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Sample records for rietvlei nature reserve

  1. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Establishment of Nature Reserves in Administrative Regions of Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ziliang; Cui, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature reserves continues

  3. Disappearance of endangered turtles within China's nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-Ping; Shi, Hai-Tao; Jiang, Ai-Wu; Fong, Jonathan J; Gaillard, Daniel; Wang, Ji-Chao

    2017-03-06

    China ranks first among Northern hemisphere countries for species richness, but approximately 43% of its species are threatened [1], with harvesting being the major threat to vertebrates [2]. To protect its biodiversity, China has established about 2,700 nature reserves covering 1.46 million km(2) ( about 15% of China's territory, a percentage higher than the world average [3]). With increasing habitat destruction and harvesting, nature reserves are the final refugia for threatened species. However, many Chinese nature reserves are poorly managed, leaving them vulnerable to poaching and other human encroachment [4]. In this study, we conducted a 12-year (2002-2013) case study on turtles to illustrate the damaging impacts China's nature reserves have on wildlife conservation. We discovered that poaching occurred in all of the 56 reserves surveyed, resulting in dramatically reduced turtle populations. In a majority of the reserves, the reserve staff themselves were involved in poaching. Although nature reserves were created to protect plants and animals, they have become part of the problem due to weak enforcement of rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  5. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  6. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Heidi J.; Busby, Gwenlyn M.; Hamaide, Bertrand; Ando, Amy W.; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels’ habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning. PMID:26789127

  7. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection.

    PubMed

    Albers, Heidi J; Busby, Gwenlyn M; Hamaide, Bertrand; Ando, Amy W; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels' habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning.

  8. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  9. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J.

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  10. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, Micahel J

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System.

    PubMed

    Alagona, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding of the Hastings Reservation, and asks how it managed to grow and develop, in the 1940s and 1950s, during a time of declining support for natural history research. It shows how faculty and staff courted the support of key institutional allies, presented themselves as the guardians of a venerable tradition in nature study, and emphasized the station's capacity to document ecological change and inform environmental policy and management. In the years since, Hastings and other U.C. reserves have played crucial roles in California environmental politics. Biological field stations in the post-war era deserve more attention not only from historians of biology, but also from environmental historians and other scholars interested in the role of science in society.

  13. Las Cabezas de San Juan, Nature Reserve (El Faro).

    Treesearch

    P. L. Weaver; J. L. Ram¡rez; J. L. Coll

    1999-01-01

    The 178-hectarea(ha) northeastern tip of Puerto Rico, Which is known locally as "Las Cabezas de San Juan Nature Reserve", is managed by the Puerto Rican Conservation Trust to protect the area's scenic beauty and to provide enviromental education and research opportunities to the island's resident and visitors

  14. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  17. [Carbon budget of ecosystem in Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Guirui; Zhao, Shidong; Yu, Zhenliang

    2003-01-01

    The study used EPPML, a biological geochemistry cycle model that was built, to simulate the carbon budget for ecosystems in Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve. The results indicated that the annual net primary productivity [NPP (carbon)] of the natural reserve was 1.332 x 10(6) t.a-1. The annual NPP of mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest and spruce-fir forest were maximal, 0.540 x 10(6) t.a-1 and 0.428 x 10(6) t.a-1 respectively. The area and productivity of the two stands were maximal in Changbai Mountain, therefore, the simulating productivity of the two stands most greatly affect carbon cycle and carbon budget of the natural reserve, and the veracity of the former decides the security of the latter. To sum up, not only did the simulations accord with routines in the relative comparisons between different vegetation belts and climate belts in the whole natural reserve, but also was exact in the absolute comparisons with very disperse data from field survey. Vegetations in the natural reserve had evident carbon sink functions, mainly exhibiting in the increasing of carbon, about 1.058 x 10(6) t.a-1. The annual carbon of mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest increased greatest (0.452 x 10(6) t.a-1), secondly spruce-fir forest (0.339 x 10(6) t.a-1). The two stands played crucial roles in the carbon sink for Changbai Mountain, others being Changbai larch forest, broad-leaved forest, meadow, shrub, alpine tundra, subalpine Betula ermanii forest and alpine grass. In 1995, the decomposing carbon of soil organic matter was 0.169 x 10(6) t.a-1 higher than the littering carbon in the natural reserve. There was accumulation of organic matter in the meadow soil and shrub soil. The decomposition and accumulation of soil organic matter was in the nearly balancing condition in the alpine tundra soil and alpine grass soil. The decomposition of organic matter was as one and a half time or double as litterfall in the arbor forest soil.

  18. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  19. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  1. Analysis of Human Activities in Nature Reserves Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing and Microblogging Data - by the Case of National Nature Reserves in Jiangxi Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Li, X.; Xu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The study used the mainstream social media in china - Sina microblogging data combined with nighttime light remote sensing and various geographical data to reveal the pattern of human activities and light pollution of the Jiangxi Provincial National Nature Reserves. Firstly, we performed statistical analysis based on both functional areas and km-grid from the perspective of space and time, and selected the key areas for in-depth study. Secondly, the relationship between microblogging data and nighttime light remote sensing, population, GDP, road coverage, road distance and road type in nature reserves was analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient method, so the distribution pattern and influencing factors of the microblogging data were explored. Thirdly, a region where the luminance value was greater than 0.2 was defined as a light region. We evaluated the management status by analyzing the distribution of microblogging data in both light area and non-light area. Final results showed that in all nature reserves, the top three were the Lushan Nature Reserve, the Jinggangshan Nature Reserve, the Taohongling National Nature Reserve of Sikas both on the total number and density of microblogging ; microblogging had a significant correlation with nighttime light remote sensing , the GDP, population, road and other factors; the distribution of microblogging near roads in protected area followed power laws; luminous radiance of Lushan Nature Reserve was the highest, with 43 percent of region was light at night; analysis combining nighttime light remote sensing with microblogging data reflected the status of management of nature reserves.

  2. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover.

  3. Nestedness, biogeographic theory, and the design of nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Boecklen, William J

    1997-09-01

    I examine the relationship between nested distributional patterns and the degree to which several small reserves will contain more species than would a single reserve of equal total area (SLOSS). Nestedness is a common property of species distributions on real and habitat islands. However, there is considerable variation in nestedness among species distributions, some of which is related to the physical and biological background of the archipelagoes. Nestedness does not vary according to the taxonomic group examined (with the exception of aquatic invertebrates). Nestedness does vary between real and habitat islands (with aquatic invertebrates excluded), but not between oceanic and land-bridge islands. The more a biota is nested, the more likely it is that a single large reserve would preserve more species. However, nestedness is a rather poor predictor of SLOSS, as the vast majority of archipelagoes support a strategy of several small reserves, even though almost all of them are significantly nested. Nestedness says little about optimal reserve design and management, and appears to be a weak conservation tool.

  4. Dynamics of extinction and the selection of nature reserves.

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Miguel B; Williams, Paul H; Fuller, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Familiar quantitative reserve-selection techniques are tailored to simple decision problems, where the representation of species is sought at minimum cost. However, conservationists have begun to ask whether representing species in reserve networks is sufficient to avoid local extinctions within selected areas. An attractive, but previously untested idea is to model current species' probabilities of occurrence as an estimate of local persistence in the near future. Using distribution data for passerine birds in Great Britain, we show that (i) species' probabilities of occurrence are negatively related to local probabilities of extinction, at least when a particular 20-year period is considered, and (ii) local extinctions can be reduced if areas are selected to maximize current species' probabilities of occurrence We suggest that more extinctions could be avoided if even a simple treatment of persistence were to be incorporated within reserve selection methods. PMID:12396495

  5. Pinelands national reserve: An intergovernmental approach to nature preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilieholm, Robert J.; Romm, Jeff

    1992-05-01

    The Pinelands National Reserve was created in 1978 when private interests and federal, state, and local governments allied to protect 378,000 ha (935,000 acres) of New Jersey's Pine Barrens from encroaching development. An intergovernmental authority, the Pinelands Commission, manages the reserve by implementing a regional plan to guide development away from environmentally sensitive areas and into designated growth centers. Through transferable development rights, financial gains from development in growth centers are used to compensate owners and localities in the reserve who might otherwise have developed their lands. The national reserve strategy contrasts with other federal strategies for preserving unique environments in which the federal government exercises exclusive control (e.g., national parks, monuments, and recreation areas). This article describes the strategy applied in the Pinelands and discusses the conditions in which it may be more or less effective than other strategies used to protect unique or valued landscapes. It then compares the Pinelands model with the strategies and conditions of california's Redwood National Park and Point Reyes National Seashore to develop propositions about the circumstances in which one or another strategy is more likely to be viable. Finally, it applies these propositions to the possibilities for future forest preservation in New England.

  6. The Nature and Use of Copper Reserve and Resource Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Dennis P.; Wright, Nancy A.; Coakley, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Copper reserve, resource, and production data can be combined to produce disaggregated resource estimates and trends and, when combined with demand forecasts, can be used to predict future exploration and development requirements. Reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties due mainly to incomplete exploration and rapidly changing economic conditions. United States' reserve estimates in the past have been low mainly because knowledge of the magnitude of very large porphyry-copper deposits has been incomplete. Present estimates are considerably more reliable because mining firms tend to drill out deposits fully before mining and to release their reserve estimates to the public. The sum of reserves and past production yields an estimate of the total ore, total metal contained in ore, and average grade of ore originally in each of the deposits known in the United States. For most deposits, estimates of total copper in ore are low relative to the total copper in mineralized rock, and many estimates are strongly affected by the economic behavior of mining firms. A better estimate of the real distribution of copper contained in deposits can be obtained by combining past production data with resource estimates. Copper resource data are disaggregated into categories that include resources in undeveloped deposits similar to those mined in the past, resources in mines closed because of unfavorable economic conditions, resources in deep deposits requiring high-cost mining methods, arid resources in deposits located in areas where environmental restrictions have contributed to delays in development. The largest resource is located in the five largest porphyry deposits. These deposits are now being mined but the resources are not included in the present mining plan. Resources in this last category will not contribute to supply until some future time when ores presently being mined are depleted. A high correlation exists between total copper contained in deposits and annual

  7. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of non-pay natural gas reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrupskiy, I. M.; Kondrat, A. R.; Tsagan-Mandzhiev, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    The inverse problem for the estimation of reservoir parameters of the zone of non-pay rocks is formulated using the actual data on the dynamics of the average reservoir pressure. Examples of solving the inverse problem are considered based on numerical modeling and the methods of optimal control theory (adjoint methods). The influence of different factors on the estimation accuracy of the parameters identified is studied. It is shown that the solution of the inverse problem at a realistic amount and accuracy of reservoir pressure measurements make it possible to obtain an equivalent model of the zone of non-pay rocks that accurately predicts the volumes of gas inflowing to the zone of active development from the region of nonpay reserves.

  9. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana; Sjarmidi, Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  10. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id; Sjarmidi, Achmad E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id

    2014-03-24

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  11. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  12. Nature reserves: Do they capture the full range of America's biological diversity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.M.; Davis, Frank W.; McGhie, R.G.; Wright, R.G.; Groves, C.; Estes, James

    2001-01-01

    Less than 6% of the coterminous United States is in nature reserves. Assessment of the occurrence of nature reserves across ranges of elevation and soil productivity classes indicates that nature reserves are most frequently found at higher elevations and on less productive soils. The distribution of plants and animals suggests that the greatest number of species is found at lower elevations. A preliminary assessment of the occurrence of mapped land cover types indicates that ???60% of mapped cover types have <10% of their area in nature reserves Land ownership patterns show that areas of lower elevation and more productive soils are most often privately owned and already extensively converted to urban and agricultural uses. Thus any effort to establish a system of nature reserves that captures the full geographical and ecological range of cover types and species must fully engage the private sector.

  13. Temporal changes in giant panda habitat connectivity across boundaries of Wolong Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Viña, Andrés; Bearer, Scott; Chen, Xiaodong; He, Guangming; Linderman, Marc; An, Li; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Global biodiversity loss is largely driven by human activities such as the conversion of natural to human-dominated landscapes. A popular approach to mitigating land cover change is the designation of protected areas (e.g., nature reserves). Nature reserves are traditionally perceived as strongholds of biodiversity conservation. However, many reserves are affected by land cover changes not only within their boundaries, but also in their surrounding areas. This study analyzed the changes in habitat for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) inside Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China, and in a 3-km buffer area outside its boundaries, through a time series of classified satellite imagery and field observations. Habitat connectivity between the inside and the outside of the reserve diminished between 1965 and 2001 because panda habitat was steadily lost both inside and outside the reserve. However, habitat connectivity slightly increased between 1997 and 2001 due to the stabilization of some panda habitat inside and outside the reserve. This stabilization most likely occurred as a response to changes in socioeconomic activities (e.g., shifts from agricultural to nonagricultural economies). Recently implemented government policies could further mitigate the impacts of land cover change on panda habitat. The results suggest that Wolong Nature Reserve, and perhaps other nature reserves in other parts of the world, cannot be managed as an isolated entity because habitat connectivity declines with land cover changes outside the reserve even if the area inside the reserve is well protected. The findings and approaches presented in this paper may also have important implications for the management of other nature reserves across the world.

  14. Monitoring wetland of Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve zone by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Xinghua; Fan, Zhewen; Fang, Yu; Yu, Yuping; Zhang, Yun

    2008-10-01

    In order to monitor the wetland of the Poyang Lake national nature reserve zone, we selected three different seasons TM image data which were achieved individually in April 23th in 1988, Nov 2nd in 1994, and Jan 1st in 2000. Based on the band 5, band 4 and band 3of TM image, we divided the land coverage of Poyang Lake national nature reserve zone into three classes--water field, meadow field and the other land use by rule of maximum likelihood. Using the outcome data to make the statistical analysis, combining with the GIS overlay function operation, the land coverage changes of the Poyang Lake national nature reserve zone can be achieved. Clipped by the Poyang Lake national nature reserve zone boundary, the land coverage changes of Poyang Lake national nature reserve zone in three different years can be attained. Compared with the different wetland coverage data in year of 1988, 1994, 2000, the Poyang Lake national nature reserve zone eco-environment can be inferred from it. After analyzing the land coverage changes data, we draw the conclusion that the effort of Poyang Lake national nature reserve administration bureaucracy has worked well in certain sense.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1977-1993 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The diskette contains all data published in the reserves and production tables of each annual report of U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves from 1977 through 1991 listed in 15 separate ASCII files, one per report year. Within each annual file, the records are separated by hydrocarbon type into the following: Crude Oil, Associated Dissolved Natural Gas, Nonassociated Natural Gas, Total Natural Gas, Lease Condensate, Natural Gas Plant Liquids, and Natural Gas Liquids. During the 15 years collated here, the data items gathered and published have changed, with dry versus wet natural gas being the primary difference and the consequent separation of natural gas liquids. The records are also separated by State or State subregions and a few tabulated combinations of States and State subregions. The EIA requirement to hold confidential the data gathered during the annual surveys has driven changes in the States, subregions and combinations published and therefore included in the diskette over the years. Data given on the records are the following: Proved reserves, beginning-of-year; Net Adjustments; Revision increases; Revision decreases; Extensions; New field Discoveries; New reservoirs in old fields; Production; and Reserves, end-of-year.

  16. Effects of Human-Nature Interactions on Wildlife Habitat Dynamics: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Tuanmu, M.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities continue to induce the degradation of natural ecosystems, thus threatening not only the long-term survival of many wildlife species around the world, but also the resilience of natural ecosystems to global environmental changes. In response, many conservation efforts are emerging as adaptive strategies for coping with the degradation of natural ecosystems. Among them, the establishment of nature reserves is considered to be the most effective. However the effectiveness of nature reserves depends on the type and intensity of human activities occurring within their boundaries. But many of these activities constitute important livelihood systems for local human populations. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of conservation actions without significantly affecting local livelihood systems, it is essential to understand the complexity of human-nature interactions and their effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the relation between giant panda habitat dynamics, conservation efforts and human activities in Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas, Sichuan Province, China. This reserve supports ca. 10% of the entire wild giant panda population but is also home to ca. 4,900 local residents. The spatio-temporal dynamics of giant panda habitat over the last four decades were analyzed using a time series of remotely sensed imagery acquired by different satellite sensor systems, including the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Our assessment suggests that when local residents were actively involved in conservation efforts (through a payment for ecosystem services scheme established since around 2000) panda habitat started to recover, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems in the Reserve. This reversed a long-term (> 30 years) trend of panda habitat degradation. The study not only has direct

  17. Awareness of Conservation Issues among Visitors to Three South African Nature Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, G. R.; Fuggle, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the awareness of conservation issues, and the enhancement thereof, as a result of visiting interpretive facilities in three South African nature reserves. Results indicate a statistically significant increase in awareness at all three reserves, although the levels of awareness were low. (TW)

  18. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve. PMID:25632262

  19. Awareness of Conservation Issues among Visitors to Three South African Nature Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, G. R.; Fuggle, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the awareness of conservation issues, and the enhancement thereof, as a result of visiting interpretive facilities in three South African nature reserves. Results indicate a statistically significant increase in awareness at all three reserves, although the levels of awareness were low. (TW)

  20. Effectiveness of Nature Reserve System for Conserving Tropical Forests: A Statistical Evaluation of Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Pechacek, Peter; Zhang, Mingxia; Xiao, Nengwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Junsheng

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of existing nature reserve systems for the conservation of tropical forests is an urgent task to save the remaining biodiversity. Here, we tested the effectiveness of the reserve system on Hainan Island by conducting a three-way comparison of changes in forest area in locations within the reserves, adjacent to the reserves, and far outside of the reserves. We used a general linear model to control for the effects of covariates (historical forest area, elevation, slope, and distance to nearest roads), which may also be correlated with the changes in forest area, to better explain the effectiveness of the reserve system. From 2000 to 2010, the forest area inside Hainan’s nature reserve system showed an increase while adjacent unprotected areas and the wider, unprotected landscape both experienced deforestation. However, the simple inside-outside comparisons may overestimate the protective effect of the reserve system. Most nature reserves (>60%) showed increasing fragmentation. And the risk of rapid deforestation remained high at low elevations, where remaining forests tend to be easily logged and converted to commercial plantations. Future conservation efforts should pay more attention to those sites with less challenging environmental conditions. PMID:23469024

  1. [Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: status quo assessment and countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Quan, Jia; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Xu, Wei-Hua; Miao, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Based on the questionnaire of World Bank/World Wide Fund for Nature (WB/WWF) management effectiveness tracking tool, a survey was conducted in 535 China nature reserves to assess their management effectiveness, with the countermeasures suggested. The 535 nature reserves had an average score of 51.95, and 69.35% of them had a score less than 60, illustrating that the general management level of our nature reserves was relatively low. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01) in the scores of management effectiveness among the nature reserves of different class and established at different time, i. e., the higher class and the longer establishing time, the higher score of management effectiveness. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the scores among the reserves with different area and type. The average scores of management base, management mechanism, management behavior, and management effectiveness were 1.55, 1.44, 1.52, and 1.90, respectively. The indices (management of protection targets, condition assessment, reserve boundary, resource management, and management agency) had the highest average scores, while equipment use and maintenance, community co-management, budget sources, budget expending and management, and management system and regulations had the lowest ones. The management system for China nature reserves had been generally established, the major targets and their values had been successfully protected, but there were still many problems in the management of China nature reserves, such as management mechanism and management base construction. To improve the management effectiveness, some countermeasures should be taken, e. g., establishing rational distribution and management mechanisms of budgets, strengthening ability construction, and promoting community participation.

  2. Acoustic surveys of Hawaiian Hoary Bats in Kahikinui Forest Reserve and Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the Island of Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Christopher M.; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Kahikinui Forest Reserve and the adjoining Nakula Natural Area Reserve (KFR-NNAR) was established in 2011 as a conservation area on the leeward slope of Haleakalā Volcano on the island of Maui to protect unique natural features and endangered species including the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. We recorded bat vocalizations from July 2012 to November 2014 using automated echolocation detectors at 14 point locations in the KFRNNAR. Our study area included remnants of recovering mesic montane forest with interspersed grasses (1,250‒1,850 m elevation, hereafter called “forest”) and xeric subalpine shrubland plant communities (1,860‒2,800 m, hereafter called “shrubland”). Monthly detections of Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, within the KFR-NNAR identified areas of high and low detection probability as well as foraging activity. Sixty per cent of all detector-nights had confirmed bat vocalizations and included detections in every month of the study. Monthly detection probability values were highest from July to November 2012; these values were significantly greater than values measured in any month thereafter. Pooled values of detection probabilities, mean pulses/night, percentage of nights with feeding activity, and acoustic detections all were greater in the recovering forest zone than corresponding values from the shrublands. Our data provide baseline levels of hoary bat echolocation activity that may be compared with future studies in the KFR-NNAR relative to success criteria for Hawaiian hoary bat habitat restoration.

  3. Tropical nature reserves are losing their buffer zones, but leakage is not to blame.

    PubMed

    Lui, Gillian V; Coomes, David A

    2016-05-01

    Tropical forests provide important ecosystem services to humanity, yet are threatened by habitat loss resulting from deforestation and land-use change. Although reserves are considered the cornerstones of conservation efforts in the tropics, their efficacy remains equivocal. One question that remains unresolved is whether leakage - the unanticipated displacement of deforestation from inside reserves into the unrestricted zones just beyond a reserve's administrative boundary - is common around tropical forest reserves, or whether the zones are acting as buffers between the protected area and the outside world. To resolve this question, we used the Landsat-derived Global Forest Change dataset to estimate deforestation rates between 2000 and 2012 inside and outside of 60 nature reserves spread across the tropics. Deforestation rates inside reserves (within 5km of the administrative boundary) were generally lower than those immediately outside the reserves (i.e. in buffer zones 0-10km from the boundary), suggesting that reserves are effective at protecting forests. We hypothesised that leakage would result in greater deforestation rates in reserve buffer zones than in the broader reserve landscapes, but such a pattern was observed in only five African sites, suggesting that leakage does not often occur on the edge of established reserves. However, roughly 80% of reserves experienced deforestation rates that increased gradually from their interiors to the outer periphery of their buffer zones. Thus, while leakage may not be a pervasive phenomenon around tropical reserves worldwide, tropical reserves are often losing their buffer zones, resulting in increased isolation that could have ramifications for ecosystem services provisioning and tropical conservation strategies. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjing; Liu, Chengzhu; Wan, Jizhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves.

  5. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves. PMID:27326373

  6. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  7. Analyzing the habitat suitability for migratory birds at the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Zhang, Liquan; Yuan, Lin

    2008-11-01

    The Dongtan Nature Reserve, one of the largest nature reserves in East Asia, is located in the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary and is an important habitat for migratory birds. The Dongtan wetlands were listed in the Chinese Protected Wetlands in 1992, and were designated as internationally important under the Ramsar Wetlands Convention in 2001 and as a national nature reserve in 2005. By their very nature and location, the estuarine and coastal habitats are dynamic and their biodiversity conservation and management relies on up-to-date spatial information. By establishing qualitative and quantitative relationships between bird populations and key habitat factors such as elevation, land cover type, tidal creek density and macrophytobenthos biomass, we developed an object-oriented image approach, in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems and the data from current field surveys, to analyze and assess the habitat suitability for the main types of birds, namely Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae, at the reserve. The results from this study showed that about 40% of the total area of the Dongtan Reserve contained suitable habitats for these four bird families. The Scirpus mariqueter zone, mudflat zone, and tidal creeks were the most important habitats for these birds. This study indicated the potential of this approach for objective and effective evaluation of the species habitat suitability in a dynamic estuarine and coastal area. The implications of the results as a tool for biodiversity conservation, wetland conservation, and ecosystem management are discussed.

  8. Secondary natural gas recovery -- infield reserve growth joint venture: Applications in midcontinent sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from deltaic and valley-fill sandstones of the Midcontinent as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas; to demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields; and to transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  9. Valuing the Recreational Benefits from the Creation of Nature Reserves in Irish Forests

    Treesearch

    Riccardo Scarpa; Susan M. Chilton; W. George Hutchinson; Joseph Buongiorno

    2000-01-01

    Data from a large-scale contingent valuation study are used to investigate the effects of forest attribum on willingness to pay for forest recreation in Ireland. In particular, the presence of a nature reserve in the forest is found to significantly increase the visitors' willingness to pay. A random utility model is used to estimate the welfare change associated...

  10. Enhancing Conservation Education Opportunities in Nature Reserves in Tropical Countries: A Case Study in Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rome, Abigail; Romero, Bart

    1998-01-01

    To meet the educational needs of residents and visitors at a nature reserve in Belize, educators developed a program to teach participating students and provide ongoing educational resources for future visitors. Fifteen North-American college students received academic training in rainforest ecology and environmental education. They then created…

  11. Three new species of trigonopoid Platynotina (Tenebrionidae: Pedinini) from the Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2017-02-21

    Three new species representing closely related genera of the trigonopoid Platynotina are described from the Baviaanskloof Nature Reserve in South Africa: Atrocrates kandai sp. nov., A. smithi sp. nov. and Schelodontes baviaanskloofensis sp. nov. Based on newly acquired material, the taxonomic concept of Atrocrates is verified. Phylogenetic relationships between Atrocrates and Schelodontes are briefly discussed.

  12. Enhancing Conservation Education Opportunities in Nature Reserves in Tropical Countries: A Case Study in Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rome, Abigail; Romero, Bart

    1998-01-01

    To meet the educational needs of residents and visitors at a nature reserve in Belize, educators developed a program to teach participating students and provide ongoing educational resources for future visitors. Fifteen North-American college students received academic training in rainforest ecology and environmental education. They then created…

  13. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  14. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  15. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  16. Geochemistry of mineral licks at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J D; Mills, A; Eksteen, J J; Milewski, A V; Myburgh, J G

    2011-02-01

    Although numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain geophagy, the primary driver of this behaviour remains elusive. Supplementation of scarce nutrients is one commonly cited explanation. We examined the element concentration of three licks relative to adjacent topsoils to infer the possible reasons for geophagy at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve. Lick samples had greater concentrations of B, Co, Zn, Se, Mo and Mn (Loskop Main Lick); Cu (Klopperskloof Lick); and Na (Klopperskloof Lick and Rhenosterhoek Lick) than those of adjacent topsoil. We suggest that supplementation with all or some of these nutrients is a likely driver of geophagy in this fenced reserve, with different licks providing herbivores with different suites of nutrients.

  17. Anuran helminth communities from contrasting nature reserve and pasture sites in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campião, K M; Ribas, A C A; Silva, I C O; Dalazen, G T; Tavares, L E R

    2017-01-01

    Studies of amphibian macroparasites are relevant for the investigation of parasite community ecology and disease dynamics. Here, the parasite communities of five anuran species (Hypsiboas raniceps, Phyllomeduza azurea, Pseudis paradoxa, Leptodactylus fuscus and Leptodactylus podicipinus) are described from two habitats with different levels of preservation (pasture versus nature reserve). Specifically, we used mixed-effect models to test whether helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance differ between the two host collection sites. A total of 120 anuran individuals and 25 helminth parasite taxa were collected. Helminth communities differed between collection sites and among host species. In general, helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance were higher in hosts collected in the pond from the nature reserve. In all, these data help fill the gap in parasite biodiversity knowledge in a changing area, within a sensitive group of vertebrate hosts.

  18. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  19. Use of evapotranspiration model based on energy balance in the Ebinur Lake Wetland Nature Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qingsan; Shi, Qingdong; Wang, Zhi; Gao, Wei; Chang, Shunli

    2009-06-01

    An evapotranspiration model based on the energy balance for different vegetation types in arid area was built in the study, and applied to the natural ecological system of Lake Ebinur wetland nature reserve in Xinjiang. The spatial-temporal dynamic change of the vegetation evapotranspiration in the study area was computed, and the evapotranspiration of three typical vegetations was analyzed and compared. The ground meteorological data were used to test the model. The results show that the evapotranspiration of all the natural system is about 10mm/d, and the maximum is over 20mm/d and occurs between May and August. The evapotranspiration of three typical arid vegetations was estimated in sequence of Populus euphratica Oliv. Tamarix chinensis Lour. Haloxylon ammodendron (Meye)Bge. Finally, it is suggested that the ground surface vegetation types and arid characteristics are most important in the establishment of the evapotranspiration model of natural ecological system based on energy balance in arid areas.

  20. UAV remote sensing capability for precision agriculture, forestry and small natural reservation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, Jaroslav; Pavelka, Karel; Raeva, Paulina

    2017-04-01

    For ecologically valuable areas monitoring, precise agriculture and forestry, thematic maps or small GIS are needed. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) data can be obtained on demand in a short time with cm resolution. Data collection is environmentally friendly and low-cost from an economical point of view. This contribution is focused on using eBee drone for mapping or monitoring national natural reserve which is not opened to public and partly pure inaccessible because its moorland nature. Based on a new equipment (thermal imager, multispectral imager, NIR, NIR red-edge and VIS camera) we started new projects in precise agriculture and forestry.

  1. A new species of Eustigma (Hamamelidaceae) from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Tran, Hop; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Naiki, Akiyo; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hamamelidaceae, Eustigma honbaense H.Toyama, Tagane & V.S.Dang, sp. nov., is described from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam. This species is similar to Eustigma oblongifolium Gardner & Champ., but differs from it in having entire leaves, longer infructescences, capsules with a longer apical part and seeds with a larger hilum. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration and photographs of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to the genus Eustigma. PMID:27489488

  2. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Angélica H.; Oliveira, Pablo V.; Britto, Karollini B.; Freire, Bárbara F.; Moreno, Marcel R.; dos Santos, Alexandre R.; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G.

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  3. Yet another empty forest: considering the conservation value of a recently established tropical nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Jianchu; Harrison, Rhett D

    2015-01-01

    The primary approach used to conserve tropical biodiversity is in the establishment of protected areas. However, many tropical nature reserves are performing poorly and interventions in the broader landscape may be essential for conserving biodiversity both within reserves and at large. Between October 2010 and 2012, we conducted bird surveys in and around a recently established nature reserve in Xishuangbanna, China. We constructed a checklist of observed species, previously recorded species, and species inferred to have occurred in the area from their distributions and habitat requirements. In addition, we assessed variation in community composition and habitat specificity at a landscape-scale. Despite the fact that the landscape supports a large area of natural forest habitat (~50,000 ha), we estimate that >40% of the bird fauna has been extirpated and abundant evidence suggests hunting is the primary cause. A large proportion (52%) of the bigger birds (>20 cm) were extirpated and for large birds there was a U-shaped relationship between habitat breadth and extirpation probability. Habitat specificity was low and bird communities were dominated by widespread species of limited conservation concern. We question whether extending tropical protected area networks will deliver desired conservation gains, unless much greater effort is channeled into addressing the hunting problem both within existing protected areas and in the broader landscape.

  4. Yet Another Empty Forest: Considering the Conservation Value of a Recently Established Tropical Nature Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Jianchu; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary approach used to conserve tropical biodiversity is in the establishment of protected areas. However, many tropical nature reserves are performing poorly and interventions in the broader landscape may be essential for conserving biodiversity both within reserves and at large. Between October 2010 and 2012, we conducted bird surveys in and around a recently established nature reserve in Xishuangbanna, China. We constructed a checklist of observed species, previously recorded species, and species inferred to have occurred in the area from their distributions and habitat requirements. In addition, we assessed variation in community composition and habitat specificity at a landscape-scale. Despite the fact that the landscape supports a large area of natural forest habitat (~50,000 ha), we estimate that >40% of the bird fauna has been extirpated and abundant evidence suggests hunting is the primary cause. A large proportion (52%) of the bigger birds (>20 cm) were extirpated and for large birds there was a U-shaped relationship between habitat breadth and extirpation probability. Habitat specificity was low and bird communities were dominated by widespread species of limited conservation concern. We question whether extending tropical protected area networks will deliver desired conservation gains, unless much greater effort is channeled into addressing the hunting problem both within existing protected areas and in the broader landscape. PMID:25668338

  5. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  6. [Rare and threathened polypores in the ecosystem of Changbaishan Nature Reserve of northeastern China].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yucheng

    2003-06-01

    In last 10 years, extensive field inventories were carried out to investigate Polypore species, the major wood-decaying fungi in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve of Northeastern China. The following 27 species were treated as rare or threathened species: Amylocystis lapponica (Romell) Singer, Anomoporia albolutescens (Romell) Pouzar, Anomoporia bombycina (Fr.) Pouzar, Anomoporia vesiculosa Y.C. Dai & Niemelä, Antrodia carbonica (Overh.) Ryvarden & Gilb., Antrodia crassa (P. Karst.) Ryvarden, Antrodiella citrinella Niemelä & Ryvarden, Diplomitoporus flavescens (Bres.) Dománski, Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar, Gloephyllum carbonarium (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Ryvarden, Haploporus odorus (Sommerf.) Bondartsev & Singer, Inonotopsis subiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, Nigroporus ussuriensis (Bondartsev & Ljub.) Y.C. Dai & Niemela, Oxyporus sinensis X. L. Zeng, Parmastomyces taxi(Bondartsev) Y.C. Dai & Niemela, Phellinidium sulphurascens(Pilat) Y.C. Dai, Phellinus vaninii Ljub., Polyporus vassilievae Thorn, Pycnoporellus fulgens (Fr.) Donk, Skeletocutis brevispora Niemela, Skeletocutis ochroalba Niemela, Skeletocutis perennis Ryvarden, Trechispora candidissima (Schwein.) Bondartsev & Singer, Wolfiporia dilatohypha Ryvarden & Gilb., Wolfiporia curvispora Y.C. Dai, Wrightoporia avellanea(Bres.) Pouzar and Wrightoporia lenta(Oveh. & J. Lowe) Pouzar. Polypores are richer in East Asia than in Europe and North America, not only because of destructive galciations and fewer hosts in the latters, but also because of the geography. NE Asia is a link between Europe and North America. Changbaishan Nature Reserve is very rich in polypores, and over 260 species were recorded in the reserve. Some rare species in North America and Europe, for instance, Anomoporia albolutescens, Antrodia crassa, Diplomitoporus flavescens, Inonotopsis subiculosa and Skeletocutis ochroalba etc. were found in Changbaishan Nature Reserve as well, and these species are in fact rare in the earth. Most of

  7. [Evaluation of ecosystem service values of the forests of Shennongjia Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Chang; Peng, Hao; Li, Zhen-Qing

    2014-05-01

    As an ecological protected area for rare animals and plants in a subtropical forest zone, Shennongjia National Reserve plays an important role in the study of biodiversity in China. By using the market value, shade-price and opportunity-cost methods, the forest ecosystem service values of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve were evaluated, including forest production, recreation and culture, water conservation, soil conservation, gas regulation, environment purification, nutrient circulation and biodiversity conservation. The total value of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve was approximately 204.33 x 10(8) yuan RMB x a(-1). The values of the different functions were in order of biodiversity conservation (68.5%) > soil conservation (12.7%) > recreation and culture (4.9%) > gas regulation (4.8%) > forest production (4.2%) > water conservation (3.9%) > environment purification (0.7%) > nutrient circulation (0.3%). The values with respect to utility were in sequence of unused value (68.5%) > indirect value in use (22.4% ) > direct value in use (9.1%).

  8. [Diversity of ferns and lycophytes from Reserve Natural Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Giudice, Gabriela E; Ramos Giacosa, Juan Pablo; Luján Luna, María; Yañez, Agustina; de la Sota, Elías R

    2011-09-01

    Punta Lara Natural Reserve shelters the relict of the Southernmost riparian forest in the world, where the flora is threatened by the anthropic expansion and by the introduction of exotic species. In this area the ferns and lycophytes grow in particular environments as marshland, grassland and marginal forest. The aim of this work was to evaluate the diversity of ferns and lycophytes that inhabit in Punta Lara Natural Reserve. Field trips were conducted from 2006 to 2009 and local herbaria and specific bibliography were also revised. As a result of our study twenty four taxa of ferns and lycophytes were recognized. Their habit was mainly terrestrial (70%), fewer aquatic (17%) and epiphytic (13%). Five native taxa were scarcely recorded whereas two native species previously documented were not found. We assume that the main threats on ferns and lycophytes populations in Punta Lara Reserve are: removal for comercialization, invasion by exotic species and climatic fluctuations (drought periods). Keys for taxa identification are given and strategies for the conservation of threatened taxa are proposed.

  9. The Importance of Reserve Growth to the Nation's Supply of Natural Gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    Experience shows that initial estimates of the size of newly discovered oil or gas fields are usually too low. As years pass, successive estimates of the ultimate recovery of fields tend to increase. The term "reserve growth" refers to the typical increases in estimated ultimate recovery that occur as oil or gas fields are developed and produced (Arrington, 1960; Attanasi and Root, 1994).An example for a particular field helps explain the nature of reserve growth. Figure 1 (63k GIF). shows ultimate recovery for a large natural-gas field in Texas as estimated in each year from 1977 through 1991. This gas field was discovered in the mid-1940's. In 1977, its ultimate recovery was estimated to be 2.1 trillion cubic feet of gas (tcfg). One might think that after some 30 years of development and production, the resource potential of a field would be well understood. However, by 1991 the estimated ultimate recovery of this field had increased to 3.1 tcfg. Reserve growth over the 15-year period totaled 1.0 tcfg and shows no signs of stopping.

  10. [Butterfly species diversity and its conservation in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Zhou, Hong-Chun; Tan, Ji-Cai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2011-06-01

    By using line-transect method, an investigation was conducted on the species diversity of butterfly in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Changde City of Hunan Province from June 2008 to September 2010. Aiming at the main factors including plant species richness (D) , mean elevation (E) , average distance from stream/river (F), and human interference level (K) that affecting the species richness of butterfly in 31 segment-level transects in 4 line-transects, multiple regression analysis was made, and the diversity and similarity of the butterfly communities in the experimental zone, buffer zone, and core zone of the Reserve were compared. A total of 147 butterfly species were collected, belonging to 94 genera and 10 families, among which, 4 species was nationally conserved species. Multiple regression analysis showed that D, E, and K were the three most major factors affecting the distribution of butterfly. The species richness of butterfly had significant positive correlation with D (P < 0.01), and negative correlations with E and K (P < 0.05). The species diversity and evenness index of butterfly were higher in core zone than in experimental zone and buffer zone, dominance index was the highest in experimental zone, and a higher similarity index (0.526) was observed between buffer zone and core zone. To conserve the species diversity of butterfly in the Reserve, efforts should be made to protect the plant species richness, keep the natural forest succession, decrease the human interference properly, and tighten up the management of butterfly habitat.

  11. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  12. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  13. [Species diversity and seasonal change of entomogenous fungi in Langya Mountains Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Bo; Wang, Meng; Wu, Shi-Zhen; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Zou, Yun-Ding; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2007-09-01

    672 specimens of entomogenous fungi belonging to 20 species, 8 genera and 4 families were collected from 20 sampling quadrates in the Langya Mountains Nature Reserve of East Anhui. The dominant species were Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. cateinannulatus, B. brongniartii and P. fumosoroseus, and B. bassiana was most dominant, with the relative abundance of 73.8%. The entomogenous fungi in the Reserve were high in amount but low in diversity. The amount of isolates and the abundance of each species were the highest in summer and decreased with decreasing air temperature and rainfall, while the Pielou evenness changed from relatively low to relatively high. Paecilomyces spp. had a less seasonal fluctuation of quantity than Beauveria spp.

  14. [Distribution patterns of giant panda in Guanyinshan and Foping nature reserves].

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing; Zhu, Yun; Ruan, Ying-qin; Yong, Li-jun; Wang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Wen-hui

    2009-09-01

    By using line transect method, the distribution patterns of giant panda population and its sympatric companion wildlife species in Foping and Guanyinshan nature reserves were investigated in October 2007 and April 2008, and the environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of giant panda activity were analyzed. The giant panda population and its sympatric companion wildlife species in the two reserves had the similar distribution patterns, and the density and distribution range of giant panda were smaller in Guanyinshan than in Foping. Giant panda had two high-density distribution areas in Foping, but no activity trace in most parts of Guanyinshan. The activity trace of Budorcas taxicolor, Naemorhedus goral and Sus scrofa was more in Guanyinshan than in Foping. Anthropogenic interference might affect the distribution pattern of giant panda.

  15. [Species composition and ecological distribution of macrofungi in Huangpushan Natural Reserve of Anhui Province].

    PubMed

    Chai, Xin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand and utilize the macrofungal resources in Huangpushan Natural Reserve of Anhui Province, their species composition and ecological distribution were investigated, and a comprehensive evaluation was made. A total of 87 macrofungal species were recorded, belonging to 46 genera, 22 families, 6 orders and 4 classes. They were widely distributed in broadleaf forest, coniferous forest, mixed broadleaf and coniferous forest, bamboo forest, and wasteland. According to their economic values, there were 42 edible species, 31 medicinal species, and 6 poisonous species; based on their ecological habitats, they were categorized into humicolous (44 species), lignicolous (30), ectomycorrhizal (19), and entomogenous species (2). The macro-fungi in the Reserve had great prospects of applying in food, medicine, and forestation.

  16. [Population, distribution and food composition of wolves (Canis lupus) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu-Yi; Zhang, Li-Jia; Wang, An-Meng; Bater; Nasendelger; Yuan, Li; Bao, Wei-Dong

    2011-04-01

    To provide initial value for population restoration and management of wolves (Canis lupus) in the wild, line transect survey and fecal analysis method were used to study the population ecology of wolf at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia. The results revealed that the population number was at least seven within the reserve and population density was 4.18+/-2.88 individual per 100 km2. The wolf population was mainly distributed in Shengshan and Qinyunshan core areas; active sites appeared mostly along mountain ridges, roads and valleys at Shengshan and mountain ridges at Qinyunshan. Hare (Lepus capensis) and plants occurred frequently in the food composition of wolf scats. Food types varied between years but not seasons (Winter-Spring and Summer-Autumn).

  17. A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Steven W; Stott, Gail L

    2017-01-01

    A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided.

  18. A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Steven W.; Stott, Gail L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided. PMID:28785162

  19. Recoverable natural gas reserves from Jurassic Norphlet Formation, Alabama coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Hamilton, R.P.

    1987-09-01

    To date, 11 Norphlet gas fields have been established in offshore Alabama. These fields are part of a deep Jurassic gas trend that extends across southern Mississippi and Alabama into the Gulf of Mexico. Recoverable gas reserves of 4.9-8.1 tcf are estimated for the Norphlet Formation in Alabama's coastal waters. Proven gas reserves are estimated to be 3.7-4.6 tcf and potential reserves are estimated to be 1.2-3.5 tcf. The natural gas is trapped in a series of generally east-west-trending salt anticlines. The mechanism of structure formation appears to be salt flowage that has formed broad, low-relief anticlines, most of which are faulted, and many of which are related to small-scale growth faults. Salt movement is the critical factor in the formation of these petroleum traps. The primary Norphlet reservoir lithofacies are eolian dune and interdune sandstones that range in thickness from 140 to over 600 ft in Alabama's coastal waters. Gas pay can exceed 280 ft in thickness. Porosity is principally secondary, developed as a result of decementation and grain dissolution. Jurassic Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were the main source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons. The seal for the gas is the nonpermeable upper portion of the Norphlet Formation. The overlying lower Smackover carbonates are also nonpermeable and may serve as part of the seal.

  20. Influence of nutrition on the decline of ovarian reserve and subsequent onset of natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Karma; Tremellen, Kelton

    2016-09-01

    The early loss of ovarian reserve and subsequent menopause has a major impact on fertility potential and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and mortality later in life. While many studies have reported that lifestyle factors such as diet can influence the age of onset of natural menopause, their results are often contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of diet on the onset of natural menopause using a self-reported food frequency questionnaire in a cohort of 1146 pre-menopausal women followed up for an average of 12.5 years. The primary finding was that the age of natural menopause was positively correlated with dietary intake of the micronutrient β-cryptoxanthin (r(2 )=( )0.105, p < 0.001) and fruit (r(2 )=( )0.07, p = 0.01), with these relationships remaining significant even after adjustment for other known co-variants for onset of menopause (parity, BMI, physical activity level, education, smoking, energy and alcohol intake). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed that both β-cryptoxanthin and fruit intake was associated with a significant delay in the onset of natural menopause. While still acknowledging that further research is required, in the interim we would advocate that a diet containing ∼400 mcg of β-cryptoxanthin per day from fruits (mandarins, oranges and peaches) has significant potential to delay ovarian senescence by 1.3 years.

  1. Landscape connectivity dynamics based on network analysis in the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiliang; Deng, Li; Dong, Shikui; Zhao, Qinghe; Yang, Juejie; Wang, Cong

    2014-02-01

    Lack of landscape connectivity and habitat loss is major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in nature reserves aimed at conservation. In this study, we used structural pattern and functional connectivity metrics to analyze the spatial patterns and landscape connectivity of habitat patches for the Shangyong sub-reserve of the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve from 1970, 1990, and 2000. On the basis of vegetation and land cover data, we applied the equivalent connected area ECA(PC) indicator to analyze the changes in forest connectivity. Four distance thresholds (2, 4, 8, 12 km) were considered to compare the patch importance of connectivity by dECA values. The results showed the declining trends of landscape connectivity measured by ECA(PC) index from 1970 to 2000. The importance of connectivity in each forest patch varied with the increment of dispersal distances at the patch level, and some important habitat patches, which exhibit a potential to enhance landscape connectivity, should be given more attention. The least-cost pathways based on network structure were displayed under four dispersal distances in three periods. The results showed that the number of paths among the fragments of forest patches exhibited radical increases for larger dispersal distances. Further correlation analyses of AWF, ECA (IIC), and ECA (PC) showed the weakest and least-frequent correlations with the structural pattern indices, while H presented more significant correlations with the PD fragmentation metric. Furthermore, Kendall's rank correlations between the forest patch area and functional connectivity indicators showed that dECA (PC) and dAWF indicators should provided the area-based prioritization of habitat patches. Moreover, the low-rank correlations showed that dF and dLCP can be considered as effective and appropriate indicators for the evaluation of habitat features and network patterns.

  2. Analyses of sublittoral macrobenthic community change in a marine nature reserve using similarity profiles (SIMPROF).

    PubMed

    Somerfield, P J; Burton, M; Sanderson, W G

    2014-12-01

    Sublittoral macrobenthic communities in the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (SMNR), Pembrokeshire, Wales, were sampled at 10 stations in 1993, 1996, 1998, 2003, 2007 and 2009 using a Day grab and a 0.5 mm mesh. The time series is analysed using Similarities Profiles (SIMPROF) tests and associated methods. Q-mode analysis using clustering with Type 1 SIMPROF addresses multivariate structure among samples, showing that there is clear structure associated with differences among years. Inverse (r-mode) analysis using Type 2 SIMPROF decisively rejects a hypothesis that species are not associated with each other. Clustering of the variables (species) with Type 3 SIMPROF identifies groups of species which covary coherently through the time-series. The time-series is characterised by a dramatic decline in abundances and diversity between the 1993 and 1996 surveys. By 1998 there had been a shift in community composition from the 1993 situation, with different species dominating. Communities had recovered in terms of abundance and species richness, but different species dominated the community. No single factor could be identified which unequivocally explained the dramatic changes observed in the SMNR. Possible causes were the effects of dispersed oil and dispersants from the Sea Empress oil spill in February 1996 and the cessation of dredge-spoil disposal off St Annes Head in 1995, but the most likely cause was severe weather. With many species, and a demonstrable recovery from an impact, communities within the SMNR appear to be diverse and resilient. If attributable to natural storms, the changes observed here indicate that natural variability may be much more important than is generally taken into account in the design of monitoring programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  4. [Characteristics of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, East China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-yan; Lin, Wen-xiong; Chen, Zhi-fang; Fang, Chang-xun; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wu, Lin-kun; Zhou, Ming-ming; Shen, Li-hua

    2013-08-01

    By using Biolog Ecoplate system, this paper studied the structure and functional diversity of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, aimed to probe into the effects of vegetation type on the diversity of soil microbial community. The results showed that the soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and average well color development (AWCD) were higher in natural forest than in planted forest, and were the lowest in abandoned field. The AWCD reflecting soil microbial activity and functional diversity was increased with increasing incubation time, but there existed significant differences among different vegetation types. The carbon sources mostly used by soil microbes were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amines had the lowest utilization rate. The Simpson index, Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index in natural forest were holistically higher than those in planted forest. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to carbon sources, explaining 56.3% and 30.2% of the variation, respectively. The carbon sources used by soil microbial community differed with vegetation types. Amino acids and amides were the two main carbon sources separating the 2 principal component factors. The results of this study could provide basis for further approaching the relationships between vegetation diversity and soil microbial community diversity.

  5. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  6. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  7. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    PubMed

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  8. Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) infestation of equids in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Heqing; Zhang, Boru; Chu, Hongjun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We investigated infections with Gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (northern China). We conducted necropsies on 6 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) and 6 Mongolian wild asses (Equus hemionus) and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. All 22 equids studied (100%) were infested with Gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. These included six species: G. haemorrhoidalis, G. inermis, G. intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. nigricornis, and G. pecorum. The mean intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae was 1904 in Przewalski’s horses, 780 in Mongolian wild asses, and 113 in domestic horses. Gasterophilus pecorum was the most abundant species in all three equids. Przewalski’s horses, a reintroduced species, had a significantly higher intensity of Gasterophilus spp. than the Mongolian wild ass, indicating greater susceptibility to parasites in its ancestral home. PMID:27593434

  9. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the eel (Anguilla anguilla) at the Camargue Nature Reserve - France.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Vollaire, Y; Coulet, E; Roche, H

    2008-05-01

    Fish consumption is a potential source of human exposure to pollutants. Here, we study residue levels of PCBs in the eel, Anguilla anguilla, from the Nature Camargue Reserve in southern France. Chromatographic analysis (GC-ECD) found seventy identifiable congeners, among which, 10 are considered as dioxin-like PCBs, such as the non-ortho PCB 81 and the mono-ortho chlorobiphenyls PCB105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167, 170, 180. Toxic Equivalents (TEQ, WHO 2005 TEF-Toxic Equivalent Factors) varied among sites with a maximum in eels from Mornès (29.6pgg(-1) dry weight). Indicator PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) were 22% and 29% of the total PCBs in livers and muscles respectively. Greater homogeneous bioaccumulation in muscle than that in liver suggests an increase risk for humans due to fish consumption.

  10. [Fish resources and their conservation strategies in Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xu, Xinrong; Lai, Chunmiao; Ning, Yun; Luo, Jinfu

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was made on the fish resources and fish habitats of Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters from June 2003 to May 2004. The local fish markets were surveyed, and fishermen and fishmongers were interviewed to get fishery information. A total of 57 fish species belonging to 41 families and 14 orders were recorded, among which, 55 were bony fish, and 2 were elasmobranch. There were 41 fish species belonging to warm-water fish, and 37 fish species belonging to benthonic fish. The faunal characteristic was mainly of Northern Pacific and Indo-Pacific fauna. Devastating fishing and environmental pollution were the most serious threats to the local fishery resources, and some countermeasures were proposed for conservation and management of the resources.

  11. Metal Contents in Lichens from Nature Reserves Adjacent to Urban Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Notov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The gross and average contents of 18 metals (Al, As, Cd, Ge, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Ti, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES analysis in samples of Hypogymnia physodes collected from regional nature reserves (NR) in the cities of Tver and Konakovo. The average contents of six metals (Zn, Mo, Cr, Ti, Al, Fe) and the gross contents of eight metals (Zn, Mo, Co, Cu, Cr, Ti, Al, Fe) in these cities were higher than the background levels for Tver Region. The contents of other metals did not exceed background levels. The concentrations of most metals were higher in samples from Tver than in those from Konakovo due to the specifics of their economic infrastructures. The Bobachevskaya Grove NR (Tver) had the most pronounced technological metal pollution. Areas with significant fragments of forest communities were less polluted.

  12. [Habitat assessment of giant panda in Qingmuchuan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Peng-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey and data collection, this paper studied the characteristics of habitat selection of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Qingmuchuan National Nature Reserve, and assessed the core and buffer zones of habitats from the aspects of topography, vegetation, food, and human disturbance, with the assistance of hierarchy analysis and Geographic Information System software (ArcMap and ArcView). In the study area, the suitable and secondary suitable habitats for Ailuropoda melanoleuca covered 62.1% and 31.0%, respectively, and the unsuitable habitats covered 6.9%. The suitable habitats were mainly distributed in the west and north parts with high altitudes, while the unsuitable habitats were mainly affected by vegetation coverage, bamboo distribution, and human disturbance. To reduce the unsuitable habitats, management mechanism should be further improved, e. g., controlling human disturbances, especially the grazing, bamboo-cutting, and firewood collection in the regions with altitude 900-1600 m.

  13. Mygalomorph spider community of a natural reserve in a hilly system in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Nelson; Pompozzi, Gabriel; Copperi, Sofia; Pérez-Miles, Fernando; González, Alda

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, abundance, spatial distribution, and phenology of the mygalomorph spider community in the "Ernesto Tornquist" Strict Nature Reserve were analyzed in this study. Located in southwestern Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Reserve is representative of the Ventania system, which is a sigmoidal mountain belt 180 km in length. This exceptional hilly ecosystem is home for many endemic species and rich native fauna and flora. Spider abundance was sampled monthly from October 2009 to October 2010 by hand capture and pitfall traps on grassland slopes. The species recorded in the study area were: Actinopus sp.1 (Actinopodidae); Grammostola vachoni and Plesiopelma longisternale (Theraphosidae); Acanthogonatus centralis (Nemesiidae); and Mecicobothrium thorelli (Mecicobothriidae). Grammostola vachoni and Acanthogonatus centralis were the dominant species in hand capture and pitfall traps, respectively. The seasonal variation, diversity, and abundance of the mygalomorph community are analyzed and discussed here. The Mygalomorphae of the Ventania system comprises an important group of sedentary and cryptozoic spiders that seem to be highly dependent on habitat type and environmental factors.

  14. Value Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Nature Reserves in Ningxia, China: A Response to Ecological Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Jinsheng; Qiu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use can cause significant changes in the ecosystem structure and process variation of ecosystem services. This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the variation in the value of ecosystem services based on land use change in national nature reserves of the Ningxia autonomous region in China. We used areas of land use types calculated from the remote sensing data and the adjusted value coefficients to assess the value of ecosystem services for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, analyzing the fluctuations in the valuation of ecosystem services in response to land use change. With increases in the areas of forest land and water bodies, the value of ecosystem services increased from 182.3×107 to 223.8×107 US$ during 2000–2010. Grassland and forest land accounted for 90% of this increase. The values of all ecosystem services increased during this period, especially the value of ecosystem services for biodiversity protection and soil formation and protection. Ecological restoration in the reserves had a positive effect on the value of ecosystem services during 2000–2010. PMID:24586571

  15. Value assessment of ecosystem services in nature reserves in Ningxia, China: a response to ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Jinsheng; Qiu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use can cause significant changes in the ecosystem structure and process variation of ecosystem services. This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the variation in the value of ecosystem services based on land use change in national nature reserves of the Ningxia autonomous region in China. We used areas of land use types calculated from the remote sensing data and the adjusted value coefficients to assess the value of ecosystem services for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, analyzing the fluctuations in the valuation of ecosystem services in response to land use change. With increases in the areas of forest land and water bodies, the value of ecosystem services increased from 182.3×10(7) to 223.8×10(7) US$ during 2000-2010. Grassland and forest land accounted for 90% of this increase. The values of all ecosystem services increased during this period, especially the value of ecosystem services for biodiversity protection and soil formation and protection. Ecological restoration in the reserves had a positive effect on the value of ecosystem services during 2000-2010.

  16. Mygalomorph Spider Community of a Natural Reserve in a Hilly System in Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Nelson; Pompozzi, Gabriel; Copperi, Sofia; Pérez-Miles, Fernando; González, Alda

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, abundance, spatial distribution, and phenology of the mygalomorph spider community in the “Ernesto Tornquist” Strict Nature Reserve were analyzed in this study. Located in southwestern Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Reserve is representative of the Ventania system, which is a sigmoidal mountain belt 180 km in length. This exceptional hilly ecosystem is home for many endemic species and rich native fauna and flora. Spider abundance was sampled monthly from October 2009 to October 2010 by hand capture and pitfall traps on grassland slopes. The species recorded in the study area were: Actinopus sp.1 (Actinopodidae); Grammostola vachoni and Plesiopelma longisternale (Theraphosidae); Acanthogonatus centralis (Nemesiidae); and Mecicobothrium thorelli (Mecicobothriidae). Grammostola vachoni and Acanthogonatus centralis were the dominant species in hand capture and pitfall traps, respectively. The seasonal variation, diversity, and abundance of the mygalomorph community are analyzed and discussed here. The Mygalomorphae of the Ventania system comprises an important group of sedentary and cryptozoic spiders that seem to be highly dependent on habitat type and environmental factors. PMID:22947032

  17. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (<3000 m) areas with xeric, tropical, and temperate ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breeding Habitat Selection of Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Zheng, Guang-Mei; Ruan, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Ke-Yin; Xi, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) is a threatened pheasant species endemic to China. The habitat use of territorial male birds was surveyed by the help of live decoys in a core area of Dongzhai National Nature Reserve. The breeding habitat selection of this pheasant was examined at two scales (115 m and 250 m scale, i.e. 4.15 hm(2 ) and 19.63 hm(2 ), respectively), including the characteristics at distance scale. Investigation was based on line transect, RS and GIS in Dongzhai National Natural Reserve from 2001 to 2003. Moreover, a range of habitat variables were compared between used and control points at each scale, and stepwise logistic regression was applied to select the key scale and the key habitat factors in relation to breeding habitat selection of this bird. Our results stated that the territorial males at Baiyun occurred mostly in mixed forests, followed by fir forests, pine forests, shrubs, and broadleaf forests. The area of conifer forests was the key factor influencing habitat selection of this bird in breeding period at the scales of 115 m and 250 m, and the proximity of farmland was important for habitat selection in breeding seasons. Furthermore, Reeves's Pheasants attached great importance to the scale of 115 m. When considering a range of habitat variables at all scales within a multivariate regression, the leading factors having effect on habitat selection in the breeding period were areas of conifer forests at 115 m scale and the distance to farmland. In addition, these above results suggested that strengthening the management of suitable habitat, and optimizing the habitat configuration are important in promoting conservation of this bird. However, it also highlighted the importance of initiating future researches on the conifer forests and their impact on the population of Reeves's Pheasants, which would be beneficial to promote the habitat conservation of this pheasant more effectively.

  19. Invasion of Pinus halepensis Mill. following a wildfire in an Argentine grassland nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sergio M; Cuevas, Yannina A; Boó, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The Ernesto Tornquist nature reserve is a relict of native Pampas vegetation in Argentina. Alien trees were introduced to the reserve in the 1950s, mainly to "improve" the natural landscape, resulting in the arrival of a totally new life form. In 1987, a fire affected an area planted with Pinus halepensis resulting in its massive expansion. In 1999, we removed trees from 17 circular plots of 10 m diameter placed systematically within the area that was colonized after the fire. Trunks were cut 20 cm from the ground and growth rings were counted. We studied the age structure of the population in order to reconstruct the colonizing events after the fire. We found that recruitment occurred throughout this period, except in the three years after the disturbance. We suggest that this delay in recruitment might be caused by low seedling survival under water stress conditions due to low rainfall, combined with scarce vegetation cover after fire. This could have been associated with an initial reduction in propagule pressure due to the scarcity of surviving trees in the vicinity and with the fact that fire occurred after the peak of seed release, during an extremely dry summer, probably killing a great number of seeds that were already in the soil. In the following years, recruitment was probably aided by pioneer trees and later by seeds shed from established pines. Alien trees had been allowed to reach maturity due to wildfire prevention and control in the years preceding the fire and the accumulated dry matter resulted in increased fire intensity that reduced the ability of grasses to re-sprout. As a consequence, the invasion window that allowed the expansion of pines remained open for at least 12 years.

  20. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Lands and Reserved Water Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-25

    D-Ai37 480 REPORT TO THE CHAIRMAN SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC LANDS AND i/i RESERVED WATER CO..(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...A II-. BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Chairman, Subcommittee On Public Lands And Reserved Water • Committee On Energy And Natural...Honorable Malcolm Wallop Availability Codes Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Lands Avail and/or and Reserved Water Dist Special Committee on Energy and

  1. Biomonitoring with honeybees of heavy metals and pesticides in nature reserves of the Marche Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Minuz, Roxana Luisa; Stefano, Mariassunta; Cannella, Maddalena; Porrini, Claudio; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out biomonitoring with honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to assess the presence of pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) in all of the ten nature reserves of the Marche Region (central–eastern Italy). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active, over 3 years (2008–2010). Twenty-two colonies of honeybees bred in hives were used. Samples of live and dead honeybees and of honey were collected from 11 sampling stations from May to October in each year. No pesticide pollution was found. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were found among years, months and sites, and in particular situations. The analysis reveals that high heavy-metal concentrations occurred exclusively in live honeybees. For the seasonal averages, the most detected heavy metal was chromium, which exceeded the threshold more often than for the other elements, followed by cadmium and lead; nickel never exceeded the threshold. The data are discussed with an evaluation of the natural and anthropic sources taken from the literature and from local situations that were likely to involve heavy metal pollution.

  2. [Responses of ecosystem services value to land use change in national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Ji-Xi; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Leng, Ling; Qiu, Jie; Yang, Shan-Shan

    2014-05-01

    With GIS and RS technology, characteristics of land use change and ecosystem services value of different years in six national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China were analyzed with remote sensing image of the year 2000-2010. Results showed that the area of water body and grassland decreased while the area of forest, farmland, wetland, unused land and construction land increased in 2000-2010. Variation rate of land use change in 2000-2005 was faster, as 2.4-6.3 times as that in 2005-2010. The total ecosystem services value mostly consisted of that of water body, grassland and forest, accounting for 93% approximately. During the study, the values of all kinds of the ecosystem services increased except for grassland and water body, the total ecosystem services value increased firstly and then decreased, and overall emerged as a reducing trend with the rate of 1.2%. In the process of the development of the west regions, it is necessary to pay more attention to the protection of natural resources and ecosystem restoration, so as to achieve sustainable development of resources, environment and social economy in the western regions.

  3. Baylisascaris schroederi Infection in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Foping National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Changsheng; Shen, Meiying; Bao, Heng; Hou, Zhijun; He, Shaowen; Hua, Yuping

    2017-07-12

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is the most iconic endangered species in the world, but there is little information about the spatial and temporal distribution of parasites in the wild giant panda population. In total, 193 fecal samples from giant pandas in the Foping National Nature Reserve, People's Republic of China, were analyzed for parasite eggs using a modification of the McMaster technique. The morphology and size of Baylisascaris schroederi eggs were observed under an optical microscope. The prevalence and intensity of B. schroederi infection during the sampling year 2012 were 52.3% (101/193) and 89 eggs/g of feces, respectively, among giant pandas in this population. The prevalence of B. schroederi in the pandas varied during different months of the year, from 7% to 100%, and the prevalences in spring, summer, autumn, and winter were 71%, 77%, 23%, and 18%, respectively. The prevalence was not significantly different between giant pandas that ate two different types of bamboo, but the intensity of infection was higher in the group eating Arundinaria fargesii (P=0.043). Altitude, temperature, and dew point were correlated with the infection intensity (r=-0.224, P<0.001; r=0.328, P<0.001; r=0.328, P=0.028, respectively). There was no correlation between infection intensity and distance to rivers. This study provides a better understanding of B. schroederi prevalence among the wild giant pandas in Foping National Nature, China.

  4. Chlorophyll a and turbidity patterns over coral reefs systems of La Parguera Natural Reserve, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Otero, Emesto; Carbery, Kelly K

    2005-05-01

    Studies of temporal and spatial changes in phytoplankton biomass and turbidity provide essential information on coral reef ecosystem function and health. Fluctuation of phytoplankton biomass responds to several factors including nutrient inputs, both anthropogenic and natural, while turbidity is mostly affected by sediment resuspension or transport from terrestrial systems. These parameters can be used as sentinels of significant environmental factors "modifying" coral reef systems. A chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and turbidity (Turb) in situ logger was installed at 10 stations from June 4 to July 7, 2003 in La Parguera Natural Reserve (Southwestern Puerto Rico) to assess short-term temporal and geographic variation in patterns of phytoplankton biomass and turbidity at pre-selected sites as part of an interdisciplinary long-term study. Average station Ch1 a variation was 0.17-1.12 microg 1(-1) and 0.2-23.4 NTU for Turb. Results indicate that the western near-coastal stations had higher levels of Turb and Ch1 a. The easternmost mid shelf station, Romero reef, was similar to coastal stations probably due to nutrient and suspended sediment inputs from a source external to our study area to the east, Guánica Bay. Comparisons between different sampling days indicate significant differences between days for most stations suggesting that one-time discrete sampling may not be representative of average water column conditions and illustrate the dynamic nature of coral reef systems. Further work is warranted to assess seasonal changes that integrate short-term (daily) variability in both Turb and Ch1 a.

  5. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  6. [Soil soluble organic nitrogen content in different forest stands in Wanmulin Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Gao, Ren; Yang, Yu-sheng; Yang, Zhi-jie; Chen, Guang-shui

    2010-07-01

    An investigation was made on the soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) in two natural forests Altingia gracilies (ALG) and Castanopsis carlesii (CAC) and an adjacent 35-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata (CUL) plantation in Wanmulin Nature Reserve in Jianou, Fujian Province. Among the three forest stands, ALG had a significantly higher content of soil SON, being 95.3, 78.3, and 72.5 mg x kg(-1) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm soil layers, respectively (P<0.05), while CAC and CUL had lesser differences in their soil SON content, which was 74.5, 70.1, and 65.6 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CAC, and 78.6, 68.9, and 69.1 mg x kg(-1) in the three soil layers for CUL, respectively. The proportion of SON to total soluble nitrogen (TSN) in 0-20 cm soil layer was 79.17-80.78% for CAC, 68.64%-74.51% for CUL, and 59.97%-69.66% for ALG. With increasing soil depth, the proportion of soil SON to soil TSN and total nitrogen (TN) for the three forest stands all increased. Soil SON content had a significant positive correlation with soil organic carbon (r=0.982, P<0.01), and also, had definite correlations with soil TSN, TN, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N. It also correlated with the factors such as forest type, topography, altitude, and tree age.

  7. [Spatial distribution of human activities and their influences on landscape patterns in Daqingshan Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-Hui; Meng, Li; Tian, Lü; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Yue-Hui; Sun, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Based on forest inventory data and field survey information, and by using GIS spatial analysis technique and landscape indices, this paper studied the spatial distribution of three categories of human activities (settlement, roads, and other sources of disturbances) and their impacts on landscape patterns in three sub-divided regions, i. e., the west, central and east regions of the Daqingshan Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia. Results showed that the impacts of human activities were stronger in the east and west regions and weaker in the central region. Among the three subdivided regions, the landscape pattern in the west region was predominantly affected by other sources of disturbances, making the landscape patterns of coniferous forests, broadleaf forests and shrubs tended to be of aggregated distribution; the central region was mainly affected by roads, resulting in reduced landscape patch aggregation of broadleaf forests and shrubs; the east region was mostly affected by settlement, resulting in increased fragmentation of coniferous forests and broadleaf forests and apparent increases in landscape patch aggregation of shrubs and grasslands.

  8. [Vertical distribution and community diversity of butterflies in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, Anhui, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Bao, Fang-yin; Mei, Bai-mao; Ding, Shi-chao

    2009-09-01

    By the methods of fixed point, line intercept, and random investigation, the vertical distribution and community diversity of butterflies in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve were investigated from 2005 to 2008. A total of 3681 specimen were collected, belonging to 111 species, 69 genera, and 10 families, among which, Nymphalidae had the higher species number, individual's number, and diversity index than the other families. The butterflies in the study area were a mixture of Oriental and Palaearetic species, with the Oriental species diminished gradually and the Palaearetic components increased gradually with increasing altitude. Among the three vertical zones ( <800 m, 800-1200 m, and >1200 m in elevation), that of 800-1200 m had the most abundant species of butterflies; and among the six habitat types (deciduous broad-leaved forest, evergreen conifer forest, conifer-broad leaf mixed forest, bush and secondary forest, farmland, and residential area), bush and secondary forest had the higher species number, individual's number, and diversity index of butterflies, while farmland had the lowest diversity index. The similarity coefficient of butterfly species between the habitats was mainly dependent on vegetation type, i.e., the more the difference of vegetation type, the lesser the species similarity coefficient between the habitats, which was the highest (0.61) between conifer-broad leaf mixed forest and bush and secondary forest, and the lowest (0. 20) between evergreen conifer forest and bush and secondary forest.

  9. [Spatial distribution of soil total nitrogen in Liangshui National Nature Reserve based on local model].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Guo, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Ying-hui; Li, Feng-ri; Wei, Qing-bin

    2016-02-01

    Based on LiDAR data of Liangshui National Nature Reserve, digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed and both primary terrain attributes (slope, aspect, profile curvature, etc.) and secondary terrain attributes (wetness index, sediment transport index, relative stream power index, etc.) were extracted. According to the theory of soil formation, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to predict soil total nitrogen (TN) of the area, and the predicted results were compared with those of three traditional interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (OK) and universal Kriging (UK). Results showed that the prediction accuracy of GWR (77.4%) was higher than that of other three interpolation methods and the accuracy of IDW (69.4%) was higher than that of OK (63.5%) and UK (60.6%). The average of TN predicted by GWR reached 4.82 g . kg-1 in the study area and TN tended to be higher in the region with higher elevation, bigger wetness index and stronger relative stream power index than in other areas. Further, TN also varied partly with various aspects and slopes. Thus, local model using terrain attributes as independent variables was effective in predicting soil attribute distribution.

  10. Impact of Wenchuan earthquake on the giant panda habitat in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Cheng; Xu, Yu-Yue; Ke, Chang-Qing; He, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the change of the giant panda habitat is essential to protect this endangered species. The Wolong National Nature Reserve (WNNR) of China, the giant panda habitat, was struck by the Wenchuan earthquake (M=8.0) on May 12, 2008, and was seriously damaged. Landsat images covering the WNNR on four dates, one before and three after the earthquake, are classified using support vector machines to generate land cover maps (with an overall accuracy of ˜90% and Kappa coefficients of ˜0.86). The habitat suitability index and weighted usable area (WUA) are calculated to evaluate the changes of the habitat suitability of the WNNR. The results indicate that the forest area dropped by ˜10% due to the earthquake. The forest located in the east of Wolong town, the home of numerous giant pandas, suffered the most. The WUA decreased significantly after the earthquake, and was showing improvement in 2013, although still not fully recovered to the level of priori earthquake. The habitat between 1200 and 1300 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) was particularly vulnerable and was slowly recovering. Further effective management is necessary to restore and protect the giant panda habitat.

  11. Source apportionment of sedimentary hydrocarbons in the Segara Anakan Nature Reserve, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Syakti, Agung Dhamar; Hidayati, Nuning Vita; Hilmi, Endang; Piram, Anne; Doumenq, Pierre

    2013-09-15

    The study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Segara Anakan nature reserve and their potential origins using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total alkane concentrations ranged from 3755 to 129,027 μg kg(-1), and the concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 375 to 29,517 μg kg(-1). The ratios of specific n-alkanes (e.g., CPI(24-34), WaxC(n), and Paq), including a new proposed index, terrestrial-marine discriminant (TMD), as well as the ratios of selected PAHs (e.g., Ant/∑178, Fl/∑202, BaAnt/∑228, and IPyr/∑276), showed that the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). For the environmental risk assessment, a sediment quality guideline (SQGs) comparison indicated that the station risk levels ranged from low to medium-low, except for R6, which has a greater impact on the ecological risk for marine organisms.

  12. Species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Sha; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Dai, Jun-Yong; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2013-12-01

    The species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes on 4 vegetation types in the Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve, eastern China, was examined from 2011 to 2012. A total of 1440 moist chamber cultures were prepared with bark samples, which yielded several hundred collections representing 42 species in 20 genera. It was found that 79% of cultures produced some evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Eight species (Comatricha elegans, Cribraria confusa, Licea pusilla, Cribraria microcarpa, Collaria arcyrionema, Licea biforis, Arcyria cinerea, and Clastoderma debaryanum) were abundant (exceeding 3% of all records), but about a third of all species were classified as rare. Species richness (S = 33) and diversity (exp[H'] = 16.60, S/G = 1.74) of corticolous myxomycetes were the most diverse in the deciduous broadleaf forest. The species recorded from coniferous forest showed the lowest species richness (S = 21) but the highest evenness (J' = 0.91). The cluster analyses were based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, and the results indicated that corticolous myxomycete assemblages were distributed by a seasonal and annual pattern. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that season and pH were key factors in determining species distribution.

  13. Flowering and fruiting phenology of tree species in mount papandayan nature reserve, west java, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sulistyawati, Endah; Mashita, Nusa; Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila; Choesin, Devi N; Suryana, Pipin

    2012-12-01

    Mount Papandayan Nature Reserve (MPNR) is an area highly rich in biodiversity, however deforestation has left a vast area urgently in need of reforestation. When reforestation is designed to restore some level of biodiversity, it is imperative that native tree species are used for planting. This research aimed to provide information on the flowering and fruiting phenology of native trees. Such information can be useful to plan seed collection and mass seedling production in the nursery. The observations were conducted each month during August 2009-July 2010 by recording flowering and fruiting trees along two survey track passing through the middle of the mixed forest of MPNR. Data gathered were used to construct a simple phenology calendar. During the study, there were 155 trees of 43 species found flowering or fruiting along the survey track. The peak time of flowering and fruiting was in July (13 species flowering and 19 species fruiting), while the lowest level was in October (1 species flowering and 3 species fruiting). According to the phenology calendar constructed, March to July were considered to be the appropriate time to collect seeds of native trees in Mount Papandayan.

  14. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PAHs in the UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai, Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Arrasate, S; Usobiaga, A; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2008-08-01

    Along 10 campaigns, from June 2002 to September 2004, the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments and oysters (Crassostrea sp.) taken from four sites in the Unesco protected natural reserve of Urdaibai (Basque Country, Bay of Biscay). Total PAH concentration ranged from 0.7 to 140 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of sediments, and from 300 to 1400 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of oysters. During this study, the coast of the Bay of Biscay was severely affected by the Prestige oil spill (November 2002). Presumably, as a consequence of this accident, both spatial and temporal variations of the PAHs, as well as the sources of the PAHs were affected by the oil spill, and this effect was observed in the total concentrations and, especially, in several diagnostic ratios and in multivariate data analysis. Finally, both BAF (bioaccumulation factor) and BSAF (biota-sediment accumulation factor) parameters were calculated to conclude that particulate matter seems to be the most favourable uptake pathway of PAHs in oysters from this estuary.

  15. Breeding habitat survey of blackthroat (Luscinia obscura) in Foping nature reserve of Qinling Mountains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongfeng; Han, Ning; Luo, Lei; Zhao, Leigang; Gao, Xuebin

    2014-05-01

    We carried out a primary survey by quadrat sampling to quantify breeding habitat characteristics of blackthroat (Luscnia obscura), a poorly documented and vulnerable bird species, in Foping nature reserve on the central southern Qinling Mountains. Tree layer information was collected in 10 m × 10 m plots, bamboo and shrub layer information was collected in 2 m × 2 m plots, and grass and ground layer information was collected in 1 m × 1 m plots. Our observations showed that blackthroat lives in coniferous forest and coniferous broadleaved forest with dense bamboos at the elevation ranging from 2130 m to 2600 m. Shrub cover, density and height, and ground cover in sites with blackthroat were significantly higher than those in random sites, while tree density, grass height and cover in habitat sites were significantly lower than those in random sites. These results suggest that shrub cover, shrub density, and canopy cover may be relevant to breeding habitat selection by these birds. Our study suggests that Qinling Mountains may be an important blackthroat breeding site.

  16. Natural reserve areas: ecology and preservation. January 1970-May 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning natural reserve areas, primarily in the United States. Individual reserve areas are described both physically and biologically. Research associated with natural reserves is also discussed. Resource inventories, management planning, ecological assessments, monitoring programs, and designated research for the Federal Research Natural Area System are discussed. Some natural reserve areas associated with federal properties are also included. (Contains 106 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  17. Diet of the Delacour's langur (Trachypithecus delacouri) in Van Long Nature Reserve, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Workman, Catherine

    2010-04-01

    The six limestone langur taxa of Southeast Asia inhabit the rugged limestone karst mountains, although the reason for their current restriction to this habitat is unclear. From August 2007 to July 2008, I collected data on the diet and feeding behavior of the critically endangered Delacour's langur (Trachypithecus delacouri) in Van Long Nature Reserve, Vietnam. I used these data to evaluate the hypothesis that limestone langurs are found on karst habitat because they depend on endemic limestone plants. Feeding accounted for 29% of the langurs' activity budget. Young leaves dominated the diet monthly, seasonally, and annually. The annual diet consists of nearly 79% foliage with almost 60% young leaves. Despite a distinct wet and dry season, over the study period, seasonal variation in plant part consumption was slight. Fruit and seeds were a small contribution to the diet. Delacour's langurs ate 42 of 145 available species, and they concentrated on a subset of this number. Five plant species comprised more than 60% of the diet and 16 species comprised more than 93%. More than half of the diet came from climbers. Delacour's langurs are among the most highly folivorous of studied colobines and, along with the closely related T. leucocephalus of southern China, the most folivorous of the Asian langurs. Whether high folivory is owing to a lack of available fruits and seeds in limestone habitats is unknown. What is certain, however, is that the plant species most important in the Delacour's langurs' diet at VLNR, throughout the study, were not plants endemic to limestone. Feeding dependence alone, therefore, cannot explain the current distribution of limestone langurs on karst habitat.

  18. [The fauna and vertical distribution of birds in Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Jing; Han, Lian-Xian; Cao, Hong-Fen; Tian, Yuan; Peng, Bo-Yong; Wang, Bin; Hu, Hui-Jian

    2013-12-01

    From October 2010 to October 2012 (total 126 days), we used the line transect method combined with interviews applied during seven individual surveys to explore the bird resources of Qomolangma National Nature Reserve (QNNR). Based on the historical records and the present results, a total of 390 bird species belonging to 62 families and 18 orders, had been confirmed. Our results indicated that QNNR plays a vital and unique role in bird species preservation and scientific study, especially for endemic and endangered species. Species richness of both the Palearctic and Oriental realms were different, there was no overall significant difference (164 and 178, respectively). Species differences between the northern and southern slope of QNNR were especially remarkable. The northern slope was characterized with enriched endemic plateau species over small total number of bird species the southern flank held an abundance of bird species with complex composition. Moreover, on the southern slope, the peak of breeding birds richness occurred at 2,500~3,100 m a.s.l., supporting the mid-domain effect hypothesis. Meanwhile, as elevation increased, the richness of Oriental species decreased while that of Palearctic species increased. The percentages of Oriental and Palearctic species were similar at 3,100~4,000 m a.s.l.. Accordingly, we estimated that the boundary of Oriental realm and Palearctic realm was at 3,100~4,000 m a.s.l., and the species invasion from Palearctic to Oriental realm was more obvious. Perhaps most significantly, the specific distribution species along the vertical gradients also indicated their corresponding adaptation strategies.

  19. Dispersal and Germination Patterns of Monterey Spineflower at Fort Ord Natural Reserve.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Some species are rare because they are restricted to certain habitats and/or have small population sizes. Monterey spineflower, a federally listed threatened annual plant, is found in open sandy regions of the California coast, in chaparral vegetation around the Monterey Bay. A model based on previous research suggests that the Monterey spineflower population at Fort Ord Natural Reserve should be rapidly increasing, but it is not. This suggests that the model may be using data that overestimates the percentage of spineflower seeds that successfully germinate. I tested three hypotheses to determine the cause of the difference in population sizes between the predicted model and the field results. First, I predicted that the spineflower seeds are blown by the wind into shrubs such as manzanita, and are unable to germinate due to the lack of a suitable environment. I tested this in two ways. A field experiment showed that seeds are easily blow by wind. Next, I took soil cores and found spineflower seeds within the manzanita shrubs. Secondly, I predicted that the germination rate used by the model (90%) was too high. However, my germination experiments did not support this hypothesis because 91% of new seeds successfully germinated. Lastly, I predicted that the newer seeds are more viable than older seeds and therefore have a higher chance of successfully germinating. After germinating seeds in a controlled environment I observed that the seeds from 2014 had a higher number of successfully germinated seeds compared to the number of successfully germinated seeds from 1995 (91% vs 33%). I conclude that the loss of seeds due to wind decreases germination expectancies and older seeds are less viable than new seeds. Therefore, Monterey spineflower is a rare plant because environmental barriers hinder seeds from dispersing to a suitable habitat and successfully germinating while seeds lose viability as they age.

  20. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 μeq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 μeq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR.

  1. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Untangling Natural Seascape Variation from Marine Reserve Effects Using a Landscape Approach

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, Brittany E.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Lirman, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5×) and commercially important biomass (1.75×) inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design. PMID:20808833

  3. Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Presents chronological socio-economic account of Grassy Narrows Reserve, focusing on the 1962-1970 mercury pollution that poisoned the reserve's river system and on resulting negotiations between the Ojibway people of Grassy Narrows, the government, and the polluting company. Examines the question of Grassy Narrows people gaining autonomy over the…

  4. Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Presents chronological socio-economic account of Grassy Narrows Reserve, focusing on the 1962-1970 mercury pollution that poisoned the reserve's river system and on resulting negotiations between the Ojibway people of Grassy Narrows, the government, and the polluting company. Examines the question of Grassy Narrows people gaining autonomy over the…

  5. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  6. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM).

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Crosby, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water (sludge) obtained from reserve pits used in unconventional natural gas mining was analyzed for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Samples were analyzed for total gamma, alpha, and beta radiation, and specific radionuclides: beryllium, potassium, scandium, cobalt, cesium, thallium, lead-210 and -214, bismuth-212 and -214, radium-226 and -228, thorium, uranium, and strontium-89 and -90. Laboratory analysis confirmed elevated beta readings recorded at 1329 ± 311 pCi/g. Specific radionuclides present in an active reserve pit and the soil of a leveled, vacated reserve pit included 232Thorium decay series (228Ra, 228Th, 208Tl), and 226Radium decay series (214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb) radionuclides. The potential for impact of TENORM to the environment, occupational workers, and the general public is presented with potential health effects of individual radionuclides. Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed.

  7. Selecting networks of nature reserves: methods do affect the long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Virolainen, K. M.; Virola, T.; Suhonen, J.; Kuitunen, M.; Lammi, A.; ki, P. Siikam

    1999-01-01

    Data on vascular plants of boreal lakes in Finland were used to compare the efficiency of reserve selection methods in representing four aspects of biodiversity over a 63 year period. These aspects included species richness, phylogenetic diversity, restricted range diversity and threatened species. Our results show that the efficiency of reserve selection methods depends on the selection criteria used and on the aspect of biodiversity under consideration. Heuristic methods and optimizing algorithms were nearly equally efficient in selecting lake networks over a small geographical range. In addition, a scoring procedure was observed to be efficient in maintaining different aspects of biodiversity over time. However, the random selection of lakes seems to be the most inefficient option for a reserve network. In general, reserve selection methods seem to favour lakes that maximize one aspect of diversity at the time of selection, but the network may not be the best option for maintaining the maximum diversity over time. The reserve selection methods do affect the long-term outcome but it is impossible to recommend one method over the others unequivocally.

  8. Alien species of mammals and their impact on natural ecosystems in the biosphere reserves of Russia.

    PubMed

    Neronov, Valery M; Khlyap, Ludmila A; Bobrov, Vladimir V; Warshavsky, Andrey A

    2008-06-01

    The paper analyses the results of a survey of 37 Russian biosphere reserves using questionnaires concerning the presence of alien species of mammals, their pathways of penetration, and their impacts on protected ecosystems. The penetration of alien mammals into terrestrial ecosystems of Russia is extensive, both in places with maximum human environmental impact (inhabited areas and agricultural lands) and in biosphere reserves with minimal human impact. There are 62 mammal species registered as alien in Russian ecosystems and they account for 22% of the terrestrial mammal fauna of Russia. The percentage of alien species in biosphere reserves is 32.6% at most. In most regions, Castor fiber, Ondatra zibethicus, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canis familiaris, Neovison vison and Sus scrofa are very dangerous, and both Castor fiber and Sus scrofa can have environment-forming impacts. © 2008 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  9. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  10. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  11. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  12. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  13. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  14. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    SciTech Connect

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  15. Oscheius tipulae in Italy: Evidence of an Alien Isolate in the Integral Natural Reserve of Montecristo Island (Tuscany).

    PubMed

    Torrini, Giulia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Strangi, Agostino; Barabaschi, Delfina; Landi, Silvia; Mori, Emiliano; Menchetti, Mattia; Sposimo, Paolo; Giuliani, Claudia; Zoccola, Antonio; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Giulio; Foggi, Bruno; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-03-01

    Montecristo Island is an integral natural reserve of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Central Italy), characterized by a peculiar assemblage of flora and fauna, with several endemic taxa, and also with a high number of alien species. During a soil survey, we found an alien Oscheius tipulae Lam & Webster, 1971 isolate, phylogenetically close to others from South America. In this article, we examined the possible pathways of introduction of this nematode. Because of the high number of alien plants in this protected area and the low desiccation survival ability of O. tipulae, we hypothesized that the presence of this alien nematode isolate may be related to the soil of introduced plants, although historical association with plant-associated invertebrates is also possible. Further studies with more populations and marker molecules are necessary to investigate the distribution of O. tipulae and the possible impact on this natural reserve.

  16. USGS world petroleum assessment 2000; new estimates of undiscovered oil and natural gas, including reserve growth, outside the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Oil and natural gas account for approximately 63 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically estimates the amount of oil and gas remaining to be found in the world. Since 1981, each of the last four of these assessments has shown a slight increase in the combined volume of identified reserves and undiscovered resources. The latest assessment estimates the volume of technically recoverable conventional oil and gas that may be added to the world's reserves, exclusive of the United States, in the next 30 years. The USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 reports an increase in global petroleum resources, including a 20-percent increase in undiscovered oil and a 14-percent decrease in undiscovered natural gas compared to the previous assessment (table 1). These results have important implications for energy prices, policy, security, and the global resource balance.

  17. Oscheius tipulae in Italy: Evidence of an Alien Isolate in the Integral Natural Reserve of Montecristo Island (Tuscany)

    PubMed Central

    Torrini, Giulia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Strangi, Agostino; Barabaschi, Delfina; Landi, Silvia; Mori, Emiliano; Menchetti, Mattia; Sposimo, Paolo; Giuliani, Claudia; Zoccola, Antonio; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Giulio; Foggi, Bruno; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-01-01

    Montecristo Island is an integral natural reserve of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Central Italy), characterized by a peculiar assemblage of flora and fauna, with several endemic taxa, and also with a high number of alien species. During a soil survey, we found an alien Oscheius tipulae Lam & Webster, 1971 isolate, phylogenetically close to others from South America. In this article, we examined the possible pathways of introduction of this nematode. Because of the high number of alien plants in this protected area and the low desiccation survival ability of O. tipulae, we hypothesized that the presence of this alien nematode isolate may be related to the soil of introduced plants, although historical association with plant-associated invertebrates is also possible. Further studies with more populations and marker molecules are necessary to investigate the distribution of O. tipulae and the possible impact on this natural reserve. PMID:27168647

  18. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Tony

    2010-01-01

    A new species of Gekko Laurenti is described from Ta Kou Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Ham Thuan Nam district, Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size, with snout to vent length (SVL) reaching a maximum 107.0 mm; dorsal pattern of 5–8 white vertebral blotches between the nape and sacrum and 6–8 pairs of short white bars on the flanks; 11–14 precloacal pores in males; 14–17 longitudinal rows of smooth dorsal tubercles; and 18–20 broad lamellae beneath the fourth toe. Gekko takouensis sp. nov. is the second endemic gekkonid discovered in the Ta Kou Nature Reserve, Cyrtodactylus takouensis Ngo & Bauer being the first. PMID:21547000

  19. Barriers and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science into Natural Resource Management: Lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  20. Using 137Cs technique to quantify soil conservation capacities of different ecosystems in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Ouyang, ZhiYun

    2007-08-01

    Reliable information about soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems is an important reference for the design of targeted erosion and sediment control strategies. The objective of this paper is to quantify the soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems that can represent different climatic zones. The (137)Cs technique has been used to estimate soil redistribution rates in different natural ecosystems over the past 40 years in Wolong Nature Reserve. The reserve, transiting from the Chengdu plain to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, maintains rich ecosystems from subtropical to frigid. The net soil erosion rates of 5 selected ecosystems that represent a warm coniferous-broadleaf-mixed forest, a cold-resistant deciduous taiga forest, a cold-resistant shrub, an evergreen cold-resistant taiga forest, and an alpine meadow are 0.17, 0.16, 0.13, 0.11 and 0.06 kg x m(-2) x a(-1), respectively. Their soil conservation capacities are reversed in order. The reference inventories for (137)Cs in different ecosystems range from 1658 to 3707 Bq x m(-2) with the altitude. Results of this study indicate that any attempt to develop effective erosion and sediment strategies in areas with similar climates should consider natural ecosystem types.

  1. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  2. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  3. Sustainability Evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: From Local People's Responses to Ecological Effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2007-07-01

    This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project’s impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

  4. Sustainability evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: from local people's responses to ecological effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2007-07-01

    This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project's impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

  5. Effects of perfluorinated chemicals on thyroid function, markers of ovarian reserve, and natural fertility.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie M; Fenton, Suzanne E; Strynar, Mark; Hines, Erin P; Pritchard, David A; Steiner, Anne Z

    2017-01-19

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but there has been limited study of their effects on ovarian reserve or fecundability. 99 women, 30-44 years old, without infertility were followed until pregnancy. Initially, serum was evaluated for Antimullerian hormone (AMH), thyroid hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), and triiodothyronine (T3), and PFCs: perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship between thyroid hormones, AMH, and PFCs. Fecundability ratios (FR) were determined for each PFC using a discrete time-varying Cox model and a day-specific probability model. PFC levels were positively correlated with each other (r 0.24-0.90), but there was no correlation with TSH (r 0.02-0.15) or AMH (r -0.01 to -0.15). FR point estimates for each PFC were neither strong nor statistically significant. Although increased exposure to PFCs correlates with thyroid hormone levels, there is no significant association with fecundability or ovarian reserve.

  6. DNA barcoding a highly diverse group of parasitoid wasps (Braconidae: Doryctinae) from a Mexican nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; De Jesús-Bonilla, Vladimir Salvador; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ana Cecilia; Reséndiz-Flores, Andrés; Smith, M Alex

    2010-12-01

    The preliminary results of a DNA barcoding study of the doryctine fauna of parasitoid wasps from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, a region dominated by tropical dry forest, are presented. So far, three field trips have been carried out to the reserve and 468 specimens have been collected, of which 407 cox1 sequences were obtained. The general mixed Yule-coalescent model was applied to a phylogram to investigate the number of evolutionary units that can be detected from the DNA sequence data examined. A total of 185 barcoding species assigned to 20 identified doryctine genera were discriminated using the above model, 115 of which belong to the speciose genus Heterospilus, pointing out the extraordinary species richness of this subfamily of insects in a Mexican tropical dry forest. On the basis of the DNA barcodes generated, Ptesimogastroides Braet & van Achterberg is proposed to be a junior synonym of Ptesimogaster Marsh syn. nov. Neoheterospilus was also found deeply nested within a large Heterospilus clade, suggesting the paraphyly of the latter genus.

  7. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  8. Visitors' Characteristics, Preferences and Perception of the Impacts of Public Use at Salto Morato Natural Reserve

    Treesearch

    Leide Y. Takahashi; Miguel S. Milano

    2004-01-01

    Visiting wild areas as motivated by man’s desire to be in close contact with nature and to contemplate its beauty is an old recreational practice, done through activities such as hiking, hunting and picnicking. With post-war economic changes and technological innovations in multiple fields, there has been a significant increase in spare time, leading to a corresponding...

  9. Wilderness, natural areas, and ecological reserves: thoughts on the politics of the big outside

    Treesearch

    R. McGreggor Cawley

    2000-01-01

    This essay offers some loosely organized comments on the project of preserving wilderness on the scale of the big outside. These comments are arranged around a subject that has been the topic of quite a bit of debate over the past few years—the possibility that the nature in our discussions about federal land and the environment is an artifact of social construction....

  10. Priority substances in sediments of the "Carska Bara" special nature reserve, a natural scientific research area on the UNESCO list.

    PubMed

    Grba, Nenad; Krčmar, Dejan; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Maletić, Snežana; Pešić, Vesna; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments were subject to systematic long-term monitoring (2002-2014) in the Republic of Serbia (Province of Vojvodina). Eight heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As and Hg), mineral oils (total petroleum hydrocarbons), 16 EPA PAHs, selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were monitored. As part of this research, this paper presents a sediment contamination spatial and temporal trend study of diverse pollution sources and the ecological risk status of the alluvial sediments of Carska Bara at three representative sampling sites (S1S3), in order to establish the status of contamination and recommend substances of interest for more widespread future monitoring. Multivariate statistical methods including factor analysis of principal component analysis (PCA/FA), Pearson correlation and several synthetic indicators were used to evaluate the extent and origin of contamination (anthropogenic or natural, geogenic sources) and potential ecological risks. Hg, Cd, As, mineral oils and PAHs (dominated by dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, contributing 85.7% of the total) are derived from several anthropogenic sources, whereas Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn are convincingly of geogenic origin, and exhibit dual origins. Cd and Hg significantly raise the levels of potential ecological risk for all sampling locations, demonstrating the effect of long-term bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Pb is isolated from the other parameters, implying unique sources. This research suggests four heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Cu and As) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene be added to the list of priority pollutants within the context of the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), in accordance with significant national and similar environmental data from countries in the region.

  11. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat.

  12. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting

    2016-03-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Optimal networks of nature reserves can be found through eigenvalue perturbation theory of the connectivity matrix.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Martin Nilsson; Jonsson, Per R

    2011-07-01

    Conservation and management of natural resources and biodiversity need improved criteria to select functional networks of protected areas. The connectivity within networks due to dispersal is rarely considered, partly because it is unclear how connectivity information can be included in the selection of protected areas. We present a novel and general method that applies eigenvalue perturbation theory (EPT) to select optimum networks of protected areas based on connectivity. At low population densities, characteristic of threatened populations, this procedure selects networks that maximize the growth rate of the overall network. This method offers an improved link between connectivity and metapopulation dynamics. Our framework is applied to connectivities estimated for marine larvae and demonstrates that, for open populations, the best strategy is to protect areas acting as both strong donors and recipients of recruits. It should be possible to implement an EPT framework for connectivity analysis into existing holistic tools for design of protected areas.

  14. Long-term population survey of the Sulawesi black macaques (Macaca nigra) at Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kyes, Randall C; Iskandar, Entang; Onibala, Jane; Paputungan, Umar; Laatung, Sylvia; Huettmann, Falk

    2013-01-01

    The Sulawesi black macaque (Macaca nigra) population at Tangkoko Nature Reserve in North Sulawesi, Indonesia has been the focus of periodic study for over 30 years. The population has shown considerable decline during much of that time. Here we present the results of a long-term population survey of the Tangkoko M. nigra, conducted over the past decade, to provide updated information and on-going assessment of the population. Line-transect sampling was conducted annually from 1999 to 2002 and 2005 to 2011 along the same transect during a 2- to 3-week survey period. Although further decline in the population was observed at the outset of the survey, over the subsequent 12-year period we have seen stability in the population parameters with evidence of modest increases in both group and population density. During the 1999-2002 survey periods, there was a mean group density of 3.6 groups/km(2) and a mean population density of 39.8 individuals/km(2) . During 2005-2011, mean group density increased to 3.8 groups/km(2) and mean population density was 51.4 individuals/km(2) . The 2011 survey data indicated an estimated group density of 4.3 groups/km(2) and a population density of 61.5 individuals/km(2) . Given that our transect was located in the core of the Tangkoko reserve, our density estimates should be limited to that area of the reserve. One explanation for the apparent stabilization of the population may be tied to the increasing and sustained number of training and research programs being conducted at the reserve. This collective effort by local and international groups may be helping to reduce illegal activity in the reserve (i.e., hunting and habitat destruction) and generate greater awareness of this critically endangered species. Without the continued vigilance afforded by the existing research and training programs and the support and involvement of the local people, the M. nigra at the Tangkoko Nature Reserve will likely face further decline.

  15. Diversity of spiders in Fanjing Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China,
    III: A new species of Brommella (Dictynidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Tian; Chen, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng

    2015-09-21

    A new Chinese species of the dictynid genus Brommella Tullgren-Brommella digitata sp. nov.-from Fanjing Mountain Nature Reserve of Guizhou Province is photographed, illustrated and described. It can be distinguished from other Brommella species by the complex conductor and finger-like tegular apophysis of the male palp and anteriorly located copulatory openings of the female epigyne. This is the second species of Brommella from China. Additional photos, illustrations and material of B. punctosparsa (Oi 1957) are provided for comparison. The serrated embolus is firstly described for both species on the basis of SEM photos.

  16. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  17. Zero-tolerance biosecurity protects high-conservation-value island nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Scott, John K; McKirdy, Simon J; van der Merwe, Johann; Green, Roy; Burbidge, Andrew A; Pickles, Greg; Hardie, Darryl C; Morris, Keith; Kendrick, Peter G; Thomas, Melissa L; Horton, Kristin L; O'Connor, Simon M; Downs, Justin; Stoklosa, Richard; Lagdon, Russell; Marks, Barbara; Nairn, Malcolm; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2017-04-10

    Barrow Island, north-west coast of Australia, is one of the world's significant conservation areas, harboring marsupials that have become extinct or threatened on mainland Australia as well as a rich diversity of plants and animals, some endemic. Access to construct a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant, Australia's largest infrastructure development, on the island was conditional on no non-indigenous species (NIS) becoming established. We developed a comprehensive biosecurity system to protect the island's biodiversity. From 2009 to 2015 more than 0.5 million passengers and 12.2 million tonnes of freight were transported to the island under the biosecurity system, requiring 1.5 million hrs of inspections. No establishments of NIS were detected. We made four observations that will assist development of biosecurity systems. Firstly, the frequency of detections of organisms corresponded best to a mixture log-normal distribution including the high number of zero inspections and extreme values involving rare incursions. Secondly, comprehensive knowledge of the island's biota allowed estimation of false positive detections (62% native species). Thirdly, detections at the border did not predict incursions on the island. Fourthly, the workforce detected more than half post-border incursions (59%). Similar approaches can and should be implemented for all areas of significant conservation value.

  18. [Population structure and spatial distribution pattern of Camellia azalea in E' huangzhang Nature Reserve of Guangdong, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-lei; Sun, Zhen-yuan; Li, Ji-yuan; Xu, Yi; Luo, Jian

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the structures of basal diameter, height and canopy width of Camellia azalea population in E' huangzhang Nature Reserve of Guangdong. The spatial distribution patterns and dynamics of the population were measured by applying aggregate indices including disperse coefficient, negative binomial distribution, Cassie index, clumping index, mean crowding, patch index and Green index. The results showed that in the natural distribution region, the population was mainly composed of adult trees, and was in declining due to seriously lack of seedlings. The structures of diameter, height and canopy width were not identical among different plots. In the plots, the spatial distribution pattern of C. azalea population showed clump or random, and changed from clump to random with the development of the population.

  19. Investigation of the Heavy Metal Contamination of the Sediments from the Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Q; Wang, W; Wang, H; Wang; Zhao, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the Yellow River draws wide attention in the recent years. The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou is one of the major wetlands of the river and located at the beginning of the lower reach. In this article, we aimed to investigate the degree and the sources of the metal pollution in the reserve. Methods: Metals as Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in the sediment were monitored using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and the modified degree of contamination (mCd) were developed to evaluate individual metal pollution and overall enrichment impact of the elements. Results: Compared with sediment quality guidelines, the effect of Cr and Pb are more serious than others. Igeo values show Pb pollution are moderate at the Xinzhai, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites, and mCd analysis indicate the whole contamination at the Wantan, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites was low. Principal component analysis indicated that the first factor was Cu, Mn and Cd, mainly from soil erosion and the irrational use of phosphate fertilizers; the second Pb from fossil fuel burning; and the third Cr from weathering process. Conclusion: We conclude that Pb contamination is serious in the reserve, and the main sources of the metal are crude oil consumption and coal combustion of the brick kilns around. We also draw a conclusion that it is vital to evaluate contamination degree with both individual elements and overall average. PMID:23113147

  20. Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying the effects of geographical and environmental factors on distribution of stream bacterioplankton within nature reserves of Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongming; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Yu, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterioplankton are important components of freshwater ecosystems and play essential roles in ecological functions and processes; however, little is known about their geographical distribution and the factors influencing their ecology, especially in stream ecosystems. To examine how geographical and environmental factors affect the composition of bacterioplankton communities, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone sequencing to survey bacterioplankton communities in 31 samples of streamwater from seven nature reserves in Fujian province, southeast China. Our results revealed that dominant bacterioplankton communities exhibited a distinct geographical pattern. Further, we provided evidence for distance decay relationships in bacterioplankton community similarity and found similar community gradients in response to elevation and latitude. Both redundancy analyses and Mantel tests showed that bacterioplankton community composition was significantly correlated with both environmental (electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, and PO4-P) and geographical factors (latitude, longitude, and elevation). Variance partitioning further showed that the joint effect of geographical and environmental factors explained the largest proportion of the variation in distribution of bacterioplankton communities (13.6 %), followed by purely geographical factors (11.2 %), and purely environmental factors (0.6 %). The Betaproteobacteria were the most common taxa in the streams, followed by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Therefore, our results suggest that the biogeographical patterns of stream bacterioplankton communities across the Fujian nature reserves are more influenced by geographical factors than by local physicochemical properties.

  3. Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  4. Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time.

  5. Application of DNA Barcodes in Asian Tropical Trees – A Case Study from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Conran, John G.; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a regional floristic context, DNA barcoding is more useful to manage plant diversity inventories on a large scale and develop valuable conservation strategies. However, there are no DNA barcode studies from tropical areas of China, which represents one of the biodiversity hotspots around the world. Methodology and Principal Findings A DNA barcoding database of an Asian tropical trees with high diversity was established at Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Yunnan, southwest China using rbcL and matK as standard barcodes, as well as trnH–psbA and ITS as supplementary barcodes. The performance of tree species identification success was assessed using 2,052 accessions from four plots belonging to two vegetation types in the region by three methods: Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and BLAST. We corrected morphological field identification errors (9.6%) for the three plots using rbcL and matK based on Neighbor-Joining tree. The best barcode region for PCR and sequencing was rbcL (97.6%, 90.8%), followed by trnH–psbA (93.6%, 85.6%), while matK and ITS obtained relative low PCR and sequencing success rates. However, ITS performed best for both species (44.6–58.1%) and genus (72.8–76.2%) identification. With trnH–psbA slightly less effective for species identification. The two standard barcode rbcL and matK gave poor results for species identification (24.7–28.5% and 31.6–35.3%). Compared with other studies from comparable tropical forests (e.g. Cameroon, the Amazon and India), the overall performance of the four barcodes for species identification was lower for the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, possibly because of species/genus ratios and species composition between these tropical areas. Conclusions/Significance Although the core barcodes rbcL and matK were not suitable for species identification of tropical trees from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, they could still help with identification at the family and genus level. Considering the

  6. A comparison of denitrifying bacterial community structures and abundance in acidic soils between natural forest and re-vegetated forest of Nanling Nature Reserve in southern China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Han; Wu, Ruonan; Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2017-08-01

    Denitrification plays a key role in converting reactive nitrogen species to dinitrogen gas back into the atmosphere to maintain the equilibrium of nitrogen cycling in ecosystems. In this study, functional genes of nirK and nosZ were used to detect the community structure and abundance of denitrifying microorganisms in acidic forest soils in southern China. Three sets of factors were considered for a comparison among 5 forests, including forest types (natural vs. re-vegetated), depths (surface layer vs. lower layer) and seasons (winter vs. summer). The community of nirK gene detected from these acidic forest soils was closely related to Proteobacteria especially α-Proteobacteria and uncultured soil sequences, while that of nosZ gene was affiliated with the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Higher diversity of denitrifiers was observed in re-vegetated forest soils than natural ones. Not only the community but also the abundance showed significant differences between forest types as well as depths. The abundance of denitrifiers ranged from 10(5) to 10(7) gene copies g(-1) dry soil in this study. For nirK gene, the abundance was much higher in the lower layer than surface layer in both forest types, and the differences between winter and summer in natural forest soils were higher than those in re-vegetated forest soils. The abundance of nosZ and nirK genes showed a similar trend in natural forest, but the former was higher in matured forest than re-vegetated forest. This study provided a direct comparison on community composition and abundance of denitrifying bacteria in natural and re-vegetated acidic forest soils to allow further assessment of the nitrogen cycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Land-cover assessment of conservation and buffer zones in the BOSAWAS natural resource reserve of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan H

    2003-02-01

    The BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua was established in 1991, to protect a portion of the remaining tropical rain forest and to promote the sustainable use of the region's resources. Information required to effectively manage the reserve includes the extents and locations of present land-cover types and recent land-cover changes in the management use zones that were delineated by local indigenous communities. These zones include areas designated for conservation, limited resource extraction, agriculture, and watershed protection. Land-cover for 1986 and 1995 was identified for three of the communities from remotely sensed images and then input into a geographic information system database to identify land-cover types within these management use zones. For both dates of the analysis, advanced forest was the dominant land cover, with the conservation zones entirely forested. The amount of both agricultural land and scrub/early secondary forest increased between the two dates, with much of these land-cover classes occurring in the agriculture zones. Conflicts between the land-cover present and designated use were identified in some of the limited-use buffer and watershed protection zones. Changes between 1986 and 1995 were identified by overlaying the two land-cover data sets. Three change processes were identified as occurring: deforestation, reforestation, and reconversion. Changes were concentrated in the agriculture zones but were found to occur in every type of zone, except for conservation. The results of this study will establish baseline information for the future management of the BOSAWAS Reserve, an important component in uniting conservation areas along the Central American isthmus.

  8. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration.

  9. [Study on medicinal plant resources and diversity in Rhinopithecus bieti national natural reserve of Markam in Tibet].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Quan, Hong; Zheng, Wei-lie; Liao, Zhi-hua; Lan, Xiao-zhong

    2015-02-01

    This research was a part of the investigation of traditional Chinese medicine resources survey in Markam. The medicinal plants in natural reserve were studied for the first in this paper. There were 300 species in 202 genera of 54 families, among them there were 7 species of ferns in 5 genera of 5 families, 6 species of gymnosperms in 4 genera of 3 families, and 287 species of angiosperms in 194 genera of 61 families. There were 166 species Tibetan medicinal plants in 102 genera of 47 families. Quantitative analysis was carried out in 6 aspects of family and genus composition, medicinal parts, drug properties, flavour of a drug, Tibetan medicine, toxicity and new plants. The concrete suggestions of protection and exploitation were put forward, which provided scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of medicinal plants in this area.

  10. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    PubMed

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  11. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  12. Interpretation during a School Visit to a Nature Reserve--Results of a Survey of A.C.T. Year Nine Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Elizabeth A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of school visits to Nature Reserves. Most students had previous experience with National Parks and environmental media, however, there was a need for basic conservation and management values and ideas to be continually emphasized. (Author/YP)

  13. Interpretation during a School Visit to a Nature Reserve--Results of a Survey of A.C.T. Year Nine Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Elizabeth A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of school visits to Nature Reserves. Most students had previous experience with National Parks and environmental media, however, there was a need for basic conservation and management values and ideas to be continually emphasized. (Author/YP)

  14. Assessment of spruce (Picea obovata) abundance by spectral unmixing algorithm for sustainable forest management in highland Natural Reserve (case study of Zigalga Range, South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheeva, Anna; Moiseev, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    In mountain territories climate change affects forest productivity and growth, which results in the tree line advancing and increasing of the forest density. These changes pose new challenges for forest managers whose responsibilities include forest resources inventory, monitoring and protection of ecosystems, and assessment of forest vulnerability. These activities require a range of sources of information, including exact squares of forested areas, forest densities and species abundances. Picea obovata, dominant tree species in South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia has regenerated, propagated and increased its relative cover during the recent 70 years. A remarkable shift of the upper limit of Picea obovata up to 60-80 m upslope was registered by repeating photography, especially on gentle slopes. The stands of Picea obovata are monitored by Reserve inspectors on the test plots to ensure that forests maintain or improve their productivity, these studies also include projective cover measurements. However, it is impossible to cover the entire territory of the Reserve by detailed field observations. Remote sensing data from Terra ASTER imagery provides valuable information for large territories (scene covers an area of 60 x 60 km) and can be used for quantitative mapping of forest and non-forest vegetation at regional scale (spatial resolution is 15-30 m for visible and infrared bands). A case study of estimating Picea obovata abundance was conducted for forest and forest-tundra sites of Zigalga Range, using 9-band ASTER multispectral imagery of 23.08.2007, field data and spectral unmixing algorithm. This type of algorithms intends to derive object and its abundance from a mixed pixel of multispectral imagery which can be further converted to object's projective cover. Atmospheric correction was applied to the imagery prior to spectral unmixing, and then pure spectra of Picea obovata were extracted from the image in 10 points and averaged. These points located in

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come.

  16. Estimating willingness to pay for environment conservation: a contingent valuation study of Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Yang, Zhaoping; Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate publics' willingness to pay (WTP) for environment conservation and analyze factors influencing WTP. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) was carried out at Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Seventy-three percent of the 412 respondents were willing to pay at different levels, and the mean WTP value was RMB 54.60 ($8.03). The results of this survey struck an optimistic note that publics were willing to contribute to improve environmental quality. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare the characteristics of those who were and were not willing to pay. Chi-square tests were administered to identify the relationships between various explanatory factors and WTP. Conclusions and implications of the empirical study can be provided to policy makers and site managers. In a wider sense, the findings of this study should make a good contribution to the literature related to WTP for environment conservation of natural attractions.

  17. [Construction of an indicator system for evaluating the protection efficacy of national nature reserves in China: A case study on terrestrial vertebrates (excluding migratory birds)].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-ying; Yang, Dao-de; Deng, Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Xian-yan; Wang, Wei; Li, Jun-sheng

    2015-05-01

    The protection efficacy of nature reserves is a key element in achieving targets of biodiversity conservation. It is therefore very important to develop a scientific, systematic, and accurate index system for evaluating the protection efficacy of national nature reserves in China. Using methods of frequency statistics, expert consultation, analytic hierarchy process, and demonstration survey, we present a novel index system for evaluating the protection efficacy of Chinese national nature reserves for terrestrial vertebrates (excluding migratory birds) over a 10-year period. The indicator system included one target layer, two system layers, nine factor layers, and forty index layers. The system layer included ecological effectiveness evaluation (with a score of 60%) and management effectiveness evaluation (score of 40%). The ecological effectiveness evaluation was a comprehensive, dynamic evaluation of the target species, population, habitat, and ecological system. The management effectiveness evaluation was focused on the effectiveness of patrol and monitoring. The additional part aimed to analyze the impact of humans on the target species, population and nature resources of the nature reserve. This study combined the ecological effectiveness evaluation and the management effectiveness evaluation for the first time, highlighted the importance of time and space changes, distinguished the influence of natural factors from human factors, and integrated them into the evaluation results. By emphasizing quantifiable indicators, this evaluation index system could vastly assist the protection of nature reserves by improving management effectiveness, biodiversity conservation, and macroscopic decision-making.

  18. Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, S M

    2008-08-01

    The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay river (34 degrees 11' 25" S and 58 degrees 15' 38" W). Monthly collections were made from July 2005 to July 2006 in the eastern part of the island (Arena Beach). The population of H. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. Two cohorts could be detected. The Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and Lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. The reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. Based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied.

  19. Biodiversity inventories in high gear: DNA barcoding facilitates a rapid biotic survey of a temperate nature reserve

    PubMed Central

    Young, Monica R; Quinn, Jenna; Perez, Kate; Sobel, Crystal N; Sones, Jayme E; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Derbyshire, Rachael; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Thevanayagam, Abinah; Boskovic, Adrian; Borisenko, Alex V; Cadel, Alex; Brown, Allison; Pages, Anais; Castillo, Anibal H; Nicolai, Annegret; Glenn Mockford, Barb Mockford; Bukowski, Belén; Wilson, Bill; Trojahn, Brock; Lacroix, Carole Ann; Brimblecombe, Chris; Hay, Christoper; Ho, Christmas; Steinke, Claudia; Warne, Connor P; Garrido Cortes, Cristina; Engelking, Daniel; Wright, Danielle; Lijtmaer, Dario A; Gascoigne, David; Hernandez Martich, David; Morningstar, Derek; Neumann, Dirk; Steinke, Dirk; Marco DeBruin, Donna DeBruin; Dobias, Dylan; Sears, Elizabeth; Richard, Ellen; Damstra, Emily; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Laberge, Frederic; Collins, Gemma E; Blagoev, Gergin A; Grainge, Gerrie; Ansell, Graham; Meredith, Greg; Hogg, Ian; McKeown, Jaclyn; Topan, Janet; Bracey, Jason; Guenther, Jerry; Sills-Gilligan, Jesse; Addesi, Joseph; Persi, Joshua; Layton, Kara K S; D'Souza, Kareina; Dorji, Kencho; Grundy, Kevin; Nghidinwa, Kirsti; Ronnenberg, Kylee; Lee, Kyung Min; Xie, Linxi; Lu, Liuqiong; Penev, Lyubomir; Gonzalez, Mailyn; Rosati, Margaret E; Kekkonen, Mari; Kuzmina, Maria; Iskandar, Marianne; Mutanen, Marko; Fatahi, Maryam; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Bauman, Miriam; Nikolova, Nadya; Ivanova, Natalia V; Jones, Nathaniel; Weerasuriya, Nimalka; Monkhouse, Norman; Lavinia, Pablo D; Jannetta, Paul; Hanisch, Priscila E; McMullin, R. Troy; Ojeda Flores, Rafael; Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Vender, Reid; Labbee, Renee N; Forsyth, Robert; Lauder, Rob; Dickson, Ross; Kroft, Ruth; Miller, Scott E; MacDonald, Shannon; Panthi, Sishir; Pedersen, Stephanie; Sobek-Swant, Stephanie; Naik, Suresh; Lipinskaya, Tatsiana; Eagalle, Thanushi; Decaëns, Thibaud; Kosuth, Thibault; Braukmann, Thomas; Woodcock, Tom; Roslin, Tomas; Zammit, Tony; Campbell, Victoria; Dinca, Vlad; Peneva, Vlada; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Comprehensive biotic surveys, or ‘all taxon biodiversity inventories’ (ATBI), have traditionally been limited in scale or scope due to the complications surrounding specimen sorting and species identification. To circumvent these issues, several ATBI projects have successfully integrated DNA barcoding into their identification procedures and witnessed acceleration in their surveys and subsequent increase in project scope and scale. The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario partnered with the rare Charitable Research Reserve and delegates of the 6th International Barcode of Life Conference to complete its own rapid, barcode-assisted ATBI of an established land trust in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. New information The existing species inventory for the rare Charitable Research Reserve was rapidly expanded by integrating a DNA barcoding workflow with two surveying strategies – a comprehensive sampling scheme over four months, followed by a one-day bioblitz involving international taxonomic experts. The two surveys resulted in 25,287 and 3,502 specimens barcoded, respectively, as well as 127 human observations. This barcoded material, all vouchered at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario collection, covers 14 phyla, 29 classes, 117 orders, and 531 families of animals, plants, fungi, and lichens. Overall, the ATBI documented 1,102 new species records for the nature reserve, expanding the existing long-term inventory by 49%. In addition, 2,793 distinct Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) were assigned to genus or higher level taxonomy, and represent additional species that will be added once their taxonomy is resolved. For the 3,502 specimens, the collection, sequence analysis, taxonomic assignment, data release and manuscript submission by 100+ co-authors all occurred in less than one week. This demonstrates the speed at which barcode-assisted inventories can be completed and the utility that barcoding provides in minimizing and guiding valuable taxonomic

  20. Biodiversity inventories in high gear: DNA barcoding facilitates a rapid biotic survey of a temperate nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Angela C; Young, Monica R; Quinn, Jenna; Perez, Kate; Sobel, Crystal N; Sones, Jayme E; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Derbyshire, Rachael; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Thevanayagam, Abinah; Boskovic, Adrian; Borisenko, Alex V; Cadel, Alex; Brown, Allison; Pages, Anais; Castillo, Anibal H; Nicolai, Annegret; Glenn Mockford, Barb Mockford; Bukowski, Belén; Wilson, Bill; Trojahn, Brock; Lacroix, Carole Ann; Brimblecombe, Chris; Hay, Christoper; Ho, Christmas; Steinke, Claudia; Warne, Connor P; Garrido Cortes, Cristina; Engelking, Daniel; Wright, Danielle; Lijtmaer, Dario A; Gascoigne, David; Hernandez Martich, David; Morningstar, Derek; Neumann, Dirk; Steinke, Dirk; Marco DeBruin, Donna DeBruin; Dobias, Dylan; Sears, Elizabeth; Richard, Ellen; Damstra, Emily; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Laberge, Frederic; Collins, Gemma E; Blagoev, Gergin A; Grainge, Gerrie; Ansell, Graham; Meredith, Greg; Hogg, Ian; McKeown, Jaclyn; Topan, Janet; Bracey, Jason; Guenther, Jerry; Sills-Gilligan, Jesse; Addesi, Joseph; Persi, Joshua; Layton, Kara K S; D'Souza, Kareina; Dorji, Kencho; Grundy, Kevin; Nghidinwa, Kirsti; Ronnenberg, Kylee; Lee, Kyung Min; Xie, Linxi; Lu, Liuqiong; Penev, Lyubomir; Gonzalez, Mailyn; Rosati, Margaret E; Kekkonen, Mari; Kuzmina, Maria; Iskandar, Marianne; Mutanen, Marko; Fatahi, Maryam; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Bauman, Miriam; Nikolova, Nadya; Ivanova, Natalia V; Jones, Nathaniel; Weerasuriya, Nimalka; Monkhouse, Norman; Lavinia, Pablo D; Jannetta, Paul; Hanisch, Priscila E; McMullin, R Troy; Ojeda Flores, Rafael; Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Vender, Reid; Labbee, Renee N; Forsyth, Robert; Lauder, Rob; Dickson, Ross; Kroft, Ruth; Miller, Scott E; MacDonald, Shannon; Panthi, Sishir; Pedersen, Stephanie; Sobek-Swant, Stephanie; Naik, Suresh; Lipinskaya, Tatsiana; Eagalle, Thanushi; Decaëns, Thibaud; Kosuth, Thibault; Braukmann, Thomas; Woodcock, Tom; Roslin, Tomas; Zammit, Tony; Campbell, Victoria; Dinca, Vlad; Peneva, Vlada; Hebert, Paul D N; deWaard, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive biotic surveys, or 'all taxon biodiversity inventories' (ATBI), have traditionally been limited in scale or scope due to the complications surrounding specimen sorting and species identification. To circumvent these issues, several ATBI projects have successfully integrated DNA barcoding into their identification procedures and witnessed acceleration in their surveys and subsequent increase in project scope and scale. The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario partnered with the rare Charitable Research Reserve and delegates of the 6th International Barcode of Life Conference to complete its own rapid, barcode-assisted ATBI of an established land trust in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. The existing species inventory for the rare Charitable Research Reserve was rapidly expanded by integrating a DNA barcoding workflow with two surveying strategies - a comprehensive sampling scheme over four months, followed by a one-day bioblitz involving international taxonomic experts. The two surveys resulted in 25,287 and 3,502 specimens barcoded, respectively, as well as 127 human observations. This barcoded material, all vouchered at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario collection, covers 14 phyla, 29 classes, 117 orders, and 531 families of animals, plants, fungi, and lichens. Overall, the ATBI documented 1,102 new species records for the nature reserve, expanding the existing long-term inventory by 49%. In addition, 2,793 distinct Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) were assigned to genus or higher level taxonomy, and represent additional species that will be added once their taxonomy is resolved. For the 3,502 specimens, the collection, sequence analysis, taxonomic assignment, data release and manuscript submission by 100+ co-authors all occurred in less than one week. This demonstrates the speed at which barcode-assisted inventories can be completed and the utility that barcoding provides in minimizing and guiding valuable taxonomic specialist time. The final product is

  1. The State of Health of Nature Reserves: A Case Study using the Fusion of Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filski, J.

    2012-04-01

    The primary dangers to nature reserves are from human activities such as oil spills, farming and urbanization. The relevance of fusion between high resolution hyperspectral reflectance data and Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data to determine the state of health of nature reserves is illustrated. The study area covers 0.384 square kilometers within the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge in the Big Bend region of the State of Florida's Gulf Coast in the United States of America. Hyperspectral processing and analysis is conducted using the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) 4.7 Service Pack 2. The materials with the top eight fractional abundances are investigated. Together, these bands represent over 95% of the full scene. Hyperspectral data ranging from 395 nm to 2,450 nm classifies geomorphologic features, primary vegetation types, and vegetation stress. The lidar data assists with feature identification and gauging vegetation roughness. Today's remote sensing sensors acquire ephemeris data concurrently with their image data to permit accurate georeferencing to map coordinates. Successful fusion between the hyperspectral and lidar data is achieved with the georeferencing capabilities of the ENVI software. The analysis of the fused data set reveals the main components shaping the study area's ecosystem as limestone, sea water intrusion and sunshine. The study area has three environments: a southernmost low-lying area closest to the Gulf of Mexico and therefore, frequently inundated by sea water where cordgrasses thrive; a middle transition zone that is more sea water-deprived and therefore more vulnerable to the damaging rays of the sun. It is here that the more resourceful but stressed black needlerush dominates; finally a northernmost area with higher elevations of exposed limestone that protects a robust deciduous forest. Deciduous trees also appear in the lower zones but only where there is sufficient limestone to form islands or hammocks to

  2. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediments from the Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve (the Sanmenxia section), China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qingli; Wang, Ruiling; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Wenlin; Li, Xudong

    2015-06-01

    The Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve (the Sanmenxia section) is an important area of the Yellow River for two important hydrologic gauging stations: the Sanmenxia reservoir and the Xiaolangdi reservoir. Seven sites along the section were selected: Jiziling, Dinghuwan, Houdi, Canglonghu, Shangcun, Wangguan, and Nancun. After the microwave digestion with aqua regia, concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn in the sediments were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The results showed that all the concentrations of Cr detected were from the lithogenic source, and 63 % Mn, 48 % Pb, 41 % Cu, 20 % Cd, and 12 % Zn were from the anthropogenic source. The values of the index of geo-accumulation pointed out that there was moderate contamination of Mn at the Dinghuwan (1.04) and Houdi (1.00) sites (class 2), while the modified degree of contamination denoted that the contamination at the Houdi site (2.02) was moderate, nil to very low at the Nancun and Shangcun sites and low at the other sites, consisting with the tendency of pollution load index. For metal toxicity, the sediment pollution index indicated that the sediments of the Canglonghu site were low polluted, that of the Houdi site is nearly slightly contaminated, and those of others were natural and uncontaminated. It was vital to evaluate the degree of contamination with individual and overall elements and even with the metal toxicity. Cu, Pb, and Mn contaminations were aggravated in the Sanmenxia section, and there maybe was one of the main anthropogenic sources of these metals along the Yellow River. The findings were expected to update the current status of the heavy metal pollution in the Sanmenxia section as well as to create awareness concerning the sound condition of the whole reaches of the Yellow River.

  3. The role of feral mammals on wildlife infectious disease prevalence in two nature reserves within Mexico City limits.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2005-09-01

    Wild and feral medium-sized mammals were live trapped at two natural protected areas within the Mexico City limits to determine antibody prevalence for the most common infectious diseases (rabies, toxoplasmosis, and canine parvovirus) in dogs and cats. Mammals were trapped during the dry (March-April) and rainy seasons (July-August) of 1996 and 1997. A total of 68 individuals were captured, representing 8 species: opossums (Didelphis virginiana), ringtails (Bassariscus astutus), spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), weasels (Mustela frenata), rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus), Mexican gray squirrels (Sciurus aureogaster), feral cats (Felis catus), and feral dogs (Canis familiaris). There was marked seroprevalence for parvovirus (86.6%) and lower seroprevalences for both toxoplasma (23.9%) and rabies (17.9%). There were no significant prevalence differences among mammals in both protected areas, which were of contrasting size and isolation (i.e., small and isolated versus large and nonisolated). We suggest that high seroprevalence of these three infectious agents in wild mammals is a result of the high densities of feral dogs and cats in the two areas sampled. Feral dogs are able to maintain the infectious agents in these localities regardless of the protected area size and isolation. However, the native mammals of the small and isolated reserve are more vulnerable to infectious diseases because of small population size and genetic bottlenecks. Our results indicate that natural areas in and around Mexico City are a refugium for latent infectious agents, several of which are zoonotic. These findings suggest that conservation measures, such as eradication of feral mammals and vaccination programs, in the protected areas and surrounding areas could be beneficial.

  4. Association of ectomycorrhizal fungi with Picea crassifolia (Pinaceae, Piceoidae) from high-altitude stands in Mount Helan Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y J; Grebenc, T; Wei, J; Zhao, Y L; Yan, W; Wang, L B

    2016-09-02

    We investigated the diversity of ectomycorrhiza associated with the endemic Picea crassifolia in Mount Helan National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. Toward this objective, we conducted morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae in soil cubes taken from pure P. crassifolia stands. Eleven types of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) organisms were separated, briefly described, and identified. Nine morphotypes belonged to the phylum Basidiomycotina [Amphinema byssoides, Cortinarius sp (cf. limonius), Cortinarius vernus, Inocybe cf. nitidiscula, Inocybe sp 1, Sebacina incrustans, Sebacina sp, Suillus luteus, and Piceirhiza tuberculata x Picea crassifolia (comb. Nov.)], and two morphotypes to the phylum Ascomycotina (Cenococcum geophilum and Helvella sp). The diversity of ECM organisms in P. crassifolia was lower than that reported by other studies on spruce or pine forests, or on sporocarp diversity in the high-mountain forests of China. Most of the fungi in the rhizosphere did not correspond to species previously recorded as sporocarps above ground. Here, several new ectomycorrhiza morphotypes are proposed and described. We also confirmed the ectomycorrhizal status of the genus Sebacina (order Sebacinales).

  5. Mapping Porosity Structure Offshore Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve and Del Mar, California Using a Surface Towed EM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas Patrick

    Controlled source electromagnetic methods have been used in exploration of the offshore environment for over 50 years to map the resistivity structure of the earth. Developments in both instrumentation and computational power have lead to many advancements that have led to discoveries and insights about the subsurface. One of these advancements has been the development of towed EM acquisition systems. One system the Marine EM Lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has developed is a shallow water system, named Porpoise, can be used in water depths as shallow as 5m. In May of 2014, a one day field test of this new shallow water acquisition system took place offshore of Del Mar and Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, California. The data from this field test corresponds with previous interpretations of paleochannels directly offshore modern day San Dieguito and Soledad Valley river outflows. With resistivity data, it is possible to indirectly map porosity in the near surface and to map geological features. The data dense and economical operation of the Porpoise acquisition system can be used to map resistivity and indirectly porosity in a variety of shallow water marine environments. This field test proves the viability and limitations of the Porpoise system.

  6. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum’s oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10–30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900–1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski’s horses rest and forage in these areas. PMID:26621549

  7. Maternal responses to dead infants in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tengfei; Ren, Baoping; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Yunbing; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    How a nonhuman primate mother responds to her dead infant is an indication of maternal behavior and perspectives on death. Here we describe three cases of a mother's response toward her dead infant in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. The mother, whose infant died at 1 month of age, showed strong maternal affection to the corpse and carried it for 4 days. A mother with a stillborn infant showed similar maternal behavior to her dead offspring, but only held it for 1 day. The mother of an aborted infant abandoned the carcass without carrying it or displaying other forms of maternal behavior. Our results suggest that the mother-infant bond in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is strongly influenced by the infants' age. Postdeath infant-carrying behavior could be affected by the combined action of reproductive hormones and the emotional response of the mother. This manuscript represents the first detailed report of a mother carrying her dead infant in this endangered monkey species.

  8. Comparison of phosphorus fractions and phosphatase activities in coastal wetland soils along vegetation zones of Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lidong; Zhang, Yaohong; Shi, Yiming; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Lin; Yan, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractions and phosphatase activities were measured in 22 coastal wetland soils with typical vegetation successions in Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China. P forms and phosphatase activities varied greatly from site to site even under the same vegetation cover. NH4Cl-P, bicarbonate/dithionite extracted P and NaOH-P were remarkably higher (p < 0.05) in soils with exotic invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora, than in soils with the native species Suaeda salsa, Scirpus mariquete and Phragmites australis. HCl-P and refractory P showed little variation. No significant differences were detected for either alkaline phosphatase (ALAP) or acid phosphatase (ACAP) among the soils. All of the above properties were much higher in soils with plant growth compared to bare flat soils. Regression analysis demonstrated that organic matter (OM), Al, Ca, Fe and total P (TP) were able to explain more than 70% of the variations in the P fractions (except 29% of NH4Cl-P), and OM was the most important contributing factor. ALAP and ACAP were irrelevant to P but were significantly related to TOC, suggesting that carbon was a limiting factor for P mineralization in this area. Owing to its huge biomass and densities, Spartina alterniflora displayed great potential for carbon input, thus facilitating P mineralization and cycling. The results enhance our understanding of P availability differences in this area covered by invasive and native vegetation.

  9. Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV.

  10. Calodromius bifasciatus and other Carabidae on 26 oak-trunks in a nature reserve in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ron; van Wielink, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of Calodromius bifasciatus in the nature reserve ‘De Kaaistoep’, the Netherlands, initiated research on this and related carabid beetles between 2000 and 2006. During this period we investigated the trunks of 26 Pedunculate oaks, mainly during nightly observations, to learn more about arboricolous carabid species. We observed more than 3000 specimens of 24 carabid species. The majority of these species were Dromius s.l., however Calodromius bifasciatus dominated the dataset. Our data on phenology clearly show that Calodromius bifasciatus is mainly active in winter; it even copulates just above freezing point. Other interesting observations were made as well; for instance the presence of a small sphere at the end of the abdomen and their hiding behaviour at low temperatures. Subsequently, we obtained similar information about other tree dwelling carabid species. In this article we present an overview of all species observed on the trunks, after which we shall focus on the observations made on Calodromius bifasciatus. PMID:21738432

  11. [Climatic effects on radial growth of Korean pines with different bark forms in Liangshui Natural Reserve, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Mao, Zi-Jun; Li, Yue; Li, Xing-Huan; Liu, Rui-Peng; Huang, Wei; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Dendrochronological techniques including correlation functions and single-years analysis were used to study the relationship between the two kinds of Korean pine radial growth in Liangshui Natural Reserve and climatic variables, and to assess the similarities and differences between Korean pine with coarse bark (Pinus koraiensis forma pachidermis) and fine bark (Pinus koraiensis forma leptodermis) in response to climate factors, the main affecting factors and whether the response relationship could be of long-term stability. The results showed that the Korean pine with fine bark was more suitable for dendrochronological study. The radial growth of the two kinds of Korean pine was very sensitive to environmental variables and their climate responses had no significant differ- ences. From 1902 to 2009, meteorological factors in the growing season, especially in June were the primary factors affecting the radial growth of the two kinds of Korean pine in the study area. The temperature showed a significant negative correlation and the precipitation showed a significant positive correlation. The Korean pine growing in different periods had a significantly different iresponse to meteorological factors. With the rapid rise of temperature and drought after 1970, the radial growth of the two kinds of Korean pine was more sensitive to the meteorological factors than before, which was especially more sensitive to temperature in growing season and PDSI in many seasons.

  12. [Interspecies covariation analysis of dominant tree species in secondary succession of forest communities in Heishiding Natural Reserve, Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianye; Wang, Bosun; Li, Mingguang; Chen, Zhanghe

    2004-03-01

    Based on a 2 x 2 contingency table, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and Spearman rank correlation coefficient were used to analyses the interspecies covariation of dominant tree species in different communities of secondary succession series in Heishiding Natural Reserve, Guangdong Province. In early succession stage, 14 pairs of tree species showed a significant interspecies covariation, and 9 pairs of species showed a negative coraviation, indicating that the species pairs needed the same habitats, while five pairs of species showed a positive covariation, which indicated that the species pairs needed different habitats. In the stage of needle broad-leaved mixed forest, only 5 pairs of species showed a significant interspecies covariation, and they were all positive covariation, which indicated the main species needed the same habitats and the interspecies competition were going. In the stage of evergreen broadleaved forest dominated by heliophytes, 4 pairs of species showed a significant interspecies covariation, which was the least one in secondary succession series. Three pairs of them showed a positive covariation. It was the result of interspecies competition that the species pairs needed the same habitats. In the stage of evergreen broadleaved forest dominated by mesophytes, 20 pairs of species showed a significant interspecies covariation, which was the most one in secondary succession series. Nineteen pairs of them showed a positive covariation. It showed positive covariation between species in upper tree layer and in middle or lower tree layer, but dominant species in upper tree layer had no significant interspecies covariation.

  13. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  14. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  15. Correlating rodent community structure with ecological integrity, Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, Free State province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Avenant, Nico L; Cavallini, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Rodents form a vital component of Free State ecosystems and monitoring them may be a relatively quick and inexpensive method of indicating healthy or unhealthy ecosystem functioning. Using removal trapping, we have studied rodent seasonal abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, and evenness of rodents in four habitats in the Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, inspected the most successful sampling method for these habitats, and report on their community structure and how it is related to an Ecological Index (≅ EI value of grassland). Both species richness and Shannon diversity increased significantly with EI value. The indicator species Mastomys coucha occurred at all plots, but contributed the largest proportion of the total captures (ca. 80%) at the plot with lowest EI value. Other results important for small mammal monitoring and collecting are that trap success and species richness was highest in autumn. This study also confirms that four days and nights continuous trapping is essential for the effective sampling of rodent communities in Free State grasslands. Our results partially support expectations that the number of specialist species increases with succession, M. coucha dominance acts as an indicator of habitat disturbance, rodent species richness conforms to Tilman's hump-shaped curve model, and adds to a baseline of diversity indices in a variety of grassland habitats.

  16. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  17. Wild plant folk nomenclature of the Mongol herdsmen in the Arhorchin national nature reserve, Inner Mongolia, PR China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Folk names of plants are the root of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. In pace with social change and economic development, Mongolian knowledge concerning plant diversity is gradually vanishing. Collection and analysis of Mongolian folk names of plants is extremely important. During 2008 to 2012, the authors have been to the Arhorchin National Nature Reserve area 5 times. Fieldwork was done in 13 villages, with 56 local Mongol herdsmen being interviewed. This report documents plant folk names, analyzes the relationship between folk names and scientific names, looks at the structure and special characteristics of folk names, plant use information, and comparative analysis were also improved. Methods Ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires were used. Ethnobotanical interview and voucher specimen collection were carried out in two ways as local plant specimens were collected beforehand and then used in interviews, and local Mongol herdsmen were invited to the field and interviewed while collecting voucher specimens. Mongolian oral language was used as the working language and findings were originally recorded in Mongolian written language. Scientific names of plants are defined through collection and identification of voucher specimens by the methods of plant taxonomy. Results A total of 146 folk names of local plants are recorded. Plant folk names corresponded with 111 species, 1 subspecies, 7 varieties, 1 form, which belong to 42 families and 88 genera. The correspondence between plant folk names and scientific names may be classified as one to one correspondence, two or three to one correspondence, and one to multitude correspondence. The structure of folk names were classified as primary names, secondary names and borrowed names. There were 12 folk names that contain animal names and they have correspondence with 15 species. There are nine folk names that contain usage information and they have

  18. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  19. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R.; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  20. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  1. [The correlations between population of Oriental white stork and climate change in the Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Miao, Lu-Jun; Li, Yan-Kuo; Li, Jia; Xie, Guang-Yong; Yuan, Fang-Kai

    2013-12-01

    This study analyzed the population dynamics of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) wintering in the Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve (PLNNR) from 1985 to 2011, to see if there was any relationship with climate change. Testing of several climate variables-monthly average temperature, monthly average maximum and minimum temperature, as well as monthly precipitation-indicated that the population size of the Oriental white stork in the PLNNR was 1,340±178 ind., with significant linear increase and drastic annual fluctuation. Every single year, the population size only significantly correlated with the average minimum temperature of Nov. In theory, the low temperature of Nov. could drive individuals to choose other wetlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, instead of the Poyang Lake as wintering habitats. Meanwhile, temperatures in wintering areas also showed a carry-over effect on subsequent population size. Temperatures in primary stage and later stage of wintering period were significantly correlated with population size 2-9 years later, while the temperature of Oct. was highly significantly correlated with population size 2-5 years after. Temperatures of Feb. and Mar. in the later stage of wintering period were highly significantly correlated with population size of 8 and 3 years after, respectively. Moreover, the stepwise linear regression result showed that the average maximum temperature of Oct. and average maximum temperature of Mar. 2 years ago, as well as the average maximum temperature of Oct. and the average temperature of Mar. 4 years ago were significant predictor factors of the population size fluctuation of the Oriental white stork, which totally accounted for 79.2% of the population size change.

  2. Forest Structure, Stand Composition, and Climate-Growth Response in Montane Forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Schwartz, Ari C.; Williams, John N.; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

  3. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal.

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Poeta, Patrícia; Pinto, Luís; Miranda, Júlio; Coelho, Céline; Carvalho, Carlos; Rodrigues, Jorge; López, María; Torres, Carmen; Vitorino, Rui; Domingues, Pedro; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2010-09-21

    Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans) of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%). For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%), followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%), and E. hirae (6.3%). VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M) gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B) gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring (MALDI/TOF MS) and their identification

  4. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans) of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. Results From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%). For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%), followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%), and E. hirae (6.3%). VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M) gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B) gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring (MALDI/TOF MS) and their

  5. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present

  6. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  7. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a mountain range 480 km-long and up to 2,648 m altitude (Torre Cerredo Peak) trending parallel to the Cantabrian Coastline between Pyrenees and the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (~43oN 5oW). This mountain range is an outstanding area to research the climatic patterns across South Europe during the Quaternary glaciations since well-preserved glacial features evidence the occurrence of past mountain glaciations in a climatic environment marked by the transition from a maritime climate (Atlantic) to Mediterranean one across the mountain range. The available studies in the Cantabrian Mountains stand that the regional glacial maximum recorded here is prior to ca 38, and that glaciers were in some locations remarkably retreated by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., in press; Serrano et al., in press). This study is focused on an area about 800 km2 that includes 36 peaks over 2,000 m (Pico Mampodre; 2,192 m) and partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A geomorphologic database in ArcGIS was produced for this area as a previous step to reconstruct in detail the extent, flow pattern and chronology of the former glaciers (PhD under progress). Here we present a selection of 18 glacial geomorphosites classified according to genetic criteria in sites that show: (i) a nicely preserved moraine sequence recording the transition from glacial to periglacial conditions; (ii) glacial erosion features; (iii) glacial and ice related deposits (like moraines, ice-dammed deposits, erratic boulders or fluvio-glacial deposits); (iv) slope instability related to glacial debuttressing (complex landslides and rock avalanches); and (v) the interaction between the landscape and human activity. The interest of the geomorphosites is supported by its good quality of preservation, allowing its use as a basis to reconstruct the glacial and paraglacial processes in this region during

  8. Changes in vegetative coverage of the Hongze Lake national wetland nature reserve: a decade-long assessment using MODIS medium-resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Hu, Chuanmin

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems on Earth. However, global wetland coverage is being reduced due to both anthropogenic and natural effects. Thus, assessment of temporal changes in vegetative coverage, as a measure of the wetland health, is critical to help implement effective management plans and provide inputs for climate-related research. In this work, 596 moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m resolution images of the Hongze Lake national wetland nature reserve from 2000 to 2009 were used to study the vegetative coverage (above the water surface) of the reserve. Three vegetation indices [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced VI (EVI), and floating algae index (FAI)] were compared to evaluate their effectiveness in assessing relative changes. FAI was less sensitive than NDVI and EVI to aerosol effects and showed less statistical error than NDVI and EVI. Long-term FAI data revealed clear seasonal cycles in vegetative coverage in the 113-km2 core area of the reserve, with annual maximal coverage relatively stable after 2004. This suggests that the national wetland nature reserve was well protected through the study period. However, vegetative coverage decreased due to the flooding event in 2003. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that annual sunshine duration collectively played a significant role in affecting the wetland vegetative coverage.

  9. Mapping Prevalence and Incidence of Coral Disease in reef-building corals at two Natural Reserves of the Southwest Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Viruet, I.; Irizarry-Soto, E.; Ruiz-Valentín, I.

    2016-02-01

    Coral diseases seems to be the main cause of coral reef decline in the Caribbean. Before the bleaching event of 2005, coral reefs in Puerto Rico were dominated by the reef-building taxa: Orbicella annularis, Porites astreoides, Montastrea cavernosa, Agaricia agaracites and Colpophyllia natans. After the event, live-coral cover significantly declined and more than 90% of the scleractinian corals in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico showed signals of thermal stressors. The prevalence of coral diseases in five reef-building coral (Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Orbicella faveolata, Porites porites and Pseudiploria strigosa) species was assessed by tagging, photographing, and mapping all diseased and healthy colonies within 10 permanent 40m2 band transects at each inshore and mid-shelf reefs of Belvedere and Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserves using a random stratified sampling method. Maximum and perpendicular diameter was used to assess coral size using Coral Point Count with Excel Extension. Corals were classified into three size class populations (class I: 0-50cm, class II: 50-100cm and class III: >100 cm). Data was used to develop a GIS-based map containing coral species, size and disease presence. Preliminary results of the inshore area showed a higher disease prevalence in Belvedere natural reserve and for P. strigosa (17.1%) and O. annularis (9.3%). Frequency distribution analysis showed a dominance of O. faveolata at Punta Guaniquilla and Belvedere (127 and 88 individuals respectively). Size class I dominates the distribution of each species within the natural reserves with a higher disease prevalence. Future work include continue prevalence surveys of the outer reef shelf on both natural reserves, monitoring and GIS-based mapping of incidence and resilience through time. This study will help in the assessment of the status of the coral reef of the southwest insular platform.

  10. Gathering "tea"--from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria).

    PubMed

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2012-08-13

    Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man's relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people's knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve's natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association's informal guidelines for gathering reflect people's attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people's appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people's regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable conservation and use of the Biosphere Reserve

  11. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, L.R.; Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G.

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  12. High-resolution forest mapping for behavioural studies in the Nature Reserve ‘Les Nouragues’, French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, Max; Mangione, Rosanna; Pašukonis, Andrius; Rainer, Gerhard; Gyimesi, Kristin; Felling, Julia; Kronaus, Hannes; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Chave, Jérôme; Reiter, Karl; Ringler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    For animals with spatially complex behaviours at relatively small scales, the resolution of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver location is often below the resolution needed to correctly map animals’ spatial behaviour. Natural conditions such as canopy cover, canyons or clouds can further degrade GPS receiver reception. Here we present a detailed, high-resolution map of a 4.6 ha Neotropical river island and a 8.3 ha mainland plot with the location of every tree >5 cm DBH and all structures on the forest floor, which are relevant to our study species, the territorial frog Allobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae). The map was derived using distance- and compass-based survey techniques, rooted on dGPS reference points, and incorporates altitudinal information based on a LiDAR survey of the area. PMID:27053943

  13. Trace metals in oysters, Crassotrea sps., from UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai: space-time observations and source identification.

    PubMed

    Raposo, J C; Bartolomé, L; Cortazar, E; Arana, G; Zabaljauregui, M; de Diego, A; Zuloaga, O; Madariaga, J M; Etxebarria, N

    2009-08-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations of oyster tissues (Crassostea sps.) was studied. The samples were collected between 2002 and 2004 along the Urdaibai estuary (Murueta, Kanala and Arteaga). The seasonal influence on some metal concentrations (higher values in spring-summer season than in autumn-winter season) is more pronounced than the local site-specific influence. Furthermore, within each location a significant time-specific dependence on the trace metal concentration variations can be detected. Substantially higher concentrations of Zn (445.5-2,403.3 mg kg(-1)) and Mn (29.4-169.6 mg kg(-1)) were recorded in oysters inhabiting estuarine locations, possibly indicating a markedly higher natural bioavailability at these locations. Principal component analysis demonstrated that oysters could be separated depending on the inhabiting areas: Sn for Murueta, essential metals for Kanala, and Co and Cd for Arteaga sampling points, respectively.

  14. Parasitism of Odonata by Arrenurus (Acari: Hydrachnidia) larvae in the Lake Świdwie, nature reserve (NW Poland).

    PubMed

    Zawal, Andrzej; Buczyński, Paweł

    2013-12-01

    Larvae of a vast majority of water mite species are parasites of aquatic insects. Owing to this, they migrate to new localities, and are able to survive unfavourable environmental conditions. This also concerns species from subgenus Arrenurus s. str., parasites of dragonflies. The detailed analysis of this phenomenon, however, has only been possible in the last several years, since the key to the identification of larvae from genus Arrenurus Dug. was published. In 2010, the parasitism of Arrenurus s. str. larvae on dragonflies in the Lake Świdwie reserve (NW Poland) was analysed. Larvae of 9 species of water mites were recorded on 107 imagines of dragonflies from 8 species. The following were identified as hosts of water mites for the first time: Anax imperator, Libellula quadrimaculata, and Leucorrhinia caudalis. The highest prevalence occurred in the case of: Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas (100%), Coenagrion pulchellum (96.5%), and C. puella (80.0%). Coenagrion pulchellum was infested by 9 species of parasites, C. puella by 6, and Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas by three species. The highest number of host species occurred in the case of Arrenurus maculator (5); followed by A. cuspidator, A. batillifer cf., A. bicuspidator, and A. tetracyphus (3 each); A. papillator, A. tricuspidator, and A. bruzelii (2 each), and A. claviger (1). Differentiation of preferences of particular parasites towards various parts of the host body was observed, probably related to the coevolution of parasites and hosts, and competition between the host species. The body sizes of the parasites suggest that approximately 50% of body size growth of water mites from subgenus Arrenurus s. str. occurs at the stage of parasitic larva.

  15. Social Tolerance in Wild Female Crested Macaques (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Micheletta, Jérôme; Agil, Muhammad; Hodges, Keith; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    In primates, females typically drive the evolution of the social system and present a wide diversity of social structures. To understand this diversity, it is necessary to document the consistency and/or flexibility of female social structures across and within species, contexts, and environments. Macaques (Macaca sp.) are an ideal taxon for such comparative study, showing both consistency and variation in their social relations. Their social styles, constituting robust sets of social traits, can be classified in four grades, from despotic to tolerant. However, tolerant species are still understudied, especially in the wild. To foster our understanding of tolerant societies and to assess the validity of the concept of social style, we studied female crested macaques, Macaca nigra, under entirely natural conditions. We assessed their degree of social tolerance by analyzing the frequency, intensity, and distribution of agonistic and affiliative behaviors, their dominance gradient, their bared-teeth display, and their level of conciliatory tendency. We also analyzed previously undocumented behavioral patterns in grade 4 macaques: reaction upon approach and distribution of affiliative behavior across partners. We compared the observed patterns to data from other populations of grade 4 macaques and from species of other grades. Overall, female crested macaques expressed a tolerant social style, with low intensity, frequently bidirectional, and reconciled conflicts. Dominance asymmetry was moderate, associated with an affiliative bared-teeth display. Females greatly tolerated one another in close proximity. The observed patterns matched the profile of other tolerant macaques and were outside the range of patterns of more despotic species. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of females’ social behavior in a tolerant macaque species under natural conditions and as such, contributes to a better understanding of macaque societies. It also highlights the

  16. Water Surface and Volume Monitoring over Yangtze: Water Stock Monitoring of Sha Hu and Da Hu Shi within the Poyang Lake Natural Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, M.; Fruteau, L.; Izem, A.; Huber, C.; Giraud, H.; Haouet, S.; Yesou, H.

    2016-08-01

    On the continuity of Poyang Lake's water surfaces monitoring, started 15 years ago, a next step concerns the Poyang Lake water volume estimation thanks to the intersection of water surfaces with a Digital Surface Model (DSM). Thanks to the Thematic User Commissioning for the Pleiades-HR valorization program of the French Space Agency (CNES) and to the German Space Agency (DLR) for an access to Pleiades-HR and Tandem-X imagery respectively, new VHR DSMs over Poyang Lake Natural Reserve were generated.

  17. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue

  18. Can we predict age at natural menopause using ovarian reserve tests or mother's age at menopause? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Depmann, Martine; Broer, Simone L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Tehrani, Fahimeh R; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Mol, Ben W; Broekmans, Frank J

    2016-02-01

    This review aimed to appraise data on prediction of age at natural menopause (ANM) based on antimüllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), and mother's ANM to evaluate clinical usefulness and to identify directions for further research. We conducted three systematic reviews of the literature to identify studies of menopause prediction based on AMH, AFC, or mother's ANM, corrected for baseline age. Six studies selected in the search for AMH all consistently demonstrated AMH as being capable of predicting ANM (hazard ratio, 5.6-9.2). The sole study reporting on mother's ANM indicated that AMH was capable of predicting ANM (hazard ratio, 9.1-9.3). Two studies provided analyses of AFC and yielded conflicting results, making this marker less strong. AMH is currently the most promising marker for ANM prediction. The predictive capacity of mother's ANM demonstrated in a single study makes this marker a promising contributor to AMH for menopause prediction. Models, however, do not predict the extremes of menopause age very well and have wide prediction interval. These markers clearly need improvement before they can be used for individual prediction of menopause in the clinical setting. Moreover, potential limitations for such use include variations in AMH assays used and a lack of correction for factors or diseases affecting AMH levels or ANM. Future studies should include women of a broad age range (irrespective of cycle regularity) and should base predictions on repeated AMH measurements. Furthermore, currently unknown candidate predictors need to be identified.

  19. [Anuran richness and composition in the Eastern region of Iberá Wetlands Provincial Nature Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina].

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Ingaramo María; Etchepare, Eduardo Gabriel; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz; Porcel, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    In recent decades, the concern for biodiversity conservation has increased in importance, especially due to the loss of highly biodiverse natural areas such as wetlands. Despite the high fauna diversity inhabiting the Iberá, the information about its composition, structure and dynamics is scarce, and amphibians are typical and conspicuous representatives of these Neotropical areas. To generate new information about this group, the amphibian composition from two villages (Paraje Galarza and Colonia Carlos Pellegrini), belonging to two different fitogeographic regions in the Eastern edge of the Iberá, were described and compared. Samples were taken, from a respective area of 100km2 that included five landscape units (wetlands, streams and swamps, grasslands, forest and a permanent/temporal pond) each, during the four seasons between January 2007 and March 2008. The techniques applied were the Complete Species Inventories (Unrestricted direct search) and Visual Encounter Surveys (VES). A total of 28 species were found, and represented the 70% of the previously registered taxa for the whole wetland. Scinax similis and Rhinella azarai were recorded for the first time in the Iberá Wetlands. No significant differences were found in the anuran specific richness between the surveyed villages, since the 95% of confidence intervals for the species accumulation curves were superimposed. In both villages, the wetlands, streams and swamps, and the permanent pond landscapes, showed the higher species richness when compared to the others. According to the Chao2, Jacknifel and ICE estimators, the inventory completeness of species, oscillated among 88% and 98% for the whole area. The dendrogram analysis based on the Jaccard similarity index, showed that wetlands, streams and swamps were grouped and well separated from grasslands. To guarantee the conservation of the high anuran richness that inhabit the Iberá Wetland, we recommend that representative areas of each landscape must

  20. The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species. PMID:22536110

  1. The use of thiafentanil oxalate and azaperone for reversible immobilisation of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) within a nature reserve - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Venter, Diederik Jacobus; Luyt, Eustatius Du Chavoux; Raath, Cobus

    2015-03-01

    Although thiafentanil oxalate has been widely used for wildlife immobilisation on different species, no report has been published about its usefulness on African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Thirty-four African buffaloes were successfully immobilised at Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa in July 2013. The animals were kept in bomas of the nature reserve. The purpose of the immobilisation was to provide opportunity for microchip implantation, ear tag placement, intradermal tuberculin test and blood sampling. All animals were immobilised with thiafentanil oxalate 6 mg/animal (0.007-0.01 mg/kg) and azaperone 40 mg/animal (0.07-0.04 mg/kg) using Dan-inject darts and gun. The opioid reversal agent naltrexone hydrochloride 60 mg/animal (0.07-0.1 mg/kg) was given intravenously to the ear vein. The mean induction time was 3.9 ± 0.2 min, the recovery time was 1.65 ± 0.87 min. The results of the present study indicate that thiafentanil oxalate, this low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combined with azaperone provides fast induction and smooth recovery. The authors recommend this drug combination as a reliable immobilising regimen for African buffalo.

  2. Simulation of the spatial stresses due to territorial land development on Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve using a GIS-based assessment model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baolei; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Qingyu; Cui, Bohao; Zhang, Shumin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the stresses from land development in or around Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR) and identifying the impacted areas. Major land development types (reservoirs, pond, aquafarm, salt pan, road, residential land, industry land, farming land, and fishing land) in or around the YRDNR from 1995 to 2014 were identified using spatial data sets derived from remote sensing imageries. The spatial stresses were simulated by considering disturbance due to land development activities and accessibility of disturbance using a geographic information system based model. The stresses were then used to identify the impacted area by land development (IALD). The results indicated that main increasing land development types in the study area from 1995 to 2014 were salt pan and construction land. The 98.2% of expanded land development area and 93.7% of increased pump number showed a good control of reserve function zone on land development spread. The spatial stress values and percentages of IALD increased from 1995 to 2014, and IALD percentage exceeded 50% for both parts of YRDNR in 2014. The results of this study also provided the information that detailed planning of the YRDNR (2014-2020) could decrease the spatial stress and IALD percentage of the whole YRDNR on the condition that the area of land development activities increased by 24.4 km(2) from 2014 to 2020. Effective measures should be taken to protect such areas from being further disturbed in order to achieve the goal of a more effective conservation of the YRDNR, and attention should be paid to the disordered land development activities in or around the natural reserves.

  3. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depth<1m, no canopy coverage of trees and shrubs) was significantly higher at the sites with increased biomass of green algae (p<0.05), climate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution.

  4. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man’s relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people’s knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Methods Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. Results In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve’s natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association’s informal guidelines for gathering reflect people’s attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people’s appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Conclusions Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people’s regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable

  5. Short-term losses and long-term gains: The non-native species Austrominius modestus in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. C.; Culloty, S. C.; Davenport, J.; Harman, L.; Jessopp, M. J.; Kerrigan, C.; Murray, C.; O'Riordan, R. M.; McAllen, R.

    2017-05-01

    The non-native barnacle species Austrominius modestus was first recorded in Ireland, close to Lough Hyne marine nature reserve in 1957. This species was not recorded inside the Lough until 1980, but by 2001 was the dominant intertidal barnacle within the reserve. It has been suggested that increases in the abundance of this species at other locations in Europe may be linked to increasing sea surface temperatures, and that A. modestus is an ;ecological sleeper;. Despite an overall trend for increasing sea surface temperatures, this long term warming is punctuated by extreme events such as severely cold winters. A. modestus is warm water adapted, and has been recorded to decrease in abundance following cold winters. The winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were amongst the coldest recorded in Ireland in past decades. In the present study, higher levels of mortality were recorded for A. modestus than native barnacle species in Lough Hyne following these cold winters. Additionally, this species was recorded at lower abundances at the majority of sites surveyed in Lough Hyne in 2011 compared with 2009. Despite this, A. modestus remains the dominant barnacle species in the Lough and monitoring the recruitment of intertidal barnacles within Lough Hyne during 2014-2015 revealed that A. modestus was the most abundant recruit at study sites, both in removal plots and in the pre-existing community. The year-round breeding of A. modestus in addition to the closed nature of the Lough promotes A. modestus within the reserve. Despite this, native barnacle species continue to persist in Lough Hyne, though generally at low abundances, with the exception of exposed locations such as the Rapids and Bullock Island where natives outnumber A. modestus. The future intertidal barnacle community within the Lough is likely to be dominated by A. modestus with Chthamalus montagui and C. stellatus being abundant at sites which are not suitable for A. modestus. While the consequences of this are

  6. Molecular identification of the trematode Paragonimus in faecal samples from the wild cat Prionailurus bengalensis in the Da Krong Nature Reserve, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Tu, L A; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    Conventional identification of Paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts is based on the morphological features of adult parasites isolated from the lungs of wild mammalian hosts. However, wild animals are protected by strict regulations and sampling is not always possible. Recently, molecular techniques have been developed to identify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Paragonimus eggs in faeces/sputum of human patients. Also, mammalian hosts can be identified using the D-loop sequence of mitochondrial DNA in faecal samples. In this study, we used molecular techniques on faeces from wild animals collected in Da Krong Nature Reserve, Quang Tri province, central Vietnam, where Paragonimus metacercariae are highly prevalent in mountain crabs, to identify Paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts. The results indicated that wild cats, Prionailurus bengalensis, were infected with at least three different Paragonimus species, P. westermani, P. skrjabini and P. heterotremus. Because all of these species can infect humans in Asian countries, human paragonimiasis should be considered in this area.

  7. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  8. New and little known Orthoptera (Ensifera and Caelifera) from the Ñambí River Natural Reserve, Nariño, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Bacca, Tito

    2016-09-09

    A preliminary checklist of the Orthopterans from the Ñambí River Natural reserve is presented. A total of 26 species were studied, five new species are herein described: Championica nambiensis n. sp., Cocconotus awa n. sp., Cocconotus levyi n. sp. (Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae), Antillicharis kwaiker n. sp. (Gryllidae) and Brachybaenus nariniensis n. sp. (Gryllacrididae). Three species are recorded from Colombia for the first time (Legua crenulata, Uvaroviella (Holacla) nebulosa and Anabropsis alata) and seven species are new records for Nariño department (Allotettix peruvianus, Ripipteryx ecuadoriensis, Neoconocephalus affinis, Anaulacomera poculigera, Orophus conspersus, Orophus tessellatus and Neocurtilla hexadactyla). Further comments on species distribution and taxonomy are given.

  9. A nonlinear model for assessing multiple probabilistic risks: a case study in South five-island of Changdao National Nature Reserve in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Long; Zhang, Jie

    2007-12-01

    Several methods for estimating the potential impacts caused by multiple probabilistic risks have been suggested. These existing methods mostly rely on the weight sum algorithm to address the need for integrated risk assessment. This paper develops a nonlinear model to perform such an assessment. The joint probability algorithm has been applied to the model development. An application of the developed model in South five-island of Changdao National Nature Reserve, China, combining remote sensing data and a GIS technique, provides a reasonable risk assessment. Based on the case study, we discuss the feasibility of the model. We propose that the model has the potential for use in identifying the regional primary stressor, investigating the most vulnerable habitat, and assessing the integrated impact of multiple stressors.

  10. Comparative analysis of two edaphic zoocoenoses (Oribatid mites and Carabid beetles) in five habitats of the 'Pietraporciana' and 'Lucciolabella' Nature Reserves (Orcia Valley, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Petrioli, Andrea; Bernini, Fabio

    2002-12-01

    Oribatid mite and Carabid beetle communities were investigated at five sites in the 'Pietraporciana' and 'Lucciolabella' Nature Reserves (central Italy). In this part of southern Tuscany many attempts have been made to encourage the regeneration of native habitats and to preserve existing ones. Human-induced changes in the original forest landscape have had a direct impact on mite and carabid populations. Significant differences in species diversity and abundance among different sites were revealed throughout the sampling period. Species richness, abundance and diversity of oribatid mites decrease from woodland sites to open habitats where evenness was high. There is an inverse trend between the number of species and richness of carabid beetles and those of oribatid mites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of oribatid and carabid beetle compositions discriminated the sites, demonstrating how even small areas with different vegetation, composition, structure, environment and microclimate were characterised by distinct edaphic populations.

  11. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  12. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil of a Natural Reserve (Isola delle Femmine) (Italy) located in front of a plant for the production of cement.

    PubMed

    Orecchio, Santino

    2010-01-15

    Isola delle Femmine Natural Reserve is a very little isle about 15 km from the centre of Palermo, in front of a plant for the production of cement and about 600 m from coast. In the present research, profiles soil PAHs were obtained for 16 sites within the reserve and for 8 stations on the rural soil taken as reference. summation Sigma PAHs, in the soil of investigated area, ranged from 35 to 545 microg/kg. With the aim to find the origin of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine, we compare the distribution of single analytes in the investigated area with those of the reference rural area (Monte Raffo Rosso), with those of atmospheric urban particulate collected at Palermo along with reported of emissions of some cement plants. The island's investigated area showed a high amount of 4- and 5-rings PAHs, whereas 3-ring PAHs are present mainly in the emission of cement plants (from literature). The percentage of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-rings PAHs determined in samples of Isola delle Femmine are similar to those of the reference rural soils and to those of urban atmospheric particulate. Cement plant activity has a negligible weight on the presence of PAHs in the soil of Isola delle Femmine.

  13. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR.

  14. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane–Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane–habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes’ habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR. PMID:26065417

  15. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  16. Factors influencing farmers' willingness to participate in the conversion of cultivated land to wetland program in Sanjiang National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunli; Robinson, Daniel; Wang, Jing; Liu, Jibin; Liu, Xiaohui; Tong, Lianjun

    2011-01-01

    Sanjiang National Nature Reserve (NNR) is a state-owned natural wetland in China that has suffered severe degradation due to cultivation and wetland reclamation by farmers. As a consequence, the conversion of cultivated land to wetlands (CCW) was proposed by the government of Heilongjiang province and the United Nations Development Programme/Global Environment Facility (UNDP/GEF) project team in 2007. We suggest that voluntary participation in the CCW could be an important tool for accomplishing the integrated objectives of wetland conservation and local development. The purpose of this study was to examine the main factors that influence farmers' willingness to participate in the CCW through a field investigation and a questionnaire. Based on the data from our questionnaire, which provided an effective sample of 310 households in 11 villages, the influencing factors of farmers' willingness to participate were analyzed through binary logistic regression analyses. It was concluded that age, education, the amount of cultivated land, geographical location, and the perceived benefits and risks were important factors for participation. Furthermore, suggestions for improving the wetland compensation system and providing alternative livelihoods are proposed to strengthen participation.

  17. Seasonal variation of diet and food availability in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Li

    2006-03-01

    We studied the diet and food availability of a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys for 14 months (July 2003 to September 2004, except for February) in the Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. This species is primarily a lichen eater, with lichens (Usneaceae) accounting for 43.28% of feeding records (n=3,452). Other food types in the diet were young leaves (28.71%), fruits or seeds (14.57%), buds (5.36%), mature leaves (3.51%), herbs (2.09%), bark (1.36%), and flowers (1.13%). The monkeys used 23 plant species. Their diet showed a complicated seasonal variation: the monthly diet varied from primarily lichens in November-April, to a mixture of leaves and lichens in May-July, to a mixture of fruits or seeds and lichens in August-October (the latter depended on annual fruit and seed availability). The proportion of fruits or seeds in the diet was negatively correlated with that of lichens, which suggests that the monkeys prefer fruits or seeds to lichens when all of these items are available. The fruit or seed availability varied greatly between the two study years. The proportion of lichens, young leaves, flowers, and fruits or seeds in the diet was positively associated with their availability. The monkeys appeared to be selective feeders. They preferred 10 tree species for plant parts, and nine tree species for lichens. The selection index of tree species for lichens was positively related to lichen coverage per branch on tree species, demonstrating that the monkeys preferred tree species with abundant lichens, as well as dead trees for lichens. The results suggest that dead-tree harvesting in the reserve could significantly reduce the quality of habitat for these monkeys, and should therefore be prohibited. Connus controversa, Cerasus discadenia, Salix willichiana, and Malus halliana should be conserved as top priority species because the monkeys preferred them for both their vegetative parts and the lichens that grow on them.

  18. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  19. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since

  20. Mapping the distribution of mangrove species in the Core Zone of Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, Hong Kong, using hyperspectral data and high-resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingming; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zongming; Song, Kaishan; Ren, Chunying

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove species compositions and distributions are essential for conservation and restoration efforts. In this study, hyperspectral data of EO-1 HYPERION sensor and high spatial resolution data of SPOT-5 sensor were used in Mai Po mangrove species mapping. Objected-oriented method was used in mangrove species classification processing. Firstly, mangrove objects were obtained via segmenting high spatial resolution data of SPOT-5. Then the objects were classified into different mangrove species based on the spectral differences of HYPERION image. The classification result showed that in the top canopy, Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina dominated Mai Po Marshes Natural Reserve, with area of 196.8 ha and 110.8 ha, respectively, Acanthus ilicifolius and Aegiceras corniculatum were mixed together and living at the edge of channels with an area of 11.7 ha. Additionally, mangrove species shows clearly zonations and associations in the Mai Po Core Zone. The overall accuracy of our mangrove map was 88% and the Kappa confidence was 0.83, which indicated great potential of using hyperspectral and high-resolution data for distinguishing and mapping mangrove species.

  1. Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Case from Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Kai; Liang, Junhua; Ke, Hongwei; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Liu, Mengyang; Deng, Hengxiang; He, Tong; Wang, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve is a subtropical wetland ecosystem in southeast coast of China, which is of dense population and rapid development. The concentrations, sources, and pollution assessment of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Hg) in surface sediment from 29 sites and the biota specimen were investigated for better ecological risk assessment and environmental management. The ranges of trace metals in mg/kg sediment were as follows: Cu (10.79–26.66), Cd (0.03–0.19), Pb (36.71–59.86), Cr (9.67–134.51), Zn (119.69–157.84), As (15.65–31.60), and Hg (0.00–0.08). The sequences of the bioaccumulation of studied metals are Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg with few exceptions. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the trace metals in the studied area mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, such as industrial effluents, agricultural waste, and domestic sewage. Pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were calculated for trace metals in surface sediments, which indicated unpolluted status in general except Pb, Cr, and As. PMID:27795956

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-18

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR.

  3. Diversity and activity patterns of sympatric animals among four types of forest habitat in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehua; Wu, Pengfeng; Shao, Xiaoming; Songer, Melissa; Cai, Qiong; He, Xiangbo; Zhu, Yun

    2017-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to various habitats and may influence the diversity and activity patterns of wildlife among habitats. We used camera traps to assess wildlife habitat use in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve from 2009 to 2012. We focused on four types of habitat including open areas with gentle slope (<15°) (Type1), low elevation areas (about 1500-1700 m) with high bamboo coverage (Type2), high elevation areas (about 2100-2300 m) with high canopy coverage (Type3), and wildlife migration passages (Type4). We analyzed the differences in species richness, relative abundance index (RAI), species diversity, and animals' activity pattern among habitats. Total six species were analyzed on activity pattern, which are Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral), wild boar (Sus scrofa), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), and porcupine (Hystrix hodgsoni). The results are (1) that there were significant differences in richness and RAIt among habitats; (2) Type4 habitat had the highest richness and RAIt while Type2 had the highest species diversity; giant pandas were found in these two habitats; (3) there were significant differences in species' activity during daytime and nighttime; and (4) differences appeared in habitat preference of the most abundant species. Takin and tufted deer preferred Type1, Himalayan goral preferred Type2, and golden pheasant preferred Type3. Type4 habitat was used by most animals. All these revealed that habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in species diversity and the importance for conservation.

  4. Trace element concentrations in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and surface sediments in Lake Preola and Gorghi Tondi natural reserve, SW Sicily.

    PubMed

    Bellante, A; Maccarone, V; Buscaino, G; Buffa, G; Filiciotto, F; Traina, A; Del Core, M; Mazzola, S; Sprovieri, M

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Pb, As, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in superficial sediments and in muscle and hepatopancreas tissues of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii from Lake Preola and Gorghi Tondi Natural Reserve (SW Sicily). In particular, hepatopancreas showed a decidedly higher content of all analysed trace elements with respect to muscles (two- to threefold higher for Cd, Cu, As, Zn and V; four- to fivefold higher for Pb and Cr and seven times higher for Ni). However, no statistically reliable differential accumulation pattern emerged with regard to length and weight for trace elements (except for Cd for which significant positive correlations with length were recorded). Trace element concentrations found in crayfish tissues were in the range considered harmful to human health (except for Cd and Cr). Moreover, the As and Pb concentrations, either in sediment or crayfish tissues, are clearly related to intense agricultural activities, with extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that significantly affect the levels of these toxic metals in the study area.

  5. Individual growth of Drepanotrema cimex (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) from Arenalcito pond, natural reserve multiple uses Martin García Island, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martín-Stella, M; Díaz-Ana, C; Rumi, A

    2013-11-01

    The species of the genus Drepanotrema, most of them endemic to the Neotropical region, belong to the Planorbidae. Of the nine species of this genus, six are found in Argentina. The present investigation analysed the individual growth of Drepanotrema cimex in Arenalcito pond (34°11' S, 58°15' W), Martín García Island Natural Reserve of Multiple Uses, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of 14 samples were collected (n = 1931) from February 2006 to June 2007. Five environmental variables were measured: water temperature, dissolved oxygen (mg L-1), electrical conductivity (µS cm-1), total dissolved solids, and pH. The individual growth of the species was analysed mathematically by means of the von Bertalanffy equation, where: Lt = 5,6(1-e-2,0592 (t-0,293)). The parameter L∞ was estimated by the Ford-Walford Method. The population of D. cimex was characterised by a complex and dynamic size structure throughout the annual cycle. The analysis of the curves revealed unimodal (2006) and polymodal (April to June 2007) distributions, which pattern served to identify the existence of cohorts within the population studied.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation

    PubMed Central

    HE, Ya; WANG, Zheng-Huan; WANG, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

  7. Effect of agriculture and vegetation on carbonaceous aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) in Puszcza Borecka National Nature Reserve (Poland).

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U; Saniewska, Dominika; Falkowska, Lucyna M

    2016-01-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were measured in PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at Diabla Gora (Puszcza Borecka National Nature Reserve, Poland) between 1 January and 31 December 2009, to investigate the seasonal and daily concentration variations and source regions. Strict sampling and measurement procedure, together with analysis of air mass backward trajectories and pollutant markers, indicated that the most important sources of carbon in the aerosols over Diabla Gora were vegetation, agricultural activity, and biomass burning. The highest contribution of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in aerosol mass (70 %) was detected during summer as a result of increased vegetation. In spring and autumn, raised concentrations of primary OC, calcium, and potassium and the presence of ammonium nitrate were observed in aerosols due to emission from surrounding fields and forests, as well as from fires in Lithuania. Anthropogenic influence on the increase in concentration of all carbon species was observed only in winter, when air masses drifted in from habitations situated within a radius of 50 km from the Diabla Gora station. Transport was of sporadic significance to the measured concentrations, and only in PM2.5 when wind speed was close to 1 m s(-1). In this case, the concentration of EC rose several fold. Such a tendency was particularly noticeable with the influx of air masses from nearby cities and the Polish-Russian border, which is located 29 km away from the station.

  8. Seasonal variation and potential sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in surface waters of Chao Phraya River and Bang Pu Nature Reserve pier, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Koompapong, Khuanchai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-07-01

    Using molecular techniques, a longitudinal study was conducted with the aims at identifying the seasonal difference of Cryptosporidium contamination in surface water as well as analyzing the potential sources based on species information. One hundred forty-four water samples were collected, 72 samples from the Chao Phraya River, Thailand, collected in the summer, rainy and cool seasons and 72 samples from sea water at Bang Pu Nature Reserve pier, collected before, during and after the presence of migratory seagulls. Total prevalence of Cryptosporidium contamination in river and sea water locations was 11% and 6%, respectively. The highest prevalence was observed at the end of rainy season continuing into the cool season in river water (29%) and in sea water (12%). During the rainy season, prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4% in river and sea water samples, but none in summer season. All positive samples from the river was C. parvum, while C. meleagridis (1), and C. serpentis (1) were obtained from sea water. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genetic study in Thailand of Cryptosporidium spp contamination in river and sea water locations and the first report of C. serpentis, suggesting that humans, household pets, farm animals, wildlife and migratory birds may be the potential sources of the parasites. The findings are of use for implementing preventive measures to reduce the transmission of cryptosporidiosis to both humans and animals.

  9. Foods eaten by the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in relation to nutritional chemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuecong; Stanford, Craig B; Yang, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui; Li, Yiming

    2013-08-01

    The diet of Rhinopithecus roxellana is characterized by lichens, which are available year-round and an uncommon food source for nonhuman primates, supplemented by seasonal plant foods. We present the first study of foods eaten by R. roxellana in relation to nutritional chemistry in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. We analyzed the nutrients (crude protein, crude fat, and water soluble carbohydrate [WSC]) and feeding deterrents (crude fiber, condensed tannin [CT], and total phenolic [TP]) of 111 parts from 53 plant species and of 6 lichen species. Results showed that lichens were a good choice for R. roxellana living in habitats with limited and seasonally available plant foods. They contained higher concentrations of WSC than foliage, fat concentrations equivalent to those in plant parts (except fruits/seeds), and lower concentrations of fiber than mature leaves, flowers, and fruits. Although lichens were lower in protein than plant parts (except fruits), the monkeys could likely meet their protein requirement by eating seasonal plant foods rich in protein, including foliage, flowers, buds, and seeds. The monkeys were not observed to select foliage higher in protein, but appeared to select mature leaves higher in WSC and lower in fiber. Fruits were a good source of WSC and fat, and seeds were a good source of fat. Neither CT nor TP content showed negative effects on the selection of mature leaves or lichens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Dynamic changes of soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guang-Shui; Wan, Xiao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    From January 2009 to December 2009, the soil respiration in the Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve was measured with Li-8100, aimed to characterize the dynamic changes of the soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature and moisture in the two orchards. The monthly variation of the soil respiration in the orchards was single-peaked, with the peak appeared in July (3.76 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) ) and August (2.69 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)). Soil temperature was the main factor affecting the soil respiration, and explained 73%-86% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. The average annual soil respiration rate was significantly higher in Citrus reticulata orchard than in Castanea henryi orchard, with the mean value being 2.68 and 1.55 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in Castanea henryi orchard, but less correlation in Citrus reticulata orchard. The Q10 value of the soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards was 1.58 and 1.75, and the annual CO2 flux was 10.01 and 5.77 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively.

  11. Identification of Entamoeba polecki with Unique 18S rRNA Gene Sequences from Celebes Crested Macaques and Pigs in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Josef; Feng, Meng; Imada, Mihoko; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Unique species of macaques are distributed across Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and the details of Entamoeba infections in these macaques are unknown. A total of 77 stool samples from Celebes crested macaques (Macaca nigra) and 14 stool samples from pigs were collected in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, and the prevalence of Entamoeba infection was examined by PCR. Entamoeba polecki was detected in 97% of the macaques and all of the pigs, but no other Entamoeba species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from M. nigra was unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki subtype (ST) 4. This is the first case of identification of E. polecki ST4 from wild nonhuman primates. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from pigs was also unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki ST1. These results suggest that the diversity of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki is associated with differences in host species and geographic localization, and that there has been no transmission of E. polecki between macaques and pigs in the study area. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  12. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Min; Wu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL) of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic. PMID:25050355

  13. Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Case from Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Kai; Liang, Junhua; Ke, Hongwei; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Liu, Mengyang; Deng, Hengxiang; He, Tong; Wang, Wenqing; Cai, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve is a subtropical wetland ecosystem in southeast coast of China, which is of dense population and rapid development. The concentrations, sources, and pollution assessment of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Hg) in surface sediment from 29 sites and the biota specimen were investigated for better ecological risk assessment and environmental management. The ranges of trace metals in mg/kg sediment were as follows: Cu (10.79-26.66), Cd (0.03-0.19), Pb (36.71-59.86), Cr (9.67-134.51), Zn (119.69-157.84), As (15.65-31.60), and Hg (0.00-0.08). The sequences of the bioaccumulation of studied metals are Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg with few exceptions. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the trace metals in the studied area mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, such as industrial effluents, agricultural waste, and domestic sewage. Pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were calculated for trace metals in surface sediments, which indicated unpolluted status in general except Pb, Cr, and As.

  14. Behavioural Responses of Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) to Tourists in a Provisioned Monkey Group in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wancai; Ren, Baoping; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Jie; He, Xinming; Krzton, Ali; Li, Ming; Li, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of tourists brings about behavioural changes in some primates. Primate behavioural responses to human activities can reflect their survival strategy. Little is known about how the behaviour of Rhinopithecus bieti changes in the presence of tourists. Here we provide the first detailed description of interactions between a provisioned group of R. bieti and tourists at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve from July 2012 to June 2013. We found that R. bieti had different response rates to the 5 most common human actions (shout, photograph, offer food, clap, and wave). Results indicated that R. bieti expresses 10 behavioural reactions (threat, escape, vigilance, warning, panic, alliance, attack, foraging, approach, and staring) to tourists' actions. On the whole, most of the monkeys' responses were unfriendly or hostile; a small number were neutral and affiliative. Behavioural responses were also significantly different among the different age/sex classes. Immature individuals engaged in more affiliative behaviours than adult individuals, and adult males tended towards more hostile behaviours. The behaviour of R. bieti towards tourists showed both tension and adaptability. Scientific management of provisioned monkey groups and strict regulation of tourist behaviour is needed in order to protect the animals from the negative effects of tourism-related disturbance. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  16. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly.

  17. [Spatial patterns of and specific correlations between dominant tree species in a karst evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Mulun Karst National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-heng; Xiang, Wu-sheng; Ye, Duo; Lü, Shi-hong; Ding, Tao; Li, Xian-kun

    2010-11-01

    In order to understand the biological characteristics and specific correlations of dominant tree species in a karst characteristic evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Mulun National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, a point pattern analysis was made on the spatial distribution patterns and inter- and intraspecific correlations of four dominant species in a one-hectare plot. Among the four species, Boniodendron minius dominated in tree sublayer I, while Ligustrum japonicum, Sinosideroxylon wightianum, and Rapanea kwangsiensis dominated in tree sublayers II and III. All the four species had a clumped distribution at scale <10 m, a transition from clumped to random distribution at scale 10-25 m, and a random or regular distribution at scale >25 m. The critical scale from clumped to random distribution varied with species. No significant correlations were observed between the B. minius in sublayer I and the dominant species in sublayer II. The correlations of B. minius with the dominant species in sublayers II and III showed greater fluctuation, with significant positive correlation for L. japonicum at scale <50 m, no significant correlation for S. wightianum, and no significant correlation for R. kwangsiensis at scale <20 m but significant negative correlation at scale 20-50 m.

  18. Spatial variations of Pb in the vertical zone of the soil-plant system in the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun-Hong; Deng, Wei; Fang, Hua-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Feng

    2002-07-01

    The characteristics of vertical and horizontal variations of lead element(Pb) in soil-plant system of vertical zone in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve(CNNR) were studied. The results showed that Pb concentrations in soils of vertical zone are all above 25 mg/kg, and the average Pb concentration of each soil zone negatively correlates its degree of variation, i.e. brown coniferous forest soil zone has the lowest average Pb concentration of four soil zones, and the highest horizontal variation; however, mountain soddy forest soil has the highest average Pb concentration, and the lowest horizontal variation; the average concentration of plant Pb of each plant zone is lower than the worldwide average level of Pb in plant(Clarke), respectively, and plant Pb content order is consistent with soil Pb content order, but their horizontal variations are different from those in soil zones, the variation of mountain tundra forest zone is highest, but Betula ermanii forest zone the lowest. Vertical variation of plant Pb is obviously higher than that in soils with variation coefficient of 89.76%; the enrichment capability of plant for Pb is depended on the plant types and the different organs of plant; parent material and parent rock, pH values, soil organic matter and soil particle fraction etc. are the main factors influencing variations of Pb content in soil-plant system of vertical zone in CNNR.

  19. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  20. Differential distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in acidic soils of Nanling National Nature Reserve forests in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Fang-Qiu; Gu, Ji-Dong; Guo, Yue-Dong; Li, Zhao-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Xiu-Yu; Zhou, Yi; Wen, Xiao-Ying; Xie, Guo-Guang; Wang, Yong-Feng

    2016-02-01

    In addition to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) the more recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) can also oxidize ammonia, but little is known about AOA community structure and abundance in subtropical forest soils. In this study, both AOA and AOB were investigated with molecular techniques in eight types of forests at surface soils (0-2 cm) and deep layers (18-20 cm) in Nanling National Nature Reserve in subtropical China. The results showed that the forest soils, all acidic (pH 4.24-5.10), harbored a wide range of AOA phylotypes, including the genera Nitrosotalea, Nitrososphaera, and another 6 clusters, one of which was reported for the first time. For AOB, only members of Nitrosospira were retrieved. Moreover, the abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) from AOA dominated over AOB in most soil samples (13/16). Soil depth, rather than forest type, was an important factor shaping the community structure of AOA and AOB. The distribution patterns of AOA and AOB in soil layers were reversed: AOA diversity and abundances in the deep layers were higher than those in the surface layers; on the contrary, AOB diversity and abundances in the deep layers were lower than those in the surface layers. Interestingly, the diversity of AOA was positively correlated with pH, but negatively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and the abundance of AOA was negatively correlated with available phosphorus. Our results demonstrated that AOA and AOB were differentially distributed in acidic soils in subtropical forests and affected differently by soil characteristics.

  1. A hydrological and geochemical analysis of chromium mobilization from serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentine soils at the McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lake County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, C.; Maher, K.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    California recently adopted the nation's first Public Health Goal (PHG) for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water (0.02 μg/L) because recent studies show that Cr(VI) may be carcinogenic through ingestion. Approximately one third of drinking water sources in California tested for Cr(VI) have levels above 1 μg/L and thus may pose a risk to human health. Cr(VI) can enter drinking water directly from anthropogenic sources or from the release of Cr(III) in natural geogenic sources such as rocks, sediments and soils, and subsequent oxidation to Cr(VI) by manganese oxides. Ultramafic rocks and related soils and sediments have elevated Cr and Mn concentrations compared to other rock types. To study the release of Cr(VI) to water from geogenic sources we examined the local hydrology, groundwater, surface water, soils and sediment compositions within a serpentinized ultramafic terrain along Hunting Creek, a tributary to Putah Creek, at the McLaughlin Natural Reserve in the California Coast Ranges. The hydrology of the site is dominated by fracture flow: groundwater wells were screened in fractured serpentinite, and springs emanating from fractured serpentinite bedrock contribute to the baseflow of Hunting Creek. Soil profiles and bedrock were analyzed for major and trace elements by XRF to assess the fate of Cr during weathering and the distribution of manganese oxides. These factors, along with mineral surface areas, microbial activity, water content, and flow dynamics, collectively control the oxidation of Cr(III). The prevalence of Mg-HCO3 waters at this site indicates that waters are primarily interacting with serpentinites. Pyroxenes are slightly to highly undersaturated and amorphous silica is saturated. Smectite clays, chlorite, and hydromagnesite are supersaturated, indicating formation of secondary mineral phases is favorable and could lead to the inclusion of Cr(III). Total Cr concentrations in surface and groundwater vary from 0.1-26 μg/L and Cr

  2. Spatial heterogeneity in mangroves assessed by GeoEye-1 satellite data: a case-study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leempoel, K.; Bourgeois, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, M.; Satyaranayana, B.; Bogaert, J.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2013-02-01

    Mangrove forests, which are declining across the globe mainly because of human intervention, require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc.) to better implement conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (under the jurisdiction of Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve - ZMNNR, P. R. China) were assessed through time using 1967 (Corona KH-4B), 2000 (Landsat ETM+), and 2009 (GeoEye-1) satellite imagery. An important decline in mangrove cover (-36%) was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to dike construction for agriculture (paddy) and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%), the ratio mangrove/aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice culture. In the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 m × 5 m plot-based tree measurements) (August-September, 2009) and spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1), both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73-100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum is identifiable at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands close to B. gymnorrhiza (classification accuracy: 85%). Sand proportion in the sediment showed significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA, P < 0.05) between the three mangrove classes (B. gymnorrhiza and small and tall A. corniculatum). Distribution of tall A. corniculatum on the convex side of creeks and small A.corniculatum on the concave side (with sand) show intriguing patterns of watercourse changes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination is well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non

  3. A preliminary account of the fly fauna in Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve, Saudi Arabia, with new records and biogeographical remarks (Diptera, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first list of insects of Al-Baha Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was published in 2013 and contained a total of 582 species; an addendum to this list was published in 2015 adding 142 species and bringing the total number recorded from the province to 724 insect species representing 17 orders. The previous two studies excluded Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR), so the present study in SANR, as belonging to Al-Baha Province, are complementary to the previous two. The present study presents a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, with remarks on their zoogeography, and is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR. A total number of 119 Diptera species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families has been recorded from SANR in the present study. Some species have been identified only to the genus level and listed herein only because this is the first time to record their genera in KSA. Fourteen of the species are recorded for the first time for KSA, namely: Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923 [Ceratopogonidae]; Chaetosciara sp. [Sciaridae]; Neolophonotus sp.1; Neolophonotus sp.2; Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934; Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838); Saropogon sp. [Asilidae]; Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818) [Bombyliidae]; Phycus sp. [Therevidae]; Hemeromyia sp.; Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937 [Carnidae]; Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 [Milichiidae]; Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 [Muscidae]; and Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) [Sarcophagidae]. Zoogeographic affinities of recorded fly species suggest a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%). This supports the previous studies’ conclusions and emphasizes the fact that parts of the Arabian

  4. [Responses of soil microbial carbolic metabolism characteristics to home-field advantage of leaf litter decomposition in Liaoheyuan Nature Reserve of northern Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-yu; Kang, Feng-feng; Han, Hai-rong; Gao, Jing; Song, Xiao-shuai; Yu, Shu

    2015-07-01

    Using litter bag method, we studied the responses of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers to home-field advantage of Betula platyphlla and Quercus mongolica leaf litter decomposition in Liaoheyuan Nature Reserve, northern Hebei Province. The results showed that the contents of MBC in Betula platyphila and Quercus mongolica leaf litter treatments in home environment (Bh and Qh treatments) were significant higher than that in B. platyphlla and Q. mongolica leaf litter treatments in non-home environment (Ba and Qa treatments). There was no significant difference in MR between home and non-home environments. Response degree of MBC and MR to home-field advantage of different litter decomposition was inconsistent. The MBC of the different soil layers in Qa treatment fell by 39.6%, 34.9% and 33.5% compared to Qh treatment, respectively, and that in B. platyphlla treatment was decreased by 31.6%, 27.1% and 17.0%, respectively. MR of the different soil layers in Qa treatment accounted for 96.3%, 92.4% and 83.7% of Qh treatment, respectively, while MR in B. platyphila treatment was 99. 4%, 97. 3% and 101.3%, respectively. In contrast to MBC, qCO2 in soil showed a reverse pattern. Our study suggested that rich nutrients in soil enhanced microbial activity and weakened the conflict of nutrient uptake between plants and microorganisms, which led to the result that MBC and qCO2 had an obvious response to home-field advantage of litter decomposition, when litter decomposed in its home environment. There was a weak response between MR and home-field advantage of litter decomposition, because of influence of soil temperature, water content and their interaction. Furthermore, MBC, MR and qCO2 had a higher response degree to home-field advantage of Q. mongolica litter than B. platyphila litter, since lower quality litter exhibited higher home-field advantage of litter

  5. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Methods Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. Results A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Conclusion Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use

  6. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Langenberger, Gerhard; Sauerborn, Joachim

    2012-05-05

    Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use of wild food plants. There is a big

  7. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    PubMed

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    was highest in cows that had an improvement in RFAT and BCS during the dry period. Therefore, assuring a good nutritional status in the dry period (BCS ≥ 3.0 at 165 ± 14 days prepartum and ≥3.25 at parturition) is an important aim to optimize the postpartum conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to TAI followed by natural mating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  9. Bioaccumulation and the effects of organochlorine pesticides, PAH and heavy metals in the Eel (Anguilla anguilla) at the Camargue Nature Reserve, France.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, C A Oliveira; Vollaire, Y; Sanchez-Chardi, A; Roche, H

    2005-08-15

    Pesticides (organochlorines-OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals are toxic to fish and may be taken in through gills, skin and contaminated foods. Here we measure concentrations of OC, PAH and heavy metals, and their effects in the eel Anguilla anguilla from three locations in the Camargue Reserve in southern France. The Camargue Biosphere Reserve is the largest coastal wetland in Western Europe, and A. anguilla is a common predator at the top of the food chain. Livers and spleens were analyzed for histopathological, chemical and organo-somatic (HSI and SSI) effects. Gill, liver and spleen samples were collected for histopathological studies. Livers and muscles were sampled for metabolic parameters and persistent organic pollutant analysis. Total lipids were estimated by spectrophotometry and lipid-free residues were used in protein and glycogen analysis. OC pesticides were extracted from lipids of muscles and livers, analyzed by gas chromatography, and PAH from bile were analyzed by fixed wavelength fluorescence spectrofluorimetry. Heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma with optical or with mass spectrometers. High concentrations of contaminants were found in eel tissues. La Capelière had the greatest OC and PAH concentrations; unexpected lesions in gills, livers and spleens were more common at the other sites. Liver and spleen tumors and lipidosis in livers were associated with chronic, and gill lesions with acute exposure. High pesticide and PAH concentrations and lesions in eels from the Camargue reserve demonstrate the contamination of the area. A more complete study in the Camargue reserve is necessary to better understand the impact on wildlife and humans. Also, this study suggests that eel biology must be better understood before continued use of this species as a biomonitor of polluted areas.

  10. Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    The fact that two of the original articles by this year's Nobel laureates were published in Nature bears witness to the pivotal role of this journal in documenting pioneering discoveries in all areas of science. The prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to immunologists Peter C. Doherty (University of Tennessee) and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (University of Zurich, Switzerland), honoring work that, in the 1970s, laid the foundation for our current understanding of the way in which our immune system differentiates between healthy cells and virus-infected ones that are targeted for destruction (p 465 in the October 10 issue of vol. 383). Three researchers share the Chemistry award for their discovery of C60 buckminsterfullerenes. The work by Robert Curl, Richard Smalley (both at Rice University), and Harry Kroto (University of Sussex, UK) has led to a burst of new approaches to materials development and in carbon chemistry (p 561 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383). This year's Nobel prize in physics went to three U.S. researchers, Douglas Osheroff (Stanford University) and David M. Lee and Robert C. Richardson (Cornell University), who were honored for their work on superfluidity, a frictionless liquid state, of supercooled 3He (p 562 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383).

  11. [The microclimate of an unoccupied wintering sett of the badger, Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae), in the Darwin State Nature Reserve, Vologda Region].

    PubMed

    Sidorchuk, N V; Rozhnov, V V

    2008-01-01

    Data on the microclimate (air temperature and humidity) within an unoccupied badger sett in the Darwin Reserve (the Vologda Region) between September 2005 and May 2006 have been analyzed in relation to changes in the temperature and humidity of the ground air layer and soil. A positive correlation has been revealed between the temperature regime of the soil and air temperature within the sett. After the establishment of snow cover, air and soil temperatures within the sett vary slightly and barely depend on ambient air temperature.

  12. Does medium-term emersion cause a mass extinction of tidal flat macrobenthos? The case of the Tricolor oil pollution prevention in the Zwin nature reserve (Belgium and The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Colen, C.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2006-06-01

    As a result of the Tricolor oil pollution in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (winter 2003) the Zwin nature reserve, consisting of tidal flats and salt marshes, was blocked from the North Sea by use of a sand barrier. Hence, macrobenthic tidal flat organisms, by nature strongly dependent on the cyclic incoming seawater, were emersed during a period of 27 days. Because the effect of medium-term emersion on the ecologically important benthic life could not be assessed beforehand, the damming was taken as an opportunity to examine these effects. This study demonstrated that: (1) no species vanished due to emersion, (2) although the emersion might have caused some mortality, a mass mortality within the macrobenthos did not occur, and (3) the supra-littoral amphipods Talitrus saltator and Orchestia gammarellus performed a strong, though ephemeral immigration into the intertidal zone during the period of emersion. In view of both its minor impacts on the macrobenthos and its effectiveness in preventing oil pollution in the Zwin nature reserve, damming as a measure against oil pollution may be considered effective protection, especially during winter.

  13. Bottlenecks in Geospatial Data-Driven Decision-Making for Natural Disaster Management: A Case Study of Forest Fire Prevention and Control in Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenter, J. S.; Mueller, J. M.; Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual forest fires are a source of great economic and environmental cost in the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), a region of high ecological and historical value in Guatemala's department of Petén. Scarce institutional resources, limited local response capacity, and difficult terrain place a premium on the use of Earth observation data for forest fire management in the MBR, but also present significant institutional barriers to optimizing the value of this data. Drawing upon key informant interviews and a contingent valuation survey of national and local actors conducted during a three-year performance evaluation of the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), this paper traces the flow of SERVIR data from acquisition to decision in order to assess the institutional and contextual factors affecting the value of Earth observation data for forest fire management in the MBR. Findings indicate that the use of satellite data for forest fire management in the MBR is widespread and multi-dimensional: historical assessments of land use and land cover, fire scarring, and climate data help central-level fire management agencies identify and regulate fire-sensitive areas; regular monitoring and dissemination of climate data enables coordination between agricultural burning activities and fire early warning systems; and daily satellite detection of thermal anomalies in land surface temperature permits first responders to monitor and react to "hotspot" activity. Findings also suggest, however, that while the decentralized operations of Petén's fire management systems foster the use of Earth observation data, systemic bottlenecks, including budgetary constraints, inadequate data infrastructure and interpretation capacity, and obstacles to regulatory enforcement, impede the flow of information and use of technology and thus impact the value of that data, particularly in remote and under-resourced areas of the MBR. A geographic expansion and fortification

  14. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  15. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  16. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Private Natural Heritage Reserve Sanctuary Caraça.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Simões, Taynãna César; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a set of parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin that are transmitted by sandfly vectors in wild, rural and urban environments. Their distribution is dependent not only the distribution of vectors, but also on the distribution of mammalian reservoirs. Only by understanding the transmission cycle of these diseases, such as knowing the participating vectors and reservoirs, can one can understand the epidemiology and ecological relationships of leishmaniases. Ecotourism has become an important area of economic growth in Brazil. One of the most visited tourist attractions in the state of Minas Gerais, the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The aim of this study was to contribute to the control of leishmaniasis among tourists of the RPPNPC by surveying its sand fly fauna and testing for the presence of Leishmania DNA in females. Twenty-five CDC light traps were exposed on 7 trails of the RPPNPC where samples were collected bimonthly for a year, starting in June 2013. A total of 376 specimens of 18 species and 10 genera of sandflies were captured. The predominant species were Psychodopygus lloydi (72.34%) and Pintomyia monticola (5.59%). HaeIII restriction enzyme detected and characterized Leishmania braziliensis DNA in 2 of the samples for an infection rate of 0.7% (2/266). Recent studies found specimens of Ps. lloyd infected with Leishmania braziliensis elsewhere in Minas Gerais, which may be an indication that this species is involved in the transmission of Leishmania in this state.

  17. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Private Natural Heritage Reserve Sanctuary Caraça

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Simões, Taynãna César

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a set of parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin that are transmitted by sandfly vectors in wild, rural and urban environments. Their distribution is dependent not only the distribution of vectors, but also on the distribution of mammalian reservoirs. Only by understanding the transmission cycle of these diseases, such as knowing the participating vectors and reservoirs, can one can understand the epidemiology and ecological relationships of leishmaniases. Ecotourism has become an important area of economic growth in Brazil. One of the most visited tourist attractions in the state of Minas Gerais, the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The aim of this study was to contribute to the control of leishmaniasis among tourists of the RPPNPC by surveying its sand fly fauna and testing for the presence of Leishmania DNA in females. Twenty-five CDC light traps were exposed on 7 trails of the RPPNPC where samples were collected bimonthly for a year, starting in June 2013. A total of 376 specimens of 18 species and 10 genera of sandflies were captured. The predominant species were Psychodopygus lloydi (72.34%) and Pintomyia monticola (5.59%). HaeIII restriction enzyme detected and characterized Leishmania braziliensis DNA in 2 of the samples for an infection rate of 0.7% (2/266). Recent studies found specimens of Ps. lloyd infected with Leishmania braziliensis elsewhere in Minas Gerais, which may be an indication that this species is involved in the transmission of Leishmania in this state. PMID:28570640

  18. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  19. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  20. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world.

  1. China's petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  2. Influence of temperature, salinity and pH on the growth of environmental Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from Mai Po and the Inner Deep Bay Nature Reserve Ramsar Site of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Four environmental bacterial isolates including Aeromonas hydrophila MP-3, A. salmonicida MP-4, Vibrio vulnificus MP-2 and V. cholerae MP-1 isolated from sediment and water of Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong were examined for their responses to temperature, pH and salinity under laboratory conditions in this study. V. cholerae MP-1 was found to resist vibriostatic agent O/129 at concentration of 10 microg/ml. In addition, bacterial growth under test conditions was measured and the results were fitted into the Gompertz model to obtain important parameters related to bacterial growth, lag time (lambda), specific growth rate (mu(m)), and maximum biomass (A) for comparison. V. cholerae MP-1 did not show any apparent growth at 15 degrees C, but was adapted to a much wider environmental pH from 5.2 to 9.2 for growth while V. vulnificus MP-2 was more sensitive to pH changes yielding the highest biomass at pH 6.2. A. salmonicida MP-4 was surprisingly tolerant to salinity as high as 60.0 per thousand NaCl and grew almost equally well as under conditions of other treatments. All four bacterial isolates showed a wide spectrum of plasticity to the environmental conditions and they pose a potential threat to public health and animal health. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  3. Estimation of soil salt content (SSC) in the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR), Northwest China, based on a Bootstrap-BP neural network model and optimal spectral indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Fei; Ding, Jianli; Kung, Hsiang-Te; Latif, Aamir; Johnson, Verner C

    2017-10-07

    Soil salinity is recognized worldwide as a major threat to agriculture, particularly in arid regions. Producers and decision-makers thus require updated and accurate maps of salinity in agronomical and environmentally relevant regions. The goals of this study were to test various regression models for estimating soil salt content based on hyperspectral data, HJ-CCD images, and Landsat OLI data using; develop optimal band Difference Index (DI), Ratio Index (RI), and Normalization Index (NDI) algorithms for monitoring soil salt content using image and spectral data; and to compare the performances of the proposed models using a Bootstrap-BP neural network model (Bootstrap-BPNN) from different data sources. The results showed that previously published optimal remote sensing parameters can be applied to estimate the soil salt content in the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR). Optimal band combination indices based on DI, RI, and NDI were developed for different data sources. Then, the Bootstrap-BP neural network model was built using 1000 groups of Bootstrap samples of remote sensing indices (DI, RI and NDI) and soil salt content. When verifying the accuracy of hyperspectral data, the model yields an R(2) value of 0.95, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.38g/kg, and a residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.36. The optimal model for remote sensing images was the first derivative model of Landsat OLI, which yielded R(2) value of 0.91, RMSE of 4.82g/kg, and RPD of 3.32; these data indicated that this model has a high predictive ability. When comparing the salinization monitoring accuracy of satellite images to that of ground hyperspectral data, the accuracy of the first derivative of the Landsat OLI model was close to that of the hyperspectral parameter model. Soil salt content was inverted using the first derivative of the Landsat OLI model in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence and diversity in ticks and small mammals in a Lyme borreliosis endemic Nature Reserve in North-Western Spain. Incidence in surrounding human populations.

    PubMed

    Espí, Alberto; Del Cerro, Ana; Somoano, Aitor; García, Verónica; M Prieto, José; Barandika, José F; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2016-07-18

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in an endemic Nature Reserve (Sierra del Sueve) in North-Western Spain, and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks in Asturias, 1013 questing ticks and 70 small mammals were collected between 2012 and 2014. A retrospective descriptive analysis was also carried out on human Lyme borreliosis (LB) cases reported to the local hospital (Cabueñes). Samples were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. presence by a nested PCR assay, and genospecies were confirmed by sequencing. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 1.4% (12/845) of I. ricinus questing nymphs, 9.1% (2/33) of questing adults, and 12.9% (9/70) of small mammals, as well as in the other tick species. PCR positive samples of 17 questing tick and 6 small mammals were sequenced. Four genospecies were identified: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, and B. valaisiana. Phylogenetic analyses based on the flaB gene showed the heterogeneity of B. afzelii in this area. The detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. among questing ticks and small mammals in the study area, as well as the abundance of ticks and of large wild and domestic mammals, indicate a high risk of infection by B. burgdorferi s.l. in the area. Reporting of LB cases to the local hospital support this, and shows the need of thorough monitoring of B. burgdorferi infection in ticks and hosts in the area. More investigations are needed to assess the role of different wildlife species and the risk of transmission to humans.

  5. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  6. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  7. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  8. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-01-01

    the distribution characteristics of mcrA gene-harboring communities in nSCS and stratification of mcrA and pmoA gene diversity and abundance in the Mai Po Nature Reserve. PMID:25774150

  9. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-01-01

    ecosystems, showing the distribution characteristics of mcrA gene-harboring communities in nSCS and stratification of mcrA and pmoA gene diversity and abundance in the Mai Po Nature Reserve.

  10. Reserve Retirement for an Operational Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    officers after they had reached 40 years of service.4 After approximately twenty different Congressional acts between 1861 and 1946 which changed the...the labor force.”17. Beth J. Asch , in a RAND technical report to Congress, explains the difference in the need for immediate receipt of retirement...D.C.: Department of Defense, 2005), 726 9 Beth J. Asch , James Hosek and David S. Loughran, Reserve Retirement Reform; A Viewpoint on Recent

  11. Reserve Compensation System Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-30

    projection capability that will allow effective decision making . ARNG PROFILE COMPARISONS ARNG Officers Comparison of the ARNG officer objective...are so buried as not to be usable for decision - making . • The Reserve Components Common Personnel Data System is a transitional system which can...as to be non- responsive to decision making . The definitions of wartime reserve require- ments and peacetime reserve authorizations are highly

  12. Global Reserve Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    possible framework for further advancing the Reserve capabilities of partner nations in the Asia-Pacific region, and (2) discusses important change ... management concepts, informed by U.S. lessons learned, for countries that are modernizing strategic-based Reserve systems.

  13. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  14. 49 CFR 193.2103-193.2117 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Materials §§ 193.2103-193.2117 [Reserved] ...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2323-193.2329 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction §§ 193.2323-193.2329 [Reserved]...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2305-193.2319 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction §§ 193.2305-193.2319 [Reserved]...

  17. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  18. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  19. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  20. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  1. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  2. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  3. Reserved and roadless forests

    Treesearch

    David Azuma; James Menlove; Andrew Gray

    2009-01-01

    Some 74 million acres of forest land, or 10 percent of all U.S. forest land, are permanently reserved from wood product utilization through statute or administrative designation. A large part of these lands is in wilderness areas, national parks, and national monuments. Although the primary reason for protecting many of the areas is not preservation of forest...

  4. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  5. 40 CFR 181 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserved 181 PARTS 181-189 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Pesticide Chemicals Not Requiring a Tolerance or an...

  6. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  7. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  8. The occurrence and ecological risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants, and in natural seawater from a marine reserve of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis G B; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zheng, Gene J S; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-30

    We determined the concentrations of 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage effluents collected from three different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong, and found 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were the most abundant EDCs. Effluent concentrations of NP and BPA were higher in dry season than in wet season, but opposite seasonal changes of NP were observed in receiving waters, probably due to the surface runoff. The two secondary STPs showed higher removal efficiency for these compounds than the preliminary STP, while having higher removal efficiency in wet season. Therefore, it is necessary to upgrade the preliminary STP and improve the EDC removal efficiency in dry season. Seawaters from the Cape D' Aguilar Marine Reserve adjacent to these STPs also exhibited elevated NP levels with a hazard quotient >1. Furthermore, diluted effluents from the STPs elicited significant transcriptional responses of EDC-related genes in the marine medaka fish.

  9. Managing Phytophthora ramorum at Bloedel Reserve

    Treesearch

    Darren Strenge; Marianne Elliott; Gary Chastagner; Casey Sclar

    2017-01-01

    Bloedel Reserve is a 150-acre botanical garden and nature preserve on the north end of Bainbridge Island in Washington on the Puget Sound. The grounds encompass undeveloped forest, pastures, a bird marsh, woodland plantings, and intensely maintained gardens within the limits of the City of Bainbridge Island. The garden is part of the Sentinel Plant Network, a...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2003 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2003 Section 193.2003 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2015 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2015 Section 193.2015 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  12. The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1984-01-01

    Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve…

  13. 8 CFR 329.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 329.3 Section 329.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: PERSONS WITH ACTIVE DUTY OR CERTAIN READY RESERVE SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES DURING...

  14. 8 CFR 329.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 329.3 Section 329.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: PERSONS WITH ACTIVE DUTY OR CERTAIN READY RESERVE SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES DURING...

  15. 8 CFR 329.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 329.3 Section 329.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: PERSONS WITH ACTIVE DUTY OR CERTAIN READY RESERVE SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES DURING...

  16. 8 CFR 329.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 329.3 Section 329.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: PERSONS WITH ACTIVE DUTY OR CERTAIN READY RESERVE SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES DURING...

  17. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13, 2003...

  18. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13, 2003...

  19. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13, 2003...

  20. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13, 2003...

  1. Annual report of operations. [Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 1, 2, 3; oil shale reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves during FY 1980 deliver 59,993,213 bbl of crude oil and substantial quantities of natural gas, butane, propane and natural gasoline to the United States market. During September, Naval Petroleum Reserve oil was utilized to resume filling the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. During FY 1980, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, became the largest producing oil field in California and the second largest producing field in the United States. Production at the end of September was 165,000 bbl/d; production is expected to peak at about 190,000 bbl/d early in calender year 1982. Production from Naval Petroleum Reserves Nos. 2 and 3 in California and Wyoming, contributed 1,101,582 and 1,603,477 bbl of crude oil to the market, respectively. Enhanced oil recovery work has been inititated at Naval Petroleum Reserve no. 3. Total revenues from the Naval Petroleum Reserves during FY 1980 were 1.6 billion. The three Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado and Utah have substantial potential. In addition to containing approximately 2.5 billion bbl recoverable shale oil. They probably contain significant quantities of conventional oil and gas.

  2. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  3. Booking remote gas reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology is a powerful new tool available to address many E and P challenges of the new millennium. The industry has the ability to convert stranded gas reserves into superclean, liquid synthetic fuels on a commercial basis. One of the most significant technological developments in decades, commercial GTL creates new options for solving multiple existing problems, and much more. It enables the monetization of vast deposits of shut-in gas reserves, allowing industry to book billions of dollars of assets that would otherwise remain virtually worthless. As a result, GTL has the potential to add immensely to the world's supply of clean liquid fuels. It also opens up myriad new opportunities, not just upstream but downstream and beyond. In fact, ultraclean synthetic fuels, free of sulfur and aromatics, could be the enablers of new engine and emissions-control technologies that will transform the automotive industry as well. As powerful as the upstream incentives are, even more compelling market forces downstream may drive construction of the first plants. The convergence of these forces and events points inevitably to the commercialization and growth of this new industry.

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    GAO examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified were compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report has examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified are compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  6. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    PubMed

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (ΔCor), delta DHEA-S (ΔDHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ΔCor, and ΔDHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 μg/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage.

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  9. Ovarian reserve screening before contraception?

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    Women are increasingly delaying conception to later years. Hormonal contraception induces artificial cyclicity, which does not, like natural cyclicity, reflect normal, physiological ovarian behaviour. Therefore, long-term users of hormonal contraceptives, in particular, fail to derive potential diagnostic benefits from changes in menstrual cyclicity, which usually alerts patients and physicians to developing ovarian pathology. Timely diagnosis of ovarian problems is further hampered, as anti-Müllerian hormone is suppressed by hormonal contraceptives, making the accurate assessment of functional ovarian reserve more difficult. Women on long-term hormonal contraceptives who develop premature ovarian senescence at young ages, therefore, often go undiagnosed until termination of hormonal contraception, when they present with either post-contraception amenorrhea, other menstrual abnormalities or infertility. As evolving screening options now permit the detection of young women at risk for premature ovarian senescence, it is proposed that young women are offered 'risk screening' for premature ovarian senescence before starting long-term hormonal contraception. A potential protocol is outlined.

  10. Army Reserve Transformation: An Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Federal Reserve Restructuring Initiative (FRRI). Critics say these changes have been attempted before, but were unsuccessful. This paper describes the history and current situation of the USAR. It then reviews possible transformational lessons that the USAR can learn from another branch of the Armed Forces, the U.S. Navy Reserve, (USNR) in terms of Naval Reserve recruiting, Naval Reserve advancement, and Naval Reserve culture. Finally, changes for future transformation efforts in the USAR are recommended, foremost among them being a change in organizational culture. (21

  11. Reserve size and fragmentation alter community assembly, diversity, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Keitt, Timothy H

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have disputed whether a single large habitat reserve will support more species than many small reserves. However, relatively little is known from a theoretical perspective about how reserve size affects competitive communities structured by spatial abiotic gradients. We investigate how reserve size affects theoretical communities whose assembly is governed by dispersal limitation, abiotic niche differentiation, and source-sink dynamics. Simulations were conducted with varying scales of dispersal across landscapes with variable environmental spatial autocorrelation. Landscapes were inhabited by simulated trees with seedling and adult stages. For a fixed total area in reserves, we found that small reserve systems increased the distance between environments dominated by different species, diminishing the effects of source-sink dynamics. As reserve size decreased, environmental limitations to community assembly became stronger, α species richness decreased, and γ richness increased. When dispersal occurred across short distances, a large reserve strategy caused greater stochastic community variation, greater α richness, and lower γ richness than in small reserve systems. We found that reserve size variation trades off between preserving different aspects of natural communities, including α diversity versus γ diversity. Optimal reserve size will depend on the importance of source-sink dynamics and the value placed on different characteristics of natural communities. Anthropogenic changes to the size and separation of remnant habitats can have far-reaching effects on community structure and assembly.

  12. 49 CFR 193.2189-193.2233 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks §§ 193.2189-193.2233 [Reserved]...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2183-193.2185 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity §§ 193.2183-193.2185 [Reserved] LNG Storage Tanks...

  14. Integer programming methods for reserve selection and design

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Haight; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2009-01-01

    How many nature reserves should there be? Where should they be located? Which places have highest priority for protection? Conservation biologists, economists, and operations researchers have been developing quantitative methods to address these questions since the 1980s.

  15. Study of CETA Plans and Reservation Economic Development. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; Kelly, Patricia F.

    Field study and analysis of program documents were undertaken in the first phase of a multi-phased research effort to improve and strengthen the relationships between CETA programs and economic development activities on Indian reservations. Exploratory in nature, the study examined the approaches developed by 24 Indian reservations and Native…

  16. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High Tibetan Plateau: a Nature Reserve of C3 Flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, G.; Pagani, M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and associated climate changes leading to enhanced seasonality in precipitation and drying, are argued to have induced a global ecological shift from C3-frorest to C4-grassland between 8 and 5 million years ago. However, both tectonic and climatic changes predate the timing of the C3-C4 transition, with paleoaltimetry studies pointing to a high Tibetan Plateau no later than 10 Ma and the existence of an intense monsoon since ca. 11 Ma. To better understand the role of the Tibetan Plateau, we present results of a paleoecology study based on the carbon isotope compositions of leaf-wax n-alkanes (δ13Calk) from Qaidam basin, an intermontane basin on the youngest and the northernmost portion of Tibetan Plateau. Samples were collected from a 5-km thick, fluvial-lacustrine sequence dated 15 Ma to 1.8 Ma. Organic geochemical indices and detrital thermochronological studies preclude post-depositional thermal alteration of the studied materials. Our results, which show persistently low δ13Calk values, are consistent with the dominance of C3 flora on the Tibetan Plateau, in contrast to the prominent C4 rise surrounding the Tibetan Plateau and around the globe. We argue that a high Tibetan Plateau, established prior to the global ecological C3-C4 shift, served as a shelter of C3 flora since the Miocene. High-elevation and cold environments provided a competitive advantage for C3 by damping/counteracting the physiological advantage of C4 which outperforms C3 plants under warm, high-irradiance, water-stress and low pCO2 conditions.

  18. Beyond opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection.

    PubMed

    Pressey, R L; Humphries, C J; Margules, C R; Vane-Wright, R I; Williams, P H

    1993-04-01

    The intention and practice of conservation reserve selection are different. A major reason for systems of reserves is to sustain biological diversity. This involves protecting examples of as many natural features, e.g. species, communities or environments, as possible. In reality, however, new reserves have rarely been dedicated for their representation of features. Furthermore, the opportunism that has characterized the development of reserve systems can actually jeopardize the representation of all features in reserves through the inefficient allocation of limited resources. More systematic approaches are essential if reserves are to play their role in protecting biodiversity. Some basic principles for conservation planning are emerging from recent systematic procedures for reserve selection. These principles will help to link intention and practice. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Board is... the automated systems necessary to support the implementation of certain provisions. DATES: The... / Monday, November 5, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 204 RIN 7100...

  20. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Development based its reserve account on a set percentage of a property's total development cost (TDC). With... furnishings are the most cost efficient over the life of the building. The reserve account deposit level will... cycle costs or capital needs in order to ensure necessary resources are available when needed to...

  1. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  2. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  3. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  4. WPC study yields reserves classification, nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-21

    At this year's World Petroleum Congress in London, a study group recommended a universal classification and nomenclature system for petroleum and petroleum reserves (OG), Sept. 5, p. 70). The classification of hydrocarbons and the nomenclature of oil and gas reserves have been featured in earlier Congresses in one form or another. The need for some standardization of definitions and concepts has long been emphasized, but a Study Group was set up for the first time for the 11th WPC to review: The oil and gas classification systems in current use, and focus on the development of a universal system embracing all types of naturally occurring hydrocarbons of present and potential commercial interest; The nomenclature used by various countries and organizations in reporting estimates of reserves, and focus on the development of a simple, practical, readily understandable system which would receive general acceptance. The Study Group consisted of representatives of Canada, The Netherlands, U.K., U.S., and Venezuela. National committees were asked for pertinent information on both aspects of the study--petroleum classification and petroleum reserves. Group members exchanged research material, lists of primary definitions, and references and sought opinions from a wide circle of contacts. The Group held several meetings beginning in 1980.

  5. 75 FR 73027 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural Resources... Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) through the Mississippi River Basin Healthy Watersheds... watersheds of the Mississippi River Basin, as well as improve wildlife habitat and restore wetlands....

  6. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed. PMID:10658960

  7. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions.

    PubMed

    Graves, K J

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.

  8. Canadian biomass reserves for biorefining.

    PubMed

    Mabee, Warren E; Fraser, Evan D G; McFarlane, Paul N; Saddler, John N

    2006-01-01

    A lignocellulosic-based biorefining strategy may be supported by biomass reserves, created initially with residues from wood product processing or agriculture. Biomass reserves might be expanded using innovative management techniques that reduce vulnerability of feedstock in the forest products or agricultural supply chain. Forest-harvest residue removal, disturbance isolation, and precommercial thinnings might produce 20-33 x 10(6) mt/yr of feedstock for Canadian biorefineries. Energy plantations on marginal Canadian farmland might produce another 9-20 mt. Biomass reserves should be used to support first-generation biorefining installations for bioethanol production, development of which will lead to the creation of future high-value coproducts. Suggestions for Canadian policy reform to support biomass reserves are provided.

  9. Oil and gas reserves estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrell, R.; Gajdica, R.; Elliot, D.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Khurana, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a summary of a panel session at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference. Oil and gas reserves estimates are further complicated with the expanding importance of the worldwide deepwater arena. These deepwater reserves can be analyzed, interpreted, and conveyed in a consistent, reliable way to investors and other stakeholders. Continually improving technologies can lead to improved estimates of production and reserves, but the estimates are not necessarily recognized by regulatory authorities as an indicator of "reasonable certainty," a term used since 1964 to describe proved reserves in several venues. Solutions are being debated in the industry to arrive at a reporting mechanism that generates consistency and at the same time leads to useful parameters in assessing a company's value without compromising confidentiality. Copyright 2005 Offshore Technology Conference.

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. Cognitive reserve and brain reserve in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly; Tremont, Geoffrey; Aylward, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

    2013-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Participants were genetically confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on four cognitive measures and three brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals.

  12. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  13. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  14. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  15. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  16. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... institutions, creates a penalty-free band around reserve balance requirements in place of carryover and routine...-of adjustments with direct compensation, and eliminates the contractual clearing balance program. The... D currently, transaction account balances maintained at each depository institution are subject to...

  17. Lifetime antecedents of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Sacker, Amanda

    2003-08-01

    We used path analysis on data from the British 1946 birth cohort to model lifetime antecedents of cognitive reserve, represented by the NART at 53 years, and compared this model for verbal memory and psychomotor function at this age, cognitive outcomes that are sensitive to age-associated decline. We showed independent paths from childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupation to cognitive reserve, with that from childhood cognition the strongest, and that from adult occupation the weakest. A similar pattern was found for the verbal memory and psychomotor outcomes, although the pathways were weaker than those to the NART. The pattern was also mirrored by the paths from paternal occupation to childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupation, with that to childhood cognition the strongest, and that to adult occupation the weakest. The direct influence of paternal occupation on cognitive reserve was negligible, and almost entirely mediated by childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment.

  18. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  19. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk"…

  20. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  1. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  2. Some Predictions for Reservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl G.; And Others

    Three position papers present future implications for educators concerning adherence to P.L. 95-561. "Reservation Education: A Brief Prediction" encourages the active incorporation of the law's certification components in order to augment administrative tenure and promote worth. Teachers are urged to willingly comply with new Bureau of…

  3. Teaching Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    A college teacher discusses his experiences of departing from the established literary canon to teach Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" as part of an upper-level American literature survey class. Students reacted to the novel and its characters, evaluated Alexie's writing techniques, and discussed their personal experiences with Native…

  4. Development of the Hopi Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seig, Louis

    Repeated encroachments by Mormons and Navajos upon Arizona lands traditionally inhabited by the Hopi American Indians occasioned the Executive Order of December 16, 1882 and creation of the Executive Order Reservation. However, assignment of lands was not limited to the Hopi, for the Order stated that the lands should be "set apart for the…

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  7. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    July 1936 on the eve of House Bill 12241 for Reservists flight pay, hospitalization, and death benefits .40 The United States Air Force Reserve (AFR...distill AAU Subject Matter Experts (SME), found many benefits and drawbacks had high levels of consensus. The benefits included AMC increased...story.asp?storyID=123060095 27 AF/A8XF; Total Force Enterprise Management; December 7, 2012 28 Sjostedt, Travis; Active Associate Units: Benefits and

  8. Natural Resource Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Green, T.; Schwager, K.

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  10. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  11. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  12. Neurotransplantation therapy and cerebellar reserve.

    PubMed

    Cendelin, Jan; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Manto, Mario

    2017-08-10

    Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity. On the other hand, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that the self-recovery capacity is still preserved even if the cerebellum is affected by a diffuse and progressive pathology. We put forward the period with intact recovery capacity as "restorable stage" and the notion of reversal capacity as "cerebellar reserve". The concept of cerebellar reserve is particularly relevant, both theoretically and practically, to target recovery of cerebellar deficits by neurotransplantation. Reinforcing the cerebellar reserve and prolonging the restorable stage can be envisioned as future endpoints of neurotransplantation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Grand Portage Reservation Environmental Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    There are seven types of aquatic resources on the Grand Portage Reservation. An ecological monitoring program was proposed for these resources. Some of the resources are pristine, while others have been affected by development. Each type of resource has physical (habitat, sediment, and hydrology), chemical, and biological (fish, invertebrates, and algae) characteristics that are monitored in a consistent manner so that change may be detected. Not all aspects of the physical, chemical, and biotic components are monitored at each resource type. Monitoring is focused on those aspects most susceptible to change. Replication and comparison with pristine components are a significant part of the program so that actual change can be determined from natural temporal and spatial variability.

  14. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Callum M.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Gell, Fiona R.

    2005-01-01

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it. PMID:15713592

  15. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Callum M; Hawkins, Julie P; Gell, Fiona R

    2005-01-29

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it.

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Joan, F. Hughes

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  17. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-29

    Costs," by Goudreau, Kuzmack and Wiedemann , 15 May 1972. 46 Headquarters Level (Naval Reserve). The resources accounted for in this program element are...34 = $.w 1. . ." :) V, a CC CLA 6C % - - .9 V) 0 Gj L.3c V,, Ii]c ci I.. 4r. clu N14Il I) In c1I1k 0 tr4i , -C’. t- - W r- v 0 0 C ~JJ C’ a Q,~c 0 , C Z C CD

  18. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  19. Enhancing Reserve Component Unit Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Training Guidance, 4 Dec 85. 10TH MTN DIV, FT DRUM, NY 10 MTN DIV REG 350-1 (Draft), Undtd, Training. 10 MTN DIV CIR 350-8, 21 Mar 86, Officer...Professionalism Program. 10 MTN DIV CIR 350-2, 25 Oct 85, Training School Guidance. 10 MTN DIV CIR 350-1, 15 Sep 85, Procedures for (OPFOR) Weapons...Army War College. Pelton, John Dew , Colonel, US Army, "Reserve Component Combat Readiness in 192 Hours Per Year?," Oct 75, U.S. Army War College

  20. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function. PMID:25405381

  1. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics of the ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Emanuele; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David

    2015-01-01

    Primordial follicles or non-growing follicles (NGFs) are the functional unit of reproduction, each comprising a single germ cell surrounded by supporting somatic cells. NGFs constitute the ovarian reserve (OR), prerequisite for germ cell ovulation and the continuation of the species. The dynamics of the reserve is determined by the number of NGFs formed and their complex subsequent fates. During the reproductive lifespan, the OR progressively diminishes due to follicle atresia as well as recruitment, maturation, and ovulation. The depletion of the OR is the major determining driver of menopause, which ensues when the number of primordial follicles falls below a threshold of ∼1,000. Therefore, genes and processes involved in follicle dynamics are particularly important to understand the process of menopause, both in the typical reproductive lifespan and in conditions like primary ovarian insufficiency, defined as menopause before age 40. Genes and their variants that affect the timing of menopause thereby provide candidates for diagnosis of and intervention in problems of reproductive lifespan. We review the current knowledge of processes and genes involved in the development of the OR and in the dynamics of ovarian follicles. PMID:26528328

  3. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  4. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the last allotment. (b) Reserve for alternative systems for small communities. Each State with 25... reasonable amount shall be reserved for this purpose. (e) Reserve for Advances of Allowance. Each State shall reserve a reasonable portion of its annual allotment not to exceed 10 percent for advances of allowance...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the last allotment. (b) Reserve for alternative systems for small communities. Each State with 25... reasonable amount shall be reserved for this purpose. (e) Reserve for Advances of Allowance. Each State shall reserve a reasonable portion of its annual allotment not to exceed 10 percent for advances of allowance...

  6. Fort Peck Reservations Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walter White Tail Feather

    2007-08-15

    The research area adds to the understanding of the area investigated by installing two 50kW Wind Turbines in a distributed generation project to save money by reducing the annual bill from the local utility. These turbines have been producing power and reducing the kWh consumed at the Tribal Headquarters Building for approximately 11 months. The Turbines are almost one year old and the Tribe is conducting regular maintenance checks and inspections to keep the Turbines in good working order. These Turbines are the impetus for the development of an Energy Department to serve as the focal point for wind development on the Reservation and to provide management for the business side of wind energy, (i.e. green tag sales, O & M contracts, and Power Purchase Agreements).

  7. Effects of landscape design of forest reserves on Saproxylic beetle diversity.

    PubMed

    Bouget, C; Parmain, G

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the density of natural reserves in the forest landscape may provide conservation benefits for biodiversity within and beyond reserve borders. We used 2 French data sets on saproxylic beetles and landscape cover of forest reserves (LCFR) to test this hypothesis: national standardized data derived from 252 assessment plots in managed and reserve stands in 9 lowland and 5 highland forests and data from the lowland Rambouillet forest, a forested landscape where a pioneer conservation policy led to creation of a dense network of reserves. Abundance of rare and common saproxylic species and total saproxylic species richness were higher in forest reserves than in adjacent managed stands only in highland forests. In the lowland regional case study, as LCFR increased total species richness and common species abundance in reserves increased. In this case study, when there were two or more reserve patches, rare species abundance inside reserves was higher and common species richness in managed stands was higher than when there was a single large reserve. Spillover and habitat amount affected ecological processes underlying these landscape reserve effects. When LCFR positively affected species richness and abundance in reserves or managed stands, >12-20% reserve cover led to the highest species diversity and abundance. This result is consistent with the target of 17% forested land area in reserves set at the Nagoya biodiversity summit in 2010. Therefore, to preserve biodiversity we recommend at least doubling the current proportion of forest reserves in European forested landscapes. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of uncertainty in the length of evaluation time and in reported reserves during this initial period, reserve growth based on the first production year is more reliable for model development. However, reserve growth models based both on discovery year and first production year show rapid growth in the first few years and slower growth in the following years. In contrast, the reserve growth patterns for the conterminous United States and offshore Gulf of Mexico show a steady reserve increase throughout the productive lives of the fields. The different reserve booking requirements and the lack of capital investment for improved reservoir management and production technologies in West Siberian fields relative to U.S. fields are the probable causes for the difference in growth patterns. Reserve growth models based on the first production year predict that the reserve growth potential in the 42 largest oil fields of West Siberia over a five-year period (1998-2003) ranges from 270-330 million barrels or 0.34-0.42 percent per year. For a similar five-year period (1996-2001), models for the conterminous United States predict a growth of 0.54-0.75 percent per year. This abstract presents the contents of a poster prepared for the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference on Understanding World Oil Resources, November 12-17, 2006 - Colorado Springs, Colorado. A paper 'Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia' was published in Natural Resources Research, v. 12, no. 2, June, 2003.

  9. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  10. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W. Mike

    2013-12-01

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  11. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Post, Vincent E A; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W Mike

    2013-12-05

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  12. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. PEMEX production and reserves soar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-25

    Increasing oil flow from the Gulf of Campeche and Chiapas/Tabasco fields in Mexico's southern zone has raised Petroleos Mexicanos' (PEMEX) production to more than 533 million bbl in 1979. That is an increase of 20.8% - despite a decline for the country's other important producing areas in the northern and central zones. Fields in the north zone were down roughly 10%, and those in the central zone were down approximately 5%. Waterflooding accounted for more than 41 million bbl of oil produced in Mexico in 1979. The daily average of 113,295 bpd was 50% greater than in 1978. Water injection operations were launched in 3 more fields. The company's gas-gathering program also moved ahead. Total gas production for the year was up 14% over 1978. Average gas production last year was 2.917 billion cfd. Today, only 6% of total gas production is being flared, compared with approximately 21% in 1976. Total proved hydrocarbon reserves were reported as 45,803 billion bbl equivalent at the end of 1979, up 14% from 1978.

  16. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  17. Reserve Force Training After the Gulf War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    that problem, the critical variable for reserve units is time management : using the available training time better to improve unit readiness. This...article will offer proposals to improve reserve training through better time management .

  18. 47 CFR 25.215 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.215 Section 25.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.215 [Reserved]...

  19. 47 CFR 25.201 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.201 Section 25.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.201 [Reserved]...

  20. 47 CFR 15.119 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 15.119 Section 15.119 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.119 [Reserved]...

  1. 47 CFR 15.122 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 15.122 Section 15.122 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.122 [Reserved]...

  2. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit.

    PubMed

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management.

  3. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  4. 47 CFR 25.136 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.136 Section 25.136 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.136 [Reserved]...

  5. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  6. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved]...

  7. 47 CFR 25.252 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.252 Section 25.252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.252 [Reserved]...

  8. 47 CFR 76.227 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 76.227 Section 76.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.227 [Reserved] ...

  9. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  10. Natural Xanthones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova-Dyatlova, O. A.; Glyzin, V. I.

    1982-10-01

    The available information on the abundance of natural xanthones in nature and the methods for the determination of their structure, biogenesis, and pharmacological properties is surveyed and described systematically. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  11. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  12. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  13. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  14. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  15. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  16. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  1. 7 CFR 958.44 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve fund. 958.44 Section 958.44 Agriculture... Reserve fund. At the end of each fiscal period, funds in excess of the committee's expenses may be placed..., with the approval of the Secretary, may include in its budget an item for such reserve. Funds in...

  2. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  3. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  4. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve. The... funds in a reserve so established: Provided, That funds in the reserve shall not exceed approximately...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve. The... funds in a reserve so established: Provided, That funds in the reserve shall not exceed approximately...

  6. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...

  7. Campsite reservation systems...the camper's viewpoint

    Treesearch

    Arthur W. Magill

    1976-01-01

    Attitudes and characteristics of campers reached by two Federal campsite reservation programs in experimental use during the summer of 1973 were surveyed. Most campers strongly favored reservations, but preferred that one company sell reservations to all government campgrounds. Questionnaire responses indicated need for a systematic procedure for referring campers to...

  8. 48 CFR 49.109-2 - Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservations. 49.109-2 Section 49.109-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-2 Reservations. (a) The TCO shall— (1) Reserve in the...

  9. 25 CFR 162.500 - Crow Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crow Reservation. 162.500 Section 162.500 Indians BUREAU... for Certain Reservations § 162.500 Crow Reservation. (a) Notwithstanding the regulations in other sections of this part 162, Crow Indians classified as competent under the Act of June 4, 1920 (41 Stat....

  10. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  11. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local

  12. Biomarkers of ovarian reserve as predictors of reproductive potential.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Anne Z

    2013-11-01

    The size of the oocyte pool, the ovarian reserve, can determine a woman's reproductive stage. Chronologic age, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, early follicular phase follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and early follicular phase inhibin B levels are correlated with ovarian reserve. Therefore, these biomarkers of ovarian reserve should serve as predictors of reproductive potential. Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that historical and laboratory biomarkers of ovarian reserve are associated with natural and treatment-related fertility. However, controversy remains as to their ability to predict reproductive potential. For infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment, these biomarkers tend to be highly specific but not sensitive for cycle failure (nonpregnancy). While these biomarkers are being used as "fertility tests" in the general population, their value as predictors of unassisted fertility is still uncertain. Among laboratory biomarkers, AMH appears to have the most promise; however, further studies are needed to refine cutoff values and to determine test characteristics in the prediction of natural fertility or infertility in the general population.

  13. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  14. 77 FR 73 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Natural Resources... Partnership Initiative (CCPI) and up to $25 million in the Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) through... wetlands. The designated 8-digit HUC focus areas are listed below. A complete list of the smaller-scale,...

  15. A comparison of tourists and local visitors to National Estuarine Research Reserve sites

    Treesearch

    Allan Marsinko; William C. Norman; Tiffany J. McClinton

    2001-01-01

    The National Estuarine Research Reserve system serves as a laboratory and classroom where the effects of both natural and human activity can be monitored and studied. Visitors to twelve National Estuarine Research Reserve system sites were surveyed to obtain information about demographics, participation, experience with the system, activities, and opinions. Comparisons...

  16. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  17. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  18. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  20. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A general business model for marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  2. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  3. Reserve Component Programs Fiscal Year 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Reserve, 1979-1986. Attorney.at-law, Morrison & Foerster , San Francisco, California, 1957 to 1979. Assigned to Board, August 1, 1986. Reserve Component...the resources which are necessary to field Reserve forces that are well- trained, well-equipped, and ready." Honorable Stephen M. Duncan Assistant...Defense of the United States * Duncan, Honorable Stephen M. 0 Loeffke, Major General Bernard Assistant Secretary of Defense for (USA), Chairman

  4. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  5. Reserve Forces of the NATO Armies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-05

    question was more difficult. The occupation of Kuwait and uncertainty of the Soviet threat are slowing down the impetus to make changes to the reserve...forces in some countries. As an example, long term decicions on changes to reserve systems in the United States will probably have to wait until units...the Militia, making it the largest element in the Primary Reserve.14 The Militia is under the control of the Mobile Command. It is organized

  6. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1992: Annual Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Reserve components. The Hay Group was retained to conduct the technical analysis. Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve FTS requirements (both military...and civilian) were As a result of the study, Hay validated 487 filled at 104 percent and 92 percent, positions which met the criteria for general and...parts stockage for older, non- Reserve obtained approximately $500 million in supportable equipment. It also allows Reserve equipment assets not

  7. 7 CFR 205.669 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.669 [Reserved] Inspection and Testing...

  8. 7 CFR 915.142 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Rules... and functioning of the Avocado Administrative Committee. Such reserve, including funds carried forward...

  9. 7 CFR 915.142 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Rules... and functioning of the Avocado Administrative Committee. Such reserve, including funds carried forward...

  10. 7 CFR 915.142 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Rules... and functioning of the Avocado Administrative Committee. Such reserve, including funds carried forward...

  11. 7 CFR 915.142 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Rules... and functioning of the Avocado Administrative Committee. Such reserve, including funds carried forward...

  12. 7 CFR 915.142 - Reserve fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Rules... and functioning of the Avocado Administrative Committee. Such reserve, including funds carried forward...

  13. 7 CFR 205.669 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.669 [Reserved] Inspection and...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.344 Operating reserve...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.344 Operating reserve...

  16. 7 CFR 205.669 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.669 [Reserved] Inspection and Testing...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve. The...

  20. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  1. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  2. SPE/WPC reserves definitions approved

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The SPE Board of Directors recently approved the revised reserves definitions submitted by the SPE Oil and Gas Reserves Committee. The revised definitions, drafted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers/World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) Task Force on Petroleum Reserves Definitions, are the result of several years of collaboration among task force members from both organizations, with input from outside organizations, companies, and individuals. SPE and WPC emphasize that these new definitions are intended to establish standard, general guidelines for petroleum reserves classification that will allow for proper comparison of quantities on a worldwide basis. The definitions, with the exception of portions of the Preamble, are presented here.

  3. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  4. Firsthand Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, Moses; Weiss, Francesca Michaelides

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that many school programs don't give children enough opportunity to explore the natural world--i.e., to "mess about" and to have firsthand experience with nature and animals. Not so at the Muscota New School in New York City! This innovative public elementary school actively promotes inquiry-based learning and encourages…

  5. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  6. Natural death.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing age of every human being is the beginning of the end of life, an obviously natural process, but any attempt to define the term 'natural death' soon encounters difficulties in defining what is meant by 'natural'. In the industrialized countries of the West, for example 'natural death' is thought of as the opposite of non-natural types of death such as accidental death, suicide, and homicide. The aim of our present survey is to discuss the meaning of the term 'natural death' under a clinical, a forensic and a scientific point of view with regard to recent developments especially in molecular biology. If there are 'external' physical influences, a medical-technical manipulation, a therapeutic or molecular biological intervention cannot be definitely ruled out as the cause of death, then use of the term 'natural death' in general is open to question. It will only remain meaningful if it can be applied with a specific meaning in definite practical situations. Current research and medical technology, however, do not allow use of the term 'natural death' in its conventional sense: it can thus be stricken from the medical vocabulary. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Firsthand Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, Moses; Weiss, Francesca Michaelides

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that many school programs don't give children enough opportunity to explore the natural world--i.e., to "mess about" and to have firsthand experience with nature and animals. Not so at the Muscota New School in New York City! This innovative public elementary school actively promotes inquiry-based learning and encourages…

  8. Nature Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  9. Matematica Natural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  10. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  11. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  12. Matematica Natural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  13. Nature Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  14. Off-Reservation Indian Survey [Maine].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockabasin, Allen J., Comp; Stone, John G., Comp.

    The needs of the off-reservation Indian population in Maine and recommendations for the correction of these needs are discussed. The program's objectives were (1) to determine the present level of services available to off-reservation Indians in Maine, (2) to determine present housing standards, educational levels, health programs, and geographic…

  15. 12 CFR 227.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 227.11 Section 227.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.11 ...

  16. 12 CFR 227.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 227.11 Section 227.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.11 ...

  17. 12 CFR 227.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 227.11 Section 227.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.11 ...

  18. 12 CFR 227.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 227.11 Section 227.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule § 227.11 ...

  19. A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

    The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

  20. 7 CFR 1944.414 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants § 1944.414 [Reserved] ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1944.414 Section 1944.414 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE...

  1. 7 CFR 1944.418 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants § 1944.418 [Reserved] ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1944.418 Section 1944.418 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.408 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants § 1944.408 [Reserved] ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1944.408 Section 1944.408 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grant shall be made to provide reserve capacity for a project for secondary treatment or more stringent treatment or new interceptors and appurtenances. Grants for such projects shall be based on capacity... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA...

  4. 21 CFR 720.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 720.5 Section 720.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.5 [Reserved] ...

  5. 12 CFR 229.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 229.11 Section 229.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of Funds Availability...

  6. 12 CFR 230.10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 230.10 Section 230.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.10...

  7. 47 CFR 2.1035 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 2.1035 Section 2.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1035 [Reserved]...

  8. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    factors for the Arm,’ reserve components and the Marine Corps Reserve is lack of military occupational -. specialty qualification. This problem is...components informed the Board of -what they perceive to be their most serious limiting factors to readiness in FY 1988. One of the most critical limiting

  9. 7 CFR 331.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false [Reserved] 331.4 Section 331.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.4 [Reserved] ...

  10. 7 CFR 331.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 331.4 Section 331.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.4 [Reserved] ...

  11. 7 CFR 331.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 331.6 Section 331.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.6 [Reserved] ...

  12. 7 CFR 331.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false [Reserved] 331.6 Section 331.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.6 [Reserved] ...

  13. 31 CFR 317.10 - Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservation. 317.10 Section 317.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... STATES SAVINGS BONDS § 317.10 Reservation. The Secretary of the Treasury may at any time, or from time to...

  14. 49 CFR 239.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 239.5 Section 239.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS General § 239.5 [Reserved] ...

  15. 36 CFR § 1212.301 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true [Reserved] § 1212.301 Section § 1212.301 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... Recipients Who Are Individuals § 1212.301 [Reserved] ...

  16. 36 CFR § 1258.1 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true [Reserved] § 1258.1 Section § 1258.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.1 [Reserved] ...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that require Agency countersignatures on all withdrawals. (f) Funds invested in securities. In addition... request Agency approval of reserve account withdrawals prior to the withdrawal. Borrowers must inform the.... (2) The Agency will indicate any conditions governing withdrawals from a reserve account at the...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that require Agency countersignatures on all withdrawals. (f) Funds invested in securities. In addition... request Agency approval of reserve account withdrawals prior to the withdrawal. Borrowers must inform the.... (2) The Agency will indicate any conditions governing withdrawals from a reserve account at the...

  19. Potential Student Group Profile: The Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, David M.

    The military reserves are an attractive source of potential students for colleges attempting to recruit from non-traditional pools. To help colleges plan service delivery strategies and design programs attractive to this group, a study was undertaken to construct a profile of members of the military reserves. The Army National Guard of Texas was…

  20. 21 CFR 216.23 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 216.23 Section 216.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PHARMACY COMPOUNDING Compounded Drug Products § 216.23 [Reserved] ...