mastitis Type 1 and Type 2 in the time–signal intensity curve were detected in 47.1% and 51.0% of the patients, respectively. The breast imaging reporting and data system categories with the highest number of patients were Category 0 (9/25) on mammography, Category 4a on sonography (18/45) and Category 4a on MRI (29/51). Conclusion: The findings from mammography and ultrasound are non-specific; therefore, using MR can be helpful in the diagnosis, especially in the presence of non-mass-like enhancements that are multiple, regional, separated, or

  2. Treatment of Acute Puerperal Mastitis and Breast Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cantlie, Helene Bertrand

    1988-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign infection of the breast if it is treated early. If two days elapse before treatment is started, it can lead to serious complications such as chronic or recurrent mastitis or breast abscess. Treatment consists in frequent nursing and massaging or stripping the breast to keep it empty of milk or pus, and appropriate antibiotics. Incision and drainage of a breast abscess can be done in the office under local anesthesia, and the drainage continued at home by the mother. PMID:21253250

  3. Mastitis in children from birth to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Faden, Howard

    2005-12-01

    Twenty-two cases of mastitis were evaluated between 1995 and 2003. Nine of the children were younger than 2 months of age, and 12 were older than 8 years of age. Girls accounted for 82% of the cases. Seven of the infections were true abscesses. Pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus in 5, Gram-negative bacilli in 3, group A Streptococcus in 1 and enterococcus in 1. These data suggest that mastitis in children occurs in 2 distinct age groups, neonates and pubescent/postpubescent; however, the clinical disease is similar in both populations.

  4. Chronic Mastitis in Egypt and Morocco: Differentiating between Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis and IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven G; Soliman, Amr S; Toy, Kathleen; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer; Karkouri, Mehdi; Ayad, Essam; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmed; Tahri, Ali; Oltean, Hanna N; Kleer, Celina G; Merajver, Sofia D

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, frequently severe chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast. Its etiology remains unknown and reported cases vary in their presentation and histologic findings with an optimal treatment algorithm yet to be described owing mainly to the disease's heterogeneity. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic fibroinflammatory condition characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with many IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Immunosuppressive therapy is considered to be an effective first-line therapy for IgG4-RD. We sought to clarify and classify chronic mastitis according to the histologic findings of IgG4-RD mastitis with respect to IGM and to develop a robust diagnostic framework to help select patients for optimal treatment strategies. Using the largest collection to date (43 cases from Egypt and Morocco), we show that despite sharing many features, IGM and IgG4-RD mastitis are separate diseases. To diagnostically separate the diseases, we created a classification schema-termed the Michigan Classification-based upon our large series of cases, the consensus statement on IgG4-RD, and the histologic description of IGM in the literature. Using our classification, we discerned 17 cases of IgG4-RD and 8 cases of IGM among the 43 chronic mastitis cases, with 18 indeterminate cases. Thus, our Michigan Classification can form the basis of rational stratification of chronic mastitis patients between these two clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous diseases.

  5. Bacterial species and their associations with acute and chronic mastitis in suckler ewes.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Willis, Z N; Blakeley, M; Lovatt, F; Purdy, K J; Green, L E

    2015-10-01

    Acute mastitis in suckler ewes is often detected because of systemic signs such as anorexia or lameness, whereas chronic mastitis, characterized by intramammary abscesses with no systemic disease, is typically detected when ewes are inspected before mating. The aims of the current study were to identify the species and strains of culturable bacteria associated with acutely diseased, chronically diseased, and unaffected mammary glands to investigate whether species and strains vary by state. To investigate acute mastitis, 28 milk samples were obtained from both glands of 14 ewes with acute mastitis in one gland only. To investigate chronic mastitis, 16 ovine udders were obtained from 2 abattoirs; milk was aspirated from the 32 glands where possible, and the udders were sectioned to expose intramammary abscesses, which were swab sampled. All milk and swab samples were cultured aerobically. In total, 37 bacterial species were identified, 4 from acute mastitis, 26 from chronic mastitis, and 8 from apparently healthy glands. In chronic mastitis, the overall coincidence index of overlap of species detected in intramammary abscesses and milk was 0.60, reducing to 0.36 within individual glands, indicating a high degree of species overlap in milk and abscesses overall, but less overlap within specific glands. Staphylococcus aureus was detected frequently in all sample types; it was isolated from 10/14 glands with acute mastitis. In 5 ewes, closely related strains were present in both affected and unaffected glands. In chronic mastitis, closely related Staphylococcus aureus strains were detected in milk and abscesses from the same gland.

  6. Clinical mastitis in cows treated with sometribove (recombinant bovine somatotropin) and its relationship to milk yield.

    PubMed

    White, T C; Madsen, K S; Hintz, R L; Sorbet, R H; Collier, R J; Hard, D L; Hartnell, G F; Samuels, W A; de Kerchove, G; Adriaens, F

    1994-08-01

    Effect of sometribove (methionyl bovine somatotropin) on mastitis in 15 full lactation trials (914 cows) in Europe and the US and 70 short-term studies (2697 cows) in eight countries was investigated. In full lactation studies, sometribove (500 mg/2 wk) was given for 252 d, commencing 60 d postpartum. Although herds varied considerably, incidence of clinical mastitis within a herd was similar for cows receiving control and sometribove treatments. Relative risk analyses indicated no treatment effect, and percentage of mastitis during treatment was similar for control and sometribove groups. A positive linear relationship existed between peak milk yield and mastitis incidence (percentage of cows contracting mastitis or cases per 100 cow days); sometribove treatment did not alter this relationship. Increases in mastitis related to milk yield increase from sometribove or related to genetic selection were similar. When expressed per unit of milk, mastitis incidence declined slightly as milk yield increased; this relationship was not altered by sometribove. No effect on clinical mastitis was observed in 70 commercial herds utilizing sometribove for 84 d. However, effects were significant for stage of lactation and milk yield. Overall, studies represented a wide range of research and commercial situations demonstrating that sometribove had no effect on incidence of clinical mastitis during the lactation of treatment. Furthermore, sometribove did not alter typical relationships between milk yield or herd factors and incidence of clinical mastitis.

  7. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Shiraz, Iran: Results of a Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Zhao, Yun; Poorarian, Shahnaz; Binns, Colin W; Scott, Jane A

    2017-06-01

    Approximately one in five Western women who breastfeed are likely to experience acute mastitis. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of acute mastitis in a cohort of Iranian women. Subjects were 672 participants of the Shiraz Infant Feeding Study conducted between June 2014 and March 2015. Mothers were recruited from the maternity ward and followed up at 1, 3, 4, and 6 months postpartum to obtain information on their breastfeeding practices and experiences. The occurrence of acute mastitis in the first 26 weeks postpartum was self-reported and the occurrence of acute mastitis in the first 4 weeks and between 5 and 12 weeks postpartum was treated as separate outcomes. The risk factors for acute mastitis were explored using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In total, 130 mothers (19.3%, 95% confidence interval: 16.3-22.3%) experienced at least one episode of acute mastitis. Having expressed breast milk and use of a pacifier were significantly associated with acute mastitis in both the first 4 weeks and between 5 and 12 weeks postpartum. Persistent problems with cracked or sore nipples, or engorged breasts, and a reduction in breastfeeding were associated with acute mastitis between 5 and 12 weeks. The incidence of acute mastitis experienced by this cohort of Iranian women is similar to that reported for women in Western countries. The risk factors of acute mastitis identified in this study are potentially modifiable and could be prevented or ameliorated with adequate support and anticipatory guidance provided in the early postpartum period.

  9. Genetic evaluation of mastitis liability and recovery through longitudinal analysis of transition probabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many methods for the genetic analysis of mastitis use a cross-sectional approach, which omits information on, e.g., repeated mastitis cases during lactation, somatic cell count fluctuations, and recovery process. Acknowledging the dynamic behavior of mastitis during lactation and taking into account that there is more than one binary response variable to consider, can enhance the genetic evaluation of mastitis. Methods Genetic evaluation of mastitis was carried out by modeling the dynamic nature of somatic cell count (SCC) within the lactation. The SCC patterns were captured by modeling transition probabilities between assumed states of mastitis and non-mastitis. A widely dispersed SCC pattern generates high transition probabilities between states and vice versa. This method can model transitions to and from states of infection simultaneously, i.e. both the mastitis liability and the recovery process are considered. A multilevel discrete time survival model was applied to estimate breeding values on simulated data with different dataset sizes, mastitis frequencies, and genetic correlations. Results Correlations between estimated and simulated breeding values showed that the estimated accuracies for mastitis liability were similar to those from previously tested methods that used data of confirmed mastitis cases, while our results were based on SCC as an indicator of mastitis. In addition, unlike the other methods, our method also generates breeding values for the recovery process. Conclusions The developed method provides an effective tool for the genetic evaluation of mastitis when considering the whole disease course and will contribute to improving the genetic evaluation of udder health. PMID:22475575

  10. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  11. Association between Hyperprolactinemia and Granulomatous Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Anatoly; Blake, Cassann N; Carlson, Diane L

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a relatively uncommon inflammatory breast lesion with multiple suggested etiologies. Although most GM cases show association with lactation and pregnancy, a minority of cases have been linked to hyperprolactinemia caused by either dopamine antagonist medications or with intracranial lesions, such as pituitary adenoma. The goal of this study is to review the GM cases reported in the literature with a specific emphasis on those cases associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas and to identify cases of GM seen at the Cleveland Clinic Florida which demonstrate co-occurrences of GM and intracranial lesions. CoPath and Epic data bases at Cleveland Clinic Florida were searched for cases describing inflammatory breast lesions in patients with pituitary pathology. Chart reviews were conducted and pertinent medical history was extracted for case reports. H&E-stained paraffin-embedded sections retrieved from Cleveland Clinic Florida pathology storage were evaluated by light microscopy. Four cases showing a co-occurrence of GM and hyperprolactinemia were consequently identified. A prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was present in two of the three GM cases. The third case demonstrated a concomitant craniopharyngioma, which was also associated with a rise in serum prolactin. This phenomenon was presumably attributable to compression, resulting in compromised transport of dopamine to the adenohypophysis and subsequent disinhibition of prolactin secretion by lactotrophs. The fourth patient with GM had a similar history of elevated prolactin. Classical histopathological features of GM were found in all four cases, including noncaseating granulomas, multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes, and chronic inflammation. Intriguingly, complete resolution of inflammatory breast lesions along with normalization of prolactin levels occurred following the surgical excision of the craniopharyngioma, suggesting that intracranial lesion

  12. Factors affecting the probability of bacteriological cure of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Degen, S; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review factors affecting the probability of cure of bovine mastitis and thereby establish criteria for deciding whether to treat or cull individual animals. A further objective was to avoid redundant treatment with antibiotics so as to reduce the risk of pathogen resistance and enhance economic benefit. In evaluating success of therapy, bacteriological cure is the standard type of cure and is defined as elimination of mastitis-causing pathogens from the mammary gland. Administration of antibiotics is considered reasonable only when there is a prospect of bacteriological cure. In addition to age of the affected cow, the history of mastitis, number of infected quarters and somatic cell count affect the probability of bacteriological cure. Identifying and characterising chronic mastitis, which causes enormous production losses, are especially important to prevent unnecessary treatment and to decide whether or not to cull. To our knowledge, this is the first work providing a complete list of factors that have been confirmed in scientific literature to influence the probability of cure. This review should support farmers and veterinarians in deciding between culling and administering appropriate therapy to an affected animal.

  13. Streptococcus parasanguinis: new pathogen associated with asymptomatic mastitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.; Fernández, E.; Las Heras, A.; Pascual, C.; Collins, M. D.; Domínguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe two unusual cases in sheep of subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus parasanguinis. This bacterium has been associated with the development of experimental endocarditis; its presence at relatively high concentrations in apparently healthy sheep milk may pose a health risk in persons with predisposing heart lesions. PMID:9866743

  14. Identification and antibiogram of microbes associated with bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Mitisha S; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kunjadia, Anju

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of Mastitis in cattle was carried out in Anand city and in nearby villages of Gujarat state using California Mastitis Test (CMT) kit. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was found to be 5.5% and 15.75%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through strain specific polymerase chain reaction; the remaining isolates identified on the basis of molecular analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were Staphylococcus species, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Bacillus species, and Pseudomonas species. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all the isolates was checked against 13 different antibiotics using the agar disc diffusion method. Highest bacterial resistance was observed with penicillin G and oxacillin antibiotics. It was also observed that the patterns of bacterial resistance have not changed in India over the years. The data supports the decrease in the incidence of mastitis but the rate of decrease is minimal. More effective control strategies are required. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  15. Milk C-reactive protein in canine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Vasiu, Iosif; Dąbrowski, Roman; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Ceron, Jose J; Wdowiak, Anna; Pop, Raul Alexandru; Brudaşcă, Florinel Gheorghe; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-04-01

    Presence of mastitis in lactating bitches can become life threatening for both the bitch and pups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in both milk and serum for canine mastitis diagnosis. Our study showed that milk CRP levels ranged between 0.1 and 4.9μg/mL and from 0.3 to 40.0μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (P<0.01), respectively, while serum CRP levels ranged between 2.0 and 8.6μg/mL and between 0.3 and 162.3μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (P<0.01), respectively. Milk and serum CRP levels were higher in both clinical and subclinical mastitis when compared with healthy controls (P<0.05 in all cases). However, no significant differences were recorded in CRP concentrations between clinical and subclinical cases. Based on these results, it could be concluded that serum and milk CRP could be useful in order to diagnose canine mastitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro photoinactivation of bovine mastitis related pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Gargano, Ronaldo Gomes; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio

    2016-03-01

    Bovine mastitis is considered the most important disease of worldwide dairy industry. Treatment of this disease is based on the application intramammary antibiotic, which favors an increase in the number of resistant bacteria in the last decade. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been investigated in different areas of Health Sciences, and has shown great potential for inactivating different pathogens, without any selection of resistant microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PDI in the inactivation of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. We tested the effectiveness of PDI against antibiotic resistant strains, isolated from bovine mastitis, from the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, and the alga Prototheca zopfii. Nine experimental groups were evaluated: control, no treatment; light only, irradiation of a red light-emitting diode (λ=662 (20) nm) for 180 s; exposure to 50 μM methylene blue alone for 5 min; and PDI for 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 s. S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus, and C. bovis were inactivated after 30s of irradiation, whereas S. agalactiae was inactivated after 120 s and P. zopfii at 180 s of irradiation. These results show that PDI can be an interesting tool for inactivating pathogens for bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  18. No evidence for a bovine mastitis Escherichia coli pathotype.

    PubMed

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Vollmers, John; Görlich, Dennis; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2017-05-08

    Escherichia coli bovine mastitis is a disease of significant economic importance in the dairy industry. Molecular characterization of mastitis-associated E. coli (MAEC) did not result in the identification of common traits. Nevertheless, a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) pathotype has been proposed suggesting virulence traits that differentiate MAEC from commensal E. coli. The present study was designed to investigate the MPEC pathotype hypothesis by comparing the genomes of MAEC and commensal bovine E. coli. We sequenced the genomes of eight E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis cases and six fecal commensal isolates from udder-healthy cows. We analyzed the phylogenetic history of bovine E. coli genomes by supplementing this strain panel with eleven bovine-associated E. coli from public databases. The majority of the isolates originate from phylogroups A and B1, but neither MAEC nor commensal strains could be unambiguously distinguished by phylogenetic lineage. The gene content of both MAEC and commensal strains is highly diverse and dominated by their phylogenetic background. Although individual strains carry some typical E. coli virulence-associated genes, no traits important for pathogenicity could be specifically attributed to MAEC. Instead, both commensal strains and MAEC have very few gene families enriched in either pathotype. Only the aerobactin siderophore gene cluster was enriched in commensal E. coli within our strain panel. This is the first characterization of a phylogenetically diverse strain panel including several MAEC and commensal isolates. With our comparative genomics approach we could not confirm previous studies that argue for a positive selection of specific traits enabling MAEC to elicit bovine mastitis. Instead, MAEC are facultative and opportunistic pathogens recruited from the highly diverse bovine gastrointestinal microbiota. Virulence-associated genes implicated in mastitis are a by-product of commensalism with the primary function

  19. [Anti-mycobacteria drugs therapy for periductal mastitis with fistula].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-jing; Wang, Qi; Yang, Jian-min; Lian, Zhen-qiang; Zhang, An-qin; Li, Wen-ping; Xu, Juan; Zhu, Cai-xia; Gao, Hong-yi; Lai, You-xng

    2012-11-01

    To study the etiology, clinical and pathologic characteristics of periductal mastitis with fistula and estimate the effect of anti-mycobacterial agents for periductal mastitis with fistula. Totally 27 patients of periductal mastitis with fistula received anti-mycobacteria drugs therapy from December 2008 to September 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. All of the patients were female. The mean age at onset was 28 years (range 15 to 40 years old). The main clinical manifestation of the 27 patients was breast fistula, including 21 patients with single fistula and 6 patients with multiple fistula. Three patients manifested with pure fistula, 14 patients with both fistula and lump, 10 patients with fistula, lump and abscess. The samples including pus or tissues of all patients were underwent bacteria culture and all patients core needle biopsy. All patients were given primary anti-mycobacteria drugs therapy, parts of patients received surgery based on the evaluation of medical treatment. The common bacteria culture of all patients failed to demonstrate any causative microorganism. Four cases were selected randomly to undergo PCR of mycobacteria, only one case was identified as Massiliense in bacteria culture of mycobacteria. Twenty-seven patients with periductal mastitis with fistula were treated with anti-mycobacterial agents (isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol or pyrazinamide of triple oral drugs) for 1 to 3 months, the fistula of all 27 patients were closed well. Sixteen patients were treated with the agents only and cured. Eleven patients received surgical treatment after treated with the medical agents. None of the patients were given mastectomy. All patients had no reccurence until now. The periductal mastitis with fistula has a closely relationship with the infection of nontuberculosis mycobacteria. Those patients could be treated with triple anti-mycobacterial agents and could also avoided mastectomy.

  20. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj

    2009-12-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

  1. Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in two Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Landin, Håkan; Mörk, Marie Jansson; Larsson, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson

    2015-11-25

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common udder pathogen in dairy cows, and may cause severe mastitis problems in some herds. In herds where normal control measures are not successful, vaccination might be an additional tool to use if sufficiently efficient. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine (Startvac(®), Hipra, Spain) in two commercial Swedish dairy herds where the control programs for S. aureus mastitis had been unsuccessful. Within each herd cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups, and effects on udder health and milk production during 120 days after calving, and survival during the following lactation were evaluated. A field study was performed in two high producing Swedish herds having approximately 600 (herd A) and 200 (herd B) cows. During 12 months, cows with odd numbers were vaccinated three times around calving according to label protocol, while cows with even numbers constituted the not vaccinated control group. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culturing were collected from all cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. The outcome was evaluated during 120 days after calving using data on SCC and daily milk yield at monthly milk recordings, and incidence of mastitis due to S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci and coliforms. Cow survival throughout lactation was also studied. In herd A, 239 and 240 cows were included in the vaccinated and control groups, respectively. Corresponding numbers for herd B was 126 and 151 cows. Significant differences between vaccinated and control groups were not found in any of the parameters investigated. Vaccination with a commercial polyvalent vaccine did not have any beneficial effects on udder health, milk production or survival in two commercial dairy herds with mastitis problems due to S. aureus.

  2. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  3. Outcomes of teaching baccalaureate nursing students about mastitis utilizing a multimodal teaching tool.

    PubMed

    Smart, Denise A; Castillo, Maria; Bruya, Margaret; Dekker, Lida

    2010-01-01

    Annually, 10-33% of U.S. lactating women develop mastitis. Often underreported, mastitis has acute and chronic sequelae with rare documented cases of invasive breast surgery due to pervasive infection. Evidenced-based prevention, early recognition, and treatment of mastitis are not emphasized in the undergraduate nursing profession textbooks or academic settings. Using current evidence-based research on postpartum mastitis, and concepts of maximizing cognition, this pre and post test study examines the knowledge acquired and retained utilizing traditional teaching methods compared to a multimodal teaching video on mastitis with a baccalaureate nursing student population. A significant difference in knowledge acquisition was noted between pre and post tests results. Furthermore, using Benner's novice to expert criteria, baccalaureate student nurses improved their ability to articulate lay and professional descriptions of and treatment for mastitis. These results emphasize the significance of lactation curricula in undergraduate nursing programs and the importance of utilizing multimodal delivery methods.

  4. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, T; Molla, B

    2001-01-01

    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  5. Detection of Subclinical Mastitis in Small Ruminants on Six Farms in Northern Tanzania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-18

    Detection of Subclinical Mastitis in Small Ruminants on Six farms in Northern Tanzania Introduction Small ruminants represent an important role in...0146 to milking. These common practices would lend evidence that there is a potential for a high prevalence of mastitis among all livestock...including the small ruminants. Mastitis is inflammation of the mammary gland and can be caused by several different bacterial and/or viral infections. Chronic

  6. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  7. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures.

  8. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to mastitis were calculated for 2840 cows and heifers. Overall, 19.8% of cows experienced one or more cases of clinical mastitis during location. Teat injuries occurred in 2.1% of lactations. Standard bacteriology was performed on pretreatment milk samples from 834 cows with clinical mastitis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0.7%), other Streptococcus spp. (14.1%), coliforms (17.2%), gram-positive bacilli (5.5%), Corynebacterium bovis (1.7%), and other Staphylococcus spp. (28.7%). There was no growth in 17.7% of samples, and 8.3% of samples were contaminated. Clinical mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows in Ontario; approximately 1 in 5 cow lactations have at lease one episode of clinical mastitis. There is, however, considerable variation in the incidence of clinical mastitis among farms. The majority of 1st cases of clinical mastitis occur early in lactation, and the risk of clinical mastitis increases with increasing parity. Environmental, contagious, and minor pathogens were all associated with cases of clinical mastitis. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:9442950

  9. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Neijenhuis, F; Barkema, H W; Hogeveen, H; Noordhuizen, J P

    2001-12-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity was scored every month according to a teat-end callosity classification system, which discriminates between teat-end callosity thickness (TECT) and roughness (TECR). Differences in TECT between healthy and clinical mastitis quarters within infected cows were small but significant 3 mo before (0.13 higher), in the month during which the clinical mastitis occurred (0.08 higher), and in the following 2 mo (0.06 and 0.05 higher). To compare TECT and TECR between cows with and without clinical mastitis, 199 cows with clinical mastitis were paired with control cows based on herd, days in milk, and parity. Clinical mastitis cows had more TEC than their healthy herd mates, particularly when clinical mastitis occurred between the second and fifth months of lactation. Clinical Escherichia coli mastitis in the second or third month of lactation occurred in cows with less TEC than in cows with clinical mastitis caused by other pathogens. Clinical culture-negative, yeast, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes mastitis cows had more TECT and TECR than other cows with clinical mastitis in the same month of lactation. Pointed teat ends had higher TECT and TECR than flat or inverted teat ends. Teat-end callosity thickness increased with a higher milk yield at peak production.

  10. Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lakew, Matios; Tolosa, Tadele; Tigre, Worku

    2009-10-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Asella town from November 2007 to April 2008 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors and isolate the dominant mastitis causing bacteria on total of 223 lactating cows, of which 92 were indigenous Arsi, and 131 Holstein Zebu cross by using clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT). Of these 144 (65.6 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 26.5 % and 38 %, respectively. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of mastitis between cows kept under different hygiene of milking process. Similarly a significant difference on the prevalence of mastitis between the two breeds (P < 0.05) was also observed. From 144 CMT and clinically positive milk samples analyzed microbiologically, 133 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and while 11 were negative. The dominant bacterial isolates in the study animals were Staphylococcus species (41.4 %), Streptococcus species (24.8 %), and other gram positive rods and gram negative enteric bacteria (33.8 %). Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected cows at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected cows and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area.

  11. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains involved in human and bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; García, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; del Campo, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in different mammalian species. At present, it is unknown whether strains isolated from human mastitis cases share phenotypic properties and genetic background with those obtained from animal mastitis cases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus strains isolated from women with lactational mastitis and to compare them with the strains responsible for bovine mastitis and noninfectious strains. All the strains were genotyped by both pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and submitted to a characterization scheme that included diverse assays related to pathogenic potential and antibiotic resistance. Apart from siderophore production, no significant association was observed between the strains from bovine and human mastitis. Statistical differences between human- and bovine-mastitis-associated strains were detected for some traits and virulence determinants, such as the presence of prophages and cna and hlb genes, which were more frequently found within the bovine group. On the contrary, resistance to penicillin was significantly higher among strains isolated from human lactational mastitis, probably related to the common presence of the blaZ gene. A high genetic diversity was found among the strains involved in mastitis in breastfeeding women. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  13. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  14. Epidemiology of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci in a dairy cattle herd with a history of recurrent clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z

    2017-03-28

    The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (p<0.05; Chi-squared test for trend) with rising parity. Despite in vitro susceptibility of S. aureus to potentiated penicillins and cephalosporins, the persistence of S. aureus was observed in cows undergoing intramammary treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (a potentiated penicillin antibiotic). All isolates of S. aureus were biofilm-positive and had the same macrorestriction pattern. Furthermore, no dependence was observed between the occurrence of S. aureus in milk and previous cases of clinical mastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.

  15. Explaining mastitis incidence in Dutch dairy farming: the influence of farmers' attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; van den Borne, B H P; Renes, R J; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M; Leeuwis, C

    2009-11-15

    When mastitis incidence increases, either infection pressure has increased or cows' resistance has decreased. This usually indicates that farm management is not optimal. Numerous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effect of management practices on mastitis. In most of these studies, the identified risk factors could explain only part of the variance in mastitis incidence on farms. Several studies suggest that the unexplained variance is caused by farmers' attitudes towards different aspects of mastitis treatment and preventive behaviour. This study aims to determine, to quantify and to specify the extent to which farmers' attitudes, over and above farmers' behaviour, are factors that explain the variation in mastitis incidence, measured in terms of the quantifiable effect of management factors. An extensive survey on self-reported attitudes, behaviour and mastitis incidence was conducted on 336 Dutch dairy farms. Results of multiple linear regression analyses show that farmers' self-reported behaviour and attitudes together explain 48%, 31% and 23% of the variation within, respectively, the average farm bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), the clinical mastitis incidence and the combined clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence. Both behaviour and attitudes explain part of the variance. However, most of the variance in all three dependant measures is explained solely by the attitude variables. The variation in BMSCC value is best explained by (1) farmers' normative frame of reference about mastitis, (2) farmers' perceptions about the control of mastitis and (3) the perceived effect of a BMSCC penalty level. The variation in clinical mastitis is best explained by farmers' perceptions about mastitis control. The variation in the combined clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate is best explained by the perceived effect of a BMSCC penalty level and the frequency of contact with others. The results of this study show that farmers' attitudes are a

  16. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis.

    PubMed

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Jardin, Julien; Jan, Gwenaël; Even, Sergine; Pulido, Coralie; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Hernandez, David; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Demon, Dieter; Meyer, Evelyne; Berkova, Nadia; Thiéry, Richard; Vautor, Eric; Le Loir, Yves

    2011-02-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46) or severe (O11) mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4%) were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46) or severe (O11) mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4%) were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland. PMID:21324116

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease.

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  1. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

  2. Knowledge gaps and research priorities in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis control.

    PubMed

    Rainard, P; Foucras, G; Fitzgerald, J R; Watts, J L; Koop, G; Middleton, J R

    2017-10-06

    This study assessed knowledge gaps and suggested research priorities in the field of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus infecting the mammary gland remains a major problem to the dairy industry worldwide because of its pathogenicity, contagiousness, persistence in the cow environment, colonization of skin or mucosal epithelia, and the poor curing efficacy of treatments. Staphylococcus aureus also constitutes a threat to public health due to food safety and antibiotic usage issues and the potential for bidirectional transmission of strains between humans and dairy animals (cows and small ruminants). Gaps have been identified in (i) understanding the molecular basis for pathogenesis of S. aureus mastitis, (ii) identifying staphylococcal antigens inducing protection and (iii) determining the cell-mediated immune responses to infection and vaccination. The recommended priorities for research are (i) improved diagnostic methods for early detection of infection and intervention through treatment or management, (ii) development of experimental models to investigate the strategies used by S. aureus to survive within the mammary gland and resist treatment with anti-microbials, (iii) investigation of the basis for cow-to-cow variation in response to S. aureus mastitis, (iv) identification of the immune responses (adaptive and innate) induced by infection or vaccination and (v) antibacterial discovery programmes to develop new, more effective, narrow spectrum antibacterial agents for the treatment of S. aureus mastitis. With the availability and ongoing improvement of molecular research tools, these objectives may not be out of reach in the future. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Clinical Puzzle in Breast Lump Cases.

    PubMed

    Nath, Vivek G; Sahoo, Rakesh; Sahoo, Avinash; Barad, Jithendra Kumar; Arun, K A

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disease, characterized by chronic inflammation and granulomatous disease process. A middle aged lady with breast lump for six months with equivocal mammographic and ultrasound results underwent lumpectomy and biopsy. Ruling out all other possible granulomatous diseases and malignancy, a diagnosis of IGM was made. IGM becomes clinically significant as it closely mimics carcinoma breast and some inflammatory and infectious pathology.

  4. Antimicrobial treatment of clinical mastitis in the eastern United States: The influence of dairy farmers' mastitis management and treatment behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kayitsinga, J; Schewe, R L; Contreras, G A; Erskine, R J

    2017-02-01

    To assess both the behaviors and social variables related to antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis, we sent a survey to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographic and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Only a small proportion of herds frequently or always cultured milk samples for bacteriology from cows with a high somatic cell count (17%), cows with clinical mastitis (18%), or bulk tank milk (13%). Likewise, only 56% of herds frequently or always maintained records of all treated cows and 49% reviewed records before administering mastitis treatments. Multivariate analysis determined that use of treatment records was associated with increased likelihood of frequent use for both intramammary (IMA) and systemic (SYA) administration of antimicrobial drugs for therapy of clinical mastitis. As would be expected, use of natural (organic) therapies was associated with decreased use of IMA, as was the respondent being a member of an Amish community. Lower levels of education and the use of bacterins to control Staphylococcus aureus mastitis were also associated with decreased IMA, whereas increased use of IMA at dry off and the belief that "bad luck" plays a role in mastitis problems were associated with increased IMA. Use of an internal teat sealant, the respondent being the sole proprietor, being from Michigan, use of conductivity to measure subclinical mastitis, the respondent placing increasing importance on decreasing antibiotic residues in cull cows, and having financial incentives for employees linked to somatic cell count were associated with increased use of SYA

  5. Patchouli alcohol dampens lipopolysaccharide induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Ping; Yuan, Shi-Fang; Cai, Guo-Hong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ling; Yu, Lei; Ling, Rui; Yun, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, has been known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other important therapeutic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PA on LPS-induced mastitis in vivo and the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or PA 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokines production in mammary tissues were determined. The effects of PA on NF-κB signal pathways were analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that PA inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production in a dose manner. It was also observed that PA attenuated mammary histopathologic changes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that PA could inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results indicate that PA inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways to attenuate inflammatory injury induced by LPS. PA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of mastitis.

  6. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndegwa, E N; Mulei, C M; Munyua, S J

    2000-03-01

    California mastitis test (CMT), direct leukocytes counts and bacteriological examination were performed on 630 milk samples from apparently healthy mammary glands of dairy goats comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenberg, Saanen and Galla crosses to find the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 9.8% according to CMT, 9.7% according to direct leukocyte counts and 28.7% by bacterial isolation during a 3-month period. The proportion of the bacteriologically positive milk samples was significantly (P <0.01) higher than that positive for CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was no significant direct relationship between bacterial isolation and CMT Bacterial organisms were isolated in 22.5% of the 568 CMT-negative milk samples. The results suggest that bacterial organisms isolated from the CMT-negative milksamples were either latent infections or did not stimulate any significant increase in somatic cell counts that could be detected by either the CMT or direct leukocyte counts. The observations of this study indicate that the mere presence of bacteria in goat's milk does not mean that the udder is infected and so does not warrant antibiotic therapy.

  7. Rapid mastitis detection assay on porous nitrocellulose membrane slides.

    PubMed

    Mujawar, Liyakat Hamid; Moers, Antoine; Norde, Willem; van Amerongen, Aart

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a rapid mastitis detection test based on the immobilization of tag-specific antibody molecules, the binding of double-tagged amplicons, and as a secondary signal a conjugate of black carbon nanoparticles having molecules of a fusion protein of neutrAvidin and alkaline phosphatase at their surface. The antibodies were inkjet printed onto three different nitrocellulose membrane slides, Unisart (Sartorius), FAST (GE Whatman), and Oncyte-Avid (Grace-Biolabs), and the final assay signals on these slides were compared. The blackness of the spots was determined by flatbed scanning and assessment of the pixel gray volume using TotalLab image analysis software. The black spots could be easily read by the naked eye. We successfully demonstrated the detection of specific amplicons from mastitis-causing pathogens in less than 3 h. Using a similar protocol, we also showed that it was possible to detect specific amplicons from four different mastitis-causing pathogens (six strains) on the same pad. The influence of two different printing buffers, phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) and carbonate buffer (pH 9.6), on the functionality of the primary antibodies was also compared.

  8. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Toxic bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in twin cows.

    PubMed

    Rüegsegger; Corti; Sihto; Johler

    2014-11-01

    In this report, we describe two cases of bovine toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus and we provide DNA microarray based characterization data of the strain causing the disease. Both cows had recently calved and suffered from anorexia, pyrexia, and an elevated heart rate. In both animals, at least one mammary gland was swollen, hardened, sensitive to touch, and produced brownish or bloody secretions. The clinical state of the animals deteriorated quickly and both cows had to be euthanized within 48 hours after presentation. The S. aureus strain, which was isolated from the mastitis milk of both cows, was assigned to spa type t267, agr type I, capsule type 5 and CC97, a clonal complex recently identified as the evolutionary origin of two emerging clones of human epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The strain did not harbour any genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents and we did not detect any genes coding for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, or exfoliative toxins. Taking into consideration that twin cows were affected by this rare disease, we suggest that host factors may play a crucial role in toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated from a Cow with Clinical Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Paresh; Reddy, D. Peddi; Kumar, P. Anand; Gadicherla, Ramya; George, Neena

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Staphylococcus aureus causing clinical mastitis in a cow from India. It is a major causative agent of mastitis and, further, livestock-associated strains are emerging as a potential threat to public health, thereby warranting studies to understand the genome of this deadly pathogen. PMID:26294628

  11. Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains That Cause Persistent and Transient Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Tyler C; Lippolis, John D; Brunelle, Brian W; Casey, Thomas A; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E; Holman, Devin B

    2017-08-24

    We report here the genome sequences of two strains of Escherichia coli (ECA-B and ECC-M) that cause bovine mastitis. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis; strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection.

  12. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p < 0.05) risk indicators. Although most of the risk indicators studied were not found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized.

  13. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (p<0.05) more sensitive than WST and comparable to CMT in both species. In serial testing, percent specificity of SFMT (87.12 in cow; 85.16 in buffaloes) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of CMT (83.33 in cow; 80.64 in buffaloes). The negative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  14. Costs of clinical mastitis with special reference to premature culling.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, A-M; Nousiainen, J I; Pyörälä, S

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic and a welfare problem on dairy farms. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of clinical mastitis (CM), having a special focus on the cost variation related to culling decisions. A dynamic optimization model was developed to determine an optimal replacement time of a mastitic cow and to estimate the costs of CM, taking into account the risk of premature culling and the uncertainty in CM prevalence. Six lactations were analyzed at monthly periods for Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian breeds. The estimates reflect Finnish production conditions where mastitis is treated only by veterinarians. Biological parameters of the model were adapted from the literature and the Finnish dairy herd health recording system. Field data were used to produce the risk parameters of culling due to mastitis on commercial dairy farms. The model recommended treating the cows with CM and keeping them in most cases until their fifth lactation. A cheaper (-20%) heifer transferred the optimum to the previous lactation and a more expensive (+20%) heifer to the following lactation. Conditional on optimal replacements, the average cost of CM of an Ayrshire (Holstein-Friesian costs in parentheses) cow was €485 (€458), varying from €209 (€112) to €1,006 (€946). The costs were at the highest when the occurrence of CM was at a top yield phase. In the scenario where the risk of culling due to mastitis was included in the model, the average cost of CM was €596 (€623). Disposing of a young cow at the end of her first lactation month caused the highest costs. The costs converted to figures per cow-year were €121 (€147) with optimal cullings and €155 (€191) in the current Finnish conditions. Thus, the increase in the costs of CM due to premature cullings was 28% (30%.) The main cost sources were long-term production losses regardless of the culling decisions. Premature culling formed 20% (23%) of the total costs. To decrease the costs of

  15. Evaluation of milk cathelicidin for detection of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Puggioni, G M G; Pisanu, S; Casula, A; Locatelli, C; Rota, N; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P; Uzzau, S

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis due to intramammary infection is one of the most economically relevant diseases in dairy cows, causing reductions in milk quality and quantity. Currently, mastitis monitoring is based on somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriologic culture (BC) of milk. Nevertheless, inflammation-specific protein markers might provide more sensitive and reliable assays, enabling immunoassay-based screening strategies. Cathelicidin is an inflammatory protein released in milk that has recently demonstrated fair reliability and diagnostic potential for ewe mastitis. To assess its performance in cows, 531 quarter milk samples from 2 herds were tested using cathelicidin ELISA, SCC, and BC. We found that 29.0% of samples were positive for cathelicidin, 18.8% had SCC >200,000 cells/mL, and 13.7% were BC-positive. Cathelicidin showed a strong positive correlation with SCC as demonstrated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and by the clustering of cathelicidin-negative and cathelicidin-positive samples in association with low and high SCC values, respectively. For evaluating the diagnostic performance of a novel test, BC cannot be considered a reliable gold standard for true disease status because of its known limitations. Therefore, we assessed the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the milk cathelicidin ELISA using a latent class analysis approach together with BC and SCC by considering different diagnostic thresholds to identify the preferred Se/Sp combination. We modeled conditional dependence of cathelicidin and SCC to account for their close association. The cathelicidin ELISA showed higher Se than SCC and BC for almost all threshold combinations. In fact, at the best-performing threshold combination, the Se of cathelicidin was 80.6%, 6.2 percentage points higher than that of SCC >200,000 cells/mL (74.4%) and similar to that of SCC >100,000 cells/mL (80.2%). Most importantly, this Se was obtained with a loss in Sp of only 1.4 percentage points compared

  16. Stochastic bio-economic modeling of mastitis in Ethiopian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs of clinical mastitis and only two studies were reported on costs of subclinical mastitis. Presenting an appropriate and complete study of the costs of mastitis will help farmers in making management decisions for mastitis control. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic effects of mastitis on Ethiopian market-oriented dairy farms. Market-oriented dairy farming is driven by making profits through selling milk in the market on a regular basis. A dynamic stochastic Monte-Carlo simulation model (bio-economic model) was developed taking into account both clinical and subclinical mastitis. Production losses, culling, veterinarian costs, treatment, discarded milk, and labour were the main cost factors which were modeled in this study. The annual incidence of clinical mastitis varied from 0 to 50% with a mean annual incidence of 21.6%, whereas the mean annual incidence of subclinical mastitis was 36.2% which varied between 0 and 75%. The total costs due to mastitis for a default farm size of 8 lactating cows were 6,709 ETB per year (838 ETB per cow per year). The costs varied considerably, with 5th and 95th percentiles of 109 ETB and 22,009 ETB, respectively. The factor most contributing to the total annual cost of mastitis was culling. On average a clinical case costs 3,631 ETB, varying from 0 to 12,401, whereas a sub clinical case costs 147 ETB, varying from 0 to 412. The sensitivity analysis showed that the total costs at the farm level were most sensitive for variation in the probability of occurrence of clinical mastitis and the probability of culling. This study helps farmers to raise awareness about the actual costs of mastitis and motivate them to timely

  17. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  18. Intramammary application of ozone therapy to acute clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ogata, A; Nagahata, H

    2000-07-01

    The infusion of ozone into the inflamed quarter of cows with clinical mastitis was performed and the efficacy of ozone therapy was evaluated. Ozone was infused into the inflamed quarter via a teat canal using ozone gas generating equipment. Nineteen Holstein cows with acute clinical mastitis were divided into two groups: 15 cows treated with ozone therapy, and 4 cows treated with antibiotic therapy. Systemic and local clinical signs, California Mastitis Test scores, the mastitis causing pathogens, electronic conductivity of milk, and somatic cell counts in milk from ozone- and antibiotic-treated quarters, were compared between the groups. Sixty percent (9/15) of cows with acute clinical mastitis treated with ozone therapy, did not require any antibiotics for recovery. This newly developed ozone therapy method was proven to be effective, safe, and cost effective, and carries no risk of drug residues in milk.

  19. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  20. Case-control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women.

    PubMed

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2014-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. We conducted a case-control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.

  1. Factors affecting the incidence and outcome of Trueperella pyogenes mastitis in cows

    PubMed Central

    ISHIYAMA, Dai; MIZOMOTO, Tomoko; UEDA, Chise; TAKAGI, Nobuyuki; SHIMIZU, Noriko; MATSUURA, Yu; MAKUUCHI, Yuto; WATANABE, Aiko; SHINOZUKA, Yasunori; KAWAI, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The main factors affecting the outcome of Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) mastitis were examined through a survey of diagnostic data and interviews relating to the occurrence of T. pyogenes mastitis in 83 quarters from 82 Holstein cows between August 2012 and April 2014. Ultimately, one cow was sold during the examination, and 82 quarters from 81 cows were used for analysis on prognosis. T. pyogenes mastitis occurred year round in both lactating and dry cows. The incidence of T. pyogenes mastitis did not significantly differ by month or show seasonality in either lactating or dry cows. Therefore, the occurrence of T. pyogenes mastitis also differed from that of summer mastitis. The 1-month survival rate of infected cows was 64.6% (53/82), and the recovery rate of quarters with T. pyogenes mastitis was 14.6% (12/82). Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with survival and culling of infected cows as objective variables and with recovery and non-recovery of quarters with T. pyogenes mastitis as objective variables. The severe cases were significantly culled (odds ratio, 16.30) compared to mild cases, and the status of quarters didn’t recover (odds ratio, 6.50). The results suggest that mild to moderate symptom severity at the time of onset are the main factors affecting outcomes in cows and recovery of quarters infected with T. pyogenes mastitis. Further, high level of NAGase activity also suggested the potential use as an indicator of culling of cows with T. pyogenes mastitis. PMID:28163273

  2. Selection responses for clinical mastitis and protein yield in two Norwegian dairy cattle selection experiments.

    PubMed

    Heringstad, B; Klemetsdal, G; Steine, T

    2003-09-01

    Inferences from two dairy cattle selection experiments, in which sires were selected from external sources, were drawn by using an animal model to analyze data from the entire population. The first selection experiment was carried out in the period from 1978 to 1989 and included groups selected for high milk production (HMP) and low milk production (LMP). Each year, the highest ranking proven sires for milk production, from the most recent group of Norwegian Dairy Cattle (NRF) test bulls, were selected and mated to the cows in the HMP group. A group of sires with low milk production indices from progeny testing in 1978 and 1979 were used as sires in the LMP group during the entire experiment. The second selection experiment, which started in 1989, included one high protein yield (HPY) group and one low clinical mastitis (LCM) group. The highest ranking proven NRF sires for protein yield and mastitis resistance were selected each year from the most recent group of progeny tested bulls and used as sires in the HPY and LCM groups, respectively. Genetic trends for protein yield were positive (as expected) for HMP and HPY cows, and negative for LMP and LCM cows. Estimates of annual genetic trends for clinical mastitis were +0.23, -0.02, +0.04, and -0.91% per year for HMP, LMP, HPY, and LCM cows, respectively. The difference in genetic trend of clinical mastitis between HMP and HPY groups, both selected for increased milk production, reflects the gradual change in the NRF breeding objective towards more weight on health relative to milk over the last 20 yr. After four cow generations, the genetic difference in mastitis between HMP and LMP group cows was 3.1% clinical mastitis, a correlated response to selection for increased milk production. The genetic difference between LCM and HPY cows of 8.6% clinical mastitis after three cow generations is mainly a result of direct selection against clinical mastitis in the LCM group. In the NRF population, an approximately flat

  3. Host responses associated with chronic staphylococcal mastitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Irene; Ferrian, Selena; Penadés, Mariola; García-Quirós, Ana; Pascual, Juan J; Selva, Laura; Viana, David; Corpa, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcal infection causes substantial economic losses in commercial rabbit production systems, and is associated with a wide variety of lesions, including chronic suppurative mastitis, which mainly affects breeding females. Most chronic staphylococcal infections in rabbits are caused by the ST121 lineage of Staphylococcus aureus, although other less common lineages, such as ST96 can also be involved. The aims of the present study were to characterise the host immune response in natural cases of mastitis in rabbits caused by S. aureus, to evaluate any relationship between peripheral and local immunity and to investigate the effect of different S. aureus genotypes on these immune responses. Adult multiparous female rabbits that were affected with chronic staphylococcal mastitis (n = 204) were enrolled into the study. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of mammary glands were undertaken, as well as flow cytometric analyses of blood. S. aureus isolates from the mammary glands were identified by multilocus sequence typing. Differences in the number of infiltrating cells were detected, depending on the type of pathology, with more immature lesions demonstrating greater cellularity, characterised by greater numbers of T lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. A relationship was seen between the cells in blood and mammary tissues, the most notable being the positive correlation between monocytes and tissue macrophages. When glands were infected with ST96 strains, fewer granulocytes (P < 0.01) and greater numbers of B cells (P < 0.01), T cells (P < 0.001), CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.001) and CD8(+) T cells (P < 0.01) were detected, compared with mammary glands that were infected by ST121 strains of S. aureus.

  4. Mastitis alert preferences of farmers milking with automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Mollenhorst, H; Rijkaart, L J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess farmers' preferences for the performance characteristics of mastitis detection systems. Additionally, we looked at whether certain groups of farmers could be distinguished with specific preferences. Farmers' opinions concerning mastitis detection systems, as well as general information about the farm and the farmer, were investigated with a standard questionnaire. The second part of the questionnaire was specifically aimed at elucidating preferences. Definitions of time windows and performance parameters, such as sensitivity and specificity, were incorporated into characteristics of a detection system (attributes) that reflect farmers' daily experience. Based on data from 139 farmers, we concluded that, on average, they prefer a clinical mastitis detection system that produces a low number of false alerts, while alerting in good time and with emphasis on the more severe cases. These 3 attributes were evaluated as more important than the 3 other attributes, representing the costs of the detection system, the number of missed cases, and how long before clinical signs alerts need to be given. Variation in importance per attribute, however, was high, denoting that farmers' preferences differ considerably. Although some significant relationships were found between farm characteristics and attributes, no clear groups of farmers with specific preferences could be distinguished. Based on these results, we advise making detection systems adaptable for the farmers to satisfy their preferences and to match the circumstances on the farm. Furthermore, these results support that for evaluation of detection algorithms comparisons have to be made at high levels of specificity (e.g., 99%) and time windows have to be kept small (preferably no more than 24 h). Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The bovine colostrum microbiome and its association with clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Svetlana F; Teixeira, Andre G V; Lima, Fabio S; Ganda, Erika K; Higgins, Catherine H; Oikonomou, Georgios; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2017-04-01

    In an effort to characterize colostrum microbial diversity and its potential associations with early-lactation clinical mastitis, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the bovine colostrum microbiome. A prospective observational study was conducted that included 70 Holstein cows; colostrum samples were collected from all 4 mammary gland quarters. Colostrum samples were categorized according to whether the quarter was diagnosed (CMC) or not diagnosed (NCMC) with clinical mastitis during the first 30 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Tenericutes phyla, with the 6 most common taxa [order (o), family (f), and genus (g)] being g_Staphylococcus, g_Prevotella, f_Ruminococcaceae, o_Bacteroidales, o_Clostridiales, and g_Pseudomonas. The colostrum microbiota of primiparous cows was significantly richer (higher number of bacterial species) than that of multiparous cows, and differences in colostrum taxonomic structure between parities were also observed. The microbial community of NCMC samples of primiparous cows was significantly more diverse than that of CMC samples, and the relative abundances of the Tenericutes and Fusobacteria phyla as well as the Mycoplasma and Fusobacterium genera were significantly higher in NCMC than in CMC samples of primiparous cows. The colostrum core microbiome, defined as the bacterial taxa common to all colostrum samples examined, was composed of 20 taxa and included bacterial genera already known to be associated with mastitis (e.g., Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, and Streptococcus spp.). Our results indicate that the colostrum microbiome of primiparous cows differs from that of multiparous cows, and it harbors some diversity and taxonomic markers of mammary gland health specific to primiparous cows only. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  7. Short communication: Lactic acid bacteria from the honeybee inhibit the in vitro growth of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Piccart, K; Vásquez, A; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Olofsson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of prevention and control strategies, bovine mastitis remains one of the most challenging diseases in the dairy industry. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from the honey crop of the honeybee, on several mastitis pathogens. The viable LAB were first reintroduced into a sterilized heather honey matrix. More than 20 different bovine mastitis isolates were tested against the mixture of the 13 LAB species in the honey medium using a dual-culture overlay assay. The mastitis isolates were identified through bacteriological culturing, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Additionally, the mastitis isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing through disk diffusion. Growth of all tested mastitis pathogens, including the ones displaying antimicrobial resistance to one or more antimicrobial compounds, were inhibited to some extent by the honey and LAB combination. The antibacterial effect of these LAB opens up new perspectives on alternative treatment and prevention of bovine mastitis.

  8. Urinary metabolomic fingerprinting after consumption of a probiotic strain in women with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Marinic, Jelena; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Infectious mastitis is a common condition among lactating women, with staphylococci and streptococci being the main aetiological agents. In this context, some lactobacilli strains isolated from breast milk appear to be particularly effective for treating mastitis and, therefore, constitute an attractive alternative to antibiotherapy. A (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach was applied to detect metabolomic differences after consuming a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus salivarius PS2) in women with mastitis. 24h urine of women with lactational mastitis was collected at baseline and after 21 days of probiotic (PB) administration. Multivariate analysis (OSC-PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering) showed metabolome differences after PB treatment. The discriminant metabolites detected at baseline were lactose, and ibuprofen and acetaminophen (two pharmacological drugs commonly used for mastitis pain), while, after PB intake, creatine and the gut microbial co-metabolites hippurate and TMAO were detected. In addition, a voluntary desertion of the pharmacological drugs ibuprofen and acetaminophen was observed after probiotic administration. The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the identification of the overall effects of probiotic consumption among women suffering from mastitis and highlighted the potential of this approach in evaluating the outcomes of probiotics consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been applied in women with mastitis during lactation.

  9. A review of prevention and control of heifer mastitis via non-antibiotic strategies.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Parker, K I; Heuer, C; Compton, C W R

    2009-02-16

    Clinical and subclinical mastitis is a significant problem in primiparous dairy cattle (heifers) with a higher prevalence and incidence in heifers than cows, especially early in lactation. Differences in management (e.g. nutrition, pasturing, no use of dry cow therapy) as well as differences in physiological status (e.g. continuing growth in heifers) are likely contribute to the observed differences between heifers and cows. These differences may result in the requirement for different approaches for mastitis management in heifers than for cows. Mastitis is a multifactorial disease, hence control requires an understanding of the risk factors before effective interventions can be defined. Control strategies are aimed at reducing the incidence of new intramammary infections and eliminating existing infections. Potential strategies can include improved environmental and animal hygiene, application of internal and external teat sealants, prepartum application of teat antiseptics, prepartum milking and control of horn fly in environments where it acts as vector. Other less well-proven strategies to control heifer mastitis include management of heifers as a physically separate group from older cows and not feeding mastitic milk to calves. It is concluded that several well-proven strategies are available to manage heifer mastitis. However, further research is likely to improve understanding of heifer mastitis and lead to novel managerial approaches to mastitis control in this age group.

  10. Recombinant bovine somatotropin and clinical mastitis: incidence, discarded milk following therapy, and culling.

    PubMed

    Judge, L J; Erskine, R J; Bartlett, P C

    1997-12-01

    Holstein cows (n = 555) from four Michigan dairy farms were randomly assigned to receive bovine somatotropin (bST) or to serve as untreated controls. Bovine somatotropin (500 mg) was administered every 14 d beginning at 63 to 69 d of lactation and continuing until approximately 21 d prior to dry-off or until the cow was removed from the herd. Trial objectives were to determine the effect of bST on the incidence of clinical mastitis, number of days that milk was discarded because of therapy for clinical mastitis, and culling for mastitis. A total of 127 (22.9%) cases of clinical mastitis occurred during lactation. In the pretrial period (before 63 to 69 d of lactation), 42 (33.1%) cases occurred, and 85 (66.9%) cases occurred during the trial. Of the 42 pretrial cases, 57.1% occurred in control cows, and 42.9% occurred in treated cows. Of the 85 trial cases 47.1% occurred in control cows, and 52.9% occurred in treated cows. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio for the occurrence of clinical mastitis in treated cows was 1.06 (95% confidence interval = 0.62 to 1.81). The number of days that milk was discarded following therapy for clinical mastitis and the culling rate for mastitis did not differ between study groups.

  11. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    PubMed

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: < or =200,000/ml or >200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively) in milk from mammary quarters with subclinical mastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in plasma concentration of Cp between healthy and subclinical groups (p>0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (p<0.05). The concentrations of Fb and Cp in the milk of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (p<0.01). The results indicated that measurement of Fb in plasma and milk and Cp only in milk might be suitable for early diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows.

  13. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated. PMID:15663080

  14. Prevention of Infectious Mastitis by Oral Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 During Late Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leónides; Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Manzano, Susana; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Virginia; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that oral administration of lactobacilli can be an efficient approach to treat lactational infectious mastitis. In this trial, we have evaluated the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 to prevent this condition when orally administered during late pregnancy to women who had experienced infectious mastitis after previous pregnancies. In this study, 108 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Those in the probiotic group (n = 55) ingested daily 9 log10 colony-forming units of L. salivarius PS2 from approximately week 30 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas those in the placebo group (n = 53) received a placebo. The occurrence of mastitis was evaluated during the first 3 months after delivery. Globally, 44 of 108 women (41%) developed mastitis; however, the percentage of women with mastitis in the probiotic group (25% [n = 14]) was significantly lower than in the control group (57% [n = 30]). When mastitis occurred, the milk bacterial counts in the probiotic group were significantly lower than those obtained in the placebo group. Oral administration of L. salivarius PS2 during late pregnancy appears to be an efficient method to prevent infectious mastitis in a susceptible population. NCT01505361. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Streptococcus uberis: a permanent barrier to the control of bovine mastitis?

    PubMed

    Leigh, J A

    1999-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine mastitis has been reduced over the past 25 years due to the implementation of a five-point control plan aimed at reducing exposure, duration and transmission of intramammary infections by bacteria. This has markedly reduced the incidence of bovine mastitis caused by bacteria which show a contagious route of transmission, but has had little effect on the incidence of mastitis due to bacteria which infect the gland from an environmental reservoir. Streptococcus uberis is one such bacterium which is responsible for a significant proportion of clinical mastitis worldwide. The inadequacies of the current methods of mastitis control have led to the search for additional measures, particularly vaccines to prevent intramammary infection by this bacterium. Such an approach requires detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of intramammary infection. Our understanding of this area has grown in recent years but a lack of information still hampers disease control. Both live vaccines and, recently, crude sub-unit vaccines have shown promise against bovine mastitis due to S. uberis. Vaccines against mastitis must, however, be able to control infection without the participation of a marked inflammatory response. This review provides an overview of the recent advances which have been made in our understanding of host-pathogen interactions which promote infection and disease and highlights areas for strategic research aimed at controlling this bacterial infection.

  16. Bovine mastitis may be associated with the deprivation of gut Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Ma, C; Zhao, J; Xi, X; Ding, J; Wang, H; Zhang, H; Kwok, L Y

    2016-02-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economical important microbial disease in dairy industry. Some recent human clinical trials have shown that oral probiotics supplementation could effectively control clinical mastitis, suggesting that the mechanism of mastitis protection might be achieved via the host gut microbiota. We aimed to test our hypothesis that bovine mastitis was related to changes in both the mammary and gut microbial profiles. By quantitative PCR, the milk and faecal microbial profiles of cows with low (<3×10(5) cells/ml) and high (>1×10(6) cells/ml) somatic cell count (SCC) were compared. Firstly, we observed drastic differences in both the milk and faecal microbial compositions at genus and Lactobacillus-species levels between the two groups. Secondly, the pattern of faecal microbial community changes of mastitis cows was similar to that of the milk, characterised by a general increase in the mastitis pathogens (Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and deprivation of Lactobacillus and its members (L. salivarius, L. sakei, L. ruminis, L. delbrueckii, L. buchneri, and L. acidophilus). Thirdly, only the faecal lactobacilli, but not bifidobacteria correlated with the milk microbial communities and SCC. Our data together hint to a close association between bovine mastitis, the host gut and milk microbiota.

  17. Linum usitatissimum (linseed/flaxseed) fixed oil: antimicrobial activity and efficacy in bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Mukerjee, Alok; Kumar, P; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2011-02-01

    In vitro antimicrobial activity and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of L. usitatissimum (linseed/flaxseed) fixed oil in bovine mastitis were investigated. In vitro antimicrobial activity of L. usitatissimum fixed oil was evaluated against a number of microorganisms by disc diffusion method and MIC determination. The in vivo efficacy of the oil was evaluated in nine mastitis-affected cows divided into three groups (three in each group), following once-a-day intramammary infusion of oil, cefoperazone or an oil-cefoperazone combination for 7 days and by monitoring the California mastitis test score, somatic cell count and microbial count in milk samples. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli was comparable to that of cefoperazone while the antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans, was greater than that of cefoperazone. In the in vivo study, the oil exhibited significant reduction in the California mastitis test score and somatic cell count in milk samples from infected udders following 7 days of intramammary administration suggesting its anti-inflammatory effect. The microbial count in milk samples was also reduced significantly following oil treatment. The effects were comparable to the treatment by cefoperazone (Mastiwock) alone or in combination with the oil. Apparently, the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of the oil contribute to its therapeutic efficacy in mastitis; the oil could be used as an alternative treatment for bovine mastitis The results suggest possible therapeutic potential of L. usitatissimum fixed oil in bovine mastitis.

  18. Escherichia coli mastitis strains: In vitro phenotypes and severity of infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Perrine; Porcherie, Adeline; Répérant-Ferter, Maryline; Cunha, Patricia; Gitton, Christophe; Rainard, Pascal; Germon, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis remains a major infection of dairy cows and an important issue for dairy farmers and the dairy industry, in particular infections due to Escherichia coli strains. So far, properties specific to E. coli causing mastitis remain ill defined. In an attempt to better understand the properties required for E. coli to trigger mastitis, we used a range of in vitro assays to phenotypically characterize four E. coli strains, including the prototypical E. coli mastitis strain P4, possessing different relative abilities to cause mastitis in a mouse model. Our results indicate that a certain level of serum resistance might be required for colonization of the mammary gland. Resistance to neutrophil killing is also likely to contribute to a slower clearance of bacteria and higher chances to colonize the udder. In addition, we show that the four different strains do induce a pro-inflammatory response by mammary epithelial cells but with different intensities. Interestingly, the prototypical mastitis strain P4 actually induces the less intense response while it is responsible for the most severe infections in vivo. Altogether, our results suggest that different strategies can be used by E. coli strains to colonize the mammary gland and cause mastitis.

  19. A Survey of Mastitis in Selected Ontario Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B. W.; Barnum, D. A.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mastitis survey involving 74 Ontario dairy herds was conducted. The prevalence of infection at the quarter level was found to be 4.1% with Streptococcus agalactiae, 4.5% with other streptococcal species and 8.0% with Staphylococcus aureus. Regardless of the infection status, the geometric mean somatic cell count was found to increase with age of the cow but no increase was observed with increasing stage of lactation. The percentage of cows from which a bacterial pathogen was isolated increased with age but not with stage of lactation. PMID:17422140

  20. [Infectious mastitis: a new solution for an old problem].

    PubMed

    Beltrán Vaquero, David A; Crespo Garzón, Ana E; Rodriguez Bravo, Tomás C; Garcia Iglesias, Ángel

    2015-02-07

    Mastitis is an inflammation of one or several mammal lobes accompanied or not by a mammary gland infection (WHO 2000). The most frequent etiology is infectious, and the highest prevalence period in women is breast-feeding time. The incidence varies from 2 to 33% according to different authors, being more frequent in primiparous women and during the early postpartum weeks. There are other breast inflammatory processes related etiologies, unrelated to breastfeeding, such as neoplasms or trauma to which no reference is made at this time, since the primary objective of this work is focused on infectious etiology which is caused almost exclusively in relation to postpartum and lactation factors.

  1. Evaluation of milk cathelicidin for detection of dairy sheep mastitis.

    PubMed

    Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Dore, S; Pisanu, S; Puggioni, G M G; Roggio, A M; Pagnozzi, D; Lollai, S; Cannas, E A; Uzzau, S

    2016-08-01

    Mastitis due to intramammary infections is one of the most detrimental diseases in dairy sheep farming, representing a major cause of reduced milk productions and quality losses. In particular, subclinical mastitis presents significant detection and control problems, and the availability of tools enabling its timely, sensitive, and specific detection is therefore crucial. We have previously demonstrated that cathelicidins, small proteins implicated in the innate immune defense of the host, are specifically released in milk of mastitic animals by both epithelial cells and neutrophils. Here, we describe the development of an ELISA for milk cathelicidin and assess its value against somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacteriological culture for detection of ewe mastitis. Evaluation of the cathelicidin ELISA was carried out on 705 half-udder milk samples from 3 sheep flocks enrolled in a project for improvement of mammary health. Cathelicidin was detected in 35.3% of milk samples (249/705), and its amount increased with rising SCC values. The cathelicidin-negative (n=456) and cathelicidin-positive (n=249) sample groups showed a clear separation in relation to SCC, with median values of 149,500 and 3,300,000 cells/mL, respectively. Upon bacteriological culture, 20.6% (145/705) of the milk samples showed microbial growth, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being by far the most frequent finding. A significant proportion of all bacteriologically positive milk samples were positive for cathelicidin (110/145, 75.9%). Given the lack of a reliable gold standard for defining the true disease status, sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the cathelicidin ELISA were assessed by latent class analysis against 2 SCC thresholds and against bacteriological culture results. At an SCC threshold of 500,000 cells/mL, Se and Sp were 92.3 and 92.3% for cathelicidin ELISA, 89.0 and 94.9% for SCC, and 39.4 and 93.6% for bacteriological culture, respectively. At an SCC threshold of 1

  2. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with hyperprolactinemia: A nonoperative approach.

    PubMed

    Li, John; McGregor, Hugh P

    2017-08-27

    There is increasing evidence associating idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) with hyperprolactinemia. All documented cases have involved the patient having at least one operative procedure before the association has been made. We present a 55 year old female with IGM associated with risperidone induced hyperprolactinemia. She was successfully treated with a dopamine agonist, bromocriptine. We demonstrated that complete resolution can be achieved without surgical intervention, by targeting serum prolactin levels. We hope this will increase awareness of this rare clinically entity and avoid potentially unnecessary surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts < 350 cells/μL (P- interaction for treatment × CD4+ T-cell count = 0.10). Supplementation of HIV-infected women with vitamins increased the risk of subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  4. Implementation of multivariate cumulative sum control charts in mastitis and lameness monitoring.

    PubMed

    Miekley, Bettina; Stamer, Eckhard; Traulsen, Imke; Krieter, Joachim

    2013-09-01

    This study analyzed the methodology and applicability of multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) charts for early mastitis and lameness detection. Data used were recorded on the Karkendamm dairy research farm, Germany, between August 2008 and December 2010. Data of 328 and 315 cows in their first 200 d in milk were analyzed for mastitis and lameness detection, respectively. Mastitis as well as lameness was specified according to veterinary treatments. Both diseases were defined as disease blocks. Different disease definitions for mastitis and lameness (2 for mastitis and 3 for lameness) varied solely in the sequence length of the blocks. Only the days before the treatment were included in the disease blocks. Milk electrical conductivity, milk yield, and feeding patterns (feed intake, number of trough visits, and feeding time) were used for the recognition of mastitis. Pedometer activity and feeding patterns were used for lameness detection. To exclude biological trends and obtain independent observations, the values of each input variable were either preprocessed by wavelet filters or a multivariate vector autoregressive model. The residuals generated between the observed and filtered or observed and forecast values, respectively, were then transferred to a classic or self-starting MCUSUM chart. The combination of the 2 preprocessing methods with each of the 2 MCUSUM sum charts resulted in 4 combined monitoring systems. For mastitis as well as lameness detection requiring a block sensitivity of at least 70%, all 4 of the combined monitoring systems used revealed similar results within each of the disease definitions. Specificities of 73 to 80% and error rates of 99.6% were achieved for mastitis. The results for lameness showed that the definitions used obtained specificities of up to 81% and error rates of 99.1%. The results indicate that the monitoring systems with these study characteristics have appealing features for mastitis and lameness detection. However, they

  5. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mdegela, R H; Ryoba, R; Karimuribo, E D; Phiri, E J; Løken, T; Reksen, O; Mtengeti, E; Urio, N A

    2009-09-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7% (n = 69). Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6% (n = 91). Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2% (n = 91) while for fungal it was 16.7% (n = 90). Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30% (n = 353), while for bacteria and fungi it was 16% and 6% respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5% (n = 67). The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20% of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  6. [Effects of Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy on acute mastitis during lactation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shui-Bo; Wu, Hong; Gao, Cheng-Shun

    2012-09-01

    To observe the clinical effect of Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy on acute mastitis during lactation. Fifteen cases suffered from acute lactation mastitis were treated with Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy, that is, firstly with lifting and flicking reduction at "Taiji" and "Xuepen" point, whose intensity was varied from patient's physical fitness. Subsequently, the patients were treated with flame therapy induced by distillate spirit, once each day. After the treatment, all the patients were cured completely in from 1 to 5 days, with an average of 2.5 days. Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy is effective on acute mastitis during lactation.

  7. Erythema Nodosum in Association with Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, R; Castilla, C; Ng, E; Pomeranz, M K; Femia, A N

    2017-03-08

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by tender, erythematous, indurated breast plaques with associated edema, drainage, and scar formation.(1) IGM is often mistaken for breast carcinoma or infectious mastitis.(1,2) Histopathology readily distinguishes IGM from breast carcinoma, as the primary finding in IGM is granulomas centered around mammary lobules.(3) Nevertheless, differentiating IGM from bacterial mastitis and other mimickers, such as atypical mycobacterial infections or sarcoidosis, can be more difficult.(4) Herein, we report the largest case series of concurrent IGM and erythema nodosum (EN). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of veterinarian in the monitoring programs of mastitis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletić, M.; Magaš, V.; Maletić, J.

    2017-09-01

    Mastitis is the most common and the most expensive disease of dairy cows. It is followed by a large number of direct and indirect costs that burden the farm’s budget and lead to major economic and health losses. The veterinarian at the farm plays a key role in implementing a protocol of biosecurity measures, a protocol of control, therapy, and the suppression of clinical and subclinical mastitis. In order to successfully implement these measures, a good communication between a veterinarian and a farm staff who performs milking procedures is necessary in order to detect and treat all cases of mastitis in time.

  9. Determinants of mastitis in women in the CASTLE study: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Meabh; Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan M; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Payne, Matthew S; Bennett, Catherine M

    2015-12-16

    Mastitis is an acute, debilitating condition that occurs in approximately 20 % of breastfeeding women who experience a red, painful breast with fever. This paper describes the factors correlated with mastitis and investigates the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in women who participated in the CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study. The CASTLE study was a prospective cohort study which recruited nulliparous women in late pregnancy in two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia in 2009-2011. Women completed questionnaires at recruitment and six time-points in the first eight weeks postpartum. Postpartum questionnaires asked about incidences of mastitis, nipple damage, milk supply, expressing practices and breastfeeding problems. Nasal and nipple swabs were collected from mothers and babies, as well as breast milk samples. All samples were cultured for S. aureus. "Time at risk" of mastitis was defined as days between birth and first occurrence of mastitis (for women who developed mastitis) and days between birth and the last study time-point (for women who did not develop mastitis). Risk factors for incidence of mastitis occurring during the time at risk (Incident Rate Ratios [IRR]) were investigated using a discrete version of the multivariable proportional hazards regression model. Twenty percent (70/346) of participants developed mastitis. Women had an increased risk of developing mastitis if they reported nipple damage (IRR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.21, 3.91), over-supply of breast milk (IRR 2.60, 95 % CI 1.58, 4.29), nipple shield use (IRR 2.93, 95 % CI 1.72, 5.01) or expressing several times a day (IRR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.01, 2.68). The presence of S. aureus on the nipple (IRR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.04, 2.85) or in milk (IRR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.08, 2.92) also increased the risk of developing mastitis. Nipple damage, over-supply of breast milk, use of nipple shields and the presence of S. aureus on the nipple or in breast milk

  10. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H; Garland, Suzanne M; Lumley, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100) were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards). Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99) were recruited from maternal and child health (community) centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43%) and control women (45/98, 46%). However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82%) than controls (52/93, 56%). The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27) after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20). Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need

  11. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; Garland, Suzanne M; Lumley, Judith

    2006-10-11

    Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100) were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards). Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99) were recruited from maternal and child health (community) centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43%) and control women (45/98, 46%). However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82%) than controls (52/93, 56%). The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27) after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20). We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious mastitis. Mothers need good advice about optimal attachment

  12. Evidence that mastitis can cause pregnancy loss in dairy cows: A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Mohammad O; Maunsell, Fiona P; De Vries, Albert; Galvao, Klibs N; Risco, Carlos A; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify and assess evidence and knowledge gaps in published observational studies that have investigated the relationship between mastitis and pregnancy loss (PL) in dairy cows. PubMed and ScienceDirect were used to search pertinent peer-reviewed research reports of interest. Screening of research reports was conducted at 3 levels: titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. The search identified 651 records for initial screening. The final screening process identified 8 qualified articles for review after removing 10 duplicate records, 582 titles, 31 abstracts, and 20 full-text articles. Two studies produced strong epidemiologic evidence indicating that (1) exposure to clinical mastitis during early gestation (first 45 d of gestation) is associated with subsequent PL during the following 90 d; and (2) subclinical mastitis 1 to 30 d before artificial insemination (AI) is associated with subsequent PL at 35 to 41 d of gestation. An additional study showed that exposure to clinical mastitis during early lactation in combination with low body condition can increase the risk of PL in dairy cows; however, the interaction effect between clinical mastitis and low body condition on PL was considered weak. Four other studies produced inconclusive evidence indicating that mastitis is a predisposing factor for PL in dairy cows, as the exposure risk period for mastitis overlapped with the follow-up period for diagnosis of PL in dairy cows. Finally, one study failed to identify a relationship between mastitis and PL in dairy cows. Further research is needed to (1) support the hypothesis that mastitis in combination with low body condition score (or other exposure factors) can increase the risk of PL, (2) compare the effect of clinical versus subclinical mastitis on PL, (3) compare the effect of mastitis before breeding and during gestation on PL, and (4) compare the effect of mastitis on PL in dairy cows during

  13. [Mastitis management in Swiss dairy farms with udder health problems].

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, L; van den Borne, B H P; Kaufmann, T; Reist, M; Strabel, D; Harisberger, M; Steiner, A; Bodmer, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the udder health management in Swiss dairy herds with udder health problems. One hundred dairy herds with a yield-corrected somatic cell count of 200'000 to 300'000 cells/ml during 2010 were selected. Data concerning farm structure, housing system, milking technique, milking procedures, dry-cow and mastitis management were collected during farm visits between September and December 2011. In addition, quarter milk samples were collected for bacteriological culturing from cows with a composite somatic cell count ≥ 150'000 cells/ml. The highest quarter level prevalence was 12.3 % for C. bovis. Eighty-two percent of the pipeline milking machines in tie-stalls and 88 % of the milking parlours fulfilled the criteria for the vacuum drop, and only 74 % of the pipeline milking machines met the criteria of the 10-l-water test. Eighty-five percent of the farms changed their milk liners too late. The correct order of teat preparation before cluster attachment was carried out by 37 % of the farmers only. With these results, Swiss dairy farmers and herd health veterinarians can be directed to common mistakes in mastitis management. The data will be used for future information campaigns to improve udder health in Swiss dairy farms.

  14. [Occurrence and etiology for subclinical mastitis in cows].

    PubMed

    Filev, F

    1977-01-01

    Studied were a total of 16,571 cows on 89 farms by means of the Bernburg test. Milk was sampled from the positively reacting quarters of the udder by taking 18,047 samples intended for bacteriologic investigation. The demonstration of mastitis streptococci was carried out on "TKT" agar Merk, of pathogenic staphylococci, hemolytic streptococci, and Corinebacteria--on dextrose agar Oxoid containing 7.5% citrated calf blood. The isolated hemolytic streptococcus bacteria from the two nutrient media were differentiated through the CAMP test as well as serologically by the precipitation agar gel and Difco sera. The pathogenicity of Staphylococcus bacteria, in addition through hemolysis, was tested by the use of plasma coagulase with citrated rabbit plasma. In 53.95% of the cases there were secretory lesions due to Sc. agalactiae (6.23%) to Sc. dysgalactiae (5.69%) to Sc. uberis (8.47%), to Staph. aureus (2.44%), to hemolytic streptococci of the C, G and L groups (0.28%), to Sc. viridans (0.03%), to Corynebacterium pyogenes (0.41%), and catarrhal mastitis (30.4%). Some of the causative agents, such as Sc. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, and others have proved of epidemiologic importance to humans.

  15. Klebsiella species associated with bovine mastitis in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Podder, Milka P; Rogers, Laura; Daley, Peter K; Keefe, Greg P; Whitney, Hugh G; Tahlan, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. is a common cause of bovine mastitis, but information regarding its molecular epidemiology is lacking from many parts of the world. On using mass spectrometry and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene, it was found that over a one year study, K. variicola and Enterobacter cloacae were misidentified as K. pneumoniae in a small number of clinical mastitis (CM) cases from Newfoundland. Results suggest that the currently used standard biochemical/phenotypic tests lack the sensitivity required to accurately discriminate among the three mentioned Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a single strain of K. variicola was associated with CM from one farm in the study as demonstrated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. To the best of our knowledge, K. variicola, which is normally found in the environment, has not been isolated previously from milk obtained from cows with CM. Therefore, it is possible that K. variicola was not detected in milk samples in the past due to the inability of standard tests to discriminate it from other Klebsiella species.

  16. Cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis associated with Corynebacterium including Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Kate J; Robson, Jennifer; Cherian, Sarah G; Wan Sai Cheong, Jenny; Kerr, Kris; Bligh, Judith F

    2017-06-01

    Granulomatous (lobular) mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease affecting parous reproductive-aged women. Once considered idiopathic, there is growing evidence of an association with corynebacteria infection, especially in the setting of a distinct histological pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM). We describe 15 cases with histological features either confirming (n = 12) or suggesting (n = 3) CNGM, and concurrent microbiological evidence of Corynebacterium species. The organism was detected by culture or 16S rRNA gene sequencing of specimens obtained at surgery or fine needle aspiration. In seven cases, Gram-positive organisms were seen within vacuolated spaces. Speciation was performed in nine cases, with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii subsequently identified. These cases provide further evidence in support of this association and in doing so highlight the importance of recognising these histological clues as well as the limitations of Gram stain and microbiological culture in detecting this previously under-recognised disease process. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. All rights reserved.

  17. Klebsiella Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Milka P.; Rogers, Laura; Daley, Peter K.; Keefe, Greg P.; Whitney, Hugh G.; Tahlan, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. is a common cause of bovine mastitis, but information regarding its molecular epidemiology is lacking from many parts of the world. On using mass spectrometry and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene, it was found that over a one year study, K. variicola and Enterobacter cloacae were misidentified as K. pneumoniae in a small number of clinical mastitis (CM) cases from Newfoundland. Results suggest that the currently used standard biochemical/phenotypic tests lack the sensitivity required to accurately discriminate among the three mentioned Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a single strain of K. variicola was associated with CM from one farm in the study as demonstrated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. To the best of our knowledge, K. variicola, which is normally found in the environment, has not been isolated previously from milk obtained from cows with CM. Therefore, it is possible that K. variicola was not detected in milk samples in the past due to the inability of standard tests to discriminate it from other Klebsiella species. PMID:25180510

  18. Bovine mastitis in Ontario due to Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, H L; Thawley, D; Nelson, F C

    1976-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis was first diagnosed in 16 of 55 cows in an Ontario herd in Feburary 1972. A total of 182 of 598 (30.4%) cows from 33 of 64 (51.5%) farms in widely separated areas of the province were culturally positive. Herd incidence varied from 15 to 40% with one closed herd having an incidence of 61%. Four herds were investigated culturally and serologically by the growth inhibition test for 15 months. In the acute phase the organism was present in the milk in extremely high numbers and could still be isolated from a few cows after eight to 12 months. The sera from 89.5% of the animals with clinical mycoplasma mastitis produced a zone of surface "film" and/or colony inhibition and some cows remained positive for six to 12 months. The disease was experimentally reproduced with a pure culture of the organism isolated from the milk of a cow from one of the herds. PMID:1000385

  19. Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle: To cull or not to cull.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Robin A J; Fox, Larry K; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2016-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention. Improved molecular diagnostic tests are leading to more rapid detection of mycoplasmas. Typing tests, such as multi-locus sequence typing, can help trace the source of outbreaks. An approach to successful control is proposed, which involves regular monitoring and rapid segregation or culling of infected cows. Serious consideration should be given by owners of healthy dairy herds to the purchase of M. bovis-free replacements. Increased cases of disease could occur in Europe and Israel if the trend for larger dairy herds continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. β-defensins: An innate defense for bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Gurao, Ankita; Kashyap, Sudhir Kumar; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    Immune challenges are inevitable for livestock that are exposed to a varied range of adverse conditions ranging from environmental to pathogenic stresses. The β-defensins are antimicrobial peptides, belonging to “defensin” family and therefore acts as the first line of defense against the major infections occurring in dairy cattle including intramammary infections. The better resistance to mastitis displayed by Bos indicus is implicit in the fact that they have better adapted and also has more sequence variation with rare allele conserved due to lesser artificial selection pressure than that of Bos taurus. Among the 58 in silico predicted β-defensins, only a few have been studied in the aspect of intramammary infections. The data on polymorphisms occurring in various β-defensin genes is limited in B. indicus, indicating toward higher possibilities for exploring marker for mastitis resistance. The following review shall focus on concisely summarizing the up-to-date research on β-defensins in B. taurus and discuss the possible scope for research in B. indicus. PMID:28919695

  1. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C M; Xia, B T; Wilson, G C; Lewis, J D; Khan, S; Lee, S J; Lower, E E; Edwards, M J; Shaughnessy, E A

    2017-10-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare benign breast disease of women of reproductive age. It usually presents as a painful mass. Since the etiology is unclear, directed diagnosis and management is lacking. This is a retrospective chart review of 14 patients, over twelve years (2004-2016), identified through query of pathology findings. Two asymptomatic patients were diagnosed after oncologic breast resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The remaining twelve patients were young (31.7 years, range 23-43 years), predominantly non-white (50% African/African-American, 36% Hispanic, 7% Asian), pregnant within the last five years (86%), with no prior granulomatous disease. Evaluation included breast imaging, microbial cultures and staining, and biopsy. Treatment included antibiotics (57%), corticosteroids (21%), methotrexate (7%), and/or surgery (71%). Imaging suggests segmental masses, possibly abscess. Granulomatous mastitis is uncommon, and difficult to diagnose and manage. We review our experience, the literature, and propose an algorithm for diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mastitis treatment-Reduction in antibiotic usage in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krömker, V; Leimbach, S

    2017-08-01

    Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject. In urgent need of future reduction in AMU in the dairy industry, this review article describes and discusses possible approaches promising prompt implementation, including therapeutical alternatives as well as pro- and metaphylactic concepts such as the implementation of evidence-based mastitis therapy concepts and selective dry cow treatment (sDCT), in search of the most effective and contemporary methods for decreasing AMU and AMR in dairy production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. β-defensins: An innate defense for bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gurao, Ankita; Kashyap, Sudhir Kumar; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-08-01

    Immune challenges are inevitable for livestock that are exposed to a varied range of adverse conditions ranging from environmental to pathogenic stresses. The β-defensins are antimicrobial peptides, belonging to "defensin" family and therefore acts as the first line of defense against the major infections occurring in dairy cattle including intramammary infections. The better resistance to mastitis displayed by Bos indicus is implicit in the fact that they have better adapted and also has more sequence variation with rare allele conserved due to lesser artificial selection pressure than that of Bos taurus. Among the 58 in silico predicted β-defensins, only a few have been studied in the aspect of intramammary infections. The data on polymorphisms occurring in various β-defensin genes is limited in B. indicus, indicating toward higher possibilities for exploring marker for mastitis resistance. The following review shall focus on concisely summarizing the up-to-date research on β-defensins in B. taurus and discuss the possible scope for research in B. indicus.

  4. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mammadova, Nazira

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  5. Udder orf infection and its role in ovine clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R

    1997-04-01

    During an experimental study of ovine subclinical mastitis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, an outbreak of contagious ecthyma occurred among ewes unvaccinated against parapox virus. The same group of ewes developed a high rate (43.7%) of clinical mastitis caused by Pasteurella haemolytica. The rate of clinical mastitis among ewes vaccinated against parapox virus was very low (3.7%) suggesting that the presence of orf in the unvaccinated ewes was contributing to the high rate of clinical mastitis. An examination of the iron, sodium, potassium and albumin concentration of milk collected from 16 unvaccinated and nine randomly selected vaccinated ewes before experimental infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci or their uninfected control mammary glands indicated significant differences in the iron (p < 0.0001) and sodium (p = 0.01) concentration. Increased iron concentration in the milk may have assisted in the development of udder infection caused by P. haemolytica as iron is easily utilised by this bacterium.

  6. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  7. In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis pathogens by bovine teat skin normal flora.

    PubMed

    Woodward, W D; Besser, T E; Ward, A C; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    One factor contributing to differences in the susceptibility of cows to mastitis may be differences in the teat skin normal flora, which could inhibit or enhance the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Using in vitro cross-streaking methods, we found that 25% of the isolates of teat normal flora of non-lactating heifers inhibited the growth of selected mastitis pathogens, but enhancers were not detected. Gram-positive pathogens were inhibited to a greater extent than Gram-negative pathogens. Inhibition was not a characteristic of specific genera or species of normal flora, but rather a property of certain variants within a species. This phenomenon of inhibition of mastitis pathogens in vitro by normal flora may be useful as an in vivo biological control method to reduce the incidence of mastitis.

  8. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits".

    PubMed

    Clausen, T N; Dietz, H H

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result of a multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink females. In this study we sacrificed 2 groups of lactating mink females with a total of 78 mammary glands at day 19-30 after giving birth. The first group had raised normal mink kits while the other group had suffered severe attacks of greasy kits. We found no clinical or histopathological evidence of mastitis but isolated streptococci and staphylococci from 2 mammary glands in females raising greasy kits. These glands showed no clinical or histological signs of inflammation attributable to bacteria and we conclude that mastitis is not necessary for the generation of greasy kits.

  9. Assessment of beta-glucuronidase levels in goat's milk as an indicator of mastitis: comparison with other mastitis detection methods.

    PubMed

    Oliszewski, R; Kairúz de Núñez, M S; Elias de González, S N; Oliver, G

    2002-05-01

    The use of somatic cell counts (SCCs) for the diagnosis of mastitis is not a well-established procedure for the caprine species, because nonleucocytic cell-like particles are normally observed as a result of the apocrine secretion process of the goat mammary gland. The infection levels of 124 goats were measured by the beta-glucuronidase test, which was compared with the SCC method and the California mastitis test (CMT). Seventy-nine of 124 samples (63.7%) showed SCCs lower than 1.3 x 10(3) cells per ml. Of these samples, 93% showed low levels of beta-glucuronidase activity (< 15 U/ml). In the remaining 36.3% of the samples, SCCs were higher than 1.3 x 10(3) cells per ml. Of these samples, 88% showed high levels of beta-glucuronidase activity (15 to 100 U/ml). The CMT gave similar results. In this study, the beta-glucuronidase test was standardized for goat milk and shown to be reliable, enabling one to count only the somatic enzyme cells in milk and avoiding the interference encountered with the SCC method.

  10. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  11. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats.

  12. Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Karzis, J; Donkin, E F; Petzer, I M

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP) and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH)], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH) and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac)] in goats with clinical mastitis. Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h) with (67 h) or without (48 h) the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h) than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h) and without (36 h) the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows. A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows: WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time) + 22.11 (udder pathology) - 13.6 (floccules) - 0.00649 (milk yield). Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7,053 x 10(3) to 7,948 x 10(3) cells per ml without isolations of bacteria and between 6,476 x 10(3) and 8,479 x 10(3) cells per ml with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT) and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation.

  13. Risk Factors Predicting Infectious Lactational Mastitis: Decision Tree Approach versus Logistic Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leónides; Mediano, Pilar; García, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Lactational mastitis frequently leads to a premature abandonment of breastfeeding; its development has been associated with several risk factors. This study aims to use a decision tree (DT) approach to establish the main risk factors involved in mastitis and to compare its performance for predicting this condition with a stepwise logistic regression (LR) model. Methods Data from 368 cases (breastfeeding women with mastitis) and 148 controls were collected by a questionnaire about risk factors related to medical history of mother and infant, pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and breastfeeding practices. The performance of the DT and LR analyses was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both models were calculated. Results Cracked nipples, antibiotics and antifungal drugs during breastfeeding, infant age, breast pumps, familial history of mastitis and throat infection were significant risk factors associated with mastitis in both analyses. Bottle-feeding and milk supply were related to mastitis for certain subgroups in the DT model. The areas under the ROC curves were similar for LR and DT models (0.870 and 0.835, respectively). The LR model had better classification accuracy and sensitivity than the DT model, but the last one presented better specificity at the optimal threshold of each curve. Conclusions The DT and LR models constitute useful and complementary analytical tools to assess the risk of lactational infectious mastitis. The DT approach identifies high-risk subpopulations that need specific mastitis prevention programs and, therefore, it could be used to make the most of public health resources.

  14. Granulomatous Mastitis: A Ten-Year Experience at a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Ercan; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Karadeniz, Erdem; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Gursan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study we aimed to define clinical, radiologic and pathological specialties of patients who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty with granulomatous mastitis and show medical and surgical treatment results. With the help of this study we will be able to make our own clinical algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: We searched retrospectively addresses, phone numbers and clinical files of 93 patients whom diagnosed granulomatous mastitis between a decade of January 2001 – December 2010. We noted demographic specialties, ages, gender, medical family history, main complaints, physical findings, radiological and laboratory findings, medical treatments, postoperative complications and surgical procedures if they were operated; morbidity, recurrence and success ratios, complications after treatment for patients discussed above. Results: In this study we evaluated 93 patients, 91 females and 2 males, with granulomatous mastitis retrospectively who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty between January 2001 and December 2010. Mean age was 34.4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the lesions. Seventy three patients had idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis and 20 patients had specific granulomatous mastitis IGM (18 tuberculosis mastitis, 1 alveolar echinococcosis and 1 silk reaction). All the patients had surgical debridement or antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory treatment with results bad clinical response before applied our clinic. Conclusion: Empiric antibiotic therapy and drainage of the breast lesions are not enough for complete remission of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. The lesion must be excised completely. In selected patients, corticosteroid therapy can be useful. In the patients with tuberculous mastitis, abscess drainage and antituberculous therapy can be useful, but wide excision must be chosen for the

  15. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Patil, M P; Nagvekar, A S; Ingole, S D; Bharucha, S V; Palve, V T

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. The levels of SCC (×10(5) cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes.

  16. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098

  17. Granulomatous Mastitis: A Ten-Year Experience at a University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Ercan; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Karadeniz, Erdem; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Gursan, Nesrin

    2015-10-01

    In this study we aimed to define clinical, radiologic and pathological specialties of patients who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty with granulomatous mastitis and show medical and surgical treatment results. With the help of this study we will be able to make our own clinical algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. We searched retrospectively addresses, phone numbers and clinical files of 93 patients whom diagnosed granulomatous mastitis between a decade of January 2001 - December 2010. We noted demographic specialties, ages, gender, medical family history, main complaints, physical findings, radiological and laboratory findings, medical treatments, postoperative complications and surgical procedures if they were operated; morbidity, recurrence and success ratios, complications after treatment for patients discussed above. In this study we evaluated 93 patients, 91 females and 2 males, with granulomatous mastitis retrospectively who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty between January 2001 and December 2010. Mean age was 34.4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the lesions. Seventy three patients had idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis and 20 patients had specific granulomatous mastitis IGM (18 tuberculosis mastitis, 1 alveolar echinococcosis and 1 silk reaction). All the patients had surgical debridement or antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory treatment with results bad clinical response before applied our clinic. Empiric antibiotic therapy and drainage of the breast lesions are not enough for complete remission of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. The lesion must be excised completely. In selected patients, corticosteroid therapy can be useful. In the patients with tuberculous mastitis, abscess drainage and antituberculous therapy can be useful, but wide excision must be chosen for the patients with recurrent disease.

  18. Vaccines against bovine mastitis in the New Zealand context: what is the best way forward?

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Wedlock, D N; Lacy-Hulbert, S J; Hillerton, J E; Buddle, B M

    2009-06-01

    Mastitis is an important animal health disease which constitutes a serious problem for the dairy industry in New Zealand. Mastitis reduces milk yield and quality, necessitates the use of antibiotic therapy, with associated risks of contaminating the raw milk supply, and imposes a serious economic burden, currently estimated at NZ$300 million per year. Mastitis is caused by a variety of infectious agents. In the New Zealand context, with cattle grazing on pasture, Streptococcus uberis is a major bacterial pathogen, responsible for a significant proportion of clinical cases, especially during early lactation and the dry period. Other pathogens of significance include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Escherichia coli, as well as so-called 'minor pathogens', namely coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS). Current strategies aimed at reducing cases of mastitis include improved hygiene in the farm environment, particularly with regards to the health and cleanliness of teats. Once mastitis occurs, antibiotic therapy is a favoured option, and as a prophylactic tool, in the form of dry-cow therapy, has also shown value. Prevention of mastitis using immunological tools such as vaccines lags behind the major vaccine breakthroughs that have been achieved in preventing and/or reducing the severity of numerous infectious diseases in animals. In this review, the current state of research in the area of development of vaccines against mastitis is summarised, with particular emphasis on bacteria important to the dairy farming industry in New Zealand. Few, if any, effective vaccines have been designed to prevent or mitigate intramammary infections. It is argued that novel approaches must be considered to search for vaccine candidates, and vaccines need to be designed and constructed within the special framework of their uses, in the mammary gland which offers a unique immunological environment. In addition, effective vaccines against mastitis due to Strep. uberis

  19. Unusual Outbreak of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Sheep Caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Las Heras, Alfonso; Vela, Ana I.; Fernández, Elena; Legaz, Emilio; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 13 of 58 lactating ewes due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates had identical biochemical profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and also exhibited indistinguishable macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicating that all cases of mastitis were produced by a single strain. PMID:11880454

  20. Unusual outbreak of clinical mastitis in dairy sheep caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Las Heras, Alfonso; Vela, Ana I; Fernández, Elena; Legaz, Emilio; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2002-03-01

    This work describes an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 13 of 58 lactating ewes due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates had identical biochemical profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and also exhibited indistinguishable macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicating that all cases of mastitis were produced by a single strain.

  1. Cepharanthine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ershun, Zhou; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Yongguo, Cao; Naisheng, Zhang; Zhengtao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CEP on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CEP on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. CEP was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The results show that CEP significantly attenuates the infiltration of neutrophils, suppresses myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, CEP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Accordingly, CEP might be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  2. Liver X receptor agonist prevents LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Zhengkai; Liu, Hui; Song, Xiaojing; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Best known for its ability to regulate lipid metabolism and transport, LXRs have recently also been implicated in regulation of inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of synthetic LXR-α agonist T0901317 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. T0901317 was injected 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The results showed that T0901317 significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO); down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and PEG2; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65, caused by LPS. Moreover, we report for the first time that LXR-α activation impaired LPS-induced mastitis. Taken together, these data indicated that T0901317 had protective effect on mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of T0901317 on LPS induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway. LXR-α activation can be used as a therapeutic approach to treat mastitis.

  3. Protective effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rongfeng; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Kaempferol isolated from the root of Zingiberaceae plants galangal and other Chinese herbal medicines have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis are unknown and their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Kaempferol was injected 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The present results showed that kaempferol markedly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, kaempferol suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol against the LPS-induced mastitis possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  4. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  5. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Khoramian, B; Vajhi, A; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H; Ahrari-Khafi, M S; Bahonar, A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible.

  6. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Khoramian, B.; Vajhi, A.; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H.; Ahrari-Khafi, M. S.; Bahonar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible. PMID:27175155

  7. Taste of Milk from Inflamed Breasts of Breastfeeding Mothers with Mastitis Evaluated Using a Taste Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis. Subjects and Methods: The intensity of four basic tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami) of breastmilk from 24 healthy mothers at 3–5 days and at 2–3, 4–5, and 8–10 weeks postpartum and from 14 mothers with mastitis was determined objectively using a taste sensor. The intensity of each basic taste and the concentrations of main taste substances in milk were compared between the inflamed breasts and the normal breasts of control mothers or the contralateral asymptomatic breast of mothers with unilateral mastitis. Results: The transition from colostrum to mature milk was accompanied by changes in the taste of the milk, such as decreased saltiness and umami and increased bitterness and sourness. Umami and saltiness increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Contents of sodium, glutamate, and guanosine monophosphate increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Conclusions: Tastes that were specifically associated with inflamed breasts appeared to include an increase in umami and saltiness, which might have resulted from an increased content in factors associated with umami and sodium. PMID:24350703

  8. Taste of milk from inflamed breasts of breastfeeding mothers with mastitis evaluated using a taste sensor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-03-01

    The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis. The intensity of four basic tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami) of breastmilk from 24 healthy mothers at 3-5 days and at 2-3, 4-5, and 8-10 weeks postpartum and from 14 mothers with mastitis was determined objectively using a taste sensor. The intensity of each basic taste and the concentrations of main taste substances in milk were compared between the inflamed breasts and the normal breasts of control mothers or the contralateral asymptomatic breast of mothers with unilateral mastitis. The transition from colostrum to mature milk was accompanied by changes in the taste of the milk, such as decreased saltiness and umami and increased bitterness and sourness. Umami and saltiness increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Contents of sodium, glutamate, and guanosine monophosphate increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Tastes that were specifically associated with inflamed breasts appeared to include an increase in umami and saltiness, which might have resulted from an increased content in factors associated with umami and sodium.

  9. Assessment of genetic variation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Tolone, Marco; Larrondo, Cristian; Yáñez, José M; Newman, Scott; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare

    2016-07-28

    Mastitis resistance is a complex and multifactorial trait, and its expression depends on both genetic and environmental factors, including infection pressure. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic basis of mastitis resistance to specific pathogens using a repeatability threshold probit animal model. The most prevalent isolated pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); 39 % of records and 77 % of the animals infected at least one time in the whole period of study. There was significant genetic variation only for Streptococci (STR). In addition, there was a positive genetic correlation between STR and all pathogens together (ALL) (0.36 ± 0.22), and CNS and ALL (0.92 ± 0.04). The results of our study support the presence of significant genetic variation for mastitis caused by Streptococci and suggest the importance of discriminating between different pathogens causing mastitis due to the fact that they most likely influence different genetic traits. Low heritabilities for pathogen specific-mastitis resistance may be considered when including bacteriological status as a measure of mastitis presence to implement breeding strategies for improving udder health in dairy ewes.

  10. Development of magnetic nanoparticle based calorimetric assay for the detection of bovine mastitis in cow milk.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Raja; Al Attas, Sana; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Zourob, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals. The plasmin substrate coupled to magnetic nanoparticles form a black self-assembled monolayer on a gold sensor surface. In the presence of increased levels of plasmin, the substrate is cleaved and the peptide fragment attached to the magnetic beads, will be attracted by the magnet which is present under the sensor strips revealing the golden surface. We found the area of the golden color surface proportional to plasmin activity. The sensitivity of this method was determined to be 1 ng/ml of plasmin in vitro. Next, we tested the biosensor using mastitis positive milk of which infection is confirmed by bacterial cultures. This newly developed colorimetric biosensor has high potential in applications for the diagnosis of mastitis with potential spin offs to health, food and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence rates of clinical mastitis among Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen A; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry.

  13. Stripping out pus in lactational mastitis: a means of preventing breast abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, H; Rosenblood, L K

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether manual stripping of pus from the breasts of women with lactational mastitis is effective in preventing the formation of breast abscesses. DESIGN: Case series (chart review). SETTING: Family practice in Montreal. PATIENTS: All (475) charts of patients with lactational mastitis were reviewed; 61 women were excluded because they already had a breast abscess. Most of the patients had been referred. OUTCOME MEASURES: Abscess formation, length of illness after treatment, rate of recurrence of mastitis, illness in the mother or infant within the 6 weeks after the mastitis and continuance of breast-feeding. MAIN RESULTS: The duration of symptoms before treatment was 1 to 56 (mean 5.3) days. In 9% of the cases both breasts were affected, and in 23% at least one episode of mastitis had previously occurred. The stripping technique was applied to all the patients. Pus was removed in 210 women; the remaining women were considered to have cellulitis. Only four patients (less than 1%) had breast abscesses. The mean length of illness after treatment was 7.2 days. The rate of recurrence was 14%. In all, 6% of the mothers and 9% of the infants became ill in the 6 weeks after the mastitis. Most (92%) of the patients continued to breast-feed. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of abscess formation was considerably lower than the rates reported in the literature. Therefore, manual stripping of pus from the infected breasts of lactating women appears to be effective in preventing breast abscesses. PMID:1873763

  14. Incidence of bovine clinical mastitis in Jammu region and antibiogram of isolated pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Adil Majid; Soodan, Jasvinder Singh; Singh, Rajiv; Dhobi, Ishfaq Ahmad; Hussain, Tufail; Dar, Mohammad Yousuf; Mir, Muheet

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of clinical mastitis in bovines of Jammu region, to identify the infectious organisms responsible for it, and the antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated pathogens. The study was conducted on cases that were presented to the Medicine Division of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, R.S. Pura, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir. A total of 260 cases of bovines were presented from June 30, 2012, to July 01, 2013, out of which 30 cases were of clinical mastitis. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was made on the basis of history and clinical examination of affected animals. Animal and quarter-wise incidence of clinical mastitis were found to be 11.5% and 5.76%, respectively. Of the 23 isolates obtained, Staphylococcus aureus (60.87%) was the most frequently isolated organism, followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci (13.04%), Streptococcus uberis (4.35%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.69%), and Escherichia coli (13.04%). The antimicrobial sensitivity of isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin/sulbactam, ceftriaxone/tazobactam, ceftizoxime, ampicillin/sulbactam and least sensitivity for oxytetracycline and penicillin. Staphylococcus spp. is the major causative agent of clinical mastitis in bovines of Jammu region. The causative agents of the clinical mastitis were most sensitive to enrofloxacin and gentamicin.

  15. Culture independent assessment of human milk microbial community in lactational mastitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shriram H; Vaidya, Yati H; Patel, Reena J; Pandit, Ramesh J; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kunjadiya, Anju P

    2017-08-10

    Breastfeeding undoubtedly provides important benefits to the mother-infant dyad and should be encouraged. Mastitis, one of the common but major cause of premature weaning among lactating women, is an inflammation of connective tissue within the mammary gland. This study reports the influence of mastitis on human milk microbiota by utilizing 16 S rRNA gene sequencing approach. We sampled and sequenced microbiome from 50 human milk samples, including 16 subacute mastitis (SAM), 16 acute mastitis (AM) and 18 healthy-controls. Compared to controls, SAM and AM microbiota were quite distinct and drastically reduced. Genera including, Aeromonas, Staphylococcus, Ralstonia, Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas were significantly enriched in SAM and AM samples, while Acinetobacter, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, Faecalibacterium and Eubacterium were consistently depleted. Further analysis of our samples revealed positive aerotolerant odds ratio, indicating dramatic depletion of obligate anaerobes and enrichment of aerotolerant bacteria during the course of mastitis. In addition, predicted functional metagenomics identified several gene pathways related to bacterial proliferation and colonization (e.g. two-component system, bacterial secretion system and motility proteins) in SAM and AM samples. In conclusion, our study confirmed previous hypothesis that mastitis women have lower microbial diversity, increased abundance of opportunistic pathogens and depletion of commensal obligate anaerobes.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  17. Short communication: ELISA system for screening of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Sato, Ayano; Sobukawa, Hideto; Sato, Yuko; Ito, Takaaki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Prototheca zopfii is an achlorophyllic alga that causes bovine mastitis, resulting in a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. This study evaluated the use of an ELISA system for distinguishing cows with mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2 from healthy cows and cows with chronic candidal mastitis. We also investigated the transitional changes of specific antibody titers in healthy cows injected with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. The ELISA system exhibited the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (100%) for chronic protothecal mastitis when the positive cutoff value was set at 43.4 ELISA units. Anti-protothecal IgG titers were positive in all cows after they were inoculated with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. These results indicated that ELISA detection of anti-protothecal IgG in serum provided specificity and sensitivity sufficient for diagnosing protothecal mastitis. Thus, an ELISA system incorporating this specific antiserum is expected to be valuable for definitive field-based diagnosis of bovine mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation of risk factors for nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Gerald W.; Schoonderwoerd, Matthew; Schipper, Casey

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken during the summer of 1989 in central Alberta dairy herds to identify independent predictors of nocardial mastitis. Thirty-seven herds with nocardial mastitis were matched with control herds based on herd size, milk production, and enrolment in Alberta Dairy Herd Improvement Services. Control herds were considered free of nocardial mastitis based on negative cultures of four weekly bulk tank milk samples and one composite milk sample collected during the same period from each lactating cow in the herd. A detailed questionnaire on herd management was completed during farm visits. The use of blanket dry cow therapy was not found to be a risk factor for nocardial mastitis. Dry cow therapy with intramammary products containing neomycin and the use of multidose vials of dry cow medications were the only predisposing factors identified as being significantly associated with nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds. Use of neomycin as a dry cow therapy increased the odds of nocardial mastitis occurring in these dairy herds by 169 times. PMID:17423768

  19. Risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis as detected by California Mastitis Test in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia using multilevel modelling.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at the herd, cow and quarter level were studied using multilevel modelling in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. Forty-two herds, out of the 55 dairy farms located in Jimma (76%), were visited, a questionnaire was performed, and 635 quarters belonging to 176 lactating cows were screened to detect the presence of subclinical mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Sixty-two percent of the cows and 51% of the quarters were subclinically infected. Quarters from cows in later stage of lactation (>180 DIM) [opposed to early lactation (<90 DIM)] were more likely to be subclinically infected (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.44-3.99). Overall, quarters from cows milked by squeezing (as opposed to stripping) were less likely to be subclinically infected (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.29-0.71), although quarters from cows with tick-infested udders were more likely to be subclinically infected when milked by squeezing (as opposed to stripping). The milking technique did not influence the likelihood of infection in cows without ticks on the udder. This study stresses the high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma and a lack of awareness of the existence of the disease among dairy farmers. Implementation of a mastitis prevention program adapted to the local needs, including a focus on milking technique, application of appropriate tick control measurements as well as fertility management, allowing cows to be dried-off at a more appropriate moment, are needed. To conclude, milking by squeezing instead of stripping, but not of cows with tick-infested udders, as well as fertility management could reduce the subclinical mastitis prevalence (and incidence) on the short term.

  20. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gooraninejad, Saad; Ghorbanpoor, Masoud; Salati, Amir Parviz

    2007-08-15

    A total of 365 isolates of staphylococci including 209 S. aureus and 156 coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis in Ahvaz (Iran) were analyzed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents by agar disk diffusion method. Out of 209 isolates of S. aureus resistance was detected in 120 (57.42%), 64 (30.62%), 29 (13.88%), 29 (13.88%) and 10 (4.78%) isolates for penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, respectively. No resistance was detected for gentamicin. Out of 156 CNS isolates resistance was detected in 48 (30.19%), 24 (15.09%), 20 (12.58%), 24 (15.09%) and 9 (5.66%) isolates for penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sufamethoxazol, respectively, whereas no resistance was detected for gentamicin. Results indicated that these isolates exhibited the highest degree of resistance to penicillin of all antimicrobial agents tested.

  2. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  3. A variety of gene polymorphisms associated with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic inflammatory disorder. IGM mimics breast cancer regarding its clinical and radiological features. Etiology of IGM remains unclarified. Our patient was 37-year-old and 14 weeks pregnant. There was pain, redness and swelling in the right breast. The mass suggestive of malignancy was detected in sonography. Serum CA 125 and CA 15-3 levels were high. Genetic analysis was performed for the etiology. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C 677 TT, β-fibrinogen-455 G>A, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 5 G/5 G, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D mutation was found. IGM was diagnosed by cor biopsy. An association was also reported between breast cancer and mutations in MTHFR-C 677 T, PAI-1, ACE genes. Genetic polymorphisms may involve in the development of IGM as it was seen in our case. Further studies should be conducted to better clarify this plausible association. PMID:27619324

  4. Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Ahioglu, Serkan; Serin, Kursat Rahmi

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. A 39-year-old patient with no history of oral contraceptive use presented with complaints such as redness, pain, and swelling in her left breast. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a suspicious inflamed mass lesion. Core biopsy was performed to exclude breast cancer and to further diagnose. The breast abscess was drained and steroids were given for treatment. In order to monitor any progression during the three months of treatment, hormone levels were routinely examined. Prolactin level was above the reference range, and pituitary MRI revealed a pituitary prolactinoma. After treatment with prolactin inhibitors, IGM also improved with hyperprolactinemia. This report emphasizes attention to hyperprolactinemia in cases of IGM diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28321344

  5. Subclinical mastitis may not reduce breastmilk intake during established lactation.

    PubMed

    Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Marquis, Grace S; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Timms, Leo; Lartey, Anna

    2009-09-01

    This study determined the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on infant breastmilk intake. Participants (60 Ghanaian lactating mothers and their infants) were from periurban communities in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana in 2006-2007. Bilateral breastmilk samples were obtained once between months 3 and 6 postpartum and tested for SCM using the California mastitis test (CMT) and the sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio. Infants' 12-hour breastmilk intake was assessed by test weighing. CMT scoring for SCM diagnosis was scaled as >or=1 = positive (n = 37) and <1 = negative (n = 23). SCM diagnosis was confirmed as a Na/K ratio of >1.0 (n = 14). Breastmilk intake was nonsignificantly lower among infants whose mothers had elevated Na/K ratios of >1.0 (-65.1 g; 95% confidence interval -141.3 g, 11.1 g). Infants whose mothers were positive for SCM with both CMT and Na/K ratio criteria had significantly lower breastmilk intake (-88.9 g; 95% confidence interval -171.1 g, -6.9 g) compared to those whose mothers tested either negative with both tests or positive on only one. Infant weight (p < 0.01) and frequency of feeding (p = 0.01) were independently associated with breastmilk intake. However, the effect of SCM on breastmilk intake disappeared when infant weight and feeding frequency were included in a multiple linear regression model. The results of this study did not show an effect of SCM on breastmilk intake among 3-6-month-old infants. A larger sample size with a longitudinal design will be needed in future studies.

  6. Subclinical Mastitis May Not Reduce Breastmilk Intake During Established Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Grace S.; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Timms, Leo; Lartey, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study determined the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on infant breastmilk intake. Design Participants (60 Ghanaian lactating mothers and their infants) were from periurban communities in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana in 2006–2007. Bilateral breastmilk samples were obtained once between months 3 and 6 postpartum and tested for SCM using the California mastitis test (CMT) and the sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio. Infants' 12-hour breastmilk intake was assessed by test weighing. CMT scoring for SCM diagnosis was scaled as ≥1 = positive (n = 37) and <1 = negative (n = 23). SCM diagnosis was confirmed as a Na/K ratio of >1.0 (n = 14). Results Breastmilk intake was nonsignificantly lower among infants whose mothers had elevated Na/K ratios of >1.0 (−65.1 g; 95% confidence interval −141.3 g, 11.1 g). Infants whose mothers were positive for SCM with both CMT and Na/K ratio criteria had significantly lower breastmilk intake (−88.9 g; 95% confidence interval −171.1 g, −6.9 g) compared to those whose mothers tested either negative with both tests or positive on only one. Infant weight (p < 0.01) and frequency of feeding (p = 0.01) were independently associated with breastmilk intake. However, the effect of SCM on breastmilk intake disappeared when infant weight and feeding frequency were included in a multiple linear regression model. Conclusions The results of this study did not show an effect of SCM on breastmilk intake among 3–6-month-old infants. A larger sample size with a longitudinal design will be needed in future studies. PMID:19243263

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rato, Márcia G; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos; Cavaco, Lina M; Vilela, Cristina L; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2013-01-25

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. The aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by disk diffusion against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefoperazone, pirlimycin-PRL, rifaximin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin-ERY, gentamicin, tetracycline-TET and vancomycin. Genotypic relationships were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), macrolide and/or tetracycline resistance gene profiling, GBS capsular typing, GBS virulence gene profiling and GBS and S. uberis multi locus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of the isolates were susceptible to all drugs except to aminoglycoside, macrolide, lincosamide and tetracycline. Close to half of the TET resistant isolates have tetO and tetK and almost all ERY-PRL resistant isolates have ermB. A high degree of intra-species polymorphism was found for GCS. The GBS belonged to ST-2, -554, -61, -23 lineages and five new molecular serotypes and human GBS insertion sequences in the cpsE gene were found. Also, GBS of serotype V with scpB and lmb seem to be related with GBS isolates of human origin (same ST-2 and similar PFGE). Overall our results suggested that different therapeutic programs may have been implemented in the different farms and that in most cases clones were herd-specific.

  8. Use of serum amyloid A and milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Gabriele; Bernardini, Daniele; Azzurra Elia, Carla; Ferrari, Vanni; Iob, Luciano; Segato, Severino

    2009-11-01

    Mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease in dairy herds, as it negatively affects yield and milk quality. The presence of clinical mastitis is quite easy to asses, whereas the diagnosis of the subclinical form can be more difficult and requires laboratory assays. Somatic cell count (SCC) is widely used as a rapid and low-cost indicator of mastitis, even if is not useful in discriminating between the clinical and subclinical form. As amyloid A has been investigated as a marker of mastitis, the aim of this study was to assess the potential value of measuring amyloid A in serum and milk and the correlation with SCC in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. The reliability of two different ELISA kits for the measurement of amyloid A in milk was also tested. During a 1-month trial period, 21 cows were assigned to three experimental groups according to their health status: 6 cows with clinical mastitis (CM), 10 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM) and 5 healthy cows (HE). Amyloid A was measured both in serum (SAA) and in quarter milk samples (mAA) with a serum ELISA kit, and in quarter milk samples (MAA) with a milk ELISA kit. SCC, total microbial count (TMC) and bacterial examination of the milk were also carried out. After a log transformation, the data were submitted to ANOVA and linear regression. TMC was significantly higher in cows with clinical mastitis, while no differences were observed between the other two experimental groups. SCC and MAA levels were significantly different among the three groups. mAA concentrations were similar between cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, and SAA was not affected by mastitis. A significant correlation between SCC and MAA or mAA was detected, while no correlation was recorded between SAA and mAA. A close relationship between MAA and mAA was noticeable even at low concentrations, suggesting MAA as a potential physiological marker of subclinical mastitis.

  9. Norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas Revisada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  10. The detection of subclinical mastitis in the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) by somatic cell count and California mastitis test.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, O A

    1996-01-01

    Milk samples (n = 160) from 7 clinically healthy bactrian camels were cultured to detect subclinical udder infection. The samples were assessed by the Californian mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). Bacteria were recovered from 36 (22.5%) of the milk samples. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the main organisms found. Infected quarters had significantly higher mean values for the SCC (p < 0.01) and CMT (p < 0.001) than non-infected quarters. All 7 camels were infected with CNS but only 4 with S. aureus. CMT values for S. aureus-infected camels were significantly higher than for those only infected with CNS. The values for SCC and CMT were significantly influenced by the stage of lactation (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found from the effect of the quarters. Both SCC and CMT were of value in predicting the infection status of the udder.

  11. Associations between breast milk viral load, mastitis, exclusive breast-feeding, and postnatal transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Kevin M; Iliff, Peter; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Magder, Laurence S; Moulton, Lawrence H; Humphrey, Jean H

    2010-03-01

    . Exclusive breast-feeding is protective against postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), compared with mixed breast-feeding. Accordingly, exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months is the World Health Organization's recommendation to HIV-infected mothers for whom exclusive replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, safe, or sustainable. The mechanism of exclusive breast-feeding protection is unknown but is hypothesized to be mediated through reduced mastitis. We compared breast milk and plasma specimens of exclusive breast-feeding and mixed breast-feeding HIV- positive mothers archived from the ZVITAMBO trial in which mixed breast-feeding was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of postnatal transmission at 18 months. Plasma HIV load, breast milk HIV load and sodium/potassium ratio were measured as a proxy for subclinical mastitis. Mixed breast-feeding was not associated with mastitis or breast milk HIV load. Mastitis was associated with breast milk HIV load, and this effect increased with increasing maternal plasma HIV load; mastitis was associated with postnatal transmission only when maternal plasma HIV load was high (>3.7 log(10) copies/mL). Initiation of breast-feeding within an hour of delivery was associated with exclusive breast-feeding (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.58). Exclusive breast-feeding is associated with reduced postnatal transmission of HIV from mother to child, but this protection is not mediated by reduced mastitis or breast milk HIV load. The deleterious effect of mastitis increases as the mother's plasma HIV load increases.

  12. Selective, reliable blood and milk bio-markers for diagnosing clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Kadry; Saleh, Ebeed; Ayoub, Mousa

    2017-02-01

    Mastitis is positioned as the most vital ailment in dairy cows in light of conventional cost examinations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of different acute phase proteins (APPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy cows and in those with clinical or subclinical mastitis and to localize APP gene expression in the milk of mastitic cows. Therefore, 20 subclinical mastitic cows with positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) results and no clinical signs of mastitis, 15 clinically mastitic cows, and 15 healthy cows with negative CMT results and somatic cell count (SCC) of <600,000 cells/mL were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected. The present findings indicate that the biochemical parameters examined were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in cows with both types of mastitis, except for total protein, albumin, and GSH levels and the TAC, which were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased, compared with values in the controls. Surprisingly, SAA and Hp gene expression were up-regulated in milk from cows with both forms of mastitis, while Fb expression was absent. The present study demonstrates that APPs, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicators of oxidative stress may serve as biomarkers of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Interestingly, the expression of SAA and Hp indicates the local de novo synthesis of these APPs within the mammary glands. Furthermore, the presence of SAA and Hp transcripts in milk cells derived from pathogen-free mammary glands proved their constitutive expression. However, future studies with more extensive baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate the reference values for APPs, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in cows.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus proteins differentially recognized by the ovine immune response in mastitis or nasal carriage.

    PubMed

    Seyffert, Nubia; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Jardin, Julien; McCulloch, John A; Rosado, Fabio R; Miyoshi, Anderson; Even, Sergine; Jan, Gwenaël; Berkova, Nadia; Vautor, Eric; Thiéry, Richard; Azevedo, Vasco; Le Loir, Yves

    2012-06-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in dairy ruminants where it is found in healthy carriage and can be a major cause of mastitis. A better knowledge of the host-pathogen interactions is needed to tackle this serious animal health problem. This study aimed at identifying S. aureus proteins differentially expressed by S. aureus in nasal colonization versus mastitis. Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) was used to examine protein samples prepared from culture supernatants of S. aureus strains originally isolated from gangrenous mastitis and nasal carriage (O11) or subclinical mastitis (O46) and to compare patterns of immune-reactive proteins. These staphylococcal proteins were revealed by sera obtained from ewes suffering from S. aureus mastitis and by sera obtained from healthy nulliparous ewes (i.e. no lactation and no mastitis or other symptoms) that were nasally colonized by S. aureus. Altogether 49 staphylococcal immune-reactive proteins were identified in this study. Patterns of proteins revealed by sera from infected- or healthy carrier- animals were comparable and analysis singled out one immune-reactive protein, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, which was recognized by each of the 6 sera from infected animals, when tested individually, and not by the sera of healthy carriers. This is the first study that compares the S. aureus seroproteome in colonization versus mastitis context in ruminants. These results open avenues for studies aiming at a better understanding of the balance between infection and commensal lifestyle in this opportunistic pathogen and at new prevention strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Principal component analysis for the early detection of mastitis and lameness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Miekley, Bettina; Traulsen, Imke; Krieter, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    This investigation analysed the applicability of principal component analysis (PCA), a latent variable method, for the early detection of mastitis and lameness. Data used were recorded on the Karkendamm dairy research farm between August 2008 and December 2010. For mastitis and lameness detection, data of 338 and 315 cows in their first 200 d in milk were analysed, respectively. Mastitis as well as lameness were specified according to veterinary treatments. Diseases were defined as disease blocks. The different definitions used (two for mastitis, three for lameness) varied solely in the sequence length of the blocks. Only the days before the treatment were included in the blocks. Milk electrical conductivity, milk yield and feeding patterns (feed intake, number of feeding visits and time at the trough) were used for recognition of mastitis. Pedometer activity and feeding patterns were utilised for lameness detection. To develop and verify the PCA model, the mastitis and the lameness datasets were divided into training and test datasets. PCA extracted uncorrelated principle components (PC) by linear transformations of the raw data so that the first few PCs captured most of the variations in the original dataset. For process monitoring and disease detection, these resulting PCs were applied to the Hotelling's T 2 chart and to the residual control chart. The results show that block sensitivity of mastitis detection ranged from 77·4 to 83·3%, whilst specificity was around 76·7%. The error rates were around 98·9%. For lameness detection, the block sensitivity ranged from 73·8 to 87·8% while the obtained specificities were between 54·8 and 61·9%. The error rates varied from 87·8 to 89·2%. In conclusion, PCA seems to be not yet transferable into practical usage. Results could probably be improved if different traits and more informative sensor data are included in the analysis.

  15. The intramammary efficacy of first generation cephalosporins against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Demon, Dieter; Ludwig, Carolin; Breyne, Koen; Guédé, David; Dörner, Julia-Charlotte; Froyman, Robrecht; Meyer, Evelyne

    2012-11-09

    Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in cattle causes important financial losses in the dairy industry due to lower yield and bad milk quality. Although S. aureus is susceptible to many antimicrobials in vitro, treatment often fails to cure the infected udder. Hence, comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobials against S. aureus mastitis is desirable to direct treatment strategies. The mouse mastitis model is an elegant tool to evaluate antimicrobials in vivo while circumventing the high costs associated with bovine experiments. An evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the intramammary (imam) applied first generation cephalosporins cefalexin, cefalonium, cefapirin and cefazolin, was performed using the S. aureus mouse mastitis model. In vivo determination of the effective dose 2log(10) (ED(2log10)), ED(4log10), protective dose 50 (PD(50)) and PD(100) in mouse mastitis studies, support that in vitro MIC data of the cephalosporins did not fully concur with the in vivo clinical outcome. Cefazolin was shown to be the most efficacious first generation cephalosporin to treat S. aureus mastitis whereas the MIC data indicate that cefalonium and cefapirin were more active in vitro. Changing the excipient for imam application from mineral oil to miglyol 812 further improved the antimicrobial efficacy of cefazolin, confirming that the excipient can influence the in vivo efficacy. Additionally, statistical analysis of the variation of S. aureus-infected, excipient-treated mice from fourteen studies emphasizes the strength of the mouse mastitis model as a fast, cost-effective and highly reproducible screening tool to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial compounds against intramammary S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between California Mastitis Test score and ultrasonographic teat measurements in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Seker, I; Risvanli, A; Yuksel, M; Saat, N; Ozmen, O

    2009-12-01

    The majority of published studies about mastitis are related to the control and prevention of mastitis, with particular emphasis on eliminating predisposition factors. The objective of the current study was to determine the role of teat morphology as an important factor in the aetiology of mastitis. Ultrasonographic measurements were taken from 190 teats from 100 dairy cows of different breeds. Mastitis in cows was diagnosed by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and microbiological tests. The data were evaluated in the light of the clinical history of the animals. Main effects of breed on teat diameter at the position of the Furstenberg rosette (FTD) and teat cistern diameter (CD), that of age on FTD and overall teat diameter (OTD), and that of CMT score on CD and OTD were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Number of lactations, pregnancy, the lactation period and the udder lobe (rear, front) were not found to have a significant effect on any of the measurements. Results showed that CD was significantly smaller (1.44 +/- 0.04 cm) (P < 0.01) in CMT-positive udder lobes than that in CMT-negative lobes. No difference was detected in canal length, CD, teat wall thickness, OTD or FTD between the CMT-positive and -negative lobes. The occurrence of mastitis could be related to specific ultrasonographic teat measurements (e.g. CD, OTD and FTD) and these may be important in the breeding of cows with a predisposition to mastitis, as well in the evaluation of in-herd cows in terms of udder/teat deformities.

  17. Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial shows no benefit of homeopathic mastitis treatment in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Fanny; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Simons, Julia; Pieper, Laura

    2017-03-22

    Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals. The homeopathic treatment was selected based on clinical symptoms but most commonly consisted of a combination of nosodes with Streptococcinum, Staphylococcinum, Pyrogenium, and Escherichia coli at a potency of 200c. Treatment was administered to cows in the homeopathy group at least once per day for an average of 5 d. The cows in the placebo group were treated similarly, using a placebo preparation instead (lactose globules without active ingredients). If necessary, we also used allopathic drugs (e.g., antibiotics, udder creams, and anti-inflammatory drugs) in both groups. We recorded data relating to the clinical signs of mastitis, treatment, time to recovery, milk yield, somatic cell count at first milk recording after mastitis, and culling. We observed cows for up to 200 d after clinical recovery. Base-level data did not differ between the homeopathy and placebo groups. Mastitis lasted for an average of 6 d in both groups. We observed no significant differences in time to recovery, somatic cell count, risk of clinical cure within 14 d after disease occurrence, mastitis recurrence risk, or culling risk. The results indicated no additional effect of homeopathic treatment compared with placebo. The advantages or disadvantages of homeopathy should be carefully assessed for individual farms.

  18. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  19. Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis causing staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Staphylococci cause bovine mastitis with Staphylococcus aureus being responsible for the majority of the mastitis-based losses to the dairy industry (up to $2 billion/annum). Treatment is primarily with antibiotics that are often ineffective and potentially contribute to resistance development. Bac...

  20. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  1. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  2. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abera, Gerema

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT), and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%). The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6%) quarters which belong to 75 (19.5%) animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p < 0.05). Bacteriological examination of milk sample revealed 187 isolates where coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CNS) (34.2%) was the predominant species while Streptococcus faecalis (2.1%) was identified as the least bacteria. The present study concluded that prevalence of mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention. PMID:28352648

  3. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zeryehun, Tesfaheywet; Abera, Gerema

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT), and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%). The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6%) quarters which belong to 75 (19.5%) animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p < 0.05). Bacteriological examination of milk sample revealed 187 isolates where coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CNS) (34.2%) was the predominant species while Streptococcus faecalis (2.1%) was identified as the least bacteria. The present study concluded that prevalence of mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention.

  4. Study on the association of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows.

    PubMed

    Kulberg, S; Heringstad, B; Guttersrud, O A; Olsaker, I

    2007-08-01

    Genotyping of bovine leucocyte antigen DRB3.2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) in a total of 523 Norwegian Red (NR) cows from two groups selected for high protein yield and low clinical mastitis, respectively, identified 27 previously reported BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles across the groups. Significant differences in BoLA-DRB3.2 allele frequencies were found between the selection groups. Alleles *13, *18, *22 and *27 had a significantly higher frequency in cows selected for low clinical mastitis, while alleles *3, *9, *11 and *26 had a higher frequency in cows selected for high protein yield. Associations between BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles and clinical mastitis were analysed based on mastitis data from 741,072 first-lactation NR cows, of which 452 were genotyped. Alleles *22 and *26 were found to be associated with increased clinical mastitis, while alleles *7, *11, *18 and *24 had a favourable effect on mastitis resistance. Contradictory results from different studies investigating associations between BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles and mastitis indicate that future studies should focus on associations of mastitis with BoLA haplotypes rather than with single BoLA genes.

  5. Development of an improved Streptococcus uberis experimental mastitis challenge model using different doses and strains in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Perry, Jeanette; Hickey, Elizabeth; Page, Stephen; Garg, Sanjay; Petrovski, Kiro R

    2015-11-01

    Developing a reliable mastitis challenge infection model is required to test new intramammary antimicrobial preparations, other novel bovine mastitis treatments, and study mastitis pathogenesis. Three treatment groups of Holstein Friesian cows in active lactation were administered two doses (10(4) and 10(6) cfu/quarter) on a single occasion with one of the three Streptococcus uberis strains (BFR6019, MFF1283 and SA002) suspended in 5 ml of sterile PBS, administered via intramammary inoculation immediately after milking. All quarters that were challenged with S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019 showed clinical signs of mastitis on day 1 and 2 after the challenge. Strain SA002 had a lower rate of inducing clinical mastitis which was detected later than day 3 after the challenge. We successfully developed a rapid and reliable model for inducing experimental S. uberis mastitis with 100% success rate in cows in active lactation. On the basis of the correlation results between strains, RAPD fingerprinting results, clinical findings, and a 100% success rate of mastitis induction for low and high doses S. uberis strains MLF1283 and BFR6019, strain virulence seems to be a more important effect than challenge dose in induction of clinical mastitis following experimental challenge.

  6. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  7. Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Hatiya, Hagere; Abera, Mesele; Megersa, Bekele; Asmare, Kassahun

    2016-12-03

    Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis. Also 172 milk samples collected from CMT positive cows were cultured for isolation of S. aureus. Based on CMT result and clinical examination, the prevalence of mastitis at herd-level was 74.7% (95% CI: 64.5, 82.8). The corresponding cow-level prevalence was 62.6% (95% CI: 58.3, 66.7), of which 59.2 and 3.4% were sub-clinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 51.2% of the milk samples cultured and 73.2% of the herds affected with mastitis. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the herd-level factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the presence of mastitis were herd size, bedding material, and milking mastitic cows last, while at cow-level, breed, parity, stage of lactation, udder and leg hygiene, and teat end shape were noted to have a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. The very high prevalence of mastitis, more importantly the sub-clinical one, in the herds examined revealed the huge potential economic loss the sector suffers. Perhaps this was attributed to lack of implementation of the routine mastitis prevention and control practices by all of the herd owners. The findings of this study warrants the need for strategic approach including dairy extension that focus on enhancing dairy farmers' awareness and practice of hygienic milking, regular screening for sub-clinical mastitis, dry cow therapy and culling of chronically infected cows.

  8. Risks factors associated with subclinical mastitis in water buffaloes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riaz; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Ahrar; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried to ascertain the association of various risk factors of mastitis in water buffaloes. The milk samples from buffaloes were collected and screened through California Mastitis Test for the presence of mastitis. In the present study, 15.2 % prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded both at the government (13.4 %) and private farms (15.5 %). The chi-square analysis showed significantly higher involvement of the right rear and front quarters. The analysis of variance technique showed significant difference in live body weight, milk yield, teat end to floor distance (P < 0.001), udder depth, teat length, and teat diameter in mastitic and healthy buffaloes. The frequency analysis also revealed significant difference between various groups including lactation stage, teat and/or udder pathology, teat shape, and udder shape (P < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis revealed significant positive association of mastitis with milk leakage, live body weight, milk yield, parity, calf suckling, pendulous udder, number of attendants at the farm, dirty hind legs, and udder depth.

  9. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    PubMed

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep.

  10. Effects of PPAR-γ agonist treatment on LPS-induced mastitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mingfeng, Ding; Xiaodong, Ming; Yue, Liu; Taikui, Piao; Lei, Xiao; Ming, Liu

    2014-12-01

    PPAR-γ, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays an important role in lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of synthetic PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in rats. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by the injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Rosiglitazone was injected 1 h before the induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The results showed that rosiglitazone attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting showed that rosiglitazone inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65. These results indicated that rosiglitazone has a protective effect on mastitis, and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rosiglitazone on LPS-induced mastitis in rats may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB signaling pathways. PPAR-γ may be a potential therapeutic target against mastitis.

  11. Bacterial analysis of breast milk: a tool to differentiate Raynaud's phenomenon from infectious mastitis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; Collado, M Carmen; Fernández, Leonides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2009-07-01

    Lactational Raynaud's syndrome may be misdiagnosed as infectious mastitis on the basis of the breast pain. The objective of this work was to elucidate if microbiological analysis of milk may contribute to the differentiation of both conditions. Ten lactating women clinically diagnosed by Spanish lactation consultants were included in the study. Of these, five suffered from mastitis and the remaining five suffered from Raynaud's syndrome. Breast milk samples were inoculated on diverse culture media. Seventy isolates were selected and identified by 16S rDNA PCR sequencing. Parallel, PCR-DGGE and quantitative real-time PCR were used to assess the presence of bacterial DNA in the samples. Neither bacteria nor yeasts could be detected in the milk samples provided by the women suffering from Raynaud's syndrome. In contrast, large numbers of bacteria were isolated from those with infectious lactational mastitis. Globally, the levels of bacterial DNA were significantly higher in the milk of mastitis-suffering women. Bacteriological analysis of milk can be an useful tool to facilitate the differential diagnosis between the infectious mastitis and Raynaud's syndrome during lactation.

  12. IgG4-related mastitis, a rare disease, can radiologically and histologically mimic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Rin; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Yamashita, Toshinari; Kamisawa, Terumi

    2016-03-23

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterised by high serum concentrations of IgG4, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, storiform fibrosis and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in tissues. This systemic disease occurs in various organs metachronously, but IgG4-related mastitis appears extremely rare. We report a case of IgG4-related mastitis, radiologically considered to represent breast cancer mainly composed of intraductal component and requiring histological differentiation from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The breast mass disappeared with steroid therapy. When patients have a breast mass, regardless of the presence or absence of IgG4-RD, IgG4-related mastitis should be considered in addition to breast cancer. If histological findings show dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, IgG4-related mastitis should be suspected in addition to malignant lymphoma, and lack of monoclonality should be confirmed. To avoid unnecessary surgery or chemotherapy, knowledge and accurate diagnosis of the entity of IgG4-related mastitis is necessary.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics.

  14. A Metataxonomic Approach Could Be Considered for Cattle Clinical Mastitis Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Oultram, Joanne W. H.; Ganda, Erika K.; Boulding, Sarah C.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most costly diseases affecting the dairy industry, and identification of the causative microorganism(s) is essential. Here, we report the use of next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes for clinical mastitis diagnosis. We used 65 paired milk samples, collected from the mastitic and a contralateral healthy quarter of mastitic dairy cattle to evaluate the technique as a potential alternative to bacterial culture or targeted PCR. One large commercial dairy farm was used, with one trained veterinarian collecting the milk samples. The 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced using the MiSeq platform. The MiSeq Reporter was used in order to analyze the obtained sequences. Cattle were categorized according to whether or not 1 of the 10 most abundant bacterial genera in the mastitic quarter exhibited an increase in relative abundance between the healthy and mastitic quarters equal to, or exceeding, twofold. We suggest that this increase in relative abundance is indicative of the genus being a causative mastitis pathogen. Well-known mastitis-causing pathogens such as Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus spp. were identified in most cattle. We were able to diagnose 53 out of the 65 studied cases and identify potential new mastitis pathogens such as Sneathia sanguinegens and Listeria innocua, which are difficult to identify by bacterial culture because of their fastidious nature. PMID:28344976

  15. [Implementation of mastitis prevention and control programmes on Flemish dairy farms].

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Van Brempt, H; Supré, K; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2010-01-15

    Mastitis prevention and control programmes were developed in the 1960s and have since been adopted with considerable success. Our data for a convenience sample of 45 Flemish dairy farms demonstrate that the well-known "five-point prevention and control programme" is still not, or not adequately, implemented. For example, only 18% of the dairy farmers prestripped their cows and wiped the teats using single-use dry towels before attaching the milking units. Although about 70% of the farms practised post-milking teat disinfection (dipping or spraying), 40% of the farmers did this inadequately. On only one farm were cows with clinical mastitis treated both locally and parenterally for at least 3 days, and on only 7% of the dairy farms was the udder health status of the herd systematically monitored. According to the dairy farmers, the extra labour and stress caused by udder health problems were the most troublesome aspects of mastitis. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that bovine practitioners in the Flemish region should critically evaluate the mastitis management of their clients (farmers) and motivate them to implement an efficient mastitis prevention programme.

  16. Bovine mastitis disease/pathogenicity: evidence of the potential role of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Saavedra, Maria José; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Bovine mastitis (BM) is a disease with high incidence worldwide and one of the most relevant bovine pathologies and the most costly to the dairy industry. BM is an inflammation of the udder and represents one of the most difficult veterinary diseases to control. Biofilm formation is considered a selective advantage for pathogens causing mastitis, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. In fact, recently some authors drew attention to the biofilm formation ability presented by several mastitis causing pathogens and to its possible relation with recurrent mastitis infections and with the increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune defence system. Actually, up to now, several researchers reported the potential role of cells in this mode of growth in the previous facts mentioned. As a consequence of the presence of biofilms, the infection here focused is more difficult to treat and eradicate, making this problem a more relevant pressing issue. Thus, we believe that a deeper knowledge of these structures in mastitis can help to determine the best control strategy to be used in veterinary practice in order to reduce losses in the dairy industry and to ensure milk safety and quality. The aim of this paper was to review the existing research and consequently to provide an overview of the role of biofilms in BM infections.

  17. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis. PMID:28520748

  18. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.

  19. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  20. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 2: Implementation and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research) research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis. PMID:21777494

  1. [Inflammatory and infectious breast mastitis outside of pregnancy and lactation: Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Laas, E; Touboul, C; Kerdraon, O; Catteau-Jonard, S

    2015-12-01

    This work's objective was to define the various non-cancerous inflammatory and infectious mastitis, which may occur outside of pregnancy and lactation, and to identify recommendations for their care based on an exhaustive literature review. A literature review was conducted by consulting Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and international recommendations in French and English until 31st August 2014. Infectious mastitis (periareolar abscess) is the most common form of non-puerperal abscesses and it is recommended that a suction/drainage needle for abscesses under 5 cm, involving antibiotic therapy (grade C). For abscesses over 5 cm, there is no evidence to recommend a first surgery or suction/drainage. Inflammatory mastitis can be primary or secondary to a systemic disease (diabetes, collagen…; LE4). In case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, a steroid therapy or surgery may be indicated, without one or the other of these methods can be recommended. In case of plasma cell mastitis or ductal ectasia, no treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics. PMID:26933871

  3. Current management practices and interventions prioritised as part of a nationwide mastitis control plan

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, A. J.; Breen, J. E.; Hudson, C. D.; Green, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to report performance and management data taken from a sample of UK dairy farms that have participated in the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Dairy Mastitis Control Plan (DMCP) and to identify important mastitis prevention practices that are not currently widely implemented. A total of 234 UK dairy herds were included in the study from which farm management and udder health data were collected. Herds were grouped according to their mastitis epidemiology and could be classed as (i) environmental dry period (EDP) (i.e. environmental pathogen with majority of infections being acquired during the dry period), (ii) environmental lactation (EL), (iii) contagious dry period (CDP) or (iv) contagious lactation (CL). The results of this study showed that many mastitis-related management practices that are generally considered to be important were not widely performed. A better understanding of those practices not widely adopted by UK dairy farmers at present may aid practitioners in identifying and overcoming potential barriers to improved mastitis control. PMID:26966249

  4. Vaccines against bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus uberis current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J A

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of bovine mastitis in the UK has been reduced over the past twenty five years due to the implementation of a five-point control plan aimed at reducing exposure, duration and transmission of intramammary infections by bacteria. This has markedly reduced the incidence of bovine mastitis caused by bacteria which show a contagious route of transmission but has had little effect on the incidence of mastitis due to bacteria which infect the gland from an environmental reservoir. Streptococcus uberis is one such bacterium which is responsible for a significant proportion of clinical mastitis worldwide. The inadequacies of the current methods of mastitis control have led to the search for additional measures to prevent intramammary infection by this bacterium. A live vaccine in combination with an intramammary administration of a soluble cell surface extract was shown to induce protection of the mammary gland from experimental challenge with S. uberis. Protection was strain specific, but was achieved in the absence of opsonic activity and without a large influx of neutrophils. One hypothesis is that protection was achieved by reducing the rate of bacterial growth in vivo. This view has led to the identification and exploitation of a novel plasminogen activator as a vaccine antigen. Vaccines containing this antigen conferred cross strain protection.

  5. Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Dosogne, Hilde; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Burvenich, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Coliform mastitis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat in the modern dairy industry. Curative therapy with antibiotics remains only moderately effective and depends on the stage at which the disease is treated. The most successful strategies for combating coliform mastitis appear to be prevention by hygienic management or prophylactic immunization. The severity of clinical symptoms of coliform mastitis has been shown to be reduced by immunization with the Escherichia coli J5 vaccine. However, although the J5 vaccine has been licensed in the United States for about 10 years, the immunological basis of its mechanism of action is still unknown. Until now, protection by J5 vaccination has often been explained by a straightforward mechanism of enhanced antibody production resulting in increased opsonization of coliform bacteria and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The possibility that J5 vaccination could decrease risk factors for coliform mastitis such as impaired blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte (PMN) diapedesis has never been investigated. This review provides arguments to support the hypothesis that J5 vaccination may reduce the severity of coliform mastitis by inducing a condition of mammary gland hyper-responsiveness, characterized by a T helper 1 (Th1) response and mediated by memory cells inside the mammary gland, finally resulting in enhanced PMN diapedesis upon an intramammary infection.

  6. Comparative proteomic changes of differentially expressed whey proteins in clinical mastitis and healthy yak cows.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Ding, X Z; Wan, Y L; Liu, Y M; Du, G Z

    2014-08-28

    Under the traditional grazing system on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the amount of milk in domesticated yak (Bos grunniens) with clinical mastitis decreases and the milk composition is altered. To understand the mechanisms of mammary gland secreted milk and disease infection, changes in the protein composition of milk during clinical mastitis were investigated using a proteomic approach. Milk whey from yak with clinical mastitis was compared to whey from healthy animals with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using a mass spectrometer. Thirteen protein spots were identified to be four differentially expressed proteins. Increases in the concentrations of proteins of blood serum origin, including lactoferrin, were identified in mastitic whey compared to normal whey, while concentrations of the major whey proteins, casocidin-I, a-lactalbumin, and b-lactoglobulin, were downregulated in mastitic whey. These results indicated significant differences in protein expression between healthy yaks and those with clinical mastitis, and they may provide valuable information for finding new regulation markers and potential protein targets for the treatment of mastitis.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance levels amongst staphylococci isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Behluli, Behlul; Mestani, Mergim; Ademi, Arsim; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2016-10-31

    Mastitis is one of the most frequent and costly disease in cattle. We studied milk samples from cattle with mastitis from farms in Kosovo to identify mastitis-causing pathogens and possible effective antibiotics. Our ultimate goal is to help implement adequate antibiotic management and treatment practices in Kosovo METHODOLOGY: A total of 152 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical mastitis from different farms in Kosovo. After identification of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and the occurrence of enterotoxins was investigated. Staphylococci were found in 89 samples, of which 58 were coagulase negative and 31 coagulase positive. S. aureus was isolated from 27 samples, S. epidermidis from 25, and S. chromogenes from 15, while other species of staphylococci were isolated from the remaining 22 isolates. Interestingly, the bacterial diversity was different between cows in different periods of lactation and among different breeds. Most of the isolates (76/89) were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was to penicillin and ampicillin (> 65%), followed by tetracycline, oxacillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol (> 23%), and less than 3% to erythromycin. Of the 89 isolates, 40 produced enterotoxins that were most frequently typed as A and C. We detected human bacterial pathogens in the cultures of milk samples from cows with mastitis. The isolates demonstrated resistance to two or more antibiotics, some of which are frequently used to treat animal and human infections. We recommend increased control and more stringent use of antibiotics in veterinary as well as human medicine.

  8. CD40 triggering induces strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus immunization in mice: a new vaccine strategy for staphylococcal mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wallemacq, Hugues; Bedoret, Denis; Pujol, Julien; Desmet, Christophe; Drion, Pierre-Vincent; Farnir, Frédéric; Mainil, Jacques; Lekeux, Pierre; Bureau, Fabrice; Fiévez, Laurence

    2012-03-09

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a major pathogen involved in chronic bovine mastitis. Staphylococcal mastitis is difficult to control due to the ability of S. aureus to invade and survive within host cells. We therefore postulated that induction of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses leading to destruction of infected cells could help in the control of S. aureus mastitis. We demonstrate that immunization of mice with heat-killed S. aureus together with agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies elicits strong CTL responses capable of reducing the severity of subsequent staphylococcal mastitis. Our study shows promise for CTL-dependent vaccination against S. aureus mastitis.

  9. Puerperal mastitis: a reproductive event of importance affecting anti-mucin antibody levels and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Daniel W; Williams, Kristina; Vitonis, Allison F; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Stuebe, Alison; Welch, William R; Titus, Linda; Fichorova, Raina N

    2013-11-01

    Test the hypothesis that puerperal mastitis may alter immunity related to the mucin (MUC) family of glycoproteins and lower risk of ovarian cancer. In two case-control studies conducted in New England between 1998 and 2008, we examined the association between self-reported mastitis and ovarian cancer in 1,483 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,578 controls. IgG1 antibodies against (MUC1) CA15.3 and (MUC16) CA125 were measured using electrochemiluminescence assays in a subset of controls (n = 200). Preoperative CA125 was recorded in 649 cases. The association between ovarian cancer and mastitis was assessed using unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios, OR, and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Associations between mastitis and anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibodies and preoperative CA125 levels were evaluated using adjusted linear regression models. Prior mastitis was associated with a significantly lower risk of ovarian cancer: OR (and 95 % CI) of 0.67 (0.48, 0.94) adjusted for parity, breastfeeding, and other potential confounders. The association was strongest with 2 or more episodes of mastitis, and risk declined progressively with increasing number of children and episodes of mastitis. Among controls, prior mastitis was associated with significantly higher anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibody levels and, among cases, with significantly lower preoperative CA125 levels. Puerperal mastitis may produce long-lasting anti-mucin antibodies that may lower the risk of ovarian cancer, plausibly through enhanced immune surveillance. Studying immune reactions related to MUC1 and MUC16 in the 10-20 % of breastfeeding women who develop mastitis may suggest ways to duplicate its effects through vaccines based on both antigens.

  10. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Results: The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan–Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Conclusions: Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion. PMID:26488802

  11. Puerperal Mastitis: a Reproductive Event of Importance Affecting Anti-Mucin Antibody Levels and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Daniel W.; Williams, Kristina; Vitonis, Allison F.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Stuebe, Alison; Welch, William R.; Titus, Linda; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test the hypothesis that puerperal mastitis may alter immunity related to the mucin (MUC) family of glycoproteins and lower risk for ovarian cancer. Methods In two case-control studies conducted in New England between 1998–2008, we examined the association between self-reported mastitis and ovarian cancer in 1,483 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,578 controls. IgG1 antibodies against (MUC1) CA15.3 and (MUC16) CA125 were measured using electrochemiluminescence assays in a subset of controls (n=200). Preoperative CA125 was recorded in 649 cases. The association between ovarian cancer and mastitis was assessed using unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios, OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations between mastitis and anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibodies and preoperative CA125 levels were evaluated using adjusted linear regression models. Results Prior mastitis was associated with a significantly lower risk for ovarian cancer: OR (and 95% CI) of 0.67 (0.48, 0.94) adjusted for parity, breastfeeding, and other potential confounders. The association was strongest with 2 or more episodes of mastitis; and risk declined progressively with increasing number of children and episodes of mastitis. Among controls, prior mastitis was associated with significantly higher anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibody levels and, among cases, with significantly lower preoperative CA125 levels. Conclusion Puerperal that mastitis may produce long-lasting anti-mucin antibodies that may lower the risk for ovarian cancer, plausibly through enhanced immune surveillance. Studying immune reactions related to MUC1 and MUC16 in the 10–20% of breastfeeding women who develop mastitis may suggest ways to duplicate its effects through vaccines based on both antigens. PMID:23925696

  12. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-12-01

    Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimation. The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan-Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion.

  13. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Breast Milk are Associated with HIV-1 Shedding but Not With Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Shetty, Avinash K.; Seidel, Kristy D.; Qin, Xuan; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S.; Katzenstein, David A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Breast milk HIV-1 load is associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, and both milk viral load and mastitis are associated with increased mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) through breastfeeding. Bacterial infections may cause clinical mastitis, but whether other co-pathogens common in HIV-1 infection are associated with subclinical mastitis or HIV-1 shedding is unknown. Design A cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected breastfeeding women in Zimbabwe was performed to examine the relationship between a wide range of breast co-infections, mastitis, and HIV-1 shedding. Methods Breast milk was cultured for bacteria and fungi, and tested by PCR for mycobacteria, mycoplasmas, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Symptoms of clinical mastitis were documented, and subclinical mastitis was identified by breast milk sodium concentration (Na+) and leukocyte counts. Results Co-infections of milk were not associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis in the 217 women studied. Detection of HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk was associated with CMV concentration (OR 1.8, p=0.002) and detection of EBV (OR 3.8, p=0.0003), but not other co-infections in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Co-infection of breast milk with bacteria, fungi or herpes viruses was not associated with mastitis. The associations between shedding of CMV and EBV with HIV-1 in milk suggest a local interaction between herpes virus infection and HIV-1 independent of mastitis. CMV and EBV infections may impact HIV-1 shedding in breast milk and the risk of MTCT. PMID:18614868

  14. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk are associated with HIV-1 shedding but not with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Shetty, Avinash K; Seidel, Kristy D; Qin, Xuan; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S; Katzenstein, David A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2008-07-31

    Breast milk HIV-1 load is associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, and both milk viral load and mastitis are associated with increased mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding. Bacterial infections may cause clinical mastitis, but whether other copathogens common in HIV-1 infection are associated with subclinical mastitis or HIV-1 shedding is unknown. A cross-sectional study of HIV-1-infected breastfeeding women in Zimbabwe was performed to examine the relationship between a wide range of breast coinfections, mastitis, and HIV-1 shedding. Breast milk was cultured for bacteria and fungi and tested by PCR for mycobacteria, mycoplasmas, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Symptoms of clinical mastitis were documented and subclinical mastitis was identified by breast milk sodium concentration (Na) and leukocyte counts. Coinfections of milk were not associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis in the 217 women studied. Detection of HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk was associated with cytomegalovirus concentration (odds ratio = 1.8, P = 0.002) and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (odds ratio = 3.8, P = 0.0003) but not other coinfections in multivariate analysis. Coinfection of breast milk with bacteria, fungi, or herpes viruses was not associated with mastitis. The associations between shedding of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with HIV-1 in milk suggest a local interaction between herpes virus infection and HIV-1 independent of mastitis. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections may impact HIV-1 shedding in breast milk and the risk of MTCT.

  15. Probing vaccine antigens against bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    PubMed

    Collado, Rosa; Prenafeta, Antoni; González-González, Luis; Pérez-Pons, Josep Antoni; Sitjà, Marta

    2016-07-19

    Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S. uberis biofilms, previously identified by proteomic and immunological analyses. The capability of eliciting a protective immune response by targeted candidates was assayed on a murine model. Sera from rabbits immunized with S. uberis biofilm preparations and a convalescent cow intra-mammary infected with S. uberis were probed against cell wall proteins from biofilm and planktonic cells previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using rabbit immunized serum, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells; when serum from the convalescent cow was used, up to sixteen biofilm proteins were detected. From these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-biphosphate aldolase (FBA), and elongation factor Ts (EFTs) were chosen to be tested as vaccine antigen candidates. For this purpose, different groups of mice were immunized with the three recombinant-expressed proteins (each one formulated separately in a vaccine), and thereafter intraperitoneally challenged with S. uberis. The three proteins induced specific IgG antibodies, but a significant reduction of mortality was only observed in the groups of mice vaccinated with FBA or EFTs. These results suggest that FBA and EFTs might be considered as strong antigenic candidates for a vaccine against S. uberis bovine mastitis. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate that also in S. uberis, GAPDH, FBA and EFTs, as proteins

  16. Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, S; Fox, L K; Piepers, S; McDougall, S; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development

  17. Infrared thermography of the udder after experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to use infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate the changes in udder surface temperature after induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in the right hind quarter. Over a time period of 24 h before to 24 h post-inoculation, thermograms of both hind quarters were taken every 2 h to determine maximum (Tmax) and average (Tavg) temperatures. Differences in both maximum and average temperatures (DTmax and DTavg) were calculated, as well as temperature differences between both hind quarters. All cows developed signs of clinical mastitis with a significant increase in DTmax and DTavg with Tmax at 13 h post-inoculation for the (non-infected) left hind quarters. The results demonstrate that detection of mastitis using IRT is possible if the interval between examinations does not exceed 2 h.

  18. Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate the Antibacterial Action of Silver Ions Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seog Jin; Cho, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Eun Seok

    2016-05-01

    Silver ions act as a powerful, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent and are known to kill over 650 different kinds of pathogens. We investigated the protein expression pattern and identity after silver ion treatment in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are primarily responsible for the majority of bovine mastitis cases using proteomics. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that silver ion treatment significantly reduced 5 spot's density in E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. We identified 10 proteins (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C22 subunit, phosphoglucomutase, fructose-1-phosphate kinase, putative carbamoyl transferase, alpha-galactosidase, carbamate kinase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, fumarate hydratase class II, alcohol dehydrogenase, and conserved hypothetical protein) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). These results demonstrated that silver ions have bactericidal effects through energy deprivation, inhibition of DNA replication, and accumulation of oxidants in bovine mastitis pathogens and suggested that silver ions can be applied for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  19. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Radhwane; Khelef, Djamel; Kaidi, Rachid

    2013-05-23

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%).

  20. A case-control study of Nocardia mastitis in Nova Scotia dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Ferns, Lyn; Dohoo, Ian; Donald, Alan

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify herd production, housing, and hygienic and therapeutic factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds in Nova Scotia. The data were collected by on-farm interviews with owners of 54 case and 54 control herds. Logistic regression was used to study risk factors. The use of dry cow products containing neomycin, including two specific dry cow products, was strongly associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in a herd. Other factors which increased the risk of Nocardia mastitis were higher levels of production, larger herd size, and a large percentage of cows treated with dry cow products. These results are compared to results from a similar study carried out in Ontario. PMID:17423896

  1. Effect of Solcoseryl on the clinical course of experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Jöchle, W

    1981-09-01

    Experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis was induced in a single quarter in twenty-eight cows. The inflamed quarters of six of the cows were treated with 50 mg Solcoseryl infusion in an oil base starting 4-6 h after endotoxin infusion, and four additional infusions were given at 12-h intervals. The inflamed quarters of eight of the cows were similarly treated with 200 mg Solcoseryl whereas the remaining fourteen cows served as control. Solcoseryl treatment did not alter the systemic or local course of acute mastitis. Local reaction, as assessed by the California Mastitis Test (CMT), however, subsided considerably sooner in quarters treated with Solcoseryl, and the effect of Solcoseryl in hastening udder tissue repair processes appeared to be dose dependent. The 200 mg dose of Solcoseryl resulted in pre-endotoxin CMT scores as early as 6 days after endotoxin infusion.

  2. Magnolol inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mouse mastitis model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wang; Dejie, Liang; Xiaojing, Song; Tiancheng, Wang; Yongguo, Cao; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Mastitis comprises an inflammation of the mammary gland, which is almost always linked with bacterial infection. The treatment of mastitis concerns antimicrobial substances, but not very successful. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory therapy with Chinese traditional medicine becomes an effective way for treating mastitis. Magnolol is a polyphenolic binaphthalene compound extracted from the stem bark of Magnolia sp., which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of magnolol on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model in vivo and the mechanism of this protective effects in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs) in vitro. The damage of tissues was determined by histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. The results showed that magnolol significantly inhibit the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production both in vivo and vitro. Magnolol declined the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, ERK, and JNK in LPS-stimulated MMECs. Furthermore, magnolol inhibited the expression of TLR4 in LPS-stimulated MMECs. In vivo study, it was also observed that magnolol attenuated the damage of mastitis tissues in the mouse models. These findings demonstrated that magnolol attenuate LPS-stimulated inflammatory response by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system. Thereby, magnolol may be a therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  3. Shifted T Helper Cell Polarization in a Murine Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqing; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Yang; Liu, Heyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Yue, Jinhua; Chen, Dekun

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis, one of the most costly diseases in dairy ruminants, is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by pathogenic infection. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity against pathogens in mastitis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate T helper cell-mediated adaptive immune responses, we established a mastitis model by challenge with an inoculum of 4 × 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus in the mammary gland of lactating mice, followed by quantification of bacterial burden and histological analysis. The development of mastitis was accompanied by a significant increase in both Th17 and Th1 cells in the mammary gland. Moreover, the relative expression of genes encoding cytokines and transcription factors involved in the differentiation and function of these T helper cells, including Il17, Rorc, Tgfb, Il1b, Il23, Ifng, Tbx21, and Il12, was greatly elevated in the infected mammary gland. IL-17 is essential for neutrophil recruitment to infected mammary gland via CXC chemokines, whereas the excessive IL-17 production contributes to tissue damage in mastitis. In addition, a shift in T helper cell polarization toward Th2 and Treg cells was observed 5 days post-infection, and the mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 was markedly increased at day 7 post-infection. These results indicate that immune clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitis is facilitated by the enrichment of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells in the mammary gland mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is tightly regulated by Treg cells and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  4. Clinicobiochemical investigations of gangrenous mastitis in does: immunological responses and oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Wael M

    2013-01-01

    A total of 50 does were used to determine selected hematological and biochemical parameters with special references to oxidative stress markers, acute phase protein profiles, and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and gangrenous mastitis affected does. Animals were divided into two equal groups represented as clinically healthy (control) and diseased groups, respectively. The bacteriological examination of milk samples from diseased does revealed many types of bacterial infection. The isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (N=23/25), Escherichia coli (N=11/25), and Clostridium perfringens (N=4/25). There was a significant increase in the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified free fatty acids, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and a significant reduction in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy does. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and uric acid with a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutase, and catalase in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy does. In addition, there was a significant increase in the haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy ones. Conclusively, oxidative stress biomarkers, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines play an essential task as biomarkers for gangrenous mastitis in does. Mastitis may be considered as one of the ketotic stressors in does after parturition.

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-treated (n = 46) and control (n = 44) groups. In the nisin-treated group, cows received an intramammary infusion of nisin at a dose of 2,500,000 IU once daily for 3 days while the control cows received no treatment. Milk samples were collected from the affected mammary quarters before treatment and 1 and 2 weeks after treatment for analyses of bacteria, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase). Results indicated that nisin therapy had bacteriological cure rates of 90.1% for Streptococcus agalactiae (10 of 11), 50% for Staphylococcus aureus (7 of 14), 58.8% for coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 of 17), and 65.2% for all cases (30 of 46). Meanwhile, only 15.9% (7 of 44) of untreated cows spontaneously recovered. NAGase activity in milk samples and the number of mammary quarters with a milk somatic cell count of ≥500,000/ml were significantly decreased after nisin treatment while no significant changes took place in the control group. Because of its therapeutic effects on bovine subclinical mastitis, as well as its safety in humans, nisin deserves further study to clarify its effects on mastitis caused by different pathogens. PMID:17606675

  6. Shifted T Helper Cell Polarization in a Murine Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanqing; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Yang; Liu, Heyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Yue, Jinhua; Chen, Dekun

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis, one of the most costly diseases in dairy ruminants, is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by pathogenic infection. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity against pathogens in mastitis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate T helper cell-mediated adaptive immune responses, we established a mastitis model by challenge with an inoculum of 4 × 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus in the mammary gland of lactating mice, followed by quantification of bacterial burden and histological analysis. The development of mastitis was accompanied by a significant increase in both Th17 and Th1 cells in the mammary gland. Moreover, the relative expression of genes encoding cytokines and transcription factors involved in the differentiation and function of these T helper cells, including Il17, Rorc, Tgfb, Il1b, Il23, Ifng, Tbx21, and Il12, was greatly elevated in the infected mammary gland. IL-17 is essential for neutrophil recruitment to infected mammary gland via CXC chemokines, whereas the excessive IL-17 production contributes to tissue damage in mastitis. In addition, a shift in T helper cell polarization toward Th2 and Treg cells was observed 5 days post-infection, and the mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 was markedly increased at day 7 post-infection. These results indicate that immune clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitis is facilitated by the enrichment of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells in the mammary gland mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is tightly regulated by Treg cells and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. PMID:26230498

  7. Risk factors for dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Kassa, T; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Greiner, M; Baumann, M P O

    2004-07-01

    This study, with the objective of assessing the effect of risk factors on dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia, was undertaken between February and September 2001 in the urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prevalence study and questionnaire survey were carried out simultaneously. Clinical examination of lactating udders and California mastitis test (CMT) determined clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical mastitis were identified from data on animals and farm management by chi-square analysis and subsequent logistic regression. Cows aged at least 8 years, with poor body condition, with at least 8 parities and in at least the eighth month of lactation had a significantly higher risk for subclinical mastitis (p < 0.05). The risk was reduced for cows up to their third parity in good body condition and for cows receiving dry cow therapy. Cows aged at least 4 years, or with at least 8 parities, cows in at least the fourth month of lactation, cows with poor body condition, leaking milk or previous udder infections had a significantly higher risk of clinical mastitis (p <0.05). The risk was reduced by the use of separate towels for udder cleaning and by drying off at the end of lactation. Most of the risk factors were in agreement with previous reports. However, stage of lactation and drying-off style were in contrast to others. Further research is needed to identify the interrelationship between production level, specific pathogens and management risk factors.

  8. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective

  9. Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Busato, A; Trachsel, P; Schällibaum, M; Blum, J W

    2000-04-28

    1+ were submitted for somatic cell counting (SCC), bacteriological examination and to test for antibiotic susceptibility. The SCC and germ-cell counts of monthly bulk-tank milk samples were available through Dairy Inspection and Advisory Services and milk production data of 567 herd-book cows were available from breeding associations. Possible individual and environmental predictors of subclinical mastitis were identified using logistic models adjusted for clustering of the data at herd and cow levels. Data were analyzed separately for cows from 7 to 100 and from 101 to 305 days post partum. Prevalences of subclinical mastitis at the quarter level were 21.2% for lactation period 7-100 days and 34.5% for 101-305 days post partum. The geometric mean SCC in bulk-tank milk samples was 85.6x10(3)cells/ml. Samples at 7-100 and 101-305 days post partum were positive for Staphylococcus aureus in 16.0 and 7.4%, for coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 51.5 and 50.6%, for Streptococcus agalactiae in 0.0 and 0.8%, for other Streptococci in 19.4 and 15.6%, for E. coli in 1.0 and 0.4%, and for Corynebacterium bovis in 25.7 and 45.1%, respectively. Risks of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with increasing days post partum and advancing age of cow. Cows that were sampled when staying in alpine dairies had considerably higher risks of subclinical mastitis than cows staying in home barns. Significantly lower risks of subclinical mastitis were observed in farms where CMT was performed regularly as a control measure. Bacteria in milk from cows with mastitis exhibited antibiotic resistance at a comparable frequency as found previously in conventional farms.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Milk of Healthy and Mastitis-Suffering Women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Esther; de Andrés, Javier; Manrique, Marina; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Tobes, Raquel; Martínez-Blanch, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Ramón, Daniel; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2015-08-01

    Some studies have been conducted to assess the composition of the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk, but they did not evaluate the presence of other microorganisms, such as fungi, archaea, protozoa, or viruses. This study aimed to compare the metagenome of human milk samples provided by healthy and mastitis-suffering women. DNA was isolated from human milk samples collected from 10 healthy women and 10 women with symptoms of lactational mastitis. Shotgun libraries from total extracted DNA were constructed and the libraries were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. The amount of human DNA sequences was ≥ 90% in all the samples. Among the bacterial sequences, the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The healthy core microbiome included the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Propionibacterium. At the species level, a high degree of inter-individual variability was observed among healthy women. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus clearly dominated the microbiome in the samples from the women with acute mastitis whereas high increases in Staphylococcus epidermidis-related reads were observed in the milk of those suffering from subacute mastitis. Fungal and protozoa-related reads were identified in most of the samples, whereas Archaea reads were absent in samples from women with mastitis. Some viral-related sequence reads were also detected. Human milk contains a complex microbial metagenome constituted by the genomes of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. In mastitis cases, the milk microbiome reflects a loss of bacterial diversity and a high increase of the sequences related to the presumptive etiological agents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  12. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  13. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    PubMed Central

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  14. Estimate of the economic impact of mastitis: A case study in a Holstein dairy herd under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Juliana L B; Brito, Maria A V P; Lange, Carla C; Silva, Márcio R; Ribeiro, João B; Mendonça, Letícia C; Mendonça, Juliana F M; Souza, Guilherme N

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of mastitis at the herd level and the weight (percent) of the components of this impact in a Holstein dairy herd under tropical conditions. Three estimates of the economic impact of mastitis were performed. In estimates 1 and 2 the real production and economic indices from February 2011 to January 2012 were considered. In the estimate 1, indices for mastitis classified as ideal were considered, whereas in the estimate 2, the mastitis indices used were those recorded at the farm and at Holstein Cattle Association of Minas Gerais State database (real indices). Ideal mastitis indices were bulk milk somatic cell counts less than 250,000 cells/mL, incidence of clinical mastitis less than 25 cases/100 cows/year, number of culls due to udder health problems less than 5% and the percentage of cows with somatic cell counts greater than 200,000 cells/mL less than 20%. Considering the ideal indices of mastitis, the economic impact was US$19,132.35. The three main components of the economic impact were culling cows (39.4%) and the reduction in milk production due to subclinical and clinical mastitis (32.3% and 18.2%, respectively). Estimate 2 using real mastitis indices showed an economic impact of US$61,623.13 and the reduction in milk production due to mastitis (77.7%) and milk disposal (14.0%) were the most relevant components. The real impact of culling cows was approximately 16 times less than the weight that was considered ideal, indicating that this procedure could have been more frequently adopted. The reduction in milk production was 27.2% higher than the reduction in Estimate 1, indicating a need to control and prevent mastitis. The estimate 3 considered the same indices as estimate 2, but for the period from February 2012 to January 2013. Its economic impact was US$91,552.69. During this period, 161 treatments of cows with an intramammary antibiotic were performed to eliminate Streptococcus agalactiae, and

  15. Rheology of the gel formed in the California Mastitis Test.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, C Johan R; Xia, Stephen S; Whyte, David

    2008-11-01

    The California Mastitis Test has previously been adapted for use in an inline, cow-side sensor and relies on the fact that the viscosity of the gel formed during the test is proportional to the somatic cell concentration. In this paper, the use of capillary and rotational viscometry was compared in light of the expected rheology of the gel formed during the test. It was found that the gel is non-Newtonian, but the initial phase of viscosity increase was not due to shear dependence, but rather due to the gelation reaction. The maximum apparent viscosity of the gel was shear dependent while the time it took to reach the maximum was not truly shear dependent, but was rather dependent on the degree of mixing during gelation. This was confirmed by introducing a delay time prior to viscosity measurement, in both capillary and rotational viscometry. It was found that by mixing the reagent and infected milk, then delaying viscosity measurement for 30 s, shortened the time it took to reach maximum viscosity by more than 60 s. The maximum apparent viscosity, however, was unaffected. It was found that capillary viscometry worked well to correlate relative viscosity with somatic cell count, but that it was sensitive to the reagent concentration. It can therefore be deduced that the rheology of the gel is complicated not only by it being non-Newtonian, but also by the strong dependence on test conditions. These make designing a successful sensor much more challenging.

  16. Microfluidic sedimentation cytometer for milk quality and bovine mastitis monitoring.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cordero, Jose L; Barrett, Louise M; O'Kennedy, Richard; Ricco, Antonio J

    2010-12-01

    We report a rapid, low-cost, portable microfluidic sedimentation cytometer (SeCy) for assessing the somatic cell count and fat content of milk in 15 min using a "sample-in, answer-out" approach. The system consists of 12 independent microfluidic devices, essentially flattened funnel structures, fabricated on the footprint of a single plastic compact disc (CD). Each funnel structure holds 150 μL of milk, has an inlet for milk filling and an outlet for air to escape, and ends in a narrow, closed-end microfluidic channel that facilitates packing of the cells into a column whose length is proportional to cell count. The closed-end channel provides accurate cell counts over the range 50,000->3,000,000 cells per mL. The assay separates cells and fat globules based on their densities (by differential sedimentation), concentrating white cells in the closed-end channel near the outer rim of the CD for estimation of total "cell pellet" volume, while fat globules move toward the center of disc rotation, forming a fat "band" in the funnel. After adding milk to two or more microfluidic devices, the CD is loaded onto a custom-built reader unit that spins the disc for 15 min. Two low-cost microscopes in the reader image the centrifuged cell pellet and the fat band, providing a sufficiently accurate cell count to diagnose mastitis and measuring fat content as an indication of health and nutritional status.

  17. [Mastitis in general practice. Is bacteriologic examination useful?].

    PubMed

    Aabø, O; Matheson, I; Aursnes, I; Horgen, M; Lagerløv, P; Melby, K

    1990-06-20

    For a period of 22 months, postpartial women in Oslo were asked to consult one of several specific general practitioners in the event of mastitis. Clinical symptoms, bacteriological findings in breast milk and treatment were recorded in 43 patients. Patients with a favourable (n = 35) and with an unfavourable outcome (n = 8) defined as abscess, relapse and/or relief of symptoms after more than seven days, were compared. Unfavourable outcome was characterized by higher score of clinical symptoms and a higher isolation frequency of Staphylococcus aureus. The occurrence of fever did not differ between the groups. Bacteriological findings in milk from both breasts were compared with the findings from 100 milk donors. Staphylococcus aureus was more frequently isolated in milk from affected breasts than from unaffected and control breasts (17/40 versus 4/40 versus 4/100). Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains (70%) were betalactamase producers. Coagulase negative staphylococci were a frequent finding in all milk samples, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were frequent only in the controls. The presence of pathogenic bacteria, as well as high bacterial counts, were associated with a higher number of symptoms. However, the predictive value of the bacteriological examination was low. Our study indicates that bacteriological examination of breast milk is justified only in patients with severe, acute symptoms and recurrences when betalactamase producing Staphylococcus aureus are suspected.

  18. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Hulya; Pourbagher, Aysin; Colakoglu, Tamer

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign breast disease with unknown etiology which can mimic breast carcinoma, both clinically and radiologically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of IGM have been previously described; however there is no study evaluating diffusion-weighted MRI findings of IGM. To analyze conventional, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted MRI signal characteristics of IGM by comparing it with the contralateral normal breast parenchyma. A total of 39 patients were included in the study. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the distribution and enhancement patterns of the lesions were evaluated. We also detected the frequencies of involving quadrants, retroareolar involvement, accompanying abscess, and skin edema. T2-weighted (T2W) and STIR signal intensities and both mean and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared with the contralateral normal parenchyma. IGM showed significantly lower mean and minimum ADC values when compared with the normal parenchyma. Signal intensities on T2W and STIR sequences of the lesion were significantly higher than the normal parenchyma. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 7.7% of the patients had mass-like contrast enhancement, 92.3% of the patients had non-mass-like contrast enhancement. Abscess was positive in 33.3% of the patients. As a result, IGM showed commonly non-mass-like lesions with restricted diffusion. Although it is a benign pathology, it may show clustered ring-like enhancement like malignant lesions. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  19. Outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanciu, G; Marogna, G; Paglietti, B; Cappuccinelli, P; Leori, G; Rappelli, P

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of infective mastitis due to Enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north Sardinia (Italy). E. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. Forty-five out of the 48 E. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). E. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all 45 multi-drug resistant strains showed an indistinguishable macrorestiction profile, indicating their clonal origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by E. faecalis.

  20. Pyocine typing as an epidemiological marker in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, G.; Mushin, Rose; Tagg, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pyocine typing was used for the characterization of 134 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis. The scheme of Gillies & Govan (1966) was adopted with some modifications, and the procedure gave 89·6% typability. Pyocine type 1 strains were most commonly encountered and were followed in frequency by types 10 and 3. The introduction of two additional indicator strains allowed for division of these types into subtypes. In spite of some limitations, discussed in the paper, the pyocine typing scheme proved to be useful in `marking' P. aeruginosa strains and in following their association with bovine mastitis in various herds. PMID:4996924

  1. Clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania: risk, intervention and knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bell, C E; Swai, E S; Kambarage, D M; Ogden, N H; Bryant, M J; French, N P

    2006-04-17

    In a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. The point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% CI=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% CI=22.2-26.6), respectively. In a longitudinal disease study in Iringa, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 31.7 cases per 100 cow-years. A randomised intervention trial indicated that intramammary antibiotics significantly reduced the proportion of bacteriologically positive quarters in the short-term (14 days post-infusion) but teat dipping had no detectable effect on bacteriological infection and CMT positive quarters. Other risk and protective factors were identified from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal included animals with Boran breeding (odds ratio (OR)=3.40, 95% CI=1.00-11.57, P<0.05 for clinical mastitis, and OR=3.51, 95% CI=1.29-9.55, P<0.01 for a CMT positive quarter), while the practice of residual calf suckling was protective for a bacteriologically positive quarter (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81, Pmastitis training course for farmers and extension officers was held, and the knowledge gained and use of different methods of dissemination were assessed over time. In a subsequent randomised controlled trial, there were strong associations between knowledge gained and both the individual question asked and the combination of dissemination methods (village meeting, video and handout) used. This study demonstrated that both clinical and subclinical mastitis is common in smallholder dairying in Tanzania, and that some of the risk and protective factors for mastitis can be addressed by practical management of dairy cows following effective knowledge

  2. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India.

    PubMed

    Bangar, Yogesh Chandrakant; Singh, Bishwambhar; Dohare, Amit Kumar; Verma, Med Ram

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.

  4. Short communication: Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Joaquim, S F; Richini-Pereira, V B; Langoni, H

    2017-01-01

    Cows are probably the main source of contamination of raw milk with Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary glands with subclinical mastitis can shed large numbers of Staph. aureus in milk. Because of the risk of this pathogen to human health as well as animal health, the aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staph. aureus (OS-MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) on a dairy farm. Milk samples were obtained from all quarters, showing an elevated somatic cell count by the California Mastitis Test. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 53% (61/115) of the milk samples, with 60 isolates identified as Staph. aureus (98.4%) and 1 isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.6%). The presence of the mecA gene was verified in 48.3% of Staph. aureus isolates. Of the Staph. aureus isolates, 23.3% were MRSA and 25.0% were OS-MRSA. The total of mastitis cases infected with MRSA was 12.2%. The detection of this large percentage of mastitis cases caused by MRSA and OS-MRSA is of great concern for the animals' health, because β-lactams are still the most important antimicrobials used to treat mastitis. In addition, Staph. aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis represent a public health risk.

  5. Short communication: Molecular characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pathogenicity of clinical Nocardia cyriacigeorgica isolates from an outbreak of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Yongxia; Barkema, Herman W; Gao, Jian; De Buck, Jeroen; Kastelic, John P; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Shahid, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of nocardial mastitis, mostly in the context of outbreaks, has been reported in many countries. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding detailed characterization of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine mastitis. Thus, herein we report characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, molecular identification, and pathogenicity of N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from an outbreak of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd in northern China. A total of 182 (80.2%) lactating cows had clinical mastitis with severe inflammation and firmness of the udder, reduced milk production, and anorexia, with no apparent clinical response to common antibiotics. Out of 22 mastitic milk samples submitted to our laboratory, 12 N. cyriacigeorgica were isolated and characterized using standard microbiological analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis, biochemical assays, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Additionally, in vivo experiments were done to determine pathogenicity of these clinical mastitis isolates. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, rifampicin, and aminoglycosides (type VI pattern). Additionally, intramammary inoculation of mice with N. cyriacigeorgica caused chronic inflammatory changes, including hyperemia, edema, and infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as hyperplasia of lymph nodules in mammary glands. Therefore, we concluded that N. cyriacigeorgica was involved in the current outbreak of mastitis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to characterize N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  7. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, C; Ostergaard, S; Emanuelson, U; Andersson, H; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2010-10-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when

  8. The effect of a national mastitis control program on the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; van Schaik, G; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M

    2010-12-01

    Over the years, much effort has been put into implementing mastitis control programs in herds. To further improve utilization of such programs, there needs to be an understanding of the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers regarding udder health, and the way this can be influenced by mastitis control programs. This study aimed to explore the effect of a national mastitis control program on Dutch farmers' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis. A total of 378 dairy farmers completed a survey on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis before the start of a national mastitis control program in 2004, and 204 completed a similar survey in the final year of the program (2009). Although the average annual bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) remained the same, the farmers' self-reported attitudes, knowledge, and behavior changed significantly. The problem level of BMSCC decreased from 285,000 cells/mL in 2004 to 271,000 cells/mL in 2009. More farmers perceived that they had sufficient knowledge about the prevention of mastitis (34% in 2004 vs. 53% in 2009) and they more often perceived that they knew the cause of a mastitis problem (25% in 2004 vs. 37% in 2009). The use of gloves for milking increased from 15 to 46%, the use of a standardized mastitis treatment protocol increased from 7 to 34%, and freestalls were cleaned more often (2.28 vs. 2.51 times/d) in 2009 compared with 2004. Most changes in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior did not differ between groups of dairy farmers whose herds had an initially low (≤ 162,000 cells/mL), medium (163,000 to 205,000 cells/mL), or high (>206,000 cells/mL) BMSCC. The high BMSCC group significantly decreased their annual BMSCC level by 15,000 cells/mL. Regression analysis showed that the decrease in BMSCC was associated with a change in farmers' perceptions (e.g., increased perceived knowledge about the effect of the milking machine on mastitis) and with a change in certain management

  9. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, Mª Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher. PMID:27584695

  10. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Methods Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Results Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (p<0.05) in mice inoculated with strong biofilm forming S. aureus than the weak biofilm forming strain. Conclusion This finding suggests an important role of TNF-α in mammary gland pathology post-infection with strong biofilm-forming S. aureus in the acute mouse mastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of a hand-held milk electrical conductivity meter compared to the California mastitis test for mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fosgate, G T; Petzer, I M; Karzis, J

    2013-04-01

    Screening tests for mastitis can play an important role in proactive mastitis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of milk electrical conductivity (EC) to the California mastitis test (CMT) in commercial dairy cattle in South Africa using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. A total of 1848 quarter milk specimens were collected from 173 cows sampled during six sequential farm visits. Of these samples, 25.8% yielded pathogenic bacterial isolates. The most frequently isolated species were coagulase negative Staphylococci (n=346), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=54), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=42). The overall cow-level prevalence of mastitis was 54% based on the Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis. The CMT was more accurate than EC for classification of cows having somatic cell counts >200,000/mL and for isolation of a bacterial pathogen. BLC analysis also suggested an overall benefit of CMT over EC but the statistical evidence was not strong (P=0.257). The Bayesian model estimated the sensitivity and specificity of EC (measured via resistance) at a cut-point of >25 mΩ/cm to be 89.9% and 86.8%, respectively. The CMT had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 77.7%, respectively, when evaluated at the weak positive cut-point. EC was useful for identifying milk specimens harbouring pathogens but was not able to differentiate among evaluated bacterial isolates. Screening tests can be used to improve udder health as part of a proactive management plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model.

    PubMed

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (p<0.05) in mice inoculated with strong biofilm forming S. aureus than the weak biofilm forming strain. This finding suggests an important role of TNF-α in mammary gland pathology post-infection with strong biofilm-forming S. aureus in the acute mouse mastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of mammary tissue damage, with or without

  13. Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Ogorevc, J; Kunej, T; Razpet, A; Dovc, P

    2009-01-01

    A cattle database of candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis has been developed to provide an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health. The database contains 943 genes and genetic markers involved in mammary gland development and function, representing candidates for further functional studies. The candidate loci were drawn on a genetic map to reveal positional overlaps. For identification of candidate loci, data from seven different research approaches were exploited: (i) gene knockouts or transgenes in mice that result in specific phenotypes associated with mammary gland (143 loci); (ii) cattle QTL for milk production (344) and mastitis related traits (71); (iii) loci with sequence variations that show specific allele-phenotype interactions associated with milk production (24) or mastitis (10) in cattle; (iv) genes with expression profiles associated with milk production (207) or mastitis (107) in cattle or mouse; (v) cattle milk protein genes that exist in different genetic variants (9); (vi) miRNAs expressed in bovine mammary gland (32) and (vii) epigenetically regulated cattle genes associated with mammary gland function (1). Fourty-four genes found by multiple independent analyses were suggested as the most promising candidates and were further in silico analysed for expression levels in lactating mammary gland, genetic variability and top biological functions in functional networks. A miRNA target search for mammary gland expressed miRNAs identified 359 putative binding sites in 3′UTRs of candidate genes. PMID:19508288

  14. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  15. Severity variation of clinical E.coli mastitis in cows: where do we stand?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neutrophils are key effector cells that underpin both defence and severity of clinical coliform mastitis. Increased turnover and viability of neutrophils in the lumen of the bovine mammary gland facilitate the physiological response and acute inflammation that fuel this effective mammary defence mec...

  16. Divergence of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during an outbreak of ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elli A; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Trappetti, Claudia; Liciardi, Manuele; Orru, Germano; Viti, Carlo; Bronowski, Christina; Hall, Amanda J; Darby, Alistair C; Oggioni, Marco R; Winstanley, Craig

    2015-01-30

    Bacterial infections causing mastitis in sheep can result in severe economic losses for farmers. A large survey of milk samples from ewes with mastitis in Sardinia, Italy, indicated an increasing prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It has been shown previously that during chronic, biofilm-associated infections P. aeruginosa populations diversify. We report the phenotypic and genomic characterisation of two clonal P. aeruginosa isolates (PSE305 and PSE306) from a mastitis infection outbreak, representing distinct colony morphology variants. In addition to pigment production, PSE305 and PSE306 differed in phenotypic characteristics including biofilm formation, utilisation of various carbon and nitrogen sources, twitching motility. We found higher levels of expression of genes associated with biofilm formation (pelB) and twitching motility (flgD) in PSE305, compared to the biofilm and twitching-defective PSE306. Comparative genomics analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and minor insertion/deletion variations between PSE305 and PSE306, including a SNP mutation in the pilP gene of PSE306. By introducing a wild-type pilP gene we were able to partially complement the defective twitching motility of PSE306. There were also three larger regions of difference between the two genomes, indicating genomic instability. Hence, we have demonstrated that P. aeruginosa population divergence can occur during an outbreak of mastitis, leading to significant variations in phenotype and genotype, and resembling the behaviour of P. aeruginosa during chronic biofilm-associated infections.

  17. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Franck, Kristina T; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente; Larsen, Anders R; Petersen, Andreas; Bangsborg, Jette; Albertsen, Per; Westh, Henrik; Bartels, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p < 0.02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also be important virulence factors for human mastitis.

  18. Changes in the proteome of Mastitis-causing escherichia coli strains that affect pathogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Milk is the environment in which bacteria must grow to establish an infection of the mammary gland. However, milk is not a rich growth media for bacteria. In fact, milk naturally contains many mechanisms to inhibit bacterial ...

  19. Diagnostic methods for mastitis in cows are not appropriate for use in humans: commentary.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers are now being targeted for marketing of diagnostic tools for mastitis that were developed for the dairy industry and which aim to provide information regarding choice of antibiotic treatment. Meanwhile, scientists are striving to understand how the human microbiome affects health and wellbeing and the importance of maintenance of bacterial balance in the human body. Breast milk supplies a multitude of bacteria to populate the baby's intestinal tract and kick-start the immune system. Researchers propose a paradigm shift in the understanding of bacterial content in breast milk and an alternative paradigm for the understanding of lactational mastitis: there is the beginning of evidence that many cases of lactational mastitis will resolve spontaneously. An international group of researchers is attempting to answer how dietary habits, birth mode, genetics and environmental factors may impact the bacterial content of breast milk. Until we have more comprehensive knowledge about the human milk microbiome, diagnostic aids for identification of women in need of antibiotic therapy for mastitis remain unreliable. Diagnostic aids could lead to the injudicious use of antibiotic therapy, which in turn may rob the infant of bacteria valuable for development of its immune system. The marketing of diagnostic aids for use in human medicine, that were originally developed for use in cows, is neither evidence-based nor good ethical practice.

  20. Herd health planning: farmers' perceptions in relation to lameness and mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bell, N J; Main, D C J; Whay, H R; Knowles, T G; Bell, M J; Webster, A J F

    2006-11-18

    Between December 2002 and December 2003, the herd health planning activities on 61 dairy farms in the uk were compared with several measures of lameness and mastitis. Lameness had been reported as a problem in 53 of the herds directly by the farm and in the other eight by the nominating local veterinary practice; 54 of the farms also reported having a mastitis problem. Fifty-three (87 per cent) of the farms had some form of written herd health plan, of which 21 (40 per cent) had been in place for 12 months or less. All the farms were recording mastitis in some way, although 38 (62 per cent) of the farmers did not review these records and only four retained the results of a comprehensive record review. Farms defined as having a high incidence of mastitis were more likely to be reviewing their health records, but farms defined as having a high prevalence of lameness in a sentinel group of early lactation heifers were less likely to be reviewing their health records.

  1. Short communication: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, T; Puacz, E; Lisowski, A; Siedlecki, P; Dudziak, W; Międzobrodzki, J; Krukowski, H

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative agent of bovine mastitis, a disease that remains a major economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic composition of 80 S. aureus mastitis isolates collected from 14 dairy farms in Eastern Poland were determined. Of the 10 antimicrobial agents evaluated, only testing for penicillin G produced drug resistance. As 41% of the S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant, this drug along with other β-lactamase-sensitive β-lactams, should rather not be considered for the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Upon genotyping, with a triplex PCR method, a total of 11 distinct PCR types were produced. The population structure of S. aureus isolates was highly clonal, with 1 predominant genotype circulating on each farm. The observed similarities in the genotype composition of S. aureus populations from geographically distant farms underscore the significance of interfarm transmission of S. aureus in Poland. This, in turn, argues for the establishment of a nationwide surveillance program for bovine mastitis due to this pathogen.

  2. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus small colony variant (SCV) associated with persistent bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Atalla, Heba; Gyles, Carlton; Jacob, Christian L; Moisan, Helene; Malouin, François; Mallard, Bonnie

    2008-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bovine mastitis and foodborne and other diseases in humans. This study tested the hypothesis that small colony variants (SCVs) of S. aureus are implicated in chronic bovine mastitis. Six S. aureus isolates from foremilk samples from 11 chronically infected cows were investigated. Five isolates had typical morphology and were hemolytic and coagulase positive; one was a heterogeneous population of typical and SCV phenotype (tiny nonhemolytic colonies). In the presence of gentamicin, three of the previously typical S. aureus developed SCVs that were confirmed as S. aureus by biochemical and genetic analyses; these SCVs reverted to the typical form on antibiotic-free medium. The SCV isolate (Heba3231) from the heterogeneous population had a slow growth rate and prolonged lag phase and did not revert during 10 h of incubation. Transcriptional analysis showed that SCV Heba3231 had reduced expression of agr, hla, and coa and increased expression of indicators of fermentation pathways compared to the parent strain. Invasion of and persistence in a primary culture of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) showed that SCV Heba3231 had minimal deleterious effects, whereas the parent strain or the Newbould 305 strain caused severe damage. Recovery of the parent strain from BAEC yielded a mixture of the parent and SCV phenotypes. This study reports for the first time the isolation of S. aureus SCV from persistent bovine mastitis and suggests that SCV may be an important contributor to the prolonged survival of S. aureus in some cases of mastitis.

  3. Study on Correlation of Maedi-Visna Virus (MVV) with Ovine Subclinical Mastitis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, R; Paktinat, S; Ghassemi, F; Jafari, R

    2014-06-01

    Maedi-Visna is an important slow viral disease of sheep leading to progressive pneumonia, encephalitis and mastitis. Udder is one of the organs affected by MVV. Despite the fact that in Iran Maedi-Visna is known since 2000, to the authors' knowledge correlation of subclinical mastitis and infection with MVV has not been assayed. In this study 50 milk samples from 10 flocks in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested. None of the animals exhibited any clinical signs of the disease. Forty samples were collected from CMT positive ewes and ten were taken from CMT negative ewes. Milk samples were analyzed using PCR targeting gag sequence. Presence of provirus DNA was detected in one sample from CMT negative and seven samples from CMT positive ewes. These data demonstrate that 16.5 % of sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected to MVV. Thus this virus can be considered one of the main pathogenic agents of mastitis and can be dramatically transmitted to lambs by milk.

  4. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Swai, E S; Bell, C; Bryant, M J; Ogden, N H; Kambarage, D M; French, N P

    2008-07-05

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 randomly selected farms in each of the Iringa and Tanga regions of Tanzania to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cows kept by smallholders. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using the California mastitis test (cmt), and by the bacteriological culture of 1500 milk samples collected from 434 clinically normal cows. The percentages of the cows (and quarters) with subclinical mastitis were 75.9 per cent (46.2 per cent) when assessed by the cmt and 43.8 per cent (24.3 per cent) when assessed by culture. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of a cmt-positive quarter were Boran breed (odds radio [or]=3.51), a brought-in cow (rather than homebred) (or=2.39), peak milk yield, and age. The stripping method of hand milking was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of cmt-positive quarters (or=0.51). The cmt-positive cows were more likely to be culture positive (or=4.51), as were brought-in (or=2.10) and older cows.

  5. Characterization studies on mycoplasmas isolated from bovine mastitis and the bovine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, J D; Jasper, D E; Ilić, M

    1977-07-01

    Mycoplasmas isolated from bovine mastitis in California were classified into five distinct species. These included Mycoplasma bovis, M. bovigenitalium, M. alkalescens, M. canadenfe, and an unidentified strain, ST-6. Strains frequently recovered from the nose of young calves proved to be M. arginini, M. bovirhinis was recovered from the respiratory tract but was not a common finding.

  6. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lawrence K.; Muller, Fredrick J.; Wedam, Michael L.; Schneider, Christopher S.; Biddle, Mary Kate

    2008-01-01

    Findings of herd investigations of heifers with prepubertal mastitis are presented. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from lacteal secretions and tissue samples of necropsied heifers; the same strain infected dams and herd mates. Vertical transmission is suggested in this first report of intramammary infections of M. bovis in peripubertal heifers. PMID:19183734

  7. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

  8. Therapeutic Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum Vaccination Transiently Reduces Bovine Mastitis Associated with Chlamydophila Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Biesenkamp-Uhe, Carolin; Li, Yihang; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Infections with Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum are highly prevalent in cattle and have been associated with bovine mastitis. A prospective cohort study was conducted with a herd of 140 Holstein dairy cows to investigate the influence of Chlamydophila infection on subclinical inflammation of the bovine mammary gland as characterized by somatic cell numbers in milk. PCR detection of C. abortus and low serum antibody levels against Chlamydophila spp. were significantly associated with subclinical mastitis. To examine the effect of the infection by response modification, immune perturbation was done by two subcutaneous administrations of an experimental vaccine preparation of inactivated C. abortus and C. pecorum elementary bodies. Vaccination against Chlamydophila highly significantly decreased milk somatic cell numbers, thus reducing bovine mastitis, and increased antibody levels against Chlamydophila but did not eliminate shedding of C. abortus in milk as detected by PCR. The protective effect peaked at 11 weeks after vaccination and lasted for a total of 14 weeks. Vaccination with the Chlamydophila vaccine, a mock vaccine, or a combination vaccine against bovine viral diseases highly significantly increased C. abortus shedding in milk for 1 week, presumably mediated by the vaccine adjuvant. In summary, this study shows an etiological involvement of the widespread Chlamydophila infections in bovine mastitis, a herd disease of critical importance for the dairy industry. Furthermore, this investigation shows the potential for temporary improvement of chlamydial disease by therapeutic vaccination. Chlamydophila vaccination of cattle might serve as a testing ground for vaccines against human chlamydial infections. PMID:17118976

  9. Targeting mucosal immunity in the battle to develop a mastitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, Mini; Mullarky, Isis K

    2011-12-01

    The mucosal immune system encounters antigens that enhance and suppress immune function, and serves as a selective barrier against invading pathogens. The mammary gland not only encounters antigens but also produces a nutrient evolved to protect and enhance mucosal development in the neonate. Efforts to manipulate antibody concentrations in milk to prevent mastitis, an infection of the mammary gland, have been hampered both by complexity and variation in target pathogens and limited knowledge of cellular immunity in the gland. Successful vaccination strategies must overcome the natural processes that regulate types and concentrations of milk antibodies for neonatal development, and enhance cellular immunity. Furthermore, the need to overcome dampening of immunity caused by non-pathogenic encounters to successfully prevent establishment of infection is an additional obstacle in vaccine development at mucosal sites. A significant mastitis pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, not only resides as a normal flora on a multitude of species, but also causes clinical disease with limited treatment options. Using the bovine model of S. aureus mastitis, researchers can decipher the role of antigen selection and presentation by mammary dendritic cells, enhance development of central and effector memory function, and subsequently target specific memory cells to the mammary gland for successful vaccine development. This brief review provides an overview of adaptive immunity, previous vaccine efforts, current immunological findings relevant to enhancing immune memory, and research technologies that show promise in directing future vaccine efforts to enhance mammary gland immunity and prevent mastitis.

  10. Therapeutic Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum vaccination transiently reduces bovine mastitis associated with Chlamydophila infection.

    PubMed

    Biesenkamp-Uhe, Carolin; Li, Yihang; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2007-02-01

    Infections with Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum are highly prevalent in cattle and have been associated with bovine mastitis. A prospective cohort study was conducted with a herd of 140 Holstein dairy cows to investigate the influence of Chlamydophila infection on subclinical inflammation of the bovine mammary gland as characterized by somatic cell numbers in milk. PCR detection of C. abortus and low serum antibody levels against Chlamydophila spp. were significantly associated with subclinical mastitis. To examine the effect of the infection by response modification, immune perturbation was done by two subcutaneous administrations of an experimental vaccine preparation of inactivated C. abortus and C. pecorum elementary bodies. Vaccination against Chlamydophila highly significantly decreased milk somatic cell numbers, thus reducing bovine mastitis, and increased antibody levels against Chlamydophila but did not eliminate shedding of C. abortus in milk as detected by PCR. The protective effect peaked at 11 weeks after vaccination and lasted for a total of 14 weeks. Vaccination with the Chlamydophila vaccine, a mock vaccine, or a combination vaccine against bovine viral diseases highly significantly increased C. abortus shedding in milk for 1 week, presumably mediated by the vaccine adjuvant. In summary, this study shows an etiological involvement of the widespread Chlamydophila infections in bovine mastitis, a herd disease of critical importance for the dairy industry. Furthermore, this investigation shows the potential for temporary improvement of chlamydial disease by therapeutic vaccination. Chlamydophila vaccination of cattle might serve as a testing ground for vaccines against human chlamydial infections.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

    2014-07-16

    In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested.

  12. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Kristina T.; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente; Larsen, Anders R.; Petersen, Andreas; Bangsborg, Jette; Albertsen, Per; Westh, Henrik; Bartels, Mette D.

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p < 0.02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also be important virulence factors for human mastitis. PMID:28223977

  13. Detection of a mecC-positive Staphylococcus saprophyticus from bovine mastitis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Srednik, Mariela E; Archambault, Marie; Jacques, Mario; Gentilini, Elida R

    2017-09-01

    Bovine mastitis causes important economic losses in the dairy industry. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria commonly isolated from bovine mastitis and can display resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to determine staphylococcal resistance towards β-lactam, macrolide and lincosamide antimicrobials in quarters previously treated with third-generation cephalosporin and after lincosamide intramammary therapy. Sick quarters of eighteen cows from Villaguay, Entre Ríos (Argentina) with clinical mastitis were studied. All staphylococcal isolates were tested by disk diffusion for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Cefoxitin resistance was investigated by PCR and sequencing for both the mecA and mecC genes. Resistances to penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin were observed, whereas no resistance to macrolide and lincosamide was detected. A cefoxitin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus was found to be mecA-negative but mecC-positive. This study reports for the first time the mecC gene from a CNS in bovine mastitis in South America. Because CNS may act as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes, they can be seen as a potential public health threat with respect to antimicrobial resistance and the development of multiple resistance. Also, the emergence of methicillin-resistant phenotypes will limit therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...

  15. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus single-chain variable region fragments provide protection against mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading causative agent of bovine mastitis, which can result in significant economic losses to the dairy industry. However, available vaccines against bovine mastitis do not confer adequate protection, although passive immunization with antibodies may be useful to prevent disease. Hence, we constructed a bovine single-chain variable region fragment (scFv) phage display library using cDNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes of cows with S. aureus-induced mastitis. After four rounds of selection, eight scFvs that bound S. aureus antigens with high affinity were obtained. The framework regions of the variable domains (VH and VL) of the eight scFvs were highly conserved, and the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) displayed significant diversity, especially CDR3 of the VH domain. All eight scFvs inhibited S. aureus growth in culture medium. Lactating mice were challenged by injecting S. aureus into the fourth mammary gland. Histopathological analysis showed that treatment with these scFvs prior to bacterial challenge maintained the structure of the mammary acini, decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, increased levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in mammary tissues, as compared with mice treatment with physiological saline (P < 0.05). These novel bovine scFvs may be suitable candidates for therapeutic agents for the prevention of S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.

  16. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  17. Antimicrobials for mastitis causing pathogens that are refractory to resistance development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Staphylococci and streptococci are both human and agricultural pathogens responsible for >50% of clinical mastitis incidents (resulting in losses to the dairy industry greater than $2 billion annually). The rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics world-wide has precipitated the search for alter...

  18. Treatments of clinical mastitis occurring in cows on 51 large dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L; Ruegg, P L

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra

  19. Mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in bovine milk: potential indicator of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Colinet, F G; Arnould, V M-R; Berry, D P; Wall, E; Dehareng, F; Nguyen, H N; Dardenne, P; Schefers, J; Vandenplas, J; Weigel, K; Coffey, M; Théron, L; Detilleux, J; Reding, E; Gengler, N; McParland, S

    2012-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LTF) is a milk glycoprotein favorably associated with the immune system of dairy cows. Somatic cell count is often used as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cows, but knowledge on the milk LTF content could aid in mastitis detection. An inexpensive, rapid and robust method to predict milk LTF is required. The aim of this study was to develop an equation to quantify the LTF content in bovine milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. LTF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and all milk samples were analyzed by MIR. After discarding samples with a coefficient of variation between 2 ELISA measurements of more than 5% and the spectral outliers, the calibration set consisted of 2499 samples from Belgium (n = 110), Ireland (n = 1658) and Scotland (n = 731). Six statistical methods were evaluated to develop the LTF equation. The best method yielded a cross-validation coefficient of determination for LTF of 0.71 and a cross-validation standard error of 50.55 mg/l of milk. An external validation was undertaken using an additional dataset containing 274 Walloon samples. The validation coefficient of determination was 0.60. To assess the usefulness of the MIR predicted LTF, four logistic regressions using somatic cell score (SCS) and MIR LTF were developed to predict the presence of mastitis. The dataset used to build the logistic regressions consisted of 275 mastitis records and 13 507 MIR data collected in 18 Walloon herds. The LTF and the interaction SCS × LTF effects were significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). When only the predicted LTF was included in the model, the prediction of the presence of mastitis was not accurate despite a moderate correlation between SCS and LTF (r = 0.54). The specificity and the sensitivity of models were assessed using Walloon data (i.e. internal validation) and data collected from a research herd at the University of Wisconsin - Madison (i.e. 5886 Wisconsin MIR records related to 93

  20. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM.

  1. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Herskin, M S

    2015-03-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment, this difference persisted until at least 10 d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10 d posttreatment period. In the 48 h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic treatment, thereby calling for further investigation into management of mastitic dairy cows to optimize recovery and ensure animal welfare during the recovery period after clinical mastitis.

  2. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis.

  3. Differences in susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica-associated mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Fragkou, Ilectra A; Skoufos, John; Cripps, Peter J; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Papaioannou, Nikos; Boscos, Costas M; Tzora, Athina; Fthenakis, George C

    2007-08-01

    We used a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate to study differences in susceptibility to experimental mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep. The isolate was deposited into the teat duct of Karagouniko (K, n=8) or Frisarta (F, n=8) ewes. The animals were monitored by means of clinical, bacteriological, cytological and pathological methods. K ewes did not develop any systemic or mammary clinical signs, whilst F ewes became ill and developed acute clinical mastitis 12 h later (P<0.001). Bacteria were isolated from 34/48 samples from K ewes and from 46/46 samples from F ewes. Positive California mastitis test (CMT) results were 17/24 samples from K ewes and 23/23 samples from F ewes; leucocytes were seen in Giemsa-stained films. Total pathology score summed over all group K ewes was 41 (maximum possible: 128); Man. haemolytica was isolated from 12/24 tissue samples. Total pathology score summed over all group F ewes was 93; Man. haemolytica was isolated from 24/24 tissue samples. Hyperplastic lymphoid nodules consisting of lymphocytes and plasma cells with germinal activity were characteristically present at the border between teat duct-teat cistern of group K ewes; no such structures were observed in teats of group F ewes. The results identified differences in susceptibility/resistance to a mastitis pathogen among animals of the two breeds. Defence mechanisms of the teat appeared to be inadequate against the invading organisms; as lymphoid nodules have been considered important defensive mechanisms of the ovine teat, their observed lack in Frisarta ewes might have predisposed them to development of mastitis.

  4. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring. PMID:23985065

  5. Relationship between antimicrobial drug usage and antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-positive mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pol, M; Ruegg, P L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze relationships between usage of antimicrobial drugs on dairy farms and results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mastitis pathogens. Exposure to selected antimicrobial drugs (n = 10) was standardized by calculation of the number of defined daily doses used per cow. Farms (n = 40) were categorized based on amount of antimicrobial exposure: organic (no usage); conventional-low usage (conventional farms not using or using less than or equal to the first quartile of use of each compound); and conventional-high usage (conventional farms using more than the first quartile of a particular compound). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of selected antimicrobial drugs was determined using a commercial microbroth dilution system for isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 137), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, n = 294), and Streptococcus spp. (n = 95) obtained from subclinical mastitis infections. Most isolates were inhibited at the lowest dilution tested of most antimicrobial drugs. Survival curves for Staph. aureus and CNS demonstrated heterogeneity in MIC based on the amount of exposure to penicillin and pirlimycin. For CNS, farm type was associated with the MIC of ampicillin and tetracycline. For Streptococcus spp., farm type was associated with MIC of pirlimycin and tetracycline. For all mastitis pathogens studied, the MIC of pirlimycin increased with increasing exposure to defined daily doses of pirlimycin. The level of exposure to most other antimicrobial drugs was not associated with MIC of mastitis pathogens. A dose-response effect between antimicrobial exposure and susceptibility was observed for some pathogen-antimicrobial combinations, but exposure to other antimicrobial drugs commonly used for prevention and treatment of mastitis was not associated with resistance.

  6. Therapeutic effect of polysaccharide fraction of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Guan, Ran; Lu, Yisong; Su, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ye; Du, Aifang; Hu, Songhua

    2015-07-25

    Mastitis is considered the most significant and persistent disease in dairy cows, bringing about large economic losses. Subclinical mastitis brings about major cost implications, for it is difficult to detect due to absence of any visible indications and can persist in the mammary tissue throughout lactation. Immunomodulators have been widely used to reduce intramammary infections by modulating bovine mammary gland. Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP), extracted from herbal medicine, has been used widely especially for its immunomodulatory function for many years. The objective of this study was to estimate an oil emulsified Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP-O) as a potential therapeutic agent to treat subclinical mastitis by subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node in lactating cows via analysis of SCC, IMIs and NAGase. Injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node significantly reduced milk SCC and NAGase activity compared with control. The quarters with bacterial infection were also progressively reduced in RAMP-O treated cows and only 9 quarters were found to have bacterial infection, while no obvious change was found in the control group. Subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node had therapeutic value in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis by reducing SCC, NAGase and IMIs in milk. Considering both the therapeutic effect and the cost of RAMP-O, 32 mg per dose was found most suitable to reduce milk SCC and NAGase. Therefore, RAMP-O deserves further study for its use in treatment of bovine mastitis.

  7. Genetic analysis of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, K; Heringstad, B; Whist, A C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) in Norwegian Red cows. In Norway, breeding values for mastitis are predicted based on records of veterinary treatments of clinical mastitis. Bacteriological milk sample results from the mastitis laboratories have been recorded routinely into the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System since 2000, but have so far not been used in genetic analyses. This additional source of data may provide valuable information on pathogen-specific CM. Records from 234,088 first-lactation Norwegian Red cows, daughters of 1,656 sires, were used for genetic analyses of unspecific, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli CM. The 4 CM traits were defined as binary and scored as 1 if the cow had at least 1 case of the CM in question and 0 otherwise. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied, and a multivariate threshold liability model was used for the analyses. The posterior mean (SD ≤ 0.01) of the heritabilities were 0.06 for liability of unspecific CM, 0.04 for Staph. aureus CM, 0.02 for Strep. dysgalactiae CM, and 0.03 for E. coli CM. The posterior mean (SD) of the genetic correlations were all high, ranging from 0.75 (0.14) to 0.87 (0.07). The highest genetic correlation was found between unspecific CM and Strep. dysgalactiae CM, whereas the lowest was found for E. coli CM and Staph. aureus CM. Genetic correlations lower than 1 indicate that mastitis caused by different pathogens can be considered as partly different traits. In spite of high rank correlations (0.95-0.98), some re-ranking of sires was observed. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro synergistic activities of cefazolin and nisin A against mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kitazaki, Kohei; Koga, Shoko; Nagatoshi, Kohei; Kuwano, Koichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ano, Hitoshi; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2017-09-12

    First-generation cephalosporins such as cefazolin (CEZ) have been widely used for mastitis treatment in dairy cattle. However, the use of antibiotics results in the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, which is used for human consumption. Nisin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis, has been used as a broad-spectrum food preservative for over 50 years. Therefore, a combination of CEZ and nisin A might provide an extended activity spectrum against mastitis pathogens and reduce the antibiotic dose for mastitis treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effect of CEZ and nisin A against mastitis pathogens using the checkerboard and time-kill assays. In the checkerboard assay, the CEZ-nisin A combination exhibited a synergistic effect against Staphylococcus aureus (n=20/20) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=13/18), and meanwhile exhibited a mostly additive effect against Staphylococcus intermedius (n=12/20), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=10/10), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=18/18), and Escherichia coli (n=14/18). There were no indifferent or antagonistic effects between CEZ and nisin A. In the time-kill assay, the CEZ-nisin A combination at 0.5 × or 1 × minimum inhibitory concentration exhibited synergistic reduction of bacterial growth by over 3 log10 colony forming units per ml relative to that observed with either antimicrobial substance alone. These results suggest that the CEZ-nisin A combination can be used for developing an intramammary infusion for mastitis treatment, with lower antibiotic concentrations than normal.

  9. Mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses due to clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J; Kastelic, J P; Barkema, H W

    2015-03-01

    Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e., direct losses) or effects of the immune response triggered by intramammary infection (indirect losses). The distinction is important in terms of mastitis prevention and treatment. Regardless, the number of pathogens is often unknown (particularly in field studies), making it difficult to estimate direct losses, whereas indirect losses can be approximated by measuring the association between increased somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production. An alternative is to perform a mediation analysis in which changes in milk yield are allocated into their direct and indirect components. We applied this method on data for clinical mastitis, milk and SCC test-day recordings, results of bacteriological cultures (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and streptococci other than Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis), and cow characteristics. Following a diagnosis of clinical mastitis, the cow was treated and changes (increase or decrease) in milk production before and after a diagnosis were interpreted counterfactually. On a daily basis, indirect changes, mediated by SCC increase, were significantly different from zero for all bacterial species, with a milk yield decrease (ranging among species from 4 to 33g and mediated by an increase of 1000 SCC/mL/day) before and a daily milk increase (ranging among species from 2 to 12g and mediated by a decrease of 1000 SCC/mL/day) after detection. Direct changes, not mediated by SCC, were only different from zero for coagulase-negative staphylococci before diagnosis (72g per day). We concluded that mixed structural equation models were useful to estimate direct and indirect effects of the presence of clinical mastitis on milk yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis and correlation to phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Artursson, Karin; Söderlund, Robert; Liu, Lihong; Monecke, Stefan; Schelin, Jenny

    2016-09-25

    Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Among the most commonly found virulence factors were genes encoding several hemolysin types, leukocidins D and lukM/lukF-P83, clumping factors A and B, fibrinogen binding protein and fibronectin-binding protein A. Some virulence factors e.g. fibronectin-binding protein B and Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G were less common. Genes coding for several staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were commonly found, especially in one major pulsotype. No beta-lactamase genes were found in any common pulsotype, while present in some rare pulsotypes, indicated to be of human origin. Production of TSST-1, enterotoxins, hemolysins and beta-lactamase could all be positively correlated to presence of the corresponding genes. This study reveals a number of genotypic differences and similarities among common and rare pulsotypes of S. aureus from cases of mastitis in Sweden. The results could help the design of diagnostic tools to guide on-farm interventions according to the expected impact on udder health from a specific S. aureus genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland.

    PubMed

    Gindonis, Veera; Taponen, Suvi; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Pyörälä, Satu; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lindholm, Laura; Rantala, Merja

    2013-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.

  12. Using dairy herd improvement records and clinical mastitis history to identify subclinical mastitis infections at dry-off.

    PubMed

    Torres, Audrey H; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Degraves, Fred J; Hoblet, Kent H

    2008-05-01

    Interest in selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) has been increasing owing to concerns over development of antimicrobial resistance. Implementation of SDCT, however, requires a quick and cost-effective on-farm method for identifying cows for treatment and cows that can be left without treatment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of clinical mastitis (CM) history and somatic cell counts (SCC) from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) records in identification of infected and uninfected cows at dry-off. A total of 647 Holstein cows were classified as uninfected or infected at dry-off based on CM history and varying number of monthly SCC records (with three different SCC cut-offs). Cows were considered uninfected based on the following criteria: (1) SCC <100,000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; (2) SCC <200,000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; (3) as criterion two, but additionally a cow was also considered uninfected if it experienced a case of CM during the first 3 months of the lactation and the SCC was <100,000 cells/ml for the rest of the lactation; (4) SCC <300,000 cells/ml and no CM during the lactation; otherwise they were considered infected. Infected and uninfected cows at dry-off were most efficiently identified using three months' SCC records with a threshold of 200,000 cells/ml for cows without CM during the lactation and a threshold of 100,000 cells/ml during the rest of lactation for cows with CM during the first 90 days in milk. Moreover, this criterion also most efficiently identified cows infected with major pathogens only at dry-off. The success of the criteria used for identifying infected and uninfected cows will, however, depend on herd characteristics, such as prevalence of infection and type of pathogens present in the herd.

  13. The use of some immunomodulators and non-antibiotic drugs in a prophylaxis and treatment of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, E

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis, but their antibacterial and therapeutic efficacy continues to decrease. New methods of prophylaxis of mastitis with the use of vaccines and biological response modifiers are reviewed. Prophylactic activity of staphylococcal vaccines should be investigated in the future because of difficulties in successful treatment of infections caused by these organisms. Vaccination with J5 bacterin (0111:B4) reduced duration of IMI and local signs of clinical coliform-mastitis. Some immunomodulators proved to be effective in treatment of mastitis during lactating period. Promising results were obtained with the use of giseng saponin, herbal gel, herbal extracts, propolis, lysosubtilin, antibacterial proteins, and lysozyme dimer especially.

  14. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  15. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dan B; Hogeveen, Henk; De Vries, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for monitoring. The state of the art in combining sensor data to predict clinical mastitis still does not perform well enough to be applied in practice. Our objective was to combine a multivariate dynamic linear model (DLM) with a naïve Bayesian classifier (NBC) in a novel method using sensor and nonsensor data to detect clinical cases of mastitis. We also evaluated reductions in the number of sensors for detecting mastitis. With the DLM, we co-modeled 7 sources of sensor data (milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, conductivity, blood, body weight) collected at each milking for individual cows to produce one-step-ahead forecasts for each sensor. The observations were subsequently categorized according to the errors of the forecasted values and the estimated forecast variance. The categorized sensor data were combined with other data pertaining to the cow (week in milk, parity, mastitis history, somatic cell count category, and season) using Bayes' theorem, which produced a combined probability of the cow having clinical mastitis. If this probability was above a set threshold, the cow was classified as mastitis positive. To illustrate the performance of our method, we used sensor data from 1,003,207 milkings from the University of Florida Dairy Unit collected from 2008 to 2014. Of these, 2,907 milkings were associated with recorded cases of clinical mastitis. Using the DLM/NBC method, we reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89, with a specificity of 0.81 when the sensitivity was set at 0.80. Specificities with omissions of sensor data ranged from 0.58 to 0.81. These results are comparable to other studies, but differences in data quality, definitions of

  16. Isolation and characterization of three benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Thalictrum minus L. and their antibacterial activity against bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Rather, Muzafar Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Aga, Mushtaq A; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Shah, Aiyatullah; Ali, Md Niamat

    2016-12-04

    The roots of Thalictrum minus are traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases such as bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports available in literature till date regarding the antibacterial studies of T. minus against bovine mastitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial potential of crude extract of T. minus (root) and some of its isolated constituents against bovine mastitis in order to scientifically validate its traditional use. A total of three alkaloid compounds were isolated from the DCM: MeOH extract of roots of T. minus using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done by using spectroscopic techniques like mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Pathogens were isolated from cases of bovine mastitis and identified by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The broth micro-dilution method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of DCM: MeOH extract and isolated compounds against mastitis pathogens. The three isolated compounds were identified as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (1) 5'-Hydroxythalidasine, (2) Thalrugosaminine and (3) O-Methylthalicberine. Compounds (2) and (3) are reported for the first time from the roots of T. minus. Five mastitis pathogens viz., Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus equorum, Enterococcus faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans were identified on the basis of sequence analysis of isolates using the nucleotide BLAST algorithm. This study reports for the first time the isolation and molecular characterization of mastitis pathogens from Kashmir valley, India. The DCM: MeOH extract exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=250-500µg/ml). 5'-Hydroxythalidasine and Thalrugosaminine showed promising antibacterial activity with MIC values of 64-128µg/ml while Staphylococcus species were found to be the most sensitive strains. The antibacterial

  17. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  18. Chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruifeng, Gao; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Ershun, Zhou; Yimeng, Li; Minjun, Yao; Xiaojing, Song; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether CGA could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. CGA was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. In this study, the effect of CGA on LPS-induced mice mastitis was assessed through histopathological examination, ELISA assay, and western blot analysis. The results showed that CGA significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production compared with LPS group. Besides, western blot analysis showed that CGA could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results suggested that anti-inflammatory effects of CGA against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, CGA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of the immunopathology encountered during Escherichia coli elicited mastitis.

  19. Subclinical mastitis, cell-associated HIV-1 shedding in breast milk, and breast-feeding transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Serpil; Koulinska, Irene N; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2007-12-15

    Mastitis has been identified as a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 through breast-feeding. It is unclear whether this association is mediated by increased cell-free virus (CFV) versus cell-associated virus (CAV) HIV shedding in breast milk. We examined the risk of MTCT associated with subclinical mastitis and the relation between mastitis and CFV or CAV shedding in breast milk. Fifty-nine women who transmitted HIV through breast-feeding (cases) were individually matched to 59 nontransmitting controls nested in a cohort from Tanzania. For each case, we selected a milk specimen obtained before the infant's first positive test to quantify sodium (Na) and potassium (K) and measure CFV and CAV concentrations. Controls were matched on the child's age at the time of sample collection. Women with a breast milk Na/K ratio suggestive of mastitis (>1.0) had an 11-fold greater odds of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 98.1), compared to women with a Na/K mastitis was positively related to both CFV and CAV shedding in breast milk, only the association with the latter was strong and statistically significant. Increased cell-associated HIV-1 shedding in breast milk could mediate the association between mastitis and MTCT.

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention.

  1. Association of the amino acid motifs of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with mastitis pathogens in Japanese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuyuki; Mukoyama, Harutaka; Furuta, Hiroki; Kondo, Yasuko; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Aida, Yoko; Kosugiyama, Motoaki; Tomogane, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    The association of the polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) genes, identified by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method, with resistance and susceptibility to mastitis caused by Streptococci, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Blood samples for DNA extraction were collected from 170 Holstein cows (129 mastitis and 41 healthy cows) from 5 districts in Chiba prefecture, Japan. Susceptibility or resistance to the mastitis-causing pathogens was thought to vary by the presence of amino acid substitutions at the 9, 11, 13, and 30 positions. DRB3*0101 and DRB3*1501 had amino acid motifs of Glu(9), Ser(11), Ser(13), and Tyr(30), and they were considered to have susceptibility to all 4 mastitis pathogens. In contrast, DRB3*1101 and DRB3*1401 had amino acid motifs of Gln(9), His(11), Gly(13), and His(30) in these positions, and they also had Val(86), so these alleles were considered to have resistance to Streptococcal and coagulase-negative Staphylococcal mastitis. However, in the case of Escherichia coli mastitis, amino acid substitutions at the 9, 11, 13, and 30 positions had little effect, but rather substitutions at the 47, 67 positions of pocket 7, and at the 71, 74 positions of pocket 4, Tyr(47), Ile(67), Ala(71), and Ala(74), were associated with resistance. This motif was present in DRB3*1201.

  2. Combined analysis of DNA methylome and transcriptome reveal novel candidate genes with susceptibility to bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minyan; He, Yanghua; Zhou, Huangkai; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xizhi; Yu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a widely spread disease of lactating cows. Its major pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In this study, we performed genome-wide integrative analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptional expression to identify candidate genes and pathways relevant to bovine S. aureus subclinical mastitis. The genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis (SA group) and healthy controls (CK) were generated by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays. We identified 1078 differentially methylated genes in SA cows compared with the controls. By integrating DNA methylation and transcriptome data, 58 differentially methylated genes were shared with differently expressed genes, in which 20.7% distinctly hypermethylated genes showed down-regulated expression in SA versus CK, whereas 14.3% dramatically hypomethylated genes showed up-regulated expression. Integrated pathway analysis suggested that these genes were related to inflammation, ErbB signalling pathway and mismatch repair. Further functional analysis revealed that three genes, NRG1, MST1 and NAT9, were strongly correlated with the progression of S. aureus subclinical mastitis and could be used as powerful biomarkers for the improvement of bovine mastitis resistance. Our studies lay the groundwork for epigenetic modification and mechanistic studies on susceptibility of bovine mastitis. PMID:27411928

  3. Association between an outbreak strain causing mycoplasma bovis mastitis and its asymptomatic carriage in the herd: a case study from Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Punyapornwithaya, V; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Alldredge, J R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between mycoplasma mastitis and colonization of mycoplasma organisms at body sites of asymptomatic carriers. The investigation was done in a dairy herd with a first outbreak of mycoplasma mastitis. Milk and swab solution specimens from accessible mucosal surfaces of body sites from cows and replacements were sampled at quarterly intervals (Herd Samplings 1-4). Samples were cultured and Mycoplasma spp. were isolated, speciated and fingerprinted. During Herd Sampling 1 two cows with mycoplasma bovis mastitis were identified and all swabbing solutions of body site samples from 18 of 84 cows and 36 of 77 replacements were positive to Mycoplasma bovis and fingerprinted as the same strain. A case of clinical M. bovis mastitis developed during Herd Sampling 3. During Herd Samplings 2-4, 4 lactating cows and 12 replacements were positive to M. bovis at various body sites with 4 different strains. Three isolates of Mycoplasma californicum were found from swabbing solutions of three cows during Herd Samplings 3 and 4. Only one strain of M. bovis caused mastitis although four strains were isolated from body sites of animals. Isolation of M. bovis from a body site never preceded mastitis. No lactating cow developed mastitis during Herd Sampling 4 although some animals were colonized with the organism. It appears that during the initial outbreak of M. bovis mastitis colonization of body sites by the outbreak strain may be common. However, the prevalence of colonization subsides and colonization does not appear to precede mastitis.

  4. Use of milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Miglio, Arianna; Moscati, Livia; Fruganti, Gabriele; Pela, Michela; Scoccia, Eleonora; Valiani, Andrea; Maresca, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SM) is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy ewes worldwide, with negative impact on the animal health, farm income and public health. Animals with SM often remain untreated because the disease may not be revealed. Increase in somatic cell count (SCC) and positive bacteriology for mastitis pathogens in milk samples are indicative of SM but the evidence of only one of these alterations must suggest an uncertain SM (UM). UM is defined when positive bacteriological examination (Latent-SM) or SCC>500 000 cells/ml (non-specific-SM) are detected in milk. Nevertheless, SCC and bacteriological examination are expensive, time consuming and are not yet in use at the farm level in dairy ewes. Recently, a sensitive acute phase protein, amyloid A, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids including mammary secretion (milk amyloid A-MAA), has been investigated as a marker of mastitis in cows and, in a few studies, in sheep. The aim of this trial was to compare the concentration of MAA of single udder-halves in ewes with healthy udder-halves (HU-control group) and naturally occurring subclinical mastitis, both confirmed (SM group) and uncertain (UM groups: Latent-SM and non-specific-SM), for monitoring udder health. The reliability of a specific ELISA kit for the measurement of MAA was also tested. During a 3-month trial period, 153 udder halves were assigned to the experimental groups based on their health status: 25 with SM, 40 with UM (11 with latent-SM and 29 with non-specific-SM) and 88 HU. SCC and bacteriological analysis were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis groups. MAA concentrations in milk samples were measured using a specific commercially milk ELISA kit. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant (P<0·05) differences among the groups SM, non-specific-SM and HU were detected with the SM having the highest level and HU the lowest. MAA concentration is affected by

  5. In vitro evaluation of a novel bacteriophage cocktail as a preventative for bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Porter, J; Anderson, J; Carter, L; Donjacour, E; Paros, M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of bacteriophage in preventing Escherichia coli mastitis on dairies. A cocktail consisting of 4 distinct bacteriophages was generated by screening against 36 E. coli isolates from dairy cows in Washington State with clinical mastitis. The bacteriophage significantly inhibited growth of 58% of the Washington State isolates and 54% of E. coli mastitis isolates from New York State, suggesting that the cocktail of phages had a relatively broad spectrum of action against relevant strains from 2 distinct geographies. The ability to suppress bacterial growth of these isolates in a liquid growth medium was not affected by the ratio of bacteriophage particles to bacterial cells (multiplicity of infection, MOI). For those E. coli that were completely inhibited by the phage cocktail, an MOI as low as 10 had the same effect as 10 µg/mL of ceftiofur on the growth rate of E. coli over a 12-h period using optical density measurements. A 3.3- to 5.6-log reduction of growth was achieved when E. coli was co-incubated with our phage cocktail in raw milk over a 12-h period at physiologic temperature. A modified gentamicin protection assay using bovine mammary epithelial cells provided a model to test whether bacteriophage could prevent cell attachment and invasion by chronic coliform mastitis strains. Pretreatment of cell cultures with the phage cocktail significantly reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of E. coli compared with controls. When combined with a bismuth-based teat sealant, the phage cocktail was able to inhibit bacterial growth when challenged with 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/mL of a clinical mastitis E. coli strain. In vitro results show bactericidal activity by our phage in raw milk and mammary tissue culture systems. Before a bacteriophage-based dry-cow treatment becomes a potential option for dairies, in vivo studies must be able to demonstrate that a specific dose of bacteriophage can protect cows from

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of lineage ST398 as cause of mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Júnior, A Fernandes; Gómez-Sanz, E; Gómez, P; Langoni, H; Rall, V L M; Torres, C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in milk of cows with mastitis. The California mastitis test (CMT) was used to detect the presence of mastitis in all 100 cows of a farm in Brazil. The CMT was positive in milk of 115 mammary quarters from 36 cows (36%). MRSA isolates were recovered from 4 of these 36 cows with mastitis (11%), and they were further characterized (one MRSA/sample). The four MRSA isolates were typed as t011-ST398-agr1-SCCmecV and presented two different pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-ApaI patterns. These four MRSA isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, carried the mecA, blaZ, tet(K), and tet(M) resistance genes, and presented the S84L and S80F amino acid substitutions in GyrA and GrlA proteins, respectively. Two ST398 isolates exhibited resistance to gentamicin and tobramycin [with aac(6)-aph(2") and ant(4)-Ia genes] and one isolate resistance to clindamycin [with lnu(B) and lsa(E) genes]; this latter isolate also carried the spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance genes spw and aadE. MRSA of lineage ST398 is worldwide spread, normally multidrug resistant and may be responsible for bovine mastitis. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of MRSA-ST398 in Brazil. Few studies on the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from bovine isolates have been performed in Brazil. MRSA of lineage ST398 is worldwide spread and associated with farm animals. Multidrug-resistant MRSA-ST398 isolates were recovered in 11% of mastitic cows from a single farm, with one isolate carrying the unusual lsa(E), spw and aadE genes. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of MRSA-ST398 isolates in milk samples of cows with mastitis in Brazil. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of infrared thermography in detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Polat, B; Colak, A; Cengiz, M; Yanmaz, L E; Oral, H; Bastan, A; Kaya, S; Hayirli, A

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine interrelationships among mastitis indicators and evaluate the subclinical mastitis detection ability of infrared thermography (IRT) in comparison with the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Somatic cell count (SCC), CMT, and udder skin surface temperature (USST) data were compiled from 62 Brown Swiss dairy cows (days in milk=117+/-51, milk yield=14.7+/-5.2 kg; mean +/- SD). The CORR, REG, and NLIN procedures of Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) were employed to attain interrelationships among mastitis indicators. The diagnostic merit of IRT as an indirect measure of subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT using the receiver operating characteristics curves. The udder skin surface temperature was positively correlated with the CMT score (r=0.86) and SCC (r=0.73). There was an exponential increase in SCC (SCC, x10(3) cells/mL=22.35 x e(1.31 x CMT score); R(2)=0.98) and a linear increase in USST (USST, degrees C=33.45+1.08 x CMT score; R(2)=0.75) as the CMT score increased. As SCC increased, USST increased logarithmically [USST, degrees C=28.72+0.49 x ln(SCC, x10(3) cells/mL); R(2)=0.72]. The USST for healthy quarters (SCC 400,000 cells/mL; n=135) (mean +/- SE; 33.45+/-0.09 vs. 35.80+/-0.08 degrees C). The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 95.6, 93.6, 14.97, 0.05, 95.0, and 93.6, respectively, for IRT and 88.9, 98.9, 83.56, 0.11, 99.2, and 86.1, respectively, for CMT. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for IRT and CMT was not different. In conclusion, as a noninvasive and quick tool, IRT can be employed for screening subclinical mastitis via measuring USST, with a high predictive diagnostic ability similar to CMT when microbiological culturing is unavailable. However, the

  8. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P < 0.05) in C (28.00%) and SC (55.56%) compared with W (69.57%) on Day 25 after first AI. Pregnancy rates reduced to 60.87%, 44.45%, and 16.00% in W, SC, and C, respectively, at Day 45 after insemination. Thus, the embryonic loss was 8.7%, 11.11%, and 12.00 % in W, SC, and C cows, respectively. Pregnancy rates decreased between 44.32% and 50.51% when mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P < 0.05) in W than SC and C cows starting at Day 9 postbreeding onward. Likewise, P4 concentrations on Days 9 through 25 after AI were greater (P < 0.05) in W cows as compared to SC and C cows. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) were found on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after AI between CL diameter and P4 concentrations. Similar trend was found among CL diameter, P4 concentrations, and pregnancy rate. Accordingly, incidence of mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  9. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t267, clonal ancestor of bovine subclinical mastitis in India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S D; Velu, D; Bhuvana, M; Krithiga, N; Banerjee, A; Shome, R; Rahman, H; Ghosh, S K; Shome, B R

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the virulence determinants and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. PCR detection of virulence genes was performed for 173 Staph. aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Further, genetic diversity was analysed by agr and spa typing followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of selected isolates. Screening of virulence genes (n = 19) showed the adherence genes viz. fnbA, clfA, fnbB and cna in 98·8, 97·1, 68·8 and 28·3 percentage of isolates, respectively, and 80 strains (46·24%) positive for enterotoxin genes were distributed as 23 toxinotypes, of which, 5 genotypes contained a single gene and the rest comprised of multiple toxin genes. Out of agr type-1 (87·3%), 74·2 per cent belonged to the three predominant spa types. Of 27 spa types, 11 were identified for the first time. The predominant spa types were t267 (N =44), t359 (N = 42) and t6877 (N =29), which together accounts to 66·5 per cent of isolates. PFGE analysis of isolates (N = 45) covering all the spa types revealed mostly similar or closely related pulsotypes. Local emergence of spa type t6877 in herd-dependant manner was observed. spa sequence-based phylogenetic analysis suggested t267 as the ancestral clone of t359, t6877 and other spa types except two. Heterogenous virulence profile of the isolates had no significant association with the genotype. High prevalence of agr group I reaffirms their association with persistent subclinical mastitis. The spa type t267 appears to be the ancestral clone endemic in the region causing subclinical mastitis. In addition, few new spa types have emerged in the geographic region. Gives an insight into the genetic and evolutionary behaviour of Staph. aureus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in India. The study would pave the way for devising effective control strategy for bovine mastitis in Indian context. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one

  11. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of mastitis and associated risk factors in dairy cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

    2017-04-01

    Mastitis is among the most prevalent disease that contributes for the reduction of milk production in dairy herds. Although several published studies have estimated the prevalence of mastitis, variation among studies is great. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to provide a pooled estimate of the prevalence of overall, clinical, and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A pooled estimate was also conducted by potential risk factors. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2002 to June 2016. Meta-analysis of 39 studies was done under random effects model using metafor package in R software. The pooled estimate of the overall prevalence of mastitis on cow-basis was found to be 47.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.0, 52.0). The pooled prevalence with the 95% CI for clinical and subclinical mastitis was 8.3% (95% CI = 6.5, 10.3) and 37% (95% CI = 32.9, 40.7) respectively. There is a statistically significant and high heterogeneity of the prevalence estimates between published studies. The odds of occurrence of mastitis were higher in cows at early (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.4, 1.8) and late lactation (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.5) than mid lactation, in cows with 3-4 (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.4, 1.7) and >4 parity number (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.6, 3.4) than those with 1-2 parity number. Previous history of mastitis, floor type, milking hygiene, and udder injury had also statistically significant effect on pooled prevalence of mastitis (P < 0.05). The present study reported that there is high prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows in Ethiopia, which could contribute to the low productivity in lactating cows. The statistically significant association of risk factors such as floor type, milking hygiene, and presence of udder injury with mastitis may suggest that dairy farmers can reduce the occurrence of the disease by improving their management

  12. Risk factors associated with prevalence and major bacterial causes of mastitis in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in desert environment of Jhang (Pakistan) from November 2008 to October 2009 on she-camels kept under pastoralist conditions to determine the prevalence of mastitis, impact of risk factors, and isolate the dominant mastitis-causing bacteria on total of 150 lactating she-camels by using clinical examination and surf field mastitis test. From the 150 she-camels examined, 69 (46%) were positive for mastitis at animal level, 12 (8%) clinical, and 57 (38%) subclinical. Age, parity number, stage of lactation, breed, production system, hygiene of milking process, and presence of lesion on udder/teat were found significantly associated (p<0.05) with the prevalence of mastitis in she-camels. There was the lowest prevalence (33.33%; 15 of 45) of mastitis in she-camels of 5-7 years of age, while the highest (80%; 12 of 15) in the animals aged between 14 to 16 years. Stage of lactation significantly affected (p<0.05) and was found to be associated with the prevalence of mastitis being the highest (54.55%; 18 of 33) during the initial stage of lactation (0 to 1 month) followed by last 2 months (10-12 months) as 54.17% and mid-stages (1-3 and 3-10 months) of lactation as 28.57% (6 of 21) and 37.50% (9 of 24), respectively. According to breed of camels, it was noted that the prevalence of mastitis affected significantly (p<0.05) being the highest in crossbred (Desi × Mareecha) as 51.39% (37 of 72) followed in order by Mareecha and Desi as 43.14% and 37.04%, respectively. Staphylococcus (42.19%) and Streptococcus (15.63%) genera were the dominant isolates identified. Good hygiene in milking process, milking clinically infected she-camels at last, culling chronic mastitis carriers, treating clinically infected she-camels, and dry period therapy could reduce the prevalence of contagious mastitis in the study area.

  13. Mastitis in sheep--The last 10 years and the future of research.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Mavrogianni, V S; Petridis, I G; Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bacterial mastitis is a significant welfare and financial problem in sheep flocks. This paper reviews the recently published literature, including publications that highlight the significance and virulence factors of the causal agents, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Mannheimia haemolytica, the primary causes of the disease. Research has also contributed to the understanding of risk factors, including genetic susceptibility of animals to infections, supporting future strategies for sustainable disease control. Pathogenetic mechanisms, including the role of the local defenses in the teat, have also been described and can assist formulation of strategies that induce local immune responses in the teat of ewes. Further to well-established diagnostic techniques, i.e., bacteriological tests and somatic cell counting, advanced methodologies, e.g., proteomics technologies, will likely contribute to more rapid and accurate diagnostics, in turn enhancing mastitis control efforts.

  14. Resistance profiles and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from acute bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Lehner, A

    2013-06-01

    Between March 2011 and February 2012 83 E. coli strains were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 83 different animals (67 farms) and tested for their sensitivity to various antibiotics by means of disk diffusion method and genotyped by determination of the phylogenetic groups as well as by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The antibiotics were chosen on the basis of their licenses for intramammary application in Switzerland. As many as 16.9 % of the isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin and third generation cephalosporins proved effective against the majority of these strains. Nevertheless, one blaCTX-M-14 harbouring extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing strain was found. Genetic analysis grouped most of the strains (87 %) into phylogenetic groups A and B1. PFGE genotyping demonstrated that E. coli from cows with mastitis even from the same farm were genotypically very diverse.

  15. Tuberculous mastitis simulating carcinoma of the breast in a young Nigerian woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sabageh, Donatus; Amao, Emmanuel Afolabi; Ayo-Aderibigbe A, Adebisi; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon disease even in countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic. It typically presents a diagnostic challenge masquerading as carcinoma or other primary disease of the breast. We report the case of a young multiparous Nigerian woman who presented with a tender left breast lump and enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes for which a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast was made after clinical and radiological evaluation. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis and anti-tuberculous therapy was instituted although she later absconded. This case shows that TM may present a diagnostic challenge on clinical, radiologic and microbiological investigation. Therefore, a high index of suspicion as well as FNAC and/or histological evaluation of tissue samples remain very important its diagnosis.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively.

  17. [Evaluation of the California mastitis test (CMT) reaction in goat milk and its interpretation].

    PubMed

    Winter, P; Baumgartner, W

    1999-01-01

    For evaluation of different factors regarding CMT results 65 goats were used. Age, milking hygiene and technique of the animals were recorded and the CMT results were evaluated in relation to those parameters. Correlations between CMT results and age as well milking hygiene and -technique respectively were found. Furtheron the CMT was evaluated as indicator for mastitis diagnosis. Therefore clinical examination of the udder, bacteriological examination of milk samples (aseptically collected) and the determination of the somatic cell count were carried out. The results showed that CMT is not specific for infected udder halves. As important udder pathogens staphylococci were found, S. aureus and CNS at the same level. This investigation has shown that CMT can be used as additional diagnostic tool concerning goat mastitis, but it should not be overestimated because of different factors which influence the cell count. For the control of udder health additional diagnostic measures are of utmost necessity.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with an essential oil-based teat dip.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E Jane; Wilson, David J

    2016-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers. The bacterium was isolated from the teat dip and the teat dip container. The teat dip consisted of water, liquid soap, and several drops of essential oils (including tea tree, lavender, and peppermint). This case illustrates a potential problem that may arise as a result of the use of unconventional ingredients in teat dips. The use of alternative products by goat producers is likely to increase in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. In silico characterization of putative drug targets in Staphylococcus saprophyticus, causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bhasme, Pramod C; Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Sanakal, Rajeshwari D; Kaliwal, Rohit B; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2013-01-01

    The bovine mastitis caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) has increased in many herds of urban and rural areas of India. Emergence of multi drug resistant bacteria has further made its management more complex and serious. Therefore, innovation of novel specific drug for the treatment of disease caused by particular organism remained to be a challenge. Hence, in the present study a bacterium was isolated from milk of the cow with bovine mastitis and was identified as S. saprophyticus, 44 pathways of S. saprophyticus retrieved (KEGG) from web server were found to be non homologous to the host Bos taurus, out of which 39 pathways were found to be in cytoplasm, 2 in cell wall and 3 in the cell membrane. The knowledge of the present study could make the drug discovery easier which have high affinity to the target site of the causative organism.

  20. Which are important targets in development of S. aureus mastitis vaccine?

    PubMed

    Scali, F; Camussone, C; Calvinho, L F; Cipolla, M; Zecconi, A

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents one of the leading causes of mastitis in dairy cows worldwide. S. aureus IMI have variable outcomes due to virulence of the strain involved, immune defenses of the host, and by antibiotic resistance. The difficulty in eradication and the increasing concerns on antibiotics usages underscore the interest in developing new tools to control S. aureus mastitis. Vaccination represents one of the most studied of these tools but, so far, no vaccine seems to provide reliable protection. This review summarizes current knowledge on the major vaccine targets, including surface proteins, capsular polysaccharides, biofilm, and toxins. Finally, the present status of vaccination against S. aureus and the future of vaccine design were discussed, including how differences among in vivo models may influence vaccines development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss.

  2. Short communication: N-Acetylcysteine-mediated modulation of antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Liu, L H; Li, X P; Luo, J Y; Zhang, Z; Yan, Z T; Zhang, S D; Li, H S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on antibiotic susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were tested by the agar-based E-test method. The presence of 10mM NAC reduced the MIC of penicillin and ampicillin but enhanced the MIC of erythromycin and ciprofloxacin for all of the strains. In addition, NAC-mediated modulation of MIC of kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was diverse, depending on the target bacterial pathogen and antibiotic being used. The results suggest that NAC is an important modulator of antibiotic activity against the major bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect immunization with highly purified alpha- and beta-toxins on staphylococcal mastitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Adlam, C; Ward, P D; McCartney, A C; Arbuthnott, J P; Thorley, C M

    1977-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine whether immunization of female rabbits with highly purified staphylococcal alpha- or beta-toxins would protect them against intramammary challenge with staphylococci. High circulating anti-alpha-toxin titers reduced the lethal hemorrhagic edematous form of the disease ("blue-breast") produced by strains BB and Compton 201 to a localized chronic abscess form. No such protection was afforded by high anti-beta-toxin titers. Immunization with alpha- or beta-toxins produced no change in the clinical picture of the disease produced by CN.6708, a strain of Staphylococcus responsible for a natural outbreak of abscess-type rabbit mastitis. From these experiments it would appear that alpha-toxin is a key antigen in the blue-breast form of rabbit mastitis. Since the abscess form of the disease was not prevented by immunization with either alpha- or beta-toxin, other virulence factors must be acting to produce this more localized disease.

  4. Use of on-farm data to guide treatment and control mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Olivier; Gaudout, Nicolas; Schmitt, Ellen; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of mastitis is the most common reason for use of antimicrobial agents in dairy cattle. The responsible use of antimicrobials could be strengthened by knowledge of predictors for cure, which would help to tailor treatment decisions. Ideally, to allow for widespread uptake, this would be achieved using data that are routinely available. To assess whether this is feasible in practice, farmers were invited to submit milk samples from mastitis cases to their veterinary practice for bacteriological culture. Among 624 culture-positive samples, 251 were positive for Streptococcus uberis. Using cow-level data, cases were classified as severe, first nonsevere, repeat, or subclinical. Additional data were collected at the cow level [somatic cell count (SCC), parity, lactation stage, milk yield, fat and protein contents, treatment] and at the herd level (housing, bedding, premilking teat disinfection, postmilking teat disinfection). Severe cases were overrepresented among heifers and animals in early lactation, and repeat cases were overrepresented in cows with 3 or more lactations. The probability of cure was higher among first- and second-parity animals than among older cows, and was higher in animals with a single elevated cow-level SCC than in animals with multiple high SCC records. Results obtained in the current study are similar to those previously described for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Thus, routinely available cow-level information can help to predict the outcome of antimicrobial treatment of the most common causes of gram-positive mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence rate of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on conventional and organic Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Levison, L J; Miller-Cushon, E K; Tucker, A L; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a common and costly production disease on dairy farms. In Canada, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) has been determined for conventionally managed dairy farms; however, no studies to date have assessed rates in organically managed systems. The objectives of this observational study were (1) to determine the producer-reported IRCM and predominant pathogen types on conventional and organic dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, and (2) to evaluate the association of both mean overall IRCM and pathogen-specific IRCM with management system, housing type, and pasture access. Data from 59 dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, distributed across conventional (n=41) and organic management (n=18) systems, were collected from April 2011 to May 2012. In addition to management system, farms were categorized by housing method (loose or tie-stall) and pasture access for lactating cows. Participating producers identified and collected samples from 936 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The IRCM was higher on conventional farms than organic (23.7 vs. 13.2 cases per 100 cow-years) and was not associated with housing type (loose or tie-stall), pasture access, or herd-average milk yield. Bulk tank somatic cell count tended to be lower on conventional farms than organic (222,000 vs. 272,000 cells/mL). Pathogen-specific IRCM attributed to Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp., and E. coli was greater on conventional than organic farms, but was not associated with housing or any other factors. In conclusion, organic management was associated with reduced overall and pathogen-specific IRCM.

  6. Short communication: early detection of mastitis using infrared thermography in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Colak, A; Polat, B; Okumus, Z; Kaya, M; Yanmaz, L E; Hayirli, A

    2008-11-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) absorbs infrared radiation and generates images based on the amount of heat generated. It has been used in human medicine for diagnosis of various cancers. This experiment was conducted to determine if IRT had merit for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk sample and skin surface temperature (SST) were simultaneously evaluated using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and IRT for each quarter in 94 dairy cows (49 Brown Swiss and 45 Holstein). Average days in milk (DIM) and milk production were 93 +/- 37 d and 16 +/- 2.2 kg (mean +/- SD) and their ages ranged from 4 to 8 yr. There was a strong correlation between SST and CMT score (r = 0.92). Average SST was 33.19, 34.08, 34.99, and 36.15 degrees C for quarters with the CMT score of 0 (n = 156), +1 (n = 116), +2 (n = 80), and +3 (n = 24), respectively. This association was best described by a linear model as follows: y = 0.94x + 33.17, R(2) = 0.85, where y = SST and x = CMT score. Changes in rectal temperature (RT) due to the CMT score were minor (y = 0.09x + 38.39, R(2) = 0.07, where y = RT and x = average CMT score). In conclusion, RT may not confirm mastitis. However, IRT is sensitive enough to perceive changes in SST in response to varying degrees of severity of the mammary gland infection as reflected by the CMT score, suggesting that as a noninvasive tool, IRT can be employed for screening dairy cows for mastitis.

  7. Therapeutic Breast Massage in Lactation for the Management of Engorgement, Plugged Ducts, and Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ann M; Bolman, Maya; Kredit, Sheila; Vanic, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Many women in developed countries do not meet their breastfeeding goals and wean early because of breast pain. This study aimed to describe clinical response to therapeutic breast massage in lactation (TBML) in the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Breastfeeding women presenting with engorgement, plugged ducts, or mastitis who received TBML as part of their treatment were enrolled (n = 42). Data collected at the initial visit included demographic, history, and exam data pre-TBML and post-TBML. Email surveys sent 2 days, 2 weeks, and 12 weeks following the initial visit assessed pain and breastfeeding complications. A nested case control of engorged mothers (n = 73) was separately enrolled to compare engorgement severity. Reasons for the visit included engorgement (36%), plugged ducts (67%), and mastitis (29%). Cases, compared to controls, were significantly more likely to have severe engorgement (47% vs 7%, P < .001). Initial mean breast pain level among those receiving TBML was 6.4 out of 10. Following TBML, there was significant improvement in both breast (6.4 vs 2.8, P < .001) and nipple pain (4.6 vs 2.8, P = .013). All women reported immediate improvement in their pain level. At the 12-week survey, 65% found the massage treatment very helpful. The majority of the women with a new episode of mastitis or plugged duct during the study follow-up found the techniques learned during the office visit very helpful for home management of these episodes. In office, TBML is helpful for the reduction of acute breast pain associated with milk stasis. Mothers find TBML helpful both immediately in-office and for home management of future episodes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Dynamics of breast milk HIV-1 RNA with unilateral mastitis or abscess

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R.; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mastitis and abscess in HIV-infected women increase risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. Guidelines encourage women to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast and feed on the contralateral breast. However, impact of breast pathology on breast milk HIV dynamics is unknown. Methods HIV RNA was quantified in 211 breast milk samples collected before, during and after a clinical mastitis or abscess diagnosis from 38 HIV-infected women participating in a Zambian breastfeeding study. HIV RNA quantity was compared between affected and unaffected breasts over time using generalized estimating equation models. A sample of 115 women without breast pathology was selected as a control group. Results In the affected breast, breast milk HIV RNA quantity increased from the pre- to during-pathology period by log10 0.45 copies/mL (95% CI: 0.16, 0.74) and after symptom resolution, HIV RNA levels were no different from pre-pathology levels (log10 -0.04 copies/mL 95%CI: -0.33, 0.25). In the contralateral unaffected breast, HIV RNA quantity did not significantly increase (log10 0.15 copies/mL, 95% CI: -0.41, 0.10). Increase was more marked in women with abscess or with a greater number of mastitis symptoms. HIV RNA was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women, except at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Breast milk HIV RNA increased modestly in the affected breast with unilateral mastitis or abscess and returned to pre-pathology levels with symptom resolution. Contralateral HIV RNA was not affected. Results support guidelines encouraging feeding from the contralateral breast to minimize risk of HIV transmission associated with unilateral breast pathology. PMID:23202812

  9. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of common mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Keefe, G P; Scholl, D T; Morck, D W; Barkema, H W

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria has clinical and public health significance. The present study determined prevalence of AMR in common mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA; n=1,810), Escherichia coli (n=394), and Klebsiella species (n=139), including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and Klebsiella species, isolated from milk samples on 89 dairy farms in 6 Canadian provinces. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) and a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System gram-negative panel containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Denim blue chromogenic agar and real-time PCR were used to screen and confirm MRSA, respectively. Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for cephalothin and oxacillin to 8.8% for penicillin in Staph. aureus isolates, and 15% of the resistant Staph. aureus isolates were multidrug resistant. One MRSA isolate was confirmed (prevalence: 0.05%). Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin to 14.8% for tetracycline in E. coli, and 0% for amikacin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid to 18.6% for tetracycline in Klebsiella species isolates. Further, 62.8 and 55% of the resistant E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were multidrug resistant, respectively. Resistance to >5 and >2 antimicrobials was most common in E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates, respectively, and no ESBL producers were found. Prevalence of AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was low. Most gram-negative udder pathogens were multidrug resistant; MRSA was rarely found, and ESBL E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were absent in Canadian milk samples. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is surgical excision necessary for the treatment of Granulomatous lobular mastitis?

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-07-24

    We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments included wide excision (18), oral steroids after incision and drainage (14), and antibiotic therapy (2). The patients receiving only antibiotic therapy showed no improvement after 1 month and wide excision was then performed. Wide excision resulted in nine case of delayed wound healing with fistula. These patients were treated with oral steroids for 1.5-5 months, with subsequent improvement. Overall, 11 out of 20 patients who had underwent wide excision showed improvement without additional treatment. Fourteen patients who had initially received oral steroids for 1 to 6 months (average, 2.8 months) after incision and drainage showed complete remission. During the median follow-up period with 45.5 months (range, 22-98 months), six patients (17.6%) experienced recurrence. Wide excision group experienced recurrence in five (25%) and steroid and drainage group experienced recurrence in one (7.1%). All six recurrences responded to additional steroid therapy for average 3.5 months. Most wide excision group left extensive breast scarring with deformation that was not in steroid and drainage group. Wide excision resulted high recurrence than steroid and drainage group and left extensive scarring. Steroid therapy with or without abscess drainage may be the first choice of treatment for majority cases with granulomatous lobular mastitis.

  11. Characterization of Prototheca zopfii Genotypes Isolated from Cases of Bovine Mastitis and Cow Barns in China.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Hou, Rongguang; Zhang, Shiyao; Ding, Laidi; Han, Dandan; Deng, Zhaoju; Rahman, Abdur; Han, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Protothecal mastitis, caused mostly by Prototheca zopfii (P. zopfii), is increasing in dairy herds and is being reported globally. The present study was aimed at studying the epidemiology of mastitis and at molecular characterization of P. zopfii isolates from dairy herds and their surroundings in three provinces of China using microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Samples from milk (n = 620) of mastitic cows and their barns sources (n = 410) including feces, feed, bedding materials and drinking water were analyzed. Among other pathogens recovered from mastitic milk, 84 (13.5%) of the isolates were identified as P. zopfii. All of the P. zopfii isolates recovered from milk were recognized as genotype 2, whereas 58 (73.4%) and 21 (26.6%) isolates from environmental sources were found to be P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to some antibiotics and antifungal agents, including amikacin (78.1%), streptomycin (58.5%), gentamicin (17.8%), amphotericin B (68.6%) and nystatin (64.4%). Additionally, the two genotypes displayed versatile patterns of susceptibility to different antimicrobials agents. Phylogeny of the genotypes on the basis of 18S SSU rDNA and 28S SSU rDNA was also investigated. The isolates of the two genotypes separated into different clades, and no interrelationship was observed among these as shown by phylogenetic analysis. The genotype 1 isolates from cow barn sources were non-pathogenic and may not present any risk of mastitis. We conclude that P. zopfii genotype 2 might play an important role in bovine mastitis in China.

  12. Programmable calculator program for linear somatic cell scores to estimate mastitis yield losses.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J H

    1984-02-01

    A programmable calculator program calculates loss of milk yield in dairy cows based on linear somatic cell count scores. The program displays the distribution of the herd by lactation number and linear score for present and optimal goal situations. Loss of yield is in pounds and dollars by cow and herd. The program estimates optimal milk production and numbers of fewer cows at the goal for mastitis infection.

  13. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia.

  14. Prevalence of mastitis and brucellosis in cattle in Awassa and the peri-urban areas of two smaller towns.

    PubMed

    Abebe, G; Ike, A C; Siegmund-Schultze, M; Mané-Bielfeldt, A; Valle Zárate, A

    2010-08-01

    The prevalence of mastitis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban settings was studied in Awassa and two smaller nearby towns in southern Ethiopia, because milk-born diseases are causing a risk for human health, besides direct impacts on animal production. Mastitis was investigated by examining 80 cows (320 udder quarters) using California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The prevalence of brucellosis was assessed by sampling 177 cattle in Awassa and its peri-urban areas using serological methods. Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors associated with mastitis. Prevalence of clinical mastitis on quarter level was 0.9%, and 1.9% of quarters were non-functional or blocked. Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis at quarter level in urban and peri-urban areas was significantly different (P < 0.05). Cows in large herds and at advanced lactation number were associated with higher risk of infection. The percentage of quarters positive on CMT (42.5%) was close to the percentage-positive detected by SCC (41.2%). Prevalence of brucellosis was 3.9% in the peri-urban area, while no brucellosis cases were detected in Awassa. More frequent use of artificial insemination in the urban than in peri-urban area might have contributed to the absence of brucellosis in the urban location. The extent of mastitis is, however, a threat to the dairy enterprise in and around Awassa. Pasteurization of milk and milk products is indicated in some parts of the area because of the danger of brucellosis.

  15. Genomic content typifying a prevalent clade of bovine mastitis-associated Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Robert J.; Harris, Susan; Smith, David G. E.

    2016-01-01

    E. coli represents a heterogeneous population with capabilities to cause disease in several anatomical sites. Among sites that can be colonised is the bovine mammary gland (udder) and a distinct class of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) has been proposed. MPEC are the principle causative agents of bovine mastitis in well-managed dairy farms, costing producers in the European Union an estimated €2 billion per year. Despite the economic impact, and the threat this disease presents to small and medium sized dairy farmers, the factors which mediate the ability for E. coli to thrive in bovine mammary tissue remain poorly elucidated. Strains belonging to E. coli phylogroup A are most frequently isolated from mastitis. In this paper, we apply a population level genomic analysis to this group of E. coli to uncover genomic signatures of mammary infectivity. Through a robust statistical analysis, we show that not all strains of E. coli are equally likely to cause mastitis, and those that do possess specific gene content that may promote their adaptation and survival in the bovine udder. Through a pan-genomic analysis, we identify just three genetic loci which are ubiquitous in MPEC, but appear dispensable for E. coli from other niches. PMID:27436046

  16. The efficacy of bovine lactoferrin in the treatment of cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kutila, T; Suojala, L; Lehtolainen, T; Saloniemi, H; Kaartinen, L; Tähti, M; Seppälä, K; Pyörälä, S

    2004-08-01

    The effect of bovine lactoferrin (Lf) was studied in experimental Escherichia coli mastitis, using enrofloxacin as a comparator. Mastitis was induced in six clinically healthy primiparous dairy cows by infusing 1500 colony-forming units of E. coli into a single udder quarter. The challenge was repeated into a contralateral quarter of the same cows 3 weeks later. At the first challenge, three cows were treated with 1.5 g of bovine lactoferrin intramammarily three times (12, 20 and 36 h postchallenge, PC), and the other three cows received 5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin (Baytril) parenterally (12, 36 and 60 h PC). Flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg) was administered to all cows twice at 24-h intervals. During the second challenge, the treatments for the two groups were reversed. Intramammary challenge with E. coli produced clinical mastitis in all cows, but the severity of the disease varied markedly. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were observed in clinical signs such as rectal temperature, rumen motility and general attitude. Milk somatic cell count, daily milk yield and bacterial counts in cows treated with Lf and those receiving enrofloxacin also did not differ significantly. However, a trend for a more rapid elimination of bacteria was seen in the cows treated with enrofloxacin. Milk NAGase activity also decreased significantly faster in the group treated with enrofloxacin. The concentration of lipopolysaccharide in milk compared with the number of bacteria was significantly lower in Lf than in enrofloxacin-treated cows (20 h PC).

  17. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2016-08-15

    The aetiology and epidemiology of outbreaks of clinical mastitis in sheep under extensive pastoral conditions are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of a clinical mastitis outbreak that affected more than 10% of 230 at-risk ewes on a sheep and grain producing property in south east Australia during drought conditions in 2009. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all affected ewes and plated on sheep blood agar for bacterial identification. M. haemolytica was isolated from 80% of the samples that yielded cultivable microorganisms and thus was the main microorganism responsible for the outbreak. Analysis of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed some evidence of clonality, suggesting the possibility of horizontal transmission, but there was also considerable diversity between the clusters of closely related isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of the M. haemolytica isolates revealed most of the isolates belonged to ST1 with no association between the PFGE and MLST fingerprints of the isolates. Resistance to neomycin, streptomycin and sulphafurazole was detected in some of the isolates, but they were all susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. This is the first published record of a comparison of the strains of M. haemolytica involved in a clinical mastitis outbreak in sheep and demonstrates the importance of this pathogen in sheep production systems, particularly during adverse climatic conditions and increased stocking rate.

  18. Dietary selenium deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse mastitis models.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Yao, Minjun; Li, Yimeng; He, Xuexiu; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that plays a critical role in anti-inflammatory processes and antioxidant defense system. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary selenium deficiency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mouse models. Se content in the liver was assessed by fluorescent atomic absorption spectrometry. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis actor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β in the supernatant of the mammary tissue were determined according to the corresponding kits. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that the Se-deficient mouse model was successfully replicated, and selenium deficiency exacerbated mammary gland histopathology, increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and facilitated the activation of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that selenium deficiency resulted in more severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced mouse mastitis.

  19. The upper respiratory tract is a natural reservoir of haemolytic Mannheimia species associated with ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2015-12-31

    Lamb suckling has been suggested to be an important way of infecting a ewe's udder with different bacteria, including Mannheimia haemolytica. To test the potential role of lambs in transferring Mannheimia species to the ewe's udder, the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of isolates obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs were compared with those obtained from cases of mastitis. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect nasopharyngeal samples from 50 ewes and 36 lambs from three flocks. M. haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida as well as haemolytic Mannheimia ruminalis-like organisms were detected in the upper respiratory tract of lambs and ewes. Comparison of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates suggested that the M. haemolytica isolates obtained from different milk samples from ewes with mastitis were more clonal than those obtained from the nasal swabs. However, some nasal isolates within both Mannheimia species had restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns identical to those obtained from milk samples from ewes with mastitis, indicating that lambs may have a role in transferring these organisms to the udder. More clonality was observed between the M. glucosida isolates than between M. haemolytica isolates.

  20. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses.

  1. Medicinal Plants Based Products Tested on Pathogens Isolated from Mastitis Milk.

    PubMed

    Pașca, Claudia; Mărghitaș, Liviu; Dezmirean, Daniel; Bobiș, Otilia; Bonta, Victorița; Chirilă, Flore; Matei, Ioana; Fiț, Nicodim

    2017-09-04

    Bovine mastitis a major disease that is commonly associated with bacterial infection. The common treatment is with antibiotics administered intramammary into infected quarters of the udder. The excessive use of antibiotics leads to multidrug resistance and associated risks for human health. In this context, the search for alternative drugs based on plants has become a priority in livestock medicine. These products have a low manufacturing cost and no reports of antimicrobial resistance to these have been documented. In this context, the main objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of extracts and products of several indigenous, or acclimatized plants on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis. A total of eleven plant alcoholic extracts and eight plant-derived products were tested against 32 microorganisms isolated from milk. The obtained results have shown an inhibition of bacterial growth for all tested plants, with better results for Everniaprunastri, Artemisiaabsinthium, and Lavandulaangustifolia. Moreover, E.prunastri, Populus nigra, and L. angustifolia presented small averages of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. Among the plant-derived products, three out of eight have shown a strong anti-microbial effect comparable with the effect of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, and better than individual plant extracts possibly due to synergism. These results suggest an important anti-microbial effect of these products on pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis with a possible applicability in this disease.

  2. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples.

    PubMed

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Morimoto, Kazutaka; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good's buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis.

  3. Dynamics of leukocytes and cytokines during experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rambeaud, M; Almeida, R A; Pighetti, G M; Oliver, S P

    2003-12-15

    Streptococcus uberis causes a significant proportion of clinical and subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. In spite of this, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. A study was conducted to determine leukocyte and cytokine dynamics during experimentally induced S. uberis mastitis. Five Jersey and five Holstein cows were challenged via intramammary inoculation of S. uberis into two uninfected mammary glands. Sixteen of 20 challenged mammary glands developed clinical mastitis with peak clinical signs observed at 144 h. The number of S. uberis in milk increased (P<0.05) 48 h after challenge, in spite of an increase in milk somatic cells that began at 18 h (P<0.001) and remained elevated throughout the study. Increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in milk were detected 66 h after challenge (P<0.05). Peak TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations occurred 120 h after challenge and preceded peak clinical signs. Experimental S. uberis IMI induced local production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis. Other mediators may be involved in initial leukocyte recruitment to the mammary gland, since increases in milk somatic cells occurred earlier than cytokine production.

  4. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complement component 3: characterization and association with mastitis resistance in Egyptian water buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Nermin; Abd-El-Monsif, Shawky A; Al-Tohamy Ahmed, F M; Hegazy, Lamees; Abdel-Shafy, Hamdy; Abdel-Latif, Magdy A; Ghazi, Yasser A; Neuhoff, Christiane; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Schellander, Karl

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland that leads to reduced milk production and change in milk composition. Complement component C3 plays a major role as a central molecule of the complement cascade involving in killing of microorganisms, either directly or in cooperation with phagocytic cells. C3 cDNA were isolated, from Egyptian buffalo and cattle, sequenced and characterized. The C3 cDNA sequences of buffalo and cattle consist of 5025 and 5019 bp, respectively. Buffalo and cattle C3 cDNAs share 99% of sequence identity with each other. The 4986 bp open reading frame in buffalo encodes a putative protein of 1661 amino acids-as in cattle-and includes all the functional domains. Further, analysis of the C3 cDNA sequences detected six novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in buffalo and three novel SNPs in cattle. The association analysis of the detected SNPs with milk somatic cell score as an indicator of mastitis revealed that the most significant association in buffalo was found in the C>A substitution (ss: 1752816097) in exon 27, whereas in cattle it was in the C>T substitution (ss: 1752816085) in exon 12. Our findings provide preliminary information about the contribution of C3 polymorphisms to mastitis resistance in buffalo and cattle.

  6. A high prevalence of tylosin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bahraminia, Farhad; Emadi, Seyed Reza; Emaneini, Mohammad; Farzaneh, Nima; Rad, Mehrnaz; Khoramian, Babak

    2017-01-01

    The macrolides appear to have considerable effects for treatment of bovine mastitis because of excellent diffusion into the mammary gland, long half-life, low protein binding, high intracellular concentration and lipid solubility. Acquired resistance to macrolides in Staphylococcus aureus is primarily related to target-site modification through acquisition of an erm gene. In the present study the prevalence of both phenotypic and genotypic tylosin resistance in S. aureus isolates (n = 103) from subclinical mastitis in nine dairy farms belonging to three different province of Iran were investigated. Overall, ermA, ermB and ermC was found in 7.80%, 32.00%, and 20.40% of S.aureus isolates, respectively. A very high percent of isolates (56.90%) were resistant to tylosin. MIC90 and MIC50 values were 64 and 32 µg mL(-1), respectively. Most of tylosin resistant isolates did not harbour any erm gene but ermB was dominant gene among 58 tylosin resistant isolates of S. aureus. In overall, tylosin resistance was prevalent in S. aureus isolates obtained from bovine mastitis in Iran.

  7. A high prevalence of tylosin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Bahraminia, Farhad; Emadi, Seyed Reza; Emaneini, Mohammad; Farzaneh, Nima; Rad, Mehrnaz; Khoramian, Babak

    2017-01-01

    The macrolides appear to have considerable effects for treatment of bovine mastitis because of excellent diffusion into the mammary gland, long half-life, low protein binding, high intracellular concentration and lipid solubility. Acquired resistance to macrolides in Staphylococcus aureus is primarily related to target-site modification through acquisition of an erm gene. In the present study the prevalence of both phenotypic and genotypic tylosin resistance in S. aureus isolates (n = 103) from subclinical mastitis in nine dairy farms belonging to three different province of Iran were investigated. Overall, ermA, ermB and ermC was found in 7.80%, 32.00%, and 20.40% of S.aureus isolates, respectively. A very high percent of isolates (56.90%) were resistant to tylosin. MIC90 and MIC50 values were 64 and 32 µg mL-1, respectively. Most of tylosin resistant isolates did not harbour any erm gene but ermB was dominant gene among 58 tylosin resistant isolates of S. aureus. In overall, tylosin resistance was prevalent in S. aureus isolates obtained from bovine mastitis in Iran. PMID:28785387

  8. Species distribution and resistance profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Ziegler, D; Johler, S

    2013-06-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of bovine intra-mammary infections. They can lead to chronic infections and were reported to significantly increase milk somatic cell counts. The goal of our study was to determine the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of CNS in bovine mastitis milk samples in Switzerland. Between March 2011 and February 2012, a total of 120 CNS were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 117 different animals at 77 farms. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequently tested for sensitivity to various antibiotic agents by disk diffusion. Antimicrobial agents were selected mainly based on their relevance to the treatment of bovine mastitis in Switzerland. MALDI-TOF MS assigned the 120 isolates to 12 different staphylococcal species - S. chromogenes (33 %), S. xylosus (28 %), S. sciuri (13 %), S. haemolyticus (9 %), S. epidermidis (4 %), S. simulans (4 %), S. warneri (3 %), S. equorum (2 %), S. hyicus (2 %), S. cohnii (1 %), S. succinus (1 %), and S. fleuretti (1 %). Resistance rates in CNS were high, with 39% of isolates exhibiting resistance to ampicillin and penicillin, 6% of isolates being resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cephalothin, and cefoxitin, and 5 % being resistant to erythromycin. In rare cases resistance to gentamicin (2 %), kanamycin (2 %), and kanamycin-cefalexin (1 %) was detected.

  9. Production of bacteriocins by coagulase-negative staphylococci involved in bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Nascimento, Janaína; Fagundes, Patricia Carlin; de Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; do Carmo de Freire Bastos, Maria

    2005-03-20

    In the present study, 188 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases from 56 different Brazilian dairy herds, located in the Southeast region of the country, and were tested for antimicrobial substance production. Twelve CNS strains (6.4%) exhibited antagonistic activity against a Corynebacterium fimi indicator strain. Most antimicrobial substances were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes suggesting that they might be bacteriocins (Bac). Amongst the CNS producers, six were identified as S. epidermidis, two as S. simulans, two as S. saprophyticus, one as S. hominis and one as S. arlettae. Plasmid profile analysis of these strains revealed the presence of at least one plasmid. The Bac(+) strains presented either no or few antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Three strains were shown to produce a bacteriocin either identical or similar to aureocin A70, a bacteriocin previously isolated from an S. aureus strain isolated from food. The remaining Bac(+) strains produce antimicrobial peptides that seem to be distinct from the best characterised staphylococcal bacteriocins described so far. Some of them were able to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen, and several strains of Streptococcus agalactiae associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting a potential use of these bacteriocins either in the prevention or in the treatment of streptococcal mastitis.

  10. Outbreak of subclinical mastitis in a flock of dairy sheep associated with Burkholderia cepacia complex infection.

    PubMed

    Berriatua, E; Ziluaga, I; Miguel-Virto, C; Uribarren, P; Juste, R; Laevens, S; Vandamme, P; Govan, J R

    2001-03-01

    An outbreak of subclinical mastitis in a flock of 620 milking sheep was investigated. Microbiological and epidemiological analyses identified the causative agent as belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia). Every ewe in the milking flock was individually tested for subclinical mastitis on two separate occasions, 6 weeks apart, by the California (rapid) mastitis test (CMT). The proportion of CMT-positive ewes was 69 of 393 (17.6%) on the first sampling and 27 of 490 (5.5%) on the second sampling. Pure B. cepacia cultures identified with the API 20 NE system were grown from 64 of 96 (66.7%) CMT-positive ewes and from 1 of 33 (3.0%) CMT-negative ewes. Statistical analysis confirmed the significant association between a positive CMT result and a positive culture result for B. cepacia complex. Additional polyphasic taxonomic analyses of eight isolates showed that seven belonged to B. cepacia genomovar III; the remaining isolate was identified as Burkholderia vietnamiensis (formerly B. cepacia genomovar V). Bacteriological investigation of samples from milking equipment and other environmental sites failed to identify "B. cepacia" in any of the samples taken. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of natural infection in animals caused by B. cepacia complex and the first description of B. cepacia complex infection in sheep.

  11. Subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Swiss organic and conventional production systems.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Markus; G Doherr, Marcus; Schären, Walter; Schällibaum, Melchior; Blum, Jürg W

    2007-02-01

    The objective was to compare the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SM) and of udder pathogens in 60 Swiss organic (OP) and 60 conventional production systems (CP). Cows (n=970) were studied for SM prevalence and udder pathogens at median 31 d and 102 d post partum. Cows showing a >or=1+ positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) in at least one quarter were considered to have SM. Cow-level prevalences of SM for visits at 31 d and 102 d post partum (39% and 40% in OP and 34% and 35% in CP) were similar, but quarter-level prevalences of SM were higher (P<0.02) in OP than CP (15% and 18% in OP and 12% and 15% in CP). Median somatic cell counts in milk at 31 d post partum were higher (P<0.05) in OP than CP cows (43000 and 28000 cells/ml, respectively), but were similar at 102 d post partum in OP and CP cows (45000 and 38000 cells/ml, respectively). In milk samples from quarters showing a CMT reaction >or=2+ the prevalences of coagulase negative staphylococci were lower (P<0.05) at 102 d post partum, whereas prevalences of non-agalactiae streptococci were higher (P<0.05) in OP than in CP cows at 31 d and 102 d post partum. In conclusion, under Swiss conditions, subclinical mastitis is a greater problem in organic than in conventional production systems, but differences are not marked.

  12. Relationship between leukocyte population and nutritive conditions in dairy herds with frequently appearing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomohito; Katsuda, Ken; Matsuda, Kei-ichi; Masui, Machiko; Abe, Ryo; Kawamura, Sei-ichi

    2006-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD14-MHC class(+) cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in milk from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Xavier, A R E O; Almeida, A C; Souza, C N; Silva, L M V; Ruas, A X A; Sanglard, D A; Júnior, A F M; Oliveira, A M E; Xavier, M A S

    2017-06-29

    The Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolated microorganism in ruminant animal species diagnostic with clinical or subclinical mastitis. Dairy herds with these diseases can transfer S. aureus into the milk supply, which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of femA gene, the genetic relationships among isolates of S. aureus obtained from milk originating from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis in nine rural properties in the northern of Minas Gerais State. To this end, 498 samples of bovine milk tested positive for the California mastitis test (CMT) were subjected to morphological methods and biochemical patterns for microbiological presumptive identification of S. aureus. The PCR test with the genetic marker femA was used to confirm the species S. aureus. All the 26 isolates presumptively identified as S. aureus amplified a fragment of 132 bp corresponding to the femA gene. The profile of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the disk-diffusion methodology and two isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. The drug multiresistence was found in 80.76% of the isolates. The determination of the genetic profile and the clonal relationship among the isolates was performed by the method of DNA RAPD-PCR polymorphism. The S. aureus isolates were divided into two groups with 26 distinct subgroups. The analysis of RAPD-PCR showed no genetic diversity among them, heterogeneous profile and absence of clonality.

  14. Subclinical mastitis changes the patterns of maternal-offspring behaviour in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gougoulis, D A; Kyriazakis, I; Papaioannou, N; Papadopoulos, E; Taitzoglou, I A; Fthenakis, G C

    2008-06-01

    Subclinical mastitis was induced by inoculating one mammary gland in dairy ewes (n=8) with a Staphylococcus simulans isolate; control ewes (n=4) were included. The milk yield of inoculated glands decreased (P<0.001), the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score increased and the organism could be recovered from the inoculated glands. With time, there was significantly increased frequency of "hindering sucking" (P=0.016) and "head up posture" (P<0.001) in the control ewes. Infected ewes had a significantly increased frequency of "vocalisation" (P=0.013) compared to controls. There was a significant difference in the frequency of "sucking attempt" and "successful suck" (P<0.05) behaviours between lambs of the two groups. Lambs of the challenged ewes also showed significantly increased frequency and duration of these behaviours towards the uninoculated glands of their dams, rather than to the challenged glands (P<0.05); no such difference was evident for the lambs of control ewes. It was concluded that subclinical mastitis alters the sucking behaviour of both ewes and lambs.

  15. Outbreak of Subclinical Mastitis in a Flock of Dairy Sheep Associated with Burkholderia cepacia Complex Infection

    PubMed Central

    Berriatua, E.; Ziluaga, I.; Miguel-Virto, C.; Uribarren, P.; Juste, R.; Laevens, S.; Vandamme, P.; Govan, J. R. W.

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of subclinical mastitis in a flock of 620 milking sheep was investigated. Microbiological and epidemiological analyses identified the causative agent as belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia). Every ewe in the milking flock was individually tested for subclinical mastitis on two separate occasions, 6 weeks apart, by the California (rapid) mastitis test (CMT). The proportion of CMT-positive ewes was 69 of 393 (17.6%) on the first sampling and 27 of 490 (5.5%) on the second sampling. Pure B. cepacia cultures identified with the API 20 NE system were grown from 64 of 96 (66.7%) CMT-positive ewes and from 1 of 33 (3.0%) CMT-negative ewes. Statistical analysis confirmed the significant association between a positive CMT result and a positive culture result for B. cepacia complex. Additional polyphasic taxonomic analyses of eight isolates showed that seven belonged to B. cepacia genomovar III; the remaining isolate was identified as Burkholderia vietnamiensis (formerly B. cepacia genomovar V). Bacteriological investigation of samples from milking equipment and other environmental sites failed to identify “B. cepacia” in any of the samples taken. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of natural infection in animals caused by B. cepacia complex and the first description of B. cepacia complex infection in sheep. PMID:11230416

  16. Crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation in mastitis and metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bobowiec, Ryszard; Wessely-Szponder, Joanna; Hola, Piotr

    2009-06-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are closely related as part of the mechanisms of host defence during a severe infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between thrombin as a factor in both the coagulative and inflammatory processes and neutrophil secretory function on the basis of lactoferrin (LF), elastase and myeloperoxidase release in the course of mastitis and metritis in cows. Thrombin generation was measured on the basis of hydrolysis of SAR-PRO-ARG-pNA and lactoferrin concentration was estimated by an ELISA method. The greatest thrombin generation was observed in the metritis group (1.18 +/- 0.62 IU). The level of LF was the highest in the group of cows with mastitis (0.74 +/- 0.55 mg/ml) in the first phase of the disease. In the second phase of the diseases the level of serum LF in cows with mastitis diminished to the value of 0.41 +/- 0.16 mg/ml, whereas in cows with metritis the level of LF increased to 0.51 +/- 0.17 mg/ml. This study reveals that the excessive production of thrombin not only causes hypercoagulatory disorders but also exaggerates neutrophil function by the release of some enzymes which may play a destructive role during disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These enzymes also inhibit anticoagulative systems, thus potentially worsening the course of the disease.

  17. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  18. Therapeutic efficacy of mammary irrigation regimen in dairy cattle diagnosed with acute coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Hirata, Harumi; Ishibashi, Ichiro; Okawa, Yuzo; Kasuga, Asako; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Taura, Yasuho

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this field study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of mammary irrigation for the treatment of dairy cattle diagnosed with acute coliform mastitis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, the effects of different mammary irrigation regimen fluids such as ozone water and normal saline were compared. Dairy cattle clinically diagnosed with acute coliform mastitis (n = 57) were enrolled in the study, randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, and received the following treatments: systemic antibiotic administration (SAA group; n = 40), mammary irrigation regimen (MIR group; n = 10), and both treatments (MIX group; n=7). Significant antipyretic effects, as assessed by rectal temperature measurement, were observed in the MIX and MIR groups. Although 2 irrigating fluids were used, namely, ozone water and normal saline, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. Fourteen days after the onset of the treatments, the milk yield recovery rate in MIR group tended to be higher (p = 0.06) than that in the SAA group. Additionally, after 30 days of treatment, the MIR group cows demonstrated significantly higher successful recovery rates (p<0.05) than the SAA group cows. These results indicate that mammary irrigation with normal saline is an effective treatment for acute coliform mastitis in dairy cattle.

  19. Diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Santa Inês and Morada Nova sheep in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Pilon, Lucas Eduardo; Júnior, Guilherme Aparecido Fim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different screening limits for the California mastitis test (CMT) and the somatic cell count (SCC) in previous diagnoses of subclinical mastitis in Santa Inês and Morada Nova ewes, which were reared under the same management conditions. Additionally, cutoff points were defined for SCC in accordance with the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A total of 907 mammary halves were subjected to CMT and SCC. The disease was confirmed by means of microbiological identification. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the microorganisms with highest occurrence. The CMT score of 1+ provided adequate sensitivity and specificity at all periods of lactation investigated. This score showed good agreement with SCC, >400,000 cells mL(-1). Higher cell counts favored higher diagnostic specificity. They can be used when producers have financial difficulties relating to treatment or culling of sheep with subclinical mastitis. However, producers should be warned about the risk of false-negative results in the flock.

  20. Evaluation of a novel chemical sensor system to detect clinical mastitis in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Toby; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Legin, Andrey; Fitzpatrick, Julie L; Eckersall, P David

    2007-05-15

    Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is an essential part of high performance and robotic milking. Currently available technology (conductivity monitoring) is unable to achieve acceptable specificity or sensitivity of detection of clinical mastitis or other clinical diseases. Arrays of sensors with high cross-sensitivity have been successfully applied for recognition and quantitative analysis of other multicomponent liquids. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a multisensor system ("electronic tongue") based on an array of chemical sensors and suitable data processing could be used to discriminate between milk secretions from infected and healthy glands. Measurements were made with a multisensor system of milk samples from two different farms in two experiments. A total of 67 samples of milk from both mastitic and healthy glands were in two sets. It was demonstrated that the multisensor system could distinguish between control and clinically mastitic milk samples (p=0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the sensor system (93 and 96% correspondingly) showed an improvement over conductivity (56 and 82% correspondingly). The multisensor system offers a novel method of improving mastitis detection.

  1. Detection of clinical mastitis by changes in electrical conductivity of foremilk before visible changes in milk.

    PubMed

    Milner, P; Page, K L; Walton, A W; Hillerton, J E

    1996-01-01

    Mastitis was induced by the direct infusion of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus uberis into the mammary gland of lactating cows. Changes in electrical conductivity of foremilk indicated the establishment of bacteria, increased SCC, increased clotting of milk, and, hence, disease, in advance of visible changes in the milk that could be diagnosed by a herdsperson. Clinical mastitis was detectable by changes in electrical conductivity of foremilk, 90% of cases were detectable when clots first appeared in foremilk, and 55% of cases were detectable up to 2 milkings prior to the appearance of clots. All subclinical infections from Staph. aureus were detected, but subclinical infections from Strep. uberis were not detected. The results suggested that clinical mastitis caused by these two major pathogens could be detected earlier by measuring changes in electrical conductivity of milk than by waiting for a herdsperson to detect visible changes in milk. Earlier detection would permit earlier treatment. However, the handheld sensor used in this experiment is impractical for commercial application, and reliable automated sensors and decision-making algorithms are required.

  2. Detection of bovine mastitis by bromothymol blue pH indicator test.

    PubMed

    Marschke, R J; Kitchen, B J

    1985-05-01

    A simple bromothymol blue indicator test was evaluated for farm diagnosis of mastitis. The test required highly absorbent blotting paper impregnated with four spots of bromothymol blue. Indicator color scores (1 to 4) for quarter foremilks increased with somatic cell count and pH, although variability within each color score was large. Sensitivity of the bromothymol blue test ranged from 51 to 56% and specificity from 89 to 90% for most reference criteria used to classify normal and abnormal milk. Predictability of a positive test ranged from 49 to 52% (false positives 51 to 48%) and predictability of a negative test from 90 to 97% (false negatives 10 to 3%) for the same criteria. Overall the bromothymol blue test incorrectly diagnosed 11 to 20% of 3772 quarters. By classifying color score 2 as negative, predictability of a positive result was 70 to 75% and sensitivity was 26 to 30%. The test can be used by dairy producers to screen herds with a relatively high incidence of mastitis or used in combination with cow cell counts to locate abnormal quarters. The bromothymol blue test was less sensitive than the California Mastitis Test but offered several practical advantages for use on farm.

  3. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development.

    PubMed

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-03-31

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  4. A cohort study of coagulase negative staphylococcal mastitis in selected dairy herds in Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, T J; Dohoo, I R; Donald, A W; Hariharan, H; Collins, K

    1992-01-01

    The epidemiology and importance of coagulase negative staphylococcal (CNS) mastitis in Prince Edward Island had not been documented. To investigate this, a cohort of 84 cows at seven farms were quarter sampled eight times over a lactation, commencing with samples taken prior to drying off in the previous lactation. Thirteen species of CNS were isolated. The quarter prevalence of CNS mastitis varied from 4.8% to 6.4% in the first five months of lactation and increased to 14.2 to 16.6% in the last four months of lactation. The geometric mean somatic cell counts (SCC) for quarters infected with CNS and uninfected quarters were 90 x 10(3) and 64 x 10(3) respectively (difference significant at p > 0.005). The two month new infection risk of CNS was 9.0% while the two month elimination risk was 74.4%. Infection with CNS did not alter the risk of subsequent infection with Staphylococcus aureus. The results from this project support the classification of CNS as a minor pathogen in mastitis control programs. PMID:1477796

  5. Efficacy of Staphylococcus aureus vaccines for bovine mastitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, U P; Oliveira, D G S; Mesquita, L R; Costa, G M; Pereira, L J

    2011-03-24

    Bovine mastitis is the main cause of economic loss in milk production worldwide and Staphylococcus aureus is the agent most frequently associated with the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of vaccines for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus and suggest the immunotherapeutic protocols that have achieved the best and/or most promising results. An electronic search was made of the PubMed and Web of Science databases in November 2009. Only studies that tested vaccines in vivo in cows were included. The experimental design, methodological quality, type of vaccine and results of the studies were analyzed. Twenty-four papers were selected for this review. In general, bacterin-toxoid vaccines, vaccines of DNA-recombinant protein and recombinant protein alone were investigated in the studies selected. This systematic review suggests that vaccines that employ new technologies (DNA and/or recombinant protein vaccines) and some long-standing bacterins have achieved good results, which supports their use in the prevention and control of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. However, methodological differences and in some cases, a lack of more severe scientific criteria (such as double blind protocols) hinder the assessment of the effectiveness of these vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced levels of immunoreactive β-casomorphin-8 in milk of breastfeeding women with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Righard, Lennart; Carlsson-Jonsson, Anna; Nyberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    An incorrect, superficial suckling technique in breastfeeding frequently leads to milk congestion and sometimes mastitis. In the present study we have examined whether milk congestion may affect levels of the atypical opioid β-casomorphin-8 in milk and in plasma. We also investigated whether the rate of acute psychosis during the first half year after parturition has declined in Sweden over the years. Milk and plasma samples were collected for peptide analysis from 14 women with mastitis and 10 controls. We found that in a group of 14 late cases of mastitis (median 48 days post partum) the detected mean level of β-casomorphin-8 in milk was significantly higher and somewhat higher in plasma at the acute stage compared with 2-3 weeks later, after recovery when the symptoms had disappeared, as well as compared to the control subjects. Swedish official statistics show that the incidence of acute psychosis in the first month and in the first half year after birth has declined by a half during the last 30 years. A relationship between postpartum psychosis and elevated β-casomorphin-8 levels in CSF has been suggested from earlier studies. In this study, milk congestion led to enhanced levels of β-casomorphin-8 in milk, which may be related to postpartum psychosis and probably also to 'the postnatal blues'.

  7. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples

    PubMed Central

    SAISHU, Nobukazu; MORIMOTO, Kazutaka; YAMASATO, Hiroshi; OZAKI, Hiroichi; MURASE, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good’s buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis. PMID:25843745

  8. The bacteriocin nisin, an effective agent for the treatment of staphylococcal mastitis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leonides; Delgado, Susana; Herrero, Helena; Maldonado, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2008-08-01

    Eight women with clinical signs of staphylococcal mastitis were randomly divided in 2 groups. A solution of the bacteriocin nisin (6 microg/mL) was applied to the nipple and mammary areola of those assigned to the nisin group for 2 weeks, and a similar preparation devoid of nisin was applied to the control group. On day 0, staphylococcal counts in breast milk of the nisin and control groups were similar (5.04+/-0.19 and 4.88+/-0.21 log10 CFU/mL, respectively). However, on day 14, the mean in the nisin group (3.22+/-0.43 log10 CFU/mL) was statistically lower than that of the control group (5.01+/-0.21 log10 CFU/mL). No clinical signs of mastitis were observed among the women of the nisin group on day 14, whereas they persisted throughout the study in the women of the control group. In conclusion, nisin seems to be an efficient alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of staphylococcal mastitis.

  9. Polymorphism in spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bhati, Taruna; Nathawat, Prerna; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Rahul; Bishnoi, Jyoti; Kataria, Anil Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The virulence-associated protein-A of Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by spa gene shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study, the spa gene variation in S. aureus strains was studied which were isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis. About 38 isolatesof S. aureus were recovered from Holstein-Friesian (HF) crossbred (n=16) and Rathi cattle (n=22) with subclinical mastitis as per standard procedures, and these isolates were subjected to amplification of spa gene (X-region) by polymerase chain reaction and calculation of number of tandem repeats were done. Of the 16 isolates from H-F crossbred cattle, all with the exception of one isolate produced spa amplicon. Seven isolates produced amplicons of 200 bp, one produced 160 bp, and other seven produced spa amplicon of 150 bp with calculated number of 6, 5, and 4 repeats, respectively, whereas nine different types of amplicons were produced by 22 S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle, viz., 280, 250, 240, 200, 190, 180, 170, 150, and 140 bp with 10, 8, 8, 6, 6, 6, 5, 4, and 4 repeats, respectively. One of the isolates from Rathi cattle produced two spa amplicons (150 and 190 bp). A greater polymorphism was observed in the S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle than from H-F crossbreds with subclinical mastitis.

  10. Mastitis and Immunological Factors in Breast Milk of Lactating Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha E.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lan, Yin; Eisinger, Ward; Mtimavalye, Laban; Broadhead, Robin; Miotti, Paolo G.; Van Der Hoeven, Len; Chiphangwi, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Although an elevated sodium concentration in human milk is suggested to be an indicator of mastitis, it is unclear whether elevated sodium concentrations are associated with immunological and inflammatory mediators in human milk. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationships between elevated breast milk sodium concentrations and levels of lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human milk at 6 weeks postpartum in 96 lactating women in Blantyre, Malawi. Mastitis, as indicated by an elevated breast milk sodium concentration, was present in 15.6% of the women. Women with and without mastitis had respective median levels of other factors as follows: lactoferrin, 1,230 versus 565 mg/liter (P < 0.0007); lysozyme, 266 versus 274 mg/liter (P = 0.55); SLPI, 76 versus 15 μg/liter, (P < 0.0002); IL-8, 339 versus 25 ng/liter (P < 0.0001); and RANTES, 82 versus 3 ng/liter (P < 0.0001). Elevated sodium concentrations in breast milk are associated with an increase in levels of some immunological and inflammatory factors in breast milk. PMID:10473515

  11. Identification and characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolase constructs with activity in cow milk as potential antimicrobials for treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mastitis in dairy cows is a widespread infection of the mammary glands that leads to high losses in dairy production. Most members of the Gram-positive genus Staphylococcus can cause mastitis, with Staphylococcus S. aureus being one of the major pathogens. Intramammary application of antibiotics i...

  12. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Bahizi, Gloria; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens M. B.; Vudriko, Patrick; Atuheire, Collins; Kabasa, John David

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended. PMID:28246573

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging in relation to morphology on dynamic contrast enhancement MRI: the diagnostic value of characterizing non-puerperal mastitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Hu, Jiani; Guys, Nicholas; Meng, Jinli; Chu, Jianguo; Zhang, Weisheng; Liu, Ailian; Wang, Shaowu; Song, Qingwei

    2017-09-27

    To demonstrate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the characterisation of mastitis lesions. Sixty-one non-puerperal patients with pathologically confirmed single benign mastitis lesions underwent preoperative examinations with conventional MRI and axial DWI. Patients were categorised into three groups: (1) periductal mastitis (PDM), (2) granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM), and (3) infectious abscess (IAB). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of each lesion were recorded. A one-way ANOVA with logistic analysis was performed to compare ADC values and other parameters. Discriminative abilities of DWI modalities were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. ADC values differed significantly among the three groups (P = 0.003) as well as between PDM and IAB and between PDM and GLM. The distribution of non-mass enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI differed significantly among the three groups (P = 0.03) but not between any two groups specifically. There were no differences in lesion location, patient age, T2WI or DWI signal intensity, enhancement type, non-mass internal enhancement, or mass enhancement characteristics among the three groups. ADC values and the distribution of non-mass enhancement are valuable in classifying mastitis subtypes. • Mastitis subtypes exhibit different characteristics on DWI and DCE MRI. • ADC values are helpful in isolating PDM from other mastitis lesions. • Distribution of non-mass enhancement also has value in comparing mastitis subtypes.

  14. Milk Hygiene in Rural Southwestern Uganda: Prevalence of Mastitis and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Contaminants of Milk and Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Bahizi, Gloria; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens M B; Vudriko, Patrick; Atuheire, Collins; Kabasa, John David; Kaneene, John B

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis and antimicrobial resistance are a big challenge to the dairy industry in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Kashongi and Keshunga subcounties of Kiruhura District (in Uganda) where the government and private sector have deliberate programs to improve production efficiency, quality, and safety of milk and its products. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of mastitis, its common causative agents, antimicrobial sensitivity of mastitis causing organisms, and contaminants of processed milk products: yoghurt and ghee. Seventy-one milk, fourteen yoghurt, and three ghee samples were collected from nine farms. Of the 71 cows tested, 54 (76.1%) had mastitis. The mastitis cases from Keshunga were 32 (59.3%) and Kashongi contributed 22 (40.7%) of the cases. The common mastitis causative agents were Staphylococcus spp. (30.8%), Streptococcus spp. (12.3%), Corynebacterium spp.(15.4%), and E. coli (7.7%). Some of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Prevalent contaminants of yoghurt were Staphylococcus spp. (8.3%), Streptococcus spp. (8.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (8.3%), and E. coli (8.3%), whereas all ghee contained Streptococcus spp. (100%). Prevalence of mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, and contamination of milk products are high in the study area. Targeted programs to prevent and control mastitis as well as antibiotic resistance are recommended.

  15. Parity-dependent association between TNF-α and LTF gene polymorphisms and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One major problem in dairy cattle husbandry is the prevalence of udder infections. In today’s breeding programmes, top priority is being given to making animal evaluation more cost-effective and reliable and less time-consuming. We proposed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), lactoferrin (LTF) and macrophage-expressed lysozyme (mLYZ) genes as potential DNA markers in the improvement of immunity to mastitis. This study included 588 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows kept on one farm located in the north-western region of Poland. All clinical cases of mastitis in the herd under study were recorded by a qualified veterinarian employed by the farm. The following indicators were applied to determine udder immunity to mastitis in the cows under study: morbidity rate (MR), duration of mastitis (DM) and extent of mastitis (EM). TNF-α, mLYZ and LTF genotypes were identified by real-time PCR method, using SimpleProbe technology. Due to the very low frequency of mLYZ allele T, the gene was excluded from further analysis. A statistical analysis of associations between TNF-α and LTF genes and immunity to mastitis were performed using three models: 1) a parity-averaged model including only additive effects of the genes; 2) a parity-averaged model including both additive and epistatic effects of the genes; and 3) a parity-specific model including only additive effects of the genes. Results With the first and second models it was revealed that the genes effects on the applied indicators of immunity to mastitis were non-significant whereas with the third one the effects were found to be statistically significant. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that the effects of TNF-α and LTF varied depending on age (parity). The alleles which were linked to high immunity to mastitis in lower parities appeared to be less favourable in higher parities. Conclusions These interactions might be related to inflamm-ageing, that is an increased susceptibility to infection due to immune

  16. Optimizing the fluorometric β-glucuronidase assay in ruminant milk for a more precise determination of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Aulrich, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Activity of the enzyme β-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) is found in milk from ruminants with mastitis. However, the use of this enzymic activity as an indicator of mastitis has gained little attention possibly because of its low activity when compared with other mastitis indicators. The determination may therefore be less precise and the analytical procedure very time consuming and labour intensive. The present study optimized the fluorometric determination of the β-glucuronidase activity with respect to substrate concentration, pH, incubation time etc., validated the assay, and developed it into large scale analyses. The assay performance is satisfactory regarding precision, linearity etc., and it appears comparable to analogous fluorometric assays for mastitis indicators in milk. From a local dairy herd, 825 milk samples were analysed for potential mastitis indicators, i.e. β-glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, and for somatic cell counts (SCC) and the variables were compared. Activity of β-glucuronidase was moderately but significantly correlated to SCC (r=0·21; n=768) as well as the other mentioned variables (r=0·25-0·43; n=825). Simple indices based on β-glucuronidase and LDH or NAGase activity were tested as indicators of mastitis (SCC), but were not found to improve the diagnostic value. Future studies may further verify whether β-glucuronidase can compete with well-established indicators of mastitis in cows such as LDH or NAGase as well as determine whether β-glucuronidase activity, in combination with other indicators of mastitis, has an advantage. Nineteen milk samples from subclinical and latent cases of mastitis (individual quarters) were identified for specific pathogens (PCR method) and measured for β-glucuronidase activity. The activity was tested at four different pH levels (5·5, 6·0, 6·5 and 7·0) in order to investigate the possibility of

  17. Bivariate threshold models for genetic evaluation of susceptibility to and ability to recover from mastitis in Danish Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Welderufael, B G; Janss, L L G; de Koning, D J; Sørensen, L P; Løvendahl, P; Fikse, W F

    2017-06-01

    Mastitis in dairy cows is an unavoidable problem and genetic variation in recovery from mastitis, in addition to susceptibility, is therefore of interest. Genetic parameters for susceptibility to and recovery from mastitis were estimated for Danish Holstein-Friesian cows using data from automatic milking systems equipped with online somatic cell count measuring units. The somatic cell count measurements were converted to elevated mastitis risk, a continuous variable [on a (0-1) scale] indicating the risk of mastitis. Risk values >0.6 were assumed to indicate that a cow had mastitis. For each cow and lactation, the sequence of health states (mastitic or healthy) was converted to a weekly transition: 0 if the cow stayed within the same state and 1 if the cow changed state. The result was 2 series of transitions: one for healthy to diseased (HD, to model mastitis susceptibility) and the other for diseased to healthy (DH, to model recovery ability). The 2 series of transitions were analyzed with bivariate threshold models, including several systematic effects and a function of time. The model included effects of herd, parity, herd-test-week, permanent environment (to account for the repetitive nature of transition records from a cow) plus two time-varying effects (lactation stage and time within episode). In early lactation, there was an increased risk of getting mastitis but the risk remained stable afterwards. Mean recovery rate was 45% per lactation. Heritabilities were 0.07 [posterior mean of standard deviations (PSD) = 0.03] for HD and 0.08 (PSD = 0.03) for DH. The genetic correlation between HD and DH has a posterior mean of -0.83 (PSD = 0.13). Although susceptibility and recovery from mastitis are strongly negatively correlated, recovery can be considered as a new trait for selection. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under

  18. Relationships among superantigen toxin gene profiles, genotypes, and pathogenic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Limei; Yong, Changfu; Shen, Mingliang; Ali, Tariq; Shahid, Muhammad; Han, Kun; Zhou, Xuezhang; Han, Bo

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiological agents of bovine mastitis, harboring a wide variety of staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) toxin genes. The SAg toxin genes are reported to be closely associated with the pathogenicity of the Staph. aureus causing the bovine mastitis. This study was conducted to investigate SAg toxin gene profiles and to assess the relationships among SAg toxin genes, genotypes of Staph. aureus, and their pathogenic properties. A total of 327 quarter milk samples were collected from bovine mastitis cases for isolation and identification of pathogens. In total, 35 isolates were identified as Staph. aureus, and the prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples was 13.6% (35/256). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays were used to detect the SAg toxin genes and to genotype Staph. aureus strains isolated from milk samples of bovine mastitis in 10 dairy herds located in Ningxia, China, respectively. The results showed that among the Staph. aureus isolates (n = 35), 71.4% (n = 25) of isolates carried at least one SAg toxin gene. In total, 18 SAg genes and 21 different gene combination patterns were detected among these isolates. The most common SAg genes in Staph. aureus isolates were sei, sen, and seu (44.0% each), followed by seo, tst, and etB (28.0% each), etA (24.0%), sem and sep (16.0% each), seb, sec, sed, and sek (12.0% each), and sea and seh genes (8.0% each); the seg, sej, and ser genes were present in 4.0% of the isolates. Three gene combinations were found to be related to mobile genetic elements that carried 2 or more genes. The egc-cluster of the seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, located on the pathogenicity island Type I υSaβ, was detected in 16% of isolates. Interestingly, we observed 6 RAPD genotypes (I to VI) in Staph. aureus isolates, and 2 of these genotypes were strongly associated with the severity of bovine mastitis; there was a close relationship between the RAPD genotypes

  19. Intramammary administration of platelet concentrate as an unconventional therapy in bovine mastitis: first clinical application.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Spelta, C; Garlappi, R; Luini, M; Cremonesi, F

    2014-10-01

    Bovine udder infections induce a variety of changes in gene expression of different growth factors that may suggest their possible role in glandular tissue protection or repair processes. Growth factors and also chemokines and cytokines may act synergistically to increase the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages to promote angiogenesis, fibroplasia, matrix deposition, and, ultimately, re-epithelialization. Considering the vast applications, typically in human medicine, of platelet concentrate (PC) and its ease of preparation, the aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative therapy to stimulate the regeneration of glandular tissue, administering a concentration in excess of the growth factors contained in the PC. In each one of the 3 farms examined in the trial, PC was prepared from donor cows in good health, free from infections, and with no records of medications administered during the previous 2 mo. The platelet produced in one farm was used only for treating the cows of the same farm in a heterologous way. A total of 229 mastitic quarters were divided in 3 groups: antibiotic group (treated with intramammary antibiotic), antibiotic and PC group (treated intramammarily with antibiotics in association with PC), and PC group (treated with intramammary PC alone). The diagnosis of mastitis was based on somatic cell count and bacteriological evaluation of the milk from the affected quarter. Platelet concentrate, alone or in association with antibiotic, was used for 3 consecutive days as an unconventional therapy in bovine acute and chronic mastitis. Our data show that the associated action of antibiotic and PC performed significantly better than the antibiotic alone, either for the recovery of the affected mammary quarters or for somatic cell count reduction. In the same way, the association antibiotic plus PC showed significantly fewer relapses compared with the antibiotic alone, either for acute or chronic mastitis. The treatment with only PC did not show

  20. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Forslund, Kristina; Hansson, Ingrid; Ekman, Torkel

    2006-01-01

    Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional) and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score) compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder health in Swedish organic<