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Sample records for rietvlei nature reserve

  1. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Establishment of Nature Reserves in Administrative Regions of Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ziliang; Cui, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature reserves continues

  3. The use of the urogenital papillae of male feral African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as indicator of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in two polluted dams in an urban nature reserve, Gauteng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Taneshka; Barnhoorn, Irene; Jansen van Vuren, Johan; Bornman, Riana

    2013-01-01

    The African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is indigenous to South Africa where it is commonly found in calm waters such as lakes, streams, rivers, swamps and floodplains. The males of this gonochoristic species can be readily distinguished from females via a distinct elongated urogenital papilla with a pointed tip, located just behind the anus. This structure is an androgen controlled secondary sexual characteristic and could potentially be affected by chemicals displaying endocrine disrupting properties during development. Results of previous studies on effects on papillae of different fish species indicated that these structures could be useful as bio-indicators of exposure due to alterations in the structures. This study investigated the occurrence of abnormal morphology in urogenital papillae compared to the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the gonads of presumed male or intersex catfish sampled from the Rietvlei and Marais dams in an urban nature reserve, due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Macroscopic observation of the UGP, gonad examination after laparotomy and histology were done. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and Urogenital papilla length index (UGPLI) were determined for all fish collected. Mesenteric fat analyzed for selected alkylphenols and organochlorines showed high levels of especially nonylphenol indicating long term exposure to these chemicals due to bio-accumulation. The GSI indicated that fish with intersex gonads were probably feminized males. It was concluded that use of the UGP alone, without macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the gonads, could not effectively indicate exposure to EDCs.

  4. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  5. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    U.S. crude oil proved reserves increased in 2014 for the sixth year in a row with a net addition of 3.4 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (a 9% increase), according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2014, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. natural gas proved reserves increased 10% in 2014, raising the U.S. total to a record 388.8 trillion cubic feet.

  6. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Heidi J.; Busby, Gwenlyn M.; Hamaide, Bertrand; Ando, Amy W.; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels’ habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning. PMID:26789127

  7. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  12. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  13. Low genetic diversity in a marine nature reserve: re-evaluating diversity criteria in reserve design

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J.J; Okamura, B

    2005-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the genetic composition of populations associated with marine reserves, as reserve designation is generally to protect specific species, communities or habitats. Nevertheless, it is important to conserve genetic diversity since it provides the raw material for the maintenance of species diversity over longer, evolutionary time-scales and may also confer the basis for adaptation to environmental change. Many current marine reserves are small in size and isolated to some degree (e.g. sea loughs and offshore islands). While such features enable easier management, they may have important implications for the genetic structure of protected populations, the ability of populations to recover from local catastrophes and the potential for marine reserves to act as sources of propagules for surrounding areas. Here, we present a case study demonstrating genetic differentiation, isolation, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity in populations of the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve (an isolated sea lough in southern Ireland), compared with populations on the local adjacent open coast and populations in England, Wales and France. Our study demonstrates that this sea lough is isolated from open coast populations, and highlights that there may be long-term genetic consequences of selecting reserves on the basis of isolation and ease of protection. PMID:16024366

  14. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, Micahel J

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  15. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J.

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  16. [Carbon budget of ecosystem in Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Guirui; Zhao, Shidong; Yu, Zhenliang

    2003-01-01

    The study used EPPML, a biological geochemistry cycle model that was built, to simulate the carbon budget for ecosystems in Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve. The results indicated that the annual net primary productivity [NPP (carbon)] of the natural reserve was 1.332 x 10(6) t.a-1. The annual NPP of mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest and spruce-fir forest were maximal, 0.540 x 10(6) t.a-1 and 0.428 x 10(6) t.a-1 respectively. The area and productivity of the two stands were maximal in Changbai Mountain, therefore, the simulating productivity of the two stands most greatly affect carbon cycle and carbon budget of the natural reserve, and the veracity of the former decides the security of the latter. To sum up, not only did the simulations accord with routines in the relative comparisons between different vegetation belts and climate belts in the whole natural reserve, but also was exact in the absolute comparisons with very disperse data from field survey. Vegetations in the natural reserve had evident carbon sink functions, mainly exhibiting in the increasing of carbon, about 1.058 x 10(6) t.a-1. The annual carbon of mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest increased greatest (0.452 x 10(6) t.a-1), secondly spruce-fir forest (0.339 x 10(6) t.a-1). The two stands played crucial roles in the carbon sink for Changbai Mountain, others being Changbai larch forest, broad-leaved forest, meadow, shrub, alpine tundra, subalpine Betula ermanii forest and alpine grass. In 1995, the decomposing carbon of soil organic matter was 0.169 x 10(6) t.a-1 higher than the littering carbon in the natural reserve. There was accumulation of organic matter in the meadow soil and shrub soil. The decomposition and accumulation of soil organic matter was in the nearly balancing condition in the alpine tundra soil and alpine grass soil. The decomposition of organic matter was as one and a half time or double as litterfall in the arbor forest soil.

  17. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  18. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  19. Nature reserves: Do they capture the full range of America's biological diversity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.M.; Davis, Frank W.; McGhie, R.G.; Wright, R.G.; Groves, C.; Estes, James

    2001-01-01

    Less than 6% of the coterminous United States is in nature reserves. Assessment of the occurrence of nature reserves across ranges of elevation and soil productivity classes indicates that nature reserves are most frequently found at higher elevations and on less productive soils. The distribution of plants and animals suggests that the greatest number of species is found at lower elevations. A preliminary assessment of the occurrence of mapped land cover types indicates that ???60% of mapped cover types have <10% of their area in nature reserves Land ownership patterns show that areas of lower elevation and more productive soils are most often privately owned and already extensively converted to urban and agricultural uses. Thus any effort to establish a system of nature reserves that captures the full geographical and ecological range of cover types and species must fully engage the private sector.

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  1. Assessment and Forecasting Natural Gas Reserve Appreciation in the Gulf Coast Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.M.; Fisher, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    Reserve appreciation, also called reserve growth, is the increase in the estimated ultimate recovery (the sum of year end reserves and cumulative production) from fields subsequent to discovery from extensions, infield drilling, improved recovery of in-place resources, new pools, and intrapool completions. In recent years, reserve appreciation has become a major component of total U.S. annual natural gas reserve additions. Over the past 15 years, reserve appreciation has accounted for more than 80 percent of all annual natural gas reserve additions in the U.S. lower 48 states (Figure 1). The rise of natural gas reserve appreciation basically came with the judgment that reservoirs were much more geologically complex than generally thought, and they hold substantial quantities of natural gas in conventionally movable states that are not recovered by typical well spacing and vertical completion practices. Considerable evidence indicates that many reservoirs show significant geological variations and compartmentalization, and that uniform spacing, unless very dense, does not efficiently tap and drain a sizable volume of the reservoir (Figure 2). Further, by adding reserves within existing infrastructure and commonly by inexpensive recompletion technology in existing wells, reserve appreciation has become the dominant factor in ample, low-cost natural gas supply. Although there is a wide range in natural gas reserve appreciation potential by play and that potential is a function of drilling and technology applied, current natural gas reserve appreciation studies are gross, averaging wide ranges, disaggregated by broad natural gas provinces, and calculated mainly as a function of time. A much more detailed analysis of natural gas reserve appreciation aimed at assessing long-term sustainability, technological amenability, and economic factors, however, is necessary. The key to such analysis is a disaggregation to the play level. Plays are the geologically homogeneous

  2. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere. PMID:25190597

  3. Effectiveness of Nature Reserve System for Conserving Tropical Forests: A Statistical Evaluation of Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Pechacek, Peter; Zhang, Mingxia; Xiao, Nengwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Junsheng

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of existing nature reserve systems for the conservation of tropical forests is an urgent task to save the remaining biodiversity. Here, we tested the effectiveness of the reserve system on Hainan Island by conducting a three-way comparison of changes in forest area in locations within the reserves, adjacent to the reserves, and far outside of the reserves. We used a general linear model to control for the effects of covariates (historical forest area, elevation, slope, and distance to nearest roads), which may also be correlated with the changes in forest area, to better explain the effectiveness of the reserve system. From 2000 to 2010, the forest area inside Hainan’s nature reserve system showed an increase while adjacent unprotected areas and the wider, unprotected landscape both experienced deforestation. However, the simple inside-outside comparisons may overestimate the protective effect of the reserve system. Most nature reserves (>60%) showed increasing fragmentation. And the risk of rapid deforestation remained high at low elevations, where remaining forests tend to be easily logged and converted to commercial plantations. Future conservation efforts should pay more attention to those sites with less challenging environmental conditions. PMID:23469024

  4. Effectiveness of nature reserve system for conserving tropical forests: a statistical evaluation of Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Pechacek, Peter; Zhang, Mingxia; Xiao, Nengwen; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Junsheng

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of existing nature reserve systems for the conservation of tropical forests is an urgent task to save the remaining biodiversity. Here, we tested the effectiveness of the reserve system on Hainan Island by conducting a three-way comparison of changes in forest area in locations within the reserves, adjacent to the reserves, and far outside of the reserves. We used a general linear model to control for the effects of covariates (historical forest area, elevation, slope, and distance to nearest roads), which may also be correlated with the changes in forest area, to better explain the effectiveness of the reserve system. From 2000 to 2010, the forest area inside Hainan's nature reserve system showed an increase while adjacent unprotected areas and the wider, unprotected landscape both experienced deforestation. However, the simple inside-outside comparisons may overestimate the protective effect of the reserve system. Most nature reserves (>60%) showed increasing fragmentation. And the risk of rapid deforestation remained high at low elevations, where remaining forests tend to be easily logged and converted to commercial plantations. Future conservation efforts should pay more attention to those sites with less challenging environmental conditions. PMID:23469024

  5. Tropical nature reserves are losing their buffer zones, but leakage is not to blame.

    PubMed

    Lui, Gillian V; Coomes, David A

    2016-05-01

    Tropical forests provide important ecosystem services to humanity, yet are threatened by habitat loss resulting from deforestation and land-use change. Although reserves are considered the cornerstones of conservation efforts in the tropics, their efficacy remains equivocal. One question that remains unresolved is whether leakage - the unanticipated displacement of deforestation from inside reserves into the unrestricted zones just beyond a reserve's administrative boundary - is common around tropical forest reserves, or whether the zones are acting as buffers between the protected area and the outside world. To resolve this question, we used the Landsat-derived Global Forest Change dataset to estimate deforestation rates between 2000 and 2012 inside and outside of 60 nature reserves spread across the tropics. Deforestation rates inside reserves (within 5km of the administrative boundary) were generally lower than those immediately outside the reserves (i.e. in buffer zones 0-10km from the boundary), suggesting that reserves are effective at protecting forests. We hypothesised that leakage would result in greater deforestation rates in reserve buffer zones than in the broader reserve landscapes, but such a pattern was observed in only five African sites, suggesting that leakage does not often occur on the edge of established reserves. However, roughly 80% of reserves experienced deforestation rates that increased gradually from their interiors to the outer periphery of their buffer zones. Thus, while leakage may not be a pervasive phenomenon around tropical reserves worldwide, tropical reserves are often losing their buffer zones, resulting in increased isolation that could have ramifications for ecosystem services provisioning and tropical conservation strategies.

  6. Awareness of Conservation Issues among Visitors to Three South African Nature Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, G. R.; Fuggle, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the awareness of conservation issues, and the enhancement thereof, as a result of visiting interpretive facilities in three South African nature reserves. Results indicate a statistically significant increase in awareness at all three reserves, although the levels of awareness were low. (TW)

  7. Reserves of valuable components of natural gas in Russia and their complex development

    SciTech Connect

    Staroselsky, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Natural gas reserves are distributed over a wide stratigraphic section (from Riphean to Neogene) and different geotectonic conditions in Russia. Some gases of these reserves contain high quantity of homologues of methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, helium and other valuable components which can be separated and considered as separate useful products. Reserves of ethane (not less than 3%), propane, butane, hydrogen sulfide, gaseous sulfur, helium and nitrogen are estimated on the National base. The reserves of ethane-rich gases account for 41.9% of the proved gas reserves. The structure of the proved gas reserves is as follows: methane-rich gases -- 57.8%; methane-rich sour gases -- 0.8%; ethane-rich gases -- 33.4%; and ethane-rich sour gases -- 8.8%. Ethane-rich gases of West Siberia are the most promising for the complex development of potential gas resources.

  8. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover.

  9. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. PMID:26171762

  10. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  11. [Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: status quo assessment and countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Quan, Jia; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Xu, Wei-Hua; Miao, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Based on the questionnaire of World Bank/World Wide Fund for Nature (WB/WWF) management effectiveness tracking tool, a survey was conducted in 535 China nature reserves to assess their management effectiveness, with the countermeasures suggested. The 535 nature reserves had an average score of 51.95, and 69.35% of them had a score less than 60, illustrating that the general management level of our nature reserves was relatively low. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01) in the scores of management effectiveness among the nature reserves of different class and established at different time, i. e., the higher class and the longer establishing time, the higher score of management effectiveness. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the scores among the reserves with different area and type. The average scores of management base, management mechanism, management behavior, and management effectiveness were 1.55, 1.44, 1.52, and 1.90, respectively. The indices (management of protection targets, condition assessment, reserve boundary, resource management, and management agency) had the highest average scores, while equipment use and maintenance, community co-management, budget sources, budget expending and management, and management system and regulations had the lowest ones. The management system for China nature reserves had been generally established, the major targets and their values had been successfully protected, but there were still many problems in the management of China nature reserves, such as management mechanism and management base construction. To improve the management effectiveness, some countermeasures should be taken, e. g., establishing rational distribution and management mechanisms of budgets, strengthening ability construction, and promoting community participation.

  12. Pinelands national reserve: An intergovernmental approach to nature preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilieholm, Robert J.; Romm, Jeff

    1992-05-01

    The Pinelands National Reserve was created in 1978 when private interests and federal, state, and local governments allied to protect 378,000 ha (935,000 acres) of New Jersey's Pine Barrens from encroaching development. An intergovernmental authority, the Pinelands Commission, manages the reserve by implementing a regional plan to guide development away from environmentally sensitive areas and into designated growth centers. Through transferable development rights, financial gains from development in growth centers are used to compensate owners and localities in the reserve who might otherwise have developed their lands. The national reserve strategy contrasts with other federal strategies for preserving unique environments in which the federal government exercises exclusive control (e.g., national parks, monuments, and recreation areas). This article describes the strategy applied in the Pinelands and discusses the conditions in which it may be more or less effective than other strategies used to protect unique or valued landscapes. It then compares the Pinelands model with the strategies and conditions of california's Redwood National Park and Point Reyes National Seashore to develop propositions about the circumstances in which one or another strategy is more likely to be viable. Finally, it applies these propositions to the possibilities for future forest preservation in New England.

  13. Effects of Human-Nature Interactions on Wildlife Habitat Dynamics: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Tuanmu, M.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities continue to induce the degradation of natural ecosystems, thus threatening not only the long-term survival of many wildlife species around the world, but also the resilience of natural ecosystems to global environmental changes. In response, many conservation efforts are emerging as adaptive strategies for coping with the degradation of natural ecosystems. Among them, the establishment of nature reserves is considered to be the most effective. However the effectiveness of nature reserves depends on the type and intensity of human activities occurring within their boundaries. But many of these activities constitute important livelihood systems for local human populations. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of conservation actions without significantly affecting local livelihood systems, it is essential to understand the complexity of human-nature interactions and their effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the relation between giant panda habitat dynamics, conservation efforts and human activities in Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas, Sichuan Province, China. This reserve supports ca. 10% of the entire wild giant panda population but is also home to ca. 4,900 local residents. The spatio-temporal dynamics of giant panda habitat over the last four decades were analyzed using a time series of remotely sensed imagery acquired by different satellite sensor systems, including the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Our assessment suggests that when local residents were actively involved in conservation efforts (through a payment for ecosystem services scheme established since around 2000) panda habitat started to recover, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems in the Reserve. This reversed a long-term (> 30 years) trend of panda habitat degradation. The study not only has direct

  14. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves. PMID:27326373

  15. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjing; Liu, Chengzhu; Wan, Jizhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves.

  16. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  17. The dynamics of land cover change pattern and landscape fragmentation in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yunqing; Wang, Jinxi; Jiang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    Nature reserves are facing a very challenging conflict between conservation and development today. The protection effect of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve has received considerable attention, especially in view of its stimulating tourism after the 1990s. Remote sensing data from 1974, 1994 and 2002 were chosen for the analysis of this reserve, since they closely represented the vegetation situation before and after felling, as well as the disturbance from the flush of tourism. We find that the quality and quantity of the forest in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve continues to decline, owing to the conifer area and whole forest area constantly shrinking, as well as the landscape fragmentation increasing. The rate of loss of forest in the second period (1994-2002) had showed down much than that in the first period (1974-1994), due to nature protection. Shrubland area continued to increase throughout the two periods, with an increased speed in the second period which was about 3.5 times that in the first period. The treeline was consistently retreating, contributing a total of 467.96 ha of conifer forest lost. However, the causes involved in tree mortality and the resulting regression of the treeline are not clear. In any case, under the general background of global warming, human impact undoubtedly should have direct or indirect cause dramatic consequences for the forest in this very sensitive zone, while there are many uncertainties in the behaviour of high mountain ecosystems. Keywords: Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, Vegetation, Habitats fragment,

  18. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  19. Analyzing the habitat suitability for migratory birds at the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Zhang, Liquan; Yuan, Lin

    2008-11-01

    The Dongtan Nature Reserve, one of the largest nature reserves in East Asia, is located in the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary and is an important habitat for migratory birds. The Dongtan wetlands were listed in the Chinese Protected Wetlands in 1992, and were designated as internationally important under the Ramsar Wetlands Convention in 2001 and as a national nature reserve in 2005. By their very nature and location, the estuarine and coastal habitats are dynamic and their biodiversity conservation and management relies on up-to-date spatial information. By establishing qualitative and quantitative relationships between bird populations and key habitat factors such as elevation, land cover type, tidal creek density and macrophytobenthos biomass, we developed an object-oriented image approach, in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems and the data from current field surveys, to analyze and assess the habitat suitability for the main types of birds, namely Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae, at the reserve. The results from this study showed that about 40% of the total area of the Dongtan Reserve contained suitable habitats for these four bird families. The Scirpus mariqueter zone, mudflat zone, and tidal creeks were the most important habitats for these birds. This study indicated the potential of this approach for objective and effective evaluation of the species habitat suitability in a dynamic estuarine and coastal area. The implications of the results as a tool for biodiversity conservation, wetland conservation, and ecosystem management are discussed.

  20. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id; Sjarmidi, Achmad E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id

    2014-03-24

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  1. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana; Sjarmidi, Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  2. New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Lichao; Feng, Limin

    2006-12-01

    Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict.

  3. New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Lichao; Feng, Limin

    2006-12-01

    Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict. PMID:21396011

  4. Enhancing Conservation Education Opportunities in Nature Reserves in Tropical Countries: A Case Study in Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rome, Abigail; Romero, Bart

    1998-01-01

    To meet the educational needs of residents and visitors at a nature reserve in Belize, educators developed a program to teach participating students and provide ongoing educational resources for future visitors. Fifteen North-American college students received academic training in rainforest ecology and environmental education. They then created…

  5. Secondary natural gas recovery -- infield reserve growth joint venture: Applications in midcontinent sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from deltaic and valley-fill sandstones of the Midcontinent as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas; to demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields; and to transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  6. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China. PMID:25248933

  7. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  8. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  9. Anthropogenic heavy metals in the environment of Eurasian Arctic Nature Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ivanova, Yulia; Karpov, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    The Russian Arctic Nature Reserves are situated far from the main industrial regions. In spite of this, there are anthropogenic constituents (for example, heavy metals - HM) in the environmental objects (air, water, etc.) and in food chains (plants, birds, and so on). We studied the long-range atmospheric transport of some heavy metals (such as nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, and so on) to four Nature Reserves situated near the shore of the Arctic Ocean - in the Deltas of the Pechora River (Nenets reserve), the Ob River (Gydansky reserve), the Lena River (Ust-Lensky reserve), and at Wrangel Island. The air mass trajectories to each reserve were calculated with the help of the site (www.arl.noaa.gov/ready) for each day of January, April, July, and October for the period of 2001-2010. Analyzing the spatial distributions of these trajectories we studied seasonal variations in air transport of pollution to different Russian Arctic points. Modeling the HM transport in the atmosphere was as in [1]. The main assumption is that HM are transported with submicron aerosol particles. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The main important source-regions were found for each point. Mean anthropogenic HM concentrations in air and precipitations, as well as HM fluxes onto the surface were estimated at different arctic regions. The spatial distributions of so called "potential function of pollution" were calculated and presented on the maps. These results allow to analyze the role of a real pollution source or of a planned source for each reserve. So, the influence of northern oil and gas industry may be of great importance because of its proximity to the reserves under investigation. The work was partly supported by RFBR, grant No. 14-05-00059. Authors thank the NOAA service for possibility to use their data and products. ________________ 1. Vinogradova

  10. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (<3000 m) areas with xeric, tropical, and temperate ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  12. A new species of Eustigma (Hamamelidaceae) from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Tran, Hop; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Naiki, Akiyo; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hamamelidaceae, Eustigma honbaense H.Toyama, Tagane & V.S.Dang, sp. nov., is described from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam. This species is similar to Eustigma oblongifolium Gardner & Champ., but differs from it in having entire leaves, longer infructescences, capsules with a longer apical part and seeds with a larger hilum. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration and photographs of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to the genus Eustigma. PMID:27489488

  13. A new species of Eustigma (Hamamelidaceae) from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Tran, Hop; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Naiki, Akiyo; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hamamelidaceae, Eustigma honbaense H.Toyama, Tagane & V.S.Dang, sp. nov., is described from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam. This species is similar to Eustigma oblongifolium Gardner & Champ., but differs from it in having entire leaves, longer infructescences, capsules with a longer apical part and seeds with a larger hilum. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration and photographs of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to the genus Eustigma. PMID:27489488

  14. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  15. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-11

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans.

  16. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Angélica H.; Oliveira, Pablo V.; Britto, Karollini B.; Freire, Bárbara F.; Moreno, Marcel R.; dos Santos, Alexandre R.; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G.

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  17. Yet Another Empty Forest: Considering the Conservation Value of a Recently Established Tropical Nature Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Jianchu; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary approach used to conserve tropical biodiversity is in the establishment of protected areas. However, many tropical nature reserves are performing poorly and interventions in the broader landscape may be essential for conserving biodiversity both within reserves and at large. Between October 2010 and 2012, we conducted bird surveys in and around a recently established nature reserve in Xishuangbanna, China. We constructed a checklist of observed species, previously recorded species, and species inferred to have occurred in the area from their distributions and habitat requirements. In addition, we assessed variation in community composition and habitat specificity at a landscape-scale. Despite the fact that the landscape supports a large area of natural forest habitat (~50,000 ha), we estimate that >40% of the bird fauna has been extirpated and abundant evidence suggests hunting is the primary cause. A large proportion (52%) of the bigger birds (>20 cm) were extirpated and for large birds there was a U-shaped relationship between habitat breadth and extirpation probability. Habitat specificity was low and bird communities were dominated by widespread species of limited conservation concern. We question whether extending tropical protected area networks will deliver desired conservation gains, unless much greater effort is channeled into addressing the hunting problem both within existing protected areas and in the broader landscape. PMID:25668338

  18. Yet another empty forest: considering the conservation value of a recently established tropical nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Jianchu; Harrison, Rhett D

    2015-01-01

    The primary approach used to conserve tropical biodiversity is in the establishment of protected areas. However, many tropical nature reserves are performing poorly and interventions in the broader landscape may be essential for conserving biodiversity both within reserves and at large. Between October 2010 and 2012, we conducted bird surveys in and around a recently established nature reserve in Xishuangbanna, China. We constructed a checklist of observed species, previously recorded species, and species inferred to have occurred in the area from their distributions and habitat requirements. In addition, we assessed variation in community composition and habitat specificity at a landscape-scale. Despite the fact that the landscape supports a large area of natural forest habitat (~50,000 ha), we estimate that >40% of the bird fauna has been extirpated and abundant evidence suggests hunting is the primary cause. A large proportion (52%) of the bigger birds (>20 cm) were extirpated and for large birds there was a U-shaped relationship between habitat breadth and extirpation probability. Habitat specificity was low and bird communities were dominated by widespread species of limited conservation concern. We question whether extending tropical protected area networks will deliver desired conservation gains, unless much greater effort is channeled into addressing the hunting problem both within existing protected areas and in the broader landscape.

  19. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  20. [Evaluation of ecosystem service values of the forests of Shennongjia Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Chang; Peng, Hao; Li, Zhen-Qing

    2014-05-01

    As an ecological protected area for rare animals and plants in a subtropical forest zone, Shennongjia National Reserve plays an important role in the study of biodiversity in China. By using the market value, shade-price and opportunity-cost methods, the forest ecosystem service values of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve were evaluated, including forest production, recreation and culture, water conservation, soil conservation, gas regulation, environment purification, nutrient circulation and biodiversity conservation. The total value of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve was approximately 204.33 x 10(8) yuan RMB x a(-1). The values of the different functions were in order of biodiversity conservation (68.5%) > soil conservation (12.7%) > recreation and culture (4.9%) > gas regulation (4.8%) > forest production (4.2%) > water conservation (3.9%) > environment purification (0.7%) > nutrient circulation (0.3%). The values with respect to utility were in sequence of unused value (68.5%) > indirect value in use (22.4% ) > direct value in use (9.1%).

  1. [Butterfly species diversity and its conservation in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Zhou, Hong-Chun; Tan, Ji-Cai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2011-06-01

    By using line-transect method, an investigation was conducted on the species diversity of butterfly in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Changde City of Hunan Province from June 2008 to September 2010. Aiming at the main factors including plant species richness (D) , mean elevation (E) , average distance from stream/river (F), and human interference level (K) that affecting the species richness of butterfly in 31 segment-level transects in 4 line-transects, multiple regression analysis was made, and the diversity and similarity of the butterfly communities in the experimental zone, buffer zone, and core zone of the Reserve were compared. A total of 147 butterfly species were collected, belonging to 94 genera and 10 families, among which, 4 species was nationally conserved species. Multiple regression analysis showed that D, E, and K were the three most major factors affecting the distribution of butterfly. The species richness of butterfly had significant positive correlation with D (P < 0.01), and negative correlations with E and K (P < 0.05). The species diversity and evenness index of butterfly were higher in core zone than in experimental zone and buffer zone, dominance index was the highest in experimental zone, and a higher similarity index (0.526) was observed between buffer zone and core zone. To conserve the species diversity of butterfly in the Reserve, efforts should be made to protect the plant species richness, keep the natural forest succession, decrease the human interference properly, and tighten up the management of butterfly habitat.

  2. [Butterfly species diversity and its conservation in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Zhou, Hong-Chun; Tan, Ji-Cai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2011-06-01

    By using line-transect method, an investigation was conducted on the species diversity of butterfly in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Changde City of Hunan Province from June 2008 to September 2010. Aiming at the main factors including plant species richness (D) , mean elevation (E) , average distance from stream/river (F), and human interference level (K) that affecting the species richness of butterfly in 31 segment-level transects in 4 line-transects, multiple regression analysis was made, and the diversity and similarity of the butterfly communities in the experimental zone, buffer zone, and core zone of the Reserve were compared. A total of 147 butterfly species were collected, belonging to 94 genera and 10 families, among which, 4 species was nationally conserved species. Multiple regression analysis showed that D, E, and K were the three most major factors affecting the distribution of butterfly. The species richness of butterfly had significant positive correlation with D (P < 0.01), and negative correlations with E and K (P < 0.05). The species diversity and evenness index of butterfly were higher in core zone than in experimental zone and buffer zone, dominance index was the highest in experimental zone, and a higher similarity index (0.526) was observed between buffer zone and core zone. To conserve the species diversity of butterfly in the Reserve, efforts should be made to protect the plant species richness, keep the natural forest succession, decrease the human interference properly, and tighten up the management of butterfly habitat. PMID:21941763

  3. [Distribution patterns of giant panda in Guanyinshan and Foping nature reserves].

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing; Zhu, Yun; Ruan, Ying-qin; Yong, Li-jun; Wang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Wen-hui

    2009-09-01

    By using line transect method, the distribution patterns of giant panda population and its sympatric companion wildlife species in Foping and Guanyinshan nature reserves were investigated in October 2007 and April 2008, and the environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of giant panda activity were analyzed. The giant panda population and its sympatric companion wildlife species in the two reserves had the similar distribution patterns, and the density and distribution range of giant panda were smaller in Guanyinshan than in Foping. Giant panda had two high-density distribution areas in Foping, but no activity trace in most parts of Guanyinshan. The activity trace of Budorcas taxicolor, Naemorhedus goral and Sus scrofa was more in Guanyinshan than in Foping. Anthropogenic interference might affect the distribution pattern of giant panda.

  4. [Population, distribution and food composition of wolves (Canis lupus) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu-Yi; Zhang, Li-Jia; Wang, An-Meng; Bater; Nasendelger; Yuan, Li; Bao, Wei-Dong

    2011-04-01

    To provide initial value for population restoration and management of wolves (Canis lupus) in the wild, line transect survey and fecal analysis method were used to study the population ecology of wolf at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia. The results revealed that the population number was at least seven within the reserve and population density was 4.18+/-2.88 individual per 100 km2. The wolf population was mainly distributed in Shengshan and Qinyunshan core areas; active sites appeared mostly along mountain ridges, roads and valleys at Shengshan and mountain ridges at Qinyunshan. Hare (Lepus capensis) and plants occurred frequently in the food composition of wolf scats. Food types varied between years but not seasons (Winter-Spring and Summer-Autumn).

  5. [Establishment of standard forest fuel models for Fenglin Natural Reserve, Heilongjiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Wei; He, Hong-Shi; Liang, Yu; Luo, Xu; Cai, Long-Yan; Long, Jing

    2012-06-01

    From the viewpoint of forest fire behavior, and based on the key parameters of fuels, three standard forest fuel models for the forests differed significantly in fuel characteristics and local environmental conditions in Fenglin Natural Reserve were established by using hierarchical cluster analysis. The three models were FL-I, FL-II, and FL-III for the broadleaved-Korean pine forest, spruce-fir forest, and poplar-birch forest, the representative forest types in the Reserve, respectively. According to the forest structure and composition, land cover type, and horizontal and vertical continuity, the three models FL-I , FL-II, and FL-III were similar to the models C-5, C-2, and D-1 in Canada CFBPS fuel classification system, respectively. The forest ground features and the horizontal and vertical characteristics of the three models established in this paper could help the investigators to identify the fuel types in fuel inventory.

  6. Stoneflies of the genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve, Fujian of China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xue-Feng; Murányi, Dávid; Wang, Guo-Quan; Li, Wei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Neoperla are reviewed from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve located in the Fujian Province of southeastern China, including the description of a new species, Neoperla brevistyla sp. n. The new species is compared to similar taxa. The first records of five Neoperla species, Neoperla henana Li, Wu & Zhang, 2011, Neoperla similiserecta Wang & Li, 2012, Neoperla qingyuanensis Yang & Yang, 1995, Neoperla xuansongae Li & Li, 2013 and Neoperla tuberculata Wu, 1938 are given for the Wuyi Mountain. A provisional key is provided for facilitating the identification of these species. PMID:24039532

  7. Landscape connectivity dynamics based on network analysis in the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiliang; Deng, Li; Dong, Shikui; Zhao, Qinghe; Yang, Juejie; Wang, Cong

    2014-02-01

    Lack of landscape connectivity and habitat loss is major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in nature reserves aimed at conservation. In this study, we used structural pattern and functional connectivity metrics to analyze the spatial patterns and landscape connectivity of habitat patches for the Shangyong sub-reserve of the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve from 1970, 1990, and 2000. On the basis of vegetation and land cover data, we applied the equivalent connected area ECA(PC) indicator to analyze the changes in forest connectivity. Four distance thresholds (2, 4, 8, 12 km) were considered to compare the patch importance of connectivity by dECA values. The results showed the declining trends of landscape connectivity measured by ECA(PC) index from 1970 to 2000. The importance of connectivity in each forest patch varied with the increment of dispersal distances at the patch level, and some important habitat patches, which exhibit a potential to enhance landscape connectivity, should be given more attention. The least-cost pathways based on network structure were displayed under four dispersal distances in three periods. The results showed that the number of paths among the fragments of forest patches exhibited radical increases for larger dispersal distances. Further correlation analyses of AWF, ECA (IIC), and ECA (PC) showed the weakest and least-frequent correlations with the structural pattern indices, while H presented more significant correlations with the PD fragmentation metric. Furthermore, Kendall's rank correlations between the forest patch area and functional connectivity indicators showed that dECA (PC) and dAWF indicators should provided the area-based prioritization of habitat patches. Moreover, the low-rank correlations showed that dF and dLCP can be considered as effective and appropriate indicators for the evaluation of habitat features and network patterns.

  8. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  9. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  10. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  11. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  12. Stifled stakeholders and subdued participation: interpreting local responses toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China.

    PubMed

    Jim, C Y; Xu, Steve S W

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  13. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  14. Mygalomorph Spider Community of a Natural Reserve in a Hilly System in Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Nelson; Pompozzi, Gabriel; Copperi, Sofia; Pérez-Miles, Fernando; González, Alda

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, abundance, spatial distribution, and phenology of the mygalomorph spider community in the “Ernesto Tornquist” Strict Nature Reserve were analyzed in this study. Located in southwestern Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Reserve is representative of the Ventania system, which is a sigmoidal mountain belt 180 km in length. This exceptional hilly ecosystem is home for many endemic species and rich native fauna and flora. Spider abundance was sampled monthly from October 2009 to October 2010 by hand capture and pitfall traps on grassland slopes. The species recorded in the study area were: Actinopus sp.1 (Actinopodidae); Grammostola vachoni and Plesiopelma longisternale (Theraphosidae); Acanthogonatus centralis (Nemesiidae); and Mecicobothrium thorelli (Mecicobothriidae). Grammostola vachoni and Acanthogonatus centralis were the dominant species in hand capture and pitfall traps, respectively. The seasonal variation, diversity, and abundance of the mygalomorph community are analyzed and discussed here. The Mygalomorphae of the Ventania system comprises an important group of sedentary and cryptozoic spiders that seem to be highly dependent on habitat type and environmental factors. PMID:22947032

  15. [Habitat assessment of giant panda in Qingmuchuan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Peng-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey and data collection, this paper studied the characteristics of habitat selection of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Qingmuchuan National Nature Reserve, and assessed the core and buffer zones of habitats from the aspects of topography, vegetation, food, and human disturbance, with the assistance of hierarchy analysis and Geographic Information System software (ArcMap and ArcView). In the study area, the suitable and secondary suitable habitats for Ailuropoda melanoleuca covered 62.1% and 31.0%, respectively, and the unsuitable habitats covered 6.9%. The suitable habitats were mainly distributed in the west and north parts with high altitudes, while the unsuitable habitats were mainly affected by vegetation coverage, bamboo distribution, and human disturbance. To reduce the unsuitable habitats, management mechanism should be further improved, e. g., controlling human disturbances, especially the grazing, bamboo-cutting, and firewood collection in the regions with altitude 900-1600 m.

  16. Knemidocoptes sp. on wild passerines at the Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mainka, S A; Melville, D S; Galsworthy, A; Black, S R

    1994-04-01

    Free-ranging passerine birds banded at the Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong, were affected with a skin disease characterized by crusty, proliferative lesions on legs, feet and beaks. Based on retrospective examination of 1990 to 1992 banding records, 83 of 16,353 birds and 5 of 161 species banded at Mai Po were identified as having these lesions. Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) were most commonly affected (58 of 411 birds) although 19 of 428 black-faced buntings (Emberiza pusilla), 3 of 92 spotted doves (Streptopelia chinensis), and 2 of 616 eastern great reed warblers (Acrocephalus orientalis) also had clinical signs of infestation. Adult Eurasian tree sparrows were affected more often than juveniles and males were affected more often than females. Lesions on juveniles usually were on the feet while on adults lesions also were found on legs and beak. The effects of this parasitic infestation on body weight of wild Eurasian tree sparrows was not significant.

  17. Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) infestation of equids in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heqing; Zhang, Boru; Chu, Hongjun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We investigated infections with Gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (northern China). We conducted necropsies on 6 Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) and 6 Mongolian wild asses (Equus hemionus) and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. All 22 equids studied (100%) were infested with Gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. These included six species: G. haemorrhoidalis, G. inermis, G. intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. nigricornis, and G. pecorum. The mean intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae was 1904 in Przewalski's horses, 780 in Mongolian wild asses, and 113 in domestic horses. Gasterophilus pecorum was the most abundant species in all three equids. Przewalski's horses, a reintroduced species, had a significantly higher intensity of Gasterophilus spp. than the Mongolian wild ass, indicating greater susceptibility to parasites in its ancestral home. PMID:27593434

  18. [Population trends and behavioral observations of wintering common cranes (Grus grus) in Yancheng Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Qiu; Wang, Zhi; Ge, Chen

    2013-10-01

    To understand the population status and behavioural features of wintering common cranes in the Yancheng Nature Reserve, two transects were established and population trends were monitored every month over five recent winters from 2008 to 2013. Wintering behaviours were also observed in order to explore the possible effects of family size and age on time budgets. Results indicated that the populations were stable with a range of 303 to 707 individuals. Negative effects of coastal developments were not found on the wintering population of common cranes, which might be related to their diets and preference for artificial wetland habitats. We found a significant effect of age on time budgets, with juveniles spending more time feeding and less time alerting, which might be related to the needs of body development and skill learning. Family size did not affect the time budgets of the cranes, which indicated that adults did not increase vigilance investment even when raising a larger family. PMID:24115655

  19. Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) infestation of equids in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Heqing; Zhang, Boru; Chu, Hongjun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We investigated infections with Gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the Kalamaili Nature Reserve (northern China). We conducted necropsies on 6 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) and 6 Mongolian wild asses (Equus hemionus) and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. All 22 equids studied (100%) were infested with Gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. These included six species: G. haemorrhoidalis, G. inermis, G. intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. nigricornis, and G. pecorum. The mean intensity of Gasterophilus spp. larvae was 1904 in Przewalski’s horses, 780 in Mongolian wild asses, and 113 in domestic horses. Gasterophilus pecorum was the most abundant species in all three equids. Przewalski’s horses, a reintroduced species, had a significantly higher intensity of Gasterophilus spp. than the Mongolian wild ass, indicating greater susceptibility to parasites in its ancestral home. PMID:27593434

  20. Gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2013-09-15

    The role of a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of gulls in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked.

  1. Invasion of Pinus halepensis Mill. following a wildfire in an Argentine grassland nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sergio M; Cuevas, Yannina A; Boó, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The Ernesto Tornquist nature reserve is a relict of native Pampas vegetation in Argentina. Alien trees were introduced to the reserve in the 1950s, mainly to "improve" the natural landscape, resulting in the arrival of a totally new life form. In 1987, a fire affected an area planted with Pinus halepensis resulting in its massive expansion. In 1999, we removed trees from 17 circular plots of 10 m diameter placed systematically within the area that was colonized after the fire. Trunks were cut 20 cm from the ground and growth rings were counted. We studied the age structure of the population in order to reconstruct the colonizing events after the fire. We found that recruitment occurred throughout this period, except in the three years after the disturbance. We suggest that this delay in recruitment might be caused by low seedling survival under water stress conditions due to low rainfall, combined with scarce vegetation cover after fire. This could have been associated with an initial reduction in propagule pressure due to the scarcity of surviving trees in the vicinity and with the fact that fire occurred after the peak of seed release, during an extremely dry summer, probably killing a great number of seeds that were already in the soil. In the following years, recruitment was probably aided by pioneer trees and later by seeds shed from established pines. Alien trees had been allowed to reach maturity due to wildfire prevention and control in the years preceding the fire and the accumulated dry matter resulted in increased fire intensity that reduced the ability of grasses to re-sprout. As a consequence, the invasion window that allowed the expansion of pines remained open for at least 12 years. PMID:17467146

  2. Breeding Habitat Selection of Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Zheng, Guang-Mei; Ruan, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Ke-Yin; Xi, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) is a threatened pheasant species endemic to China. The habitat use of territorial male birds was surveyed by the help of live decoys in a core area of Dongzhai National Nature Reserve. The breeding habitat selection of this pheasant was examined at two scales (115 m and 250 m scale, i.e. 4.15 hm(2 ) and 19.63 hm(2 ), respectively), including the characteristics at distance scale. Investigation was based on line transect, RS and GIS in Dongzhai National Natural Reserve from 2001 to 2003. Moreover, a range of habitat variables were compared between used and control points at each scale, and stepwise logistic regression was applied to select the key scale and the key habitat factors in relation to breeding habitat selection of this bird. Our results stated that the territorial males at Baiyun occurred mostly in mixed forests, followed by fir forests, pine forests, shrubs, and broadleaf forests. The area of conifer forests was the key factor influencing habitat selection of this bird in breeding period at the scales of 115 m and 250 m, and the proximity of farmland was important for habitat selection in breeding seasons. Furthermore, Reeves's Pheasants attached great importance to the scale of 115 m. When considering a range of habitat variables at all scales within a multivariate regression, the leading factors having effect on habitat selection in the breeding period were areas of conifer forests at 115 m scale and the distance to farmland. In addition, these above results suggested that strengthening the management of suitable habitat, and optimizing the habitat configuration are important in promoting conservation of this bird. However, it also highlighted the importance of initiating future researches on the conifer forests and their impact on the population of Reeves's Pheasants, which would be beneficial to promote the habitat conservation of this pheasant more effectively.

  3. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM).

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Crosby, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water (sludge) obtained from reserve pits used in unconventional natural gas mining was analyzed for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Samples were analyzed for total gamma, alpha, and beta radiation, and specific radionuclides: beryllium, potassium, scandium, cobalt, cesium, thallium, lead-210 and -214, bismuth-212 and -214, radium-226 and -228, thorium, uranium, and strontium-89 and -90. Laboratory analysis confirmed elevated beta readings recorded at 1329 ± 311 pCi/g. Specific radionuclides present in an active reserve pit and the soil of a leveled, vacated reserve pit included 232Thorium decay series (228Ra, 228Th, 208Tl), and 226Radium decay series (214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb) radionuclides. The potential for impact of TENORM to the environment, occupational workers, and the general public is presented with potential health effects of individual radionuclides. Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed.

  4. [Characteristics of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, East China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-yan; Lin, Wen-xiong; Chen, Zhi-fang; Fang, Chang-xun; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wu, Lin-kun; Zhou, Ming-ming; Shen, Li-hua

    2013-08-01

    By using Biolog Ecoplate system, this paper studied the structure and functional diversity of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, aimed to probe into the effects of vegetation type on the diversity of soil microbial community. The results showed that the soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and average well color development (AWCD) were higher in natural forest than in planted forest, and were the lowest in abandoned field. The AWCD reflecting soil microbial activity and functional diversity was increased with increasing incubation time, but there existed significant differences among different vegetation types. The carbon sources mostly used by soil microbes were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amines had the lowest utilization rate. The Simpson index, Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index in natural forest were holistically higher than those in planted forest. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to carbon sources, explaining 56.3% and 30.2% of the variation, respectively. The carbon sources used by soil microbial community differed with vegetation types. Amino acids and amides were the two main carbon sources separating the 2 principal component factors. The results of this study could provide basis for further approaching the relationships between vegetation diversity and soil microbial community diversity.

  5. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  6. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model. PMID:26785562

  7. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  8. Five new apterous species of the genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from the Baishanzu Natural Reserve, East China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new apterous species of the genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from Baishanzu Natural Reserve, Zhejiang, East China, Lathrobium baishanzuense sp. n., Lathrobium immanissimum sp. n., Lathrobium obstipum sp. n., Lathrobium pilosum sp. n. and Lathrobium tangi sp. n., are described and illustrated. The Lathrobium fauna of the study region is represented by two distinct lineages. PMID:23378809

  9. Biomonitoring with honeybees of heavy metals and pesticides in nature reserves of the Marche Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Minuz, Roxana Luisa; Stefano, Mariassunta; Cannella, Maddalena; Porrini, Claudio; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out biomonitoring with honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to assess the presence of pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) in all of the ten nature reserves of the Marche Region (central–eastern Italy). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active, over 3 years (2008–2010). Twenty-two colonies of honeybees bred in hives were used. Samples of live and dead honeybees and of honey were collected from 11 sampling stations from May to October in each year. No pesticide pollution was found. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were found among years, months and sites, and in particular situations. The analysis reveals that high heavy-metal concentrations occurred exclusively in live honeybees. For the seasonal averages, the most detected heavy metal was chromium, which exceeded the threshold more often than for the other elements, followed by cadmium and lead; nickel never exceeded the threshold. The data are discussed with an evaluation of the natural and anthropic sources taken from the literature and from local situations that were likely to involve heavy metal pollution.

  10. Analyses of sublittoral macrobenthic community change in a marine nature reserve using similarity profiles (SIMPROF).

    PubMed

    Somerfield, P J; Burton, M; Sanderson, W G

    2014-12-01

    Sublittoral macrobenthic communities in the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (SMNR), Pembrokeshire, Wales, were sampled at 10 stations in 1993, 1996, 1998, 2003, 2007 and 2009 using a Day grab and a 0.5 mm mesh. The time series is analysed using Similarities Profiles (SIMPROF) tests and associated methods. Q-mode analysis using clustering with Type 1 SIMPROF addresses multivariate structure among samples, showing that there is clear structure associated with differences among years. Inverse (r-mode) analysis using Type 2 SIMPROF decisively rejects a hypothesis that species are not associated with each other. Clustering of the variables (species) with Type 3 SIMPROF identifies groups of species which covary coherently through the time-series. The time-series is characterised by a dramatic decline in abundances and diversity between the 1993 and 1996 surveys. By 1998 there had been a shift in community composition from the 1993 situation, with different species dominating. Communities had recovered in terms of abundance and species richness, but different species dominated the community. No single factor could be identified which unequivocally explained the dramatic changes observed in the SMNR. Possible causes were the effects of dispersed oil and dispersants from the Sea Empress oil spill in February 1996 and the cessation of dredge-spoil disposal off St Annes Head in 1995, but the most likely cause was severe weather. With many species, and a demonstrable recovery from an impact, communities within the SMNR appear to be diverse and resilient. If attributable to natural storms, the changes observed here indicate that natural variability may be much more important than is generally taken into account in the design of monitoring programmes. PMID:25012227

  11. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity. PMID:26365329

  12. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity.

  13. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PAHs in the UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai, Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Arrasate, S; Usobiaga, A; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2008-08-01

    Along 10 campaigns, from June 2002 to September 2004, the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments and oysters (Crassostrea sp.) taken from four sites in the Unesco protected natural reserve of Urdaibai (Basque Country, Bay of Biscay). Total PAH concentration ranged from 0.7 to 140 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of sediments, and from 300 to 1400 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of oysters. During this study, the coast of the Bay of Biscay was severely affected by the Prestige oil spill (November 2002). Presumably, as a consequence of this accident, both spatial and temporal variations of the PAHs, as well as the sources of the PAHs were affected by the oil spill, and this effect was observed in the total concentrations and, especially, in several diagnostic ratios and in multivariate data analysis. Finally, both BAF (bioaccumulation factor) and BSAF (biota-sediment accumulation factor) parameters were calculated to conclude that particulate matter seems to be the most favourable uptake pathway of PAHs in oysters from this estuary.

  14. [Spatial distribution of soil total nitrogen in Liangshui National Nature Reserve based on local model].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Guo, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Ying-hui; Li, Feng-ri; Wei, Qing-bin

    2016-02-01

    Based on LiDAR data of Liangshui National Nature Reserve, digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed and both primary terrain attributes (slope, aspect, profile curvature, etc.) and secondary terrain attributes (wetness index, sediment transport index, relative stream power index, etc.) were extracted. According to the theory of soil formation, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to predict soil total nitrogen (TN) of the area, and the predicted results were compared with those of three traditional interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (OK) and universal Kriging (UK). Results showed that the prediction accuracy of GWR (77.4%) was higher than that of other three interpolation methods and the accuracy of IDW (69.4%) was higher than that of OK (63.5%) and UK (60.6%). The average of TN predicted by GWR reached 4.82 g . kg-1 in the study area and TN tended to be higher in the region with higher elevation, bigger wetness index and stronger relative stream power index than in other areas. Further, TN also varied partly with various aspects and slopes. Thus, local model using terrain attributes as independent variables was effective in predicting soil attribute distribution. PMID:27396130

  15. Species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Sha; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Dai, Jun-Yong; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2013-12-01

    The species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes on 4 vegetation types in the Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve, eastern China, was examined from 2011 to 2012. A total of 1440 moist chamber cultures were prepared with bark samples, which yielded several hundred collections representing 42 species in 20 genera. It was found that 79% of cultures produced some evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Eight species (Comatricha elegans, Cribraria confusa, Licea pusilla, Cribraria microcarpa, Collaria arcyrionema, Licea biforis, Arcyria cinerea, and Clastoderma debaryanum) were abundant (exceeding 3% of all records), but about a third of all species were classified as rare. Species richness (S = 33) and diversity (exp[H'] = 16.60, S/G = 1.74) of corticolous myxomycetes were the most diverse in the deciduous broadleaf forest. The species recorded from coniferous forest showed the lowest species richness (S = 21) but the highest evenness (J' = 0.91). The cluster analyses were based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, and the results indicated that corticolous myxomycete assemblages were distributed by a seasonal and annual pattern. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that season and pH were key factors in determining species distribution.

  16. [Vertical distribution and community diversity of butterflies in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, Anhui, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Bao, Fang-yin; Mei, Bai-mao; Ding, Shi-chao

    2009-09-01

    By the methods of fixed point, line intercept, and random investigation, the vertical distribution and community diversity of butterflies in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve were investigated from 2005 to 2008. A total of 3681 specimen were collected, belonging to 111 species, 69 genera, and 10 families, among which, Nymphalidae had the higher species number, individual's number, and diversity index than the other families. The butterflies in the study area were a mixture of Oriental and Palaearetic species, with the Oriental species diminished gradually and the Palaearetic components increased gradually with increasing altitude. Among the three vertical zones ( <800 m, 800-1200 m, and >1200 m in elevation), that of 800-1200 m had the most abundant species of butterflies; and among the six habitat types (deciduous broad-leaved forest, evergreen conifer forest, conifer-broad leaf mixed forest, bush and secondary forest, farmland, and residential area), bush and secondary forest had the higher species number, individual's number, and diversity index of butterflies, while farmland had the lowest diversity index. The similarity coefficient of butterfly species between the habitats was mainly dependent on vegetation type, i.e., the more the difference of vegetation type, the lesser the species similarity coefficient between the habitats, which was the highest (0.61) between conifer-broad leaf mixed forest and bush and secondary forest, and the lowest (0. 20) between evergreen conifer forest and bush and secondary forest.

  17. [Spatial distribution of soil total nitrogen in Liangshui National Nature Reserve based on local model].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Guo, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Ying-hui; Li, Feng-ri; Wei, Qing-bin

    2016-02-01

    Based on LiDAR data of Liangshui National Nature Reserve, digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed and both primary terrain attributes (slope, aspect, profile curvature, etc.) and secondary terrain attributes (wetness index, sediment transport index, relative stream power index, etc.) were extracted. According to the theory of soil formation, geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to predict soil total nitrogen (TN) of the area, and the predicted results were compared with those of three traditional interpolation methods including inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (OK) and universal Kriging (UK). Results showed that the prediction accuracy of GWR (77.4%) was higher than that of other three interpolation methods and the accuracy of IDW (69.4%) was higher than that of OK (63.5%) and UK (60.6%). The average of TN predicted by GWR reached 4.82 g . kg-1 in the study area and TN tended to be higher in the region with higher elevation, bigger wetness index and stronger relative stream power index than in other areas. Further, TN also varied partly with various aspects and slopes. Thus, local model using terrain attributes as independent variables was effective in predicting soil attribute distribution.

  18. Impact of Wenchuan earthquake on the giant panda habitat in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Cheng; Xu, Yu-Yue; Ke, Chang-Qing; He, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the change of the giant panda habitat is essential to protect this endangered species. The Wolong National Nature Reserve (WNNR) of China, the giant panda habitat, was struck by the Wenchuan earthquake (M=8.0) on May 12, 2008, and was seriously damaged. Landsat images covering the WNNR on four dates, one before and three after the earthquake, are classified using support vector machines to generate land cover maps (with an overall accuracy of ˜90% and Kappa coefficients of ˜0.86). The habitat suitability index and weighted usable area (WUA) are calculated to evaluate the changes of the habitat suitability of the WNNR. The results indicate that the forest area dropped by ˜10% due to the earthquake. The forest located in the east of Wolong town, the home of numerous giant pandas, suffered the most. The WUA decreased significantly after the earthquake, and was showing improvement in 2013, although still not fully recovered to the level of priori earthquake. The habitat between 1200 and 1300 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) was particularly vulnerable and was slowly recovering. Further effective management is necessary to restore and protect the giant panda habitat.

  19. Oscheius tipulae in Italy: Evidence of an Alien Isolate in the Integral Natural Reserve of Montecristo Island (Tuscany)

    PubMed Central

    Torrini, Giulia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Strangi, Agostino; Barabaschi, Delfina; Landi, Silvia; Mori, Emiliano; Menchetti, Mattia; Sposimo, Paolo; Giuliani, Claudia; Zoccola, Antonio; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Giulio; Foggi, Bruno; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-01-01

    Montecristo Island is an integral natural reserve of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Central Italy), characterized by a peculiar assemblage of flora and fauna, with several endemic taxa, and also with a high number of alien species. During a soil survey, we found an alien Oscheius tipulae Lam & Webster, 1971 isolate, phylogenetically close to others from South America. In this article, we examined the possible pathways of introduction of this nematode. Because of the high number of alien plants in this protected area and the low desiccation survival ability of O. tipulae, we hypothesized that the presence of this alien nematode isolate may be related to the soil of introduced plants, although historical association with plant-associated invertebrates is also possible. Further studies with more populations and marker molecules are necessary to investigate the distribution of O. tipulae and the possible impact on this natural reserve. PMID:27168647

  20. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  1. Sustainability Evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: From Local People's Responses to Ecological Effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2007-07-01

    This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project’s impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

  2. Sustainability evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: from local people's responses to ecological effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2007-07-01

    This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project's impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

  3. [The fauna and vertical distribution of birds in Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Jing; Han, Lian-Xian; Cao, Hong-Fen; Tian, Yuan; Peng, Bo-Yong; Wang, Bin; Hu, Hui-Jian

    2013-12-01

    From October 2010 to October 2012 (total 126 days), we used the line transect method combined with interviews applied during seven individual surveys to explore the bird resources of Qomolangma National Nature Reserve (QNNR). Based on the historical records and the present results, a total of 390 bird species belonging to 62 families and 18 orders, had been confirmed. Our results indicated that QNNR plays a vital and unique role in bird species preservation and scientific study, especially for endemic and endangered species. Species richness of both the Palearctic and Oriental realms were different, there was no overall significant difference (164 and 178, respectively). Species differences between the northern and southern slope of QNNR were especially remarkable. The northern slope was characterized with enriched endemic plateau species over small total number of bird species the southern flank held an abundance of bird species with complex composition. Moreover, on the southern slope, the peak of breeding birds richness occurred at 2,500~3,100 m a.s.l., supporting the mid-domain effect hypothesis. Meanwhile, as elevation increased, the richness of Oriental species decreased while that of Palearctic species increased. The percentages of Oriental and Palearctic species were similar at 3,100~4,000 m a.s.l.. Accordingly, we estimated that the boundary of Oriental realm and Palearctic realm was at 3,100~4,000 m a.s.l., and the species invasion from Palearctic to Oriental realm was more obvious. Perhaps most significantly, the specific distribution species along the vertical gradients also indicated their corresponding adaptation strategies.

  4. Dispersal and Germination Patterns of Monterey Spineflower at Fort Ord Natural Reserve.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Some species are rare because they are restricted to certain habitats and/or have small population sizes. Monterey spineflower, a federally listed threatened annual plant, is found in open sandy regions of the California coast, in chaparral vegetation around the Monterey Bay. A model based on previous research suggests that the Monterey spineflower population at Fort Ord Natural Reserve should be rapidly increasing, but it is not. This suggests that the model may be using data that overestimates the percentage of spineflower seeds that successfully germinate. I tested three hypotheses to determine the cause of the difference in population sizes between the predicted model and the field results. First, I predicted that the spineflower seeds are blown by the wind into shrubs such as manzanita, and are unable to germinate due to the lack of a suitable environment. I tested this in two ways. A field experiment showed that seeds are easily blow by wind. Next, I took soil cores and found spineflower seeds within the manzanita shrubs. Secondly, I predicted that the germination rate used by the model (90%) was too high. However, my germination experiments did not support this hypothesis because 91% of new seeds successfully germinated. Lastly, I predicted that the newer seeds are more viable than older seeds and therefore have a higher chance of successfully germinating. After germinating seeds in a controlled environment I observed that the seeds from 2014 had a higher number of successfully germinated seeds compared to the number of successfully germinated seeds from 1995 (91% vs 33%). I conclude that the loss of seeds due to wind decreases germination expectancies and older seeds are less viable than new seeds. Therefore, Monterey spineflower is a rare plant because environmental barriers hinder seeds from dispersing to a suitable habitat and successfully germinating while seeds lose viability as they age.

  5. [Population structure and distribution pattern of rare plant communities in Houhe Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Dang, Haishan; Jiang, Mingxi; Tian, Yuqiang; Huang, Handong; Jin, Xia

    2004-12-01

    An investigation on the size structure and spatial pattern of 26 major tree species with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > or = 5 cm was made on a 1 hm2 fixed plot in the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in Houhe National Nature Reserve of Central China. The results showed that 7 populations of the 26 species, i.e., Dipteronia sinensi, Aesculus wilsonii, Pterostyrax psilophyllus, Davidia involucrate, Euptelea pleiosperma, Tetracentron sinense and Cercidiphyllum japonicum, were rare endangered, species, and two of the 7 populations, T. sinense and C. japonicum, were very limited in numbers. The population structure of P. psilophyllus was in declining, and that of the rest was in growing. The spatial distribution pattern of P. psilophyllus, A. wilsonii and T. sinense was in random, and that of the others was clumped. Among the other 19 non-rare populations, the population structure of P. wilsonii was in declining, that of D. lotus, A. palmatum, A. wilsonii, A. franchetii, M. cuneifolia and H. dulcis was stable, and the rest was in growing. The spatial distribution pattern of D. lotus and H. dulcis was in random, and that of the others was clumped. On the whole, the growing populations were dominant, amounting to 61.54%, and the stable and declining populations accounted for 6.92% and 11.54%, respectively. The results of the two judging methods were consistent, showing that the distribution pattern of clumping (80.77%) was dominant, while the random and even distribution patterns were infrequent.

  6. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 μeq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 μeq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR.

  7. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lötter, Mervyn C; Beck, Hans T

    2004-01-01

    Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR), very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control. PMID:15287991

  8. Interpretation during a School Visit to a Nature Reserve--Results of a Survey of A.C.T. Year Nine Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Elizabeth A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of school visits to Nature Reserves. Most students had previous experience with National Parks and environmental media, however, there was a need for basic conservation and management values and ideas to be continually emphasized. (Author/YP)

  9. Vegetation patterns and nature reserve construction in an extremely-arid desert in Anxi, NW China's Gansu Province.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Xu, Li-Hong; Chen, Chang-Du; Cui, Hai-Ting; Xu, Xing-Ying

    2002-07-01

    Anxi County is located in the northwestern part of the Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province and has the sole national level nature reserve of extremely-arid desert in China. Phytosociological methods (Braun-Blanquet, 1964) are used to classify plant community types in this area. Eleven are distinguished, including six of deserts, four of cases and one transitional type between deserts and cases. Direct gradient analysis (DCA) is employed to correlate the distribution of plant communities to physiogeographic conditions. This study makes clear that water is the most important ecological factor for the distribution of plant species and communities in this area. The effects of water have been demonstrated in different ways. A vegetation gradient from lower altitude to higher altitude in the southern part of the reserve is driven by a precipitation gradient. The effects of the depth of ground water table contribute to the differentiation of vegetation from desert to oasis in the flat area. In a finer scale, the washed gullies have obviously higher species richness and also higher vegetation cover than the surround gobi surfaces, possibly caused by the effects of floods. The vegetation patterns demonstrate that the area of Anxi County is a complete landscape unit. The range of the current nature reserve is not large enough for the purpose of conserving the unique biodiversity in this area.

  10. [A spatial heterogeneity of surface soil moisture content in dry season in Mulun National Natural Reserve in Karst area].

    PubMed

    Song, Tong-qing; Peng, Wan-xia; Zeng, Fu-ping; Ouyang, Zi-wen; Wu, Hai-yong

    2009-01-01

    By the methods of classical statistics and geostatistics, the spatial heterogeneity of surface soil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm layers) moisture content in dry season in the typical sloping fields and depressions in Mulun National Natural Reserve in Karst area were studied. The results indicated that in study area, the surface soil moisture content in dry season was still higher, and showed a fine semivariogram structure as a whole. The spatial distribution of moisture content in 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers, both for sloping fields and for depressions, fitted exponential model well. Under the same stand conditions, the moisture content in the two soil layers had the similar spatial structure and distribution pattern; while under different stand conditions, there existed obvious difference in the same soil layer. The spatial pattern of surface soil moisture content in sloping fields was characterized by medium spatial autocorrelation, clear patches with well continuum, relatively slow variation of Moran's I index, while that in depressions was characterized by strong spatial autocorrelation, larger variation of Moran' s I index, and more fragmented patches. Therefore, topography, micro-physiognomy, precipitation, human disturbance, and especially vegetation were the most important factors affecting the spatial pattern of soil moisture content in the Mulun National Natural Reserve, and to preserve primary forest should have favorable effect on the regulation of the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture content in the Reserve.

  11. Barriers and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science into Natural Resource Management: Lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  12. Using 137Cs technique to quantify soil conservation capacities of different ecosystems in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Ouyang, ZhiYun

    2007-08-01

    Reliable information about soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems is an important reference for the design of targeted erosion and sediment control strategies. The objective of this paper is to quantify the soil conservation capacities of different natural ecosystems that can represent different climatic zones. The (137)Cs technique has been used to estimate soil redistribution rates in different natural ecosystems over the past 40 years in Wolong Nature Reserve. The reserve, transiting from the Chengdu plain to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, maintains rich ecosystems from subtropical to frigid. The net soil erosion rates of 5 selected ecosystems that represent a warm coniferous-broadleaf-mixed forest, a cold-resistant deciduous taiga forest, a cold-resistant shrub, an evergreen cold-resistant taiga forest, and an alpine meadow are 0.17, 0.16, 0.13, 0.11 and 0.06 kg x m(-2) x a(-1), respectively. Their soil conservation capacities are reversed in order. The reference inventories for (137)Cs in different ecosystems range from 1658 to 3707 Bq x m(-2) with the altitude. Results of this study indicate that any attempt to develop effective erosion and sediment strategies in areas with similar climates should consider natural ecosystem types.

  13. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  14. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, H; Horak, I G

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa. To this end 22 animals in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, 10 in the West Coast National Park and 16 in the Karoo National Park were examined. Fourteen tick species were recovered, of which Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos and Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum were each present in two reserves and the remainder only in one. The distributions of two of the 14 tick species recovered, namely Rhipicephalus capensis and Rhipicephalus neumanni, are virtually confined to the western semi-arid regions of southern Africa. Hyalomma truncatum, R. capensis and R. glabroscutatum were the most numerous of the ticks recovered, and eland, Taurotragus oryx, were the most heavily infested with the former two species and gemsbok, Oryx gazella, and mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, with R. glabroscutatum. PMID:17708155

  15. Atmospheric wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Xiao, Weiyang; Jaffe, Daniel; Kota, Sri Harsha; Ying, Qi; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, remarkable ecological changes have been observed in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR). Some of these changes might be related to excessive deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), but the relationship has not been quantified due to lack of monitoring data, particularly S and N deposition data. In this study, we investigated the concentrations, fluxes, and sources of S and N wet deposition in JNNR from April 2010 to May 2011. The results show that SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the wet deposition were 39.4-170.5, 6.2-34.8, and 0.2-61.2 μeq L(-1), with annual Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) concentrations of 70.5, 12.7, and 13.4 μeq L(-1), respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ were 8.06, 1.29, and 1.39 kg S(N)ha(-1), respectively, accounting for about 90% of annual atmospheric inputs of these species at the monitoring site. The results of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis show that fossil fuel combustion, agriculture, and aged sea salt contributed to 99% and 83% of annual wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively. Agriculture alone contributed to 89% of annual wet deposition flux of NH4+. Although wet deposition in JNNR was polluted by anthropogenic acids, the acidity was largely neutralized by the Ca2+ from crust and 81% of wet deposition samples had a pH higher than 6.00. However, acid rain mainly caused by SO4(2-) continued to occur in the wet season, when ambient alkaline dust concentration was lower. Since anthropogenic emissions have elevated S and N deposition and caused acid rain in JNNR, further studies are needed to better quantify the regional sources and ecological effects of S and N deposition for JNNR. PMID:25525712

  16. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  17. [Construction of an indicator system for evaluating the protection efficacy of national nature reserves in China: A case study on terrestrial vertebrates (excluding migratory birds)].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-ying; Yang, Dao-de; Deng, Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Xian-yan; Wang, Wei; Li, Jun-sheng

    2015-05-01

    The protection efficacy of nature reserves is a key element in achieving targets of biodiversity conservation. It is therefore very important to develop a scientific, systematic, and accurate index system for evaluating the protection efficacy of national nature reserves in China. Using methods of frequency statistics, expert consultation, analytic hierarchy process, and demonstration survey, we present a novel index system for evaluating the protection efficacy of Chinese national nature reserves for terrestrial vertebrates (excluding migratory birds) over a 10-year period. The indicator system included one target layer, two system layers, nine factor layers, and forty index layers. The system layer included ecological effectiveness evaluation (with a score of 60%) and management effectiveness evaluation (score of 40%). The ecological effectiveness evaluation was a comprehensive, dynamic evaluation of the target species, population, habitat, and ecological system. The management effectiveness evaluation was focused on the effectiveness of patrol and monitoring. The additional part aimed to analyze the impact of humans on the target species, population and nature resources of the nature reserve. This study combined the ecological effectiveness evaluation and the management effectiveness evaluation for the first time, highlighted the importance of time and space changes, distinguished the influence of natural factors from human factors, and integrated them into the evaluation results. By emphasizing quantifiable indicators, this evaluation index system could vastly assist the protection of nature reserves by improving management effectiveness, biodiversity conservation, and macroscopic decision-making.

  18. [Construction of an indicator system for evaluating the protection efficacy of national nature reserves in China: A case study on terrestrial vertebrates (excluding migratory birds)].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-ying; Yang, Dao-de; Deng, Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Xian-yan; Wang, Wei; Li, Jun-sheng

    2015-05-01

    The protection efficacy of nature reserves is a key element in achieving targets of biodiversity conservation. It is therefore very important to develop a scientific, systematic, and accurate index system for evaluating the protection efficacy of national nature reserves in China. Using methods of frequency statistics, expert consultation, analytic hierarchy process, and demonstration survey, we present a novel index system for evaluating the protection efficacy of Chinese national nature reserves for terrestrial vertebrates (excluding migratory birds) over a 10-year period. The indicator system included one target layer, two system layers, nine factor layers, and forty index layers. The system layer included ecological effectiveness evaluation (with a score of 60%) and management effectiveness evaluation (score of 40%). The ecological effectiveness evaluation was a comprehensive, dynamic evaluation of the target species, population, habitat, and ecological system. The management effectiveness evaluation was focused on the effectiveness of patrol and monitoring. The additional part aimed to analyze the impact of humans on the target species, population and nature resources of the nature reserve. This study combined the ecological effectiveness evaluation and the management effectiveness evaluation for the first time, highlighted the importance of time and space changes, distinguished the influence of natural factors from human factors, and integrated them into the evaluation results. By emphasizing quantifiable indicators, this evaluation index system could vastly assist the protection of nature reserves by improving management effectiveness, biodiversity conservation, and macroscopic decision-making. PMID:26571679

  19. Investigation of the Heavy Metal Contamination of the Sediments from the Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Q; Wang, W; Wang, H; Wang; Zhao, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the Yellow River draws wide attention in the recent years. The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou is one of the major wetlands of the river and located at the beginning of the lower reach. In this article, we aimed to investigate the degree and the sources of the metal pollution in the reserve. Methods: Metals as Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in the sediment were monitored using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and the modified degree of contamination (mCd) were developed to evaluate individual metal pollution and overall enrichment impact of the elements. Results: Compared with sediment quality guidelines, the effect of Cr and Pb are more serious than others. Igeo values show Pb pollution are moderate at the Xinzhai, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites, and mCd analysis indicate the whole contamination at the Wantan, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites was low. Principal component analysis indicated that the first factor was Cu, Mn and Cd, mainly from soil erosion and the irrational use of phosphate fertilizers; the second Pb from fossil fuel burning; and the third Cr from weathering process. Conclusion: We conclude that Pb contamination is serious in the reserve, and the main sources of the metal are crude oil consumption and coal combustion of the brick kilns around. We also draw a conclusion that it is vital to evaluate contamination degree with both individual elements and overall average. PMID:23113147

  20. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting

    2016-03-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering.

  1. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones. PMID:26021161

  2. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  3. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  4. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat. PMID:24526617

  5. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jay; Pu, Ruiliang; Ren, Liliang; Kong, Yan; Li, He; Li, Ling

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Nature Reserve, East China using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. Satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) with seven variables (channel flow, rainfall, temperature, sediment discharge, number of oil wells, total length of roads, and area of settlements) and linear regression analyses of potential and suitable habitat against the retained principal components were applied to explore the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat. The experimental results indicate that suitable habitat decreased by 5,935 ha despite an increase of 1,409 ha in potential habitat from 1992 to 2008. The area of crane habitat changed caused by natural drivers such as progressive succession, retrogressive succession, and physical fragmentation is almost the same as that caused by anthropogenic forces such as land use change and behavioral fragmentation. The PCA and regression analyses revealed that natural factors (e.g., channel flow, rainfall, temperature, and sediment discharge) play an important role in the crane potential habitat change and human disturbances (e.g., oil wells, roads, and settlements) jointly explain 51.8 % of the variations in suitable habitat area, higher than 48.2 % contributed by natural factors. Thus, it is vital to reduce anthropogenic influences within the reserve in order to reverse the decline in the suitable crane habitat.

  6. Dynamics of forest fires and climate in Ilmen nature reserve, 1948-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibilev, A. A.; Veselkin, D. V.; Kuyantseva, N. B.; Chashchina, O. E.; Dubinin, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the impact of climatic factors on the forest fire rate in Ilmen State Reserve based on 66 years of direct observation data for 1948-2013. This period was marked by a gradual annual increase in the number of recorded fires in the reserve. The higher fire rate is generally related to lengthening of the fire season and more frequent fires in the spring and summer-early autumn periods. We did not obtain sufficient evidence to verify a relation of the higher fire rate to climate changes. The average monthly and seasonal weather conditions can be involved to explain only some causes of the interannual fire rate variability. The observed changes in some climatic characteristics could have contributed to an increase in the fire rate, while others could have reduced it.

  7. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    SciTech Connect

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  8. Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species.

  10. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R.; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  11. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  12. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  13. Land-cover assessment of conservation and buffer zones in the BOSAWAS natural resource reserve of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan H

    2003-02-01

    The BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua was established in 1991, to protect a portion of the remaining tropical rain forest and to promote the sustainable use of the region's resources. Information required to effectively manage the reserve includes the extents and locations of present land-cover types and recent land-cover changes in the management use zones that were delineated by local indigenous communities. These zones include areas designated for conservation, limited resource extraction, agriculture, and watershed protection. Land-cover for 1986 and 1995 was identified for three of the communities from remotely sensed images and then input into a geographic information system database to identify land-cover types within these management use zones. For both dates of the analysis, advanced forest was the dominant land cover, with the conservation zones entirely forested. The amount of both agricultural land and scrub/early secondary forest increased between the two dates, with much of these land-cover classes occurring in the agriculture zones. Conflicts between the land-cover present and designated use were identified in some of the limited-use buffer and watershed protection zones. Changes between 1986 and 1995 were identified by overlaying the two land-cover data sets. Three change processes were identified as occurring: deforestation, reforestation, and reconversion. Changes were concentrated in the agriculture zones but were found to occur in every type of zone, except for conservation. The results of this study will establish baseline information for the future management of the BOSAWAS Reserve, an important component in uniting conservation areas along the Central American isthmus.

  14. Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time.

  15. Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  16. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  17. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    PubMed

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  18. Application of DNA Barcodes in Asian Tropical Trees – A Case Study from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Conran, John G.; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a regional floristic context, DNA barcoding is more useful to manage plant diversity inventories on a large scale and develop valuable conservation strategies. However, there are no DNA barcode studies from tropical areas of China, which represents one of the biodiversity hotspots around the world. Methodology and Principal Findings A DNA barcoding database of an Asian tropical trees with high diversity was established at Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Yunnan, southwest China using rbcL and matK as standard barcodes, as well as trnH–psbA and ITS as supplementary barcodes. The performance of tree species identification success was assessed using 2,052 accessions from four plots belonging to two vegetation types in the region by three methods: Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and BLAST. We corrected morphological field identification errors (9.6%) for the three plots using rbcL and matK based on Neighbor-Joining tree. The best barcode region for PCR and sequencing was rbcL (97.6%, 90.8%), followed by trnH–psbA (93.6%, 85.6%), while matK and ITS obtained relative low PCR and sequencing success rates. However, ITS performed best for both species (44.6–58.1%) and genus (72.8–76.2%) identification. With trnH–psbA slightly less effective for species identification. The two standard barcode rbcL and matK gave poor results for species identification (24.7–28.5% and 31.6–35.3%). Compared with other studies from comparable tropical forests (e.g. Cameroon, the Amazon and India), the overall performance of the four barcodes for species identification was lower for the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, possibly because of species/genus ratios and species composition between these tropical areas. Conclusions/Significance Although the core barcodes rbcL and matK were not suitable for species identification of tropical trees from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, they could still help with identification at the family and genus level. Considering the

  19. Arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and Burchell's and Hartmann's zebras in the Etosha and Hardap Nature Reserves, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Anthonissen, M; Krecek, R C; Boomker, J

    1992-12-01

    A total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 Burchell's zebras and 6 Hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. Springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the Etosha National Park in the north and the Hardap Nature Reserve in the south of Namibia. All the other animals were shot in the Etosha National Park. A total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. The springbok carried few ticks. The adults of a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. oculatus) were most numerous on the gemsbok, especially during November. The kudus were the only animals harbouring Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. Adult Hyalomma truncatum, followed by adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, were most abundant on the giraffes and adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus were commonest on the zebras.

  20. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration.

  1. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration. PMID:25012204

  2. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  3. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  4. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  5. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  6. Biodiversity inventories in high gear: DNA barcoding facilitates a rapid biotic survey of a temperate nature reserve

    PubMed Central

    Young, Monica R; Quinn, Jenna; Perez, Kate; Sobel, Crystal N; Sones, Jayme E; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Derbyshire, Rachael; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Thevanayagam, Abinah; Boskovic, Adrian; Borisenko, Alex V; Cadel, Alex; Brown, Allison; Pages, Anais; Castillo, Anibal H; Nicolai, Annegret; Glenn Mockford, Barb Mockford; Bukowski, Belén; Wilson, Bill; Trojahn, Brock; Lacroix, Carole Ann; Brimblecombe, Chris; Hay, Christoper; Ho, Christmas; Steinke, Claudia; Warne, Connor P; Garrido Cortes, Cristina; Engelking, Daniel; Wright, Danielle; Lijtmaer, Dario A; Gascoigne, David; Hernandez Martich, David; Morningstar, Derek; Neumann, Dirk; Steinke, Dirk; Marco DeBruin, Donna DeBruin; Dobias, Dylan; Sears, Elizabeth; Richard, Ellen; Damstra, Emily; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Laberge, Frederic; Collins, Gemma E; Blagoev, Gergin A; Grainge, Gerrie; Ansell, Graham; Meredith, Greg; Hogg, Ian; McKeown, Jaclyn; Topan, Janet; Bracey, Jason; Guenther, Jerry; Sills-Gilligan, Jesse; Addesi, Joseph; Persi, Joshua; Layton, Kara K S; D'Souza, Kareina; Dorji, Kencho; Grundy, Kevin; Nghidinwa, Kirsti; Ronnenberg, Kylee; Lee, Kyung Min; Xie, Linxi; Lu, Liuqiong; Penev, Lyubomir; Gonzalez, Mailyn; Rosati, Margaret E; Kekkonen, Mari; Kuzmina, Maria; Iskandar, Marianne; Mutanen, Marko; Fatahi, Maryam; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Bauman, Miriam; Nikolova, Nadya; Ivanova, Natalia V; Jones, Nathaniel; Weerasuriya, Nimalka; Monkhouse, Norman; Lavinia, Pablo D; Jannetta, Paul; Hanisch, Priscila E; McMullin, R. Troy; Ojeda Flores, Rafael; Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Vender, Reid; Labbee, Renee N; Forsyth, Robert; Lauder, Rob; Dickson, Ross; Kroft, Ruth; Miller, Scott E; MacDonald, Shannon; Panthi, Sishir; Pedersen, Stephanie; Sobek-Swant, Stephanie; Naik, Suresh; Lipinskaya, Tatsiana; Eagalle, Thanushi; Decaëns, Thibaud; Kosuth, Thibault; Braukmann, Thomas; Woodcock, Tom; Roslin, Tomas; Zammit, Tony; Campbell, Victoria; Dinca, Vlad; Peneva, Vlada; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Comprehensive biotic surveys, or ‘all taxon biodiversity inventories’ (ATBI), have traditionally been limited in scale or scope due to the complications surrounding specimen sorting and species identification. To circumvent these issues, several ATBI projects have successfully integrated DNA barcoding into their identification procedures and witnessed acceleration in their surveys and subsequent increase in project scope and scale. The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario partnered with the rare Charitable Research Reserve and delegates of the 6th International Barcode of Life Conference to complete its own rapid, barcode-assisted ATBI of an established land trust in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. New information The existing species inventory for the rare Charitable Research Reserve was rapidly expanded by integrating a DNA barcoding workflow with two surveying strategies – a comprehensive sampling scheme over four months, followed by a one-day bioblitz involving international taxonomic experts. The two surveys resulted in 25,287 and 3,502 specimens barcoded, respectively, as well as 127 human observations. This barcoded material, all vouchered at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario collection, covers 14 phyla, 29 classes, 117 orders, and 531 families of animals, plants, fungi, and lichens. Overall, the ATBI documented 1,102 new species records for the nature reserve, expanding the existing long-term inventory by 49%. In addition, 2,793 distinct Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) were assigned to genus or higher level taxonomy, and represent additional species that will be added once their taxonomy is resolved. For the 3,502 specimens, the collection, sequence analysis, taxonomic assignment, data release and manuscript submission by 100+ co-authors all occurred in less than one week. This demonstrates the speed at which barcode-assisted inventories can be completed and the utility that barcoding provides in minimizing and guiding valuable taxonomic

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come.

  8. Soil organic carbon along an altitudinal gradient in the Despeñaperros nature reserve, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.; Galán-Espejo, A.

    2014-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle as C sequestration in non-disturbed soil ecosystems can be a sink of C and mitigate greenhouse gas driven climate change. Soil organic carbon changes in space and time are relevant to understand the soil system and its role in the C cycle, and this is why the influence of topographic position on SOC should be studied. Seven topographic positions (toposequence) were analyzed along an altitudinal gradient between 607 and 1168 m.a.s.l. in the Despeñaperros nature reserve (Natural Park). At each study site, soil control sections (25 cm intervals) were sampled. The studied soils are mineral soils with > 3% organic carbon content. The main characteristic of the studied soils is SOC reduction with depth; these results were related to the gravel content and to the bulk density. The SOC on the surface was highly variable along the altitudinal gradient ranging between 27.3 and 39.9 g kg-1. The SOC stock (SOCS) in the studied area was influenced by the altitude, varying between 53.8 and 158.0 Mg ha-1. Therefore, the altitude factor must be considered in the SOCS estimation at local-regional scale.

  9. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. PMID:24001677

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    PubMed

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come. PMID:22075570

  11. Estimating willingness to pay for environment conservation: a contingent valuation study of Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Yang, Zhaoping; Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate publics' willingness to pay (WTP) for environment conservation and analyze factors influencing WTP. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) was carried out at Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Seventy-three percent of the 412 respondents were willing to pay at different levels, and the mean WTP value was RMB 54.60 ($8.03). The results of this survey struck an optimistic note that publics were willing to contribute to improve environmental quality. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare the characteristics of those who were and were not willing to pay. Chi-square tests were administered to identify the relationships between various explanatory factors and WTP. Conclusions and implications of the empirical study can be provided to policy makers and site managers. In a wider sense, the findings of this study should make a good contribution to the literature related to WTP for environment conservation of natural attractions. PMID:21107901

  12. The State of Health of Nature Reserves: A Case Study using the Fusion of Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filski, J.

    2012-04-01

    The primary dangers to nature reserves are from human activities such as oil spills, farming and urbanization. The relevance of fusion between high resolution hyperspectral reflectance data and Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data to determine the state of health of nature reserves is illustrated. The study area covers 0.384 square kilometers within the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge in the Big Bend region of the State of Florida's Gulf Coast in the United States of America. Hyperspectral processing and analysis is conducted using the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) 4.7 Service Pack 2. The materials with the top eight fractional abundances are investigated. Together, these bands represent over 95% of the full scene. Hyperspectral data ranging from 395 nm to 2,450 nm classifies geomorphologic features, primary vegetation types, and vegetation stress. The lidar data assists with feature identification and gauging vegetation roughness. Today's remote sensing sensors acquire ephemeris data concurrently with their image data to permit accurate georeferencing to map coordinates. Successful fusion between the hyperspectral and lidar data is achieved with the georeferencing capabilities of the ENVI software. The analysis of the fused data set reveals the main components shaping the study area's ecosystem as limestone, sea water intrusion and sunshine. The study area has three environments: a southernmost low-lying area closest to the Gulf of Mexico and therefore, frequently inundated by sea water where cordgrasses thrive; a middle transition zone that is more sea water-deprived and therefore more vulnerable to the damaging rays of the sun. It is here that the more resourceful but stressed black needlerush dominates; finally a northernmost area with higher elevations of exposed limestone that protects a robust deciduous forest. Deciduous trees also appear in the lower zones but only where there is sufficient limestone to form islands or hammocks to

  13. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  14. Priority substances in sediments of the "Carska Bara" special nature reserve, a natural scientific research area on the UNESCO list.

    PubMed

    Grba, Nenad; Krčmar, Dejan; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Maletić, Snežana; Pešić, Vesna; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments were subject to systematic long-term monitoring (2002-2014) in the Republic of Serbia (Province of Vojvodina). Eight heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As and Hg), mineral oils (total petroleum hydrocarbons), 16 EPA PAHs, selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were monitored. As part of this research, this paper presents a sediment contamination spatial and temporal trend study of diverse pollution sources and the ecological risk status of the alluvial sediments of Carska Bara at three representative sampling sites (S1S3), in order to establish the status of contamination and recommend substances of interest for more widespread future monitoring. Multivariate statistical methods including factor analysis of principal component analysis (PCA/FA), Pearson correlation and several synthetic indicators were used to evaluate the extent and origin of contamination (anthropogenic or natural, geogenic sources) and potential ecological risks. Hg, Cd, As, mineral oils and PAHs (dominated by dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, contributing 85.7% of the total) are derived from several anthropogenic sources, whereas Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn are convincingly of geogenic origin, and exhibit dual origins. Cd and Hg significantly raise the levels of potential ecological risk for all sampling locations, demonstrating the effect of long-term bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Pb is isolated from the other parameters, implying unique sources. This research suggests four heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Cu and As) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene be added to the list of priority pollutants within the context of the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), in accordance with significant national and similar environmental data from countries in the region. PMID:27472051

  15. Mapping Porosity Structure Offshore Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve and Del Mar, California Using a Surface Towed EM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas Patrick

    Controlled source electromagnetic methods have been used in exploration of the offshore environment for over 50 years to map the resistivity structure of the earth. Developments in both instrumentation and computational power have lead to many advancements that have led to discoveries and insights about the subsurface. One of these advancements has been the development of towed EM acquisition systems. One system the Marine EM Lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has developed is a shallow water system, named Porpoise, can be used in water depths as shallow as 5m. In May of 2014, a one day field test of this new shallow water acquisition system took place offshore of Del Mar and Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, California. The data from this field test corresponds with previous interpretations of paleochannels directly offshore modern day San Dieguito and Soledad Valley river outflows. With resistivity data, it is possible to indirectly map porosity in the near surface and to map geological features. The data dense and economical operation of the Porpoise acquisition system can be used to map resistivity and indirectly porosity in a variety of shallow water marine environments. This field test proves the viability and limitations of the Porpoise system.

  16. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  17. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum’s oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10–30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900–1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski’s horses rest and forage in these areas. PMID:26621549

  18. Maternal responses to dead infants in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tengfei; Ren, Baoping; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Yunbing; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    How a nonhuman primate mother responds to her dead infant is an indication of maternal behavior and perspectives on death. Here we describe three cases of a mother's response toward her dead infant in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. The mother, whose infant died at 1 month of age, showed strong maternal affection to the corpse and carried it for 4 days. A mother with a stillborn infant showed similar maternal behavior to her dead offspring, but only held it for 1 day. The mother of an aborted infant abandoned the carcass without carrying it or displaying other forms of maternal behavior. Our results suggest that the mother-infant bond in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey is strongly influenced by the infants' age. Postdeath infant-carrying behavior could be affected by the combined action of reproductive hormones and the emotional response of the mother. This manuscript represents the first detailed report of a mother carrying her dead infant in this endangered monkey species.

  19. Comparison of phosphorus fractions and phosphatase activities in coastal wetland soils along vegetation zones of Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lidong; Zhang, Yaohong; Shi, Yiming; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Lin; Yan, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractions and phosphatase activities were measured in 22 coastal wetland soils with typical vegetation successions in Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China. P forms and phosphatase activities varied greatly from site to site even under the same vegetation cover. NH4Cl-P, bicarbonate/dithionite extracted P and NaOH-P were remarkably higher (p < 0.05) in soils with exotic invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora, than in soils with the native species Suaeda salsa, Scirpus mariquete and Phragmites australis. HCl-P and refractory P showed little variation. No significant differences were detected for either alkaline phosphatase (ALAP) or acid phosphatase (ACAP) among the soils. All of the above properties were much higher in soils with plant growth compared to bare flat soils. Regression analysis demonstrated that organic matter (OM), Al, Ca, Fe and total P (TP) were able to explain more than 70% of the variations in the P fractions (except 29% of NH4Cl-P), and OM was the most important contributing factor. ALAP and ACAP were irrelevant to P but were significantly related to TOC, suggesting that carbon was a limiting factor for P mineralization in this area. Owing to its huge biomass and densities, Spartina alterniflora displayed great potential for carbon input, thus facilitating P mineralization and cycling. The results enhance our understanding of P availability differences in this area covered by invasive and native vegetation.

  20. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum's oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10-30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900-1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski's horses rest and forage in these areas.

  1. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  2. [Spatial patterns of different age-class individuals in Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Songshan Nature Reserve of Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Niu, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Yue, Yong-Jie

    2008-07-01

    By the method of point pattern analysis, this paper studied the spatial patterns of different age-class individuals in the Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Songshan Nature Reserve of Beijing, and the spatial association between the individuals. The results showed that there existed greater differences in the densities of different age-class P. tabulaeformis individuals, e.g., age-class I had the density of 15 plants per hectare, while age-class III had the density of 924 plants per hectare. The spatial patterns of different age-class individuals and the spatial association between the individuals had a close relationship with the spatial scale. In the scale of < 40 m, the individuals of all age-classes tended to clump, and there was a stronger spatial association between the individuals of different age-classes. When the scale was larger than 30 m or 40 m, the individuals of all age-classes would disperse randomly, and their spatial association would be weakened greatly. PMID:18839896

  3. Wild plant folk nomenclature of the Mongol herdsmen in the Arhorchin national nature reserve, Inner Mongolia, PR China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Folk names of plants are the root of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. In pace with social change and economic development, Mongolian knowledge concerning plant diversity is gradually vanishing. Collection and analysis of Mongolian folk names of plants is extremely important. During 2008 to 2012, the authors have been to the Arhorchin National Nature Reserve area 5 times. Fieldwork was done in 13 villages, with 56 local Mongol herdsmen being interviewed. This report documents plant folk names, analyzes the relationship between folk names and scientific names, looks at the structure and special characteristics of folk names, plant use information, and comparative analysis were also improved. Methods Ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires were used. Ethnobotanical interview and voucher specimen collection were carried out in two ways as local plant specimens were collected beforehand and then used in interviews, and local Mongol herdsmen were invited to the field and interviewed while collecting voucher specimens. Mongolian oral language was used as the working language and findings were originally recorded in Mongolian written language. Scientific names of plants are defined through collection and identification of voucher specimens by the methods of plant taxonomy. Results A total of 146 folk names of local plants are recorded. Plant folk names corresponded with 111 species, 1 subspecies, 7 varieties, 1 form, which belong to 42 families and 88 genera. The correspondence between plant folk names and scientific names may be classified as one to one correspondence, two or three to one correspondence, and one to multitude correspondence. The structure of folk names were classified as primary names, secondary names and borrowed names. There were 12 folk names that contain animal names and they have correspondence with 15 species. There are nine folk names that contain usage information and they have

  4. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

  5. [Foraging habitat selection of Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) during autumn migration period in the Momoge Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Yao; Zheng, Zhen-He; Wu, Jin-Cai; Ning, Yu; Wang, Yong; Han, Xiao-Dong

    2013-06-01

    In autumn of 2008 and 2009, we studied the foraging habitat selection of Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) in the Momoge Nature Reserve of Jilin province. Using the resource selection index, resource selection functions, and the chi-squared test, we found that the Siberian Crane exhibited selectivity in their preferred foraging environments in relation to the distance to human disturbances, vegetation density, coverage and height, foraging vegetation density and water level. Interestingly, this selectivity in regards to large scale disturbances was lower than other factors. The characteristics of favorite foraging habits of Siberian Cranes include a variety of factors: a distance >5 000 m from a national highway, >1 500 m from a non-gravel road, >1 000 m from the nearest road, >1 000 m from a residential area, >1 000 m from farmland; plant density between 20 and 50 grass/m(2); plant coverage lower than 10%; plant height lower than 20 cm; Scirpus planiclmis density between 1 and 50 grass/m(2); Scirpus triqueter density between 1 and 10 grass/m(2); and the water level between 40 and 60 cm. The resource selection functions of Siberian Crane foraging habitat in autumn can be described thusly: Logistic (P) = 0.663 + 0.565×distance to national highway + 0.042×distance to non-gravel road + 0.519×distance to the nearest road + 0.353×distance to residential area + 0.169×distance to farmland - 0.455×vegetation density - 0.618×vegetation coverage - 0.548×vegetation height - 0.158×Scirpus planiclmis density - 0.404×Scirpus triqueter density + 0.920×water level,T (x) =e(Logistic(p)) / [1 + e(Logistic(p))], with an overall prediction accuracy of 82.9%.

  6. High incidence of plasmids in marine Vibrio species isolated from Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifu; Pan, Li; Zhao, Zhenye; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-08-01

    Mai Po Nature Reserve is the largest mangrove ecosystem and the most polluted coastal water body in Hong Kong. Plasmids screening of 100 Vibrio isolates randomly showed 45 % of them contained 1-3 plasmids. These plasmid(s)-bearing isolates could be divided into 12 groups based on their plasmid profiles. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all plasmid(s)-bearing isolates belonged to Vibrio cholerae. Full DNA sequences of the plasmids in Groups I (pVCG1.1 and pVCG1.2), II (pVCG2.1), III (pVCG3.2) and IV (pVCG4.1) have been determined and the results showed that pVCG1.1, pVCG2.1 and pVCG3.2 were almost identical. Plasmids pVCG1.1, pVCG1.2 and pVCG4.1 are comprised of 4,439, 2,357 and 2,163 bp with the overall G+C content of 45.57, 53.54 and 43.09 %, respectively. pVCG1.1 is a novel plasmid, and plasmids pVCG1.2 and pVCG4.1 showed homology of replication initiation proteins to that of the theta type replicons. Attempts to cure the plasmids from their hosts were unsuccessful. These data suggest that plasmids of Vibrio spp. are a significant gene reservoir in the marine ecosystem. PMID:22684730

  7. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  8. [Foraging habitat selection of Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) during autumn migration period in the Momoge Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Yao; Zheng, Zhen-He; Wu, Jin-Cai; Ning, Yu; Wang, Yong; Han, Xiao-Dong

    2013-06-01

    In autumn of 2008 and 2009, we studied the foraging habitat selection of Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) in the Momoge Nature Reserve of Jilin province. Using the resource selection index, resource selection functions, and the chi-squared test, we found that the Siberian Crane exhibited selectivity in their preferred foraging environments in relation to the distance to human disturbances, vegetation density, coverage and height, foraging vegetation density and water level. Interestingly, this selectivity in regards to large scale disturbances was lower than other factors. The characteristics of favorite foraging habits of Siberian Cranes include a variety of factors: a distance >5 000 m from a national highway, >1 500 m from a non-gravel road, >1 000 m from the nearest road, >1 000 m from a residential area, >1 000 m from farmland; plant density between 20 and 50 grass/m(2); plant coverage lower than 10%; plant height lower than 20 cm; Scirpus planiclmis density between 1 and 50 grass/m(2); Scirpus triqueter density between 1 and 10 grass/m(2); and the water level between 40 and 60 cm. The resource selection functions of Siberian Crane foraging habitat in autumn can be described thusly: Logistic (P) = 0.663 + 0.565×distance to national highway + 0.042×distance to non-gravel road + 0.519×distance to the nearest road + 0.353×distance to residential area + 0.169×distance to farmland - 0.455×vegetation density - 0.618×vegetation coverage - 0.548×vegetation height - 0.158×Scirpus planiclmis density - 0.404×Scirpus triqueter density + 0.920×water level,T (x) =e(Logistic(p)) / [1 + e(Logistic(p))], with an overall prediction accuracy of 82.9%. PMID:23775991

  9. Forest Structure, Stand Composition, and Climate-Growth Response in Montane Forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Schwartz, Ari C.; Williams, John N.; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth. PMID:23951188

  10. Sleeping site selection of Francois's langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in two habitats in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangling; Luo, Yang; Cui, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    Sleeping site selection is an important aspect of the behavioral biology of primates. Comparison of different habitats for the same species in this context enhances understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on sleep-related behaviors for 6 groups of Francois's langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in two habitats, in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. Regardless of habitat, all sleeping sites were located in areas of steep terrain of ≥60°. In undisturbed habitat, sleeping sites were located only in evergreen broadleaf forest with rock caves and crevices surrounded mainly by a vegetation layer of shrub + rock. In disturbed habitat, sleeping sites were also located in mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest and in grassland, including rock caves, crevices, and pits, surrounded mainly by arbor + shrub and shrub + rock. Wild food availability was higher in undisturbed habitat than disturbed habitat, but food abundance around sleeping sites was lower. Water sources included river and seasonal gully or pond. There was strong positive correlation between use of sleeping sites away from the river valley and occurrence of seasonal water sources. The number of sleeping sites varied across groups, numbering 6, 7, and 10 for three specific groups. Few sleeping sites were used all year round. Six consecutive nights was the longest recorded run. Francois's langurs' sleeping habits differed between two habitats. In undisturbed habitat, minimizing predation risk appeared to predominate, expressed by choosing steep terrain, open visual field, and inconspicuous presleeping behavior. In disturbed habitat, along with predation avoidance, food resources may strongly influence sleeping site selection, as demonstrated by the richer food abundance and greater foraging activity around the site. Finally, water resources may influence choice of sites distant from the river; such sites were used less frequently during water

  11. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present

  12. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, L.R.; Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G.

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  13. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.

    2003-04-01

    At present the investigation of the chemical composition of precipitation is a very actual task in the monitoring of environmental pollution. It is known that heavy metals can be the indices of the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. The emissions from the mining enterprises, of non-ferrous metallurgy, of chemical industry, from heat-and-power production plants, from transport vehicles fare the sources of the heavy metals ingress into the atmosphere. Their emissions in atmosphere form fine-disperse aerosol fractions and afterwards they fall down together with precipitation onto the underlying surface. Heavy metals have the property of accumulation in environmental objects, which disturbs its ecological balance. One of the problems of the study of the influence of heavy metals pollution on the environment is their travel with the air masses of different origin on large distance. In this concern it is interesting to study the content of the heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation in the background zones. Chatkal nature reservation on the territory of Tashkent province presents such background point. For the estimation of the level of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and evaluation of the possible impact on the background level of air pollution of Chatkal nature reservation by anthropogenic sources (industrial cities of the capital province of Uzbekistan) the data analysis was carried out by the Administration of Environment Pollution Monitoring (AEPM) of hydrometeorological service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is necessary to mention that Chatkal biospheric nature reservation is situated in 100 km from Tashkent (the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) and in 60 km from Almalyk (the biggest centre of mining-metallurgical and chemical industry of the republic). The station of the complex background monitoring of atmospheric pollution (SCBM) is situated on the territory of this nature reservation. This area is characterized by a typical

  14. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a mountain range 480 km-long and up to 2,648 m altitude (Torre Cerredo Peak) trending parallel to the Cantabrian Coastline between Pyrenees and the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (~43oN 5oW). This mountain range is an outstanding area to research the climatic patterns across South Europe during the Quaternary glaciations since well-preserved glacial features evidence the occurrence of past mountain glaciations in a climatic environment marked by the transition from a maritime climate (Atlantic) to Mediterranean one across the mountain range. The available studies in the Cantabrian Mountains stand that the regional glacial maximum recorded here is prior to ca 38, and that glaciers were in some locations remarkably retreated by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., in press; Serrano et al., in press). This study is focused on an area about 800 km2 that includes 36 peaks over 2,000 m (Pico Mampodre; 2,192 m) and partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A geomorphologic database in ArcGIS was produced for this area as a previous step to reconstruct in detail the extent, flow pattern and chronology of the former glaciers (PhD under progress). Here we present a selection of 18 glacial geomorphosites classified according to genetic criteria in sites that show: (i) a nicely preserved moraine sequence recording the transition from glacial to periglacial conditions; (ii) glacial erosion features; (iii) glacial and ice related deposits (like moraines, ice-dammed deposits, erratic boulders or fluvio-glacial deposits); (iv) slope instability related to glacial debuttressing (complex landslides and rock avalanches); and (v) the interaction between the landscape and human activity. The interest of the geomorphosites is supported by its good quality of preservation, allowing its use as a basis to reconstruct the glacial and paraglacial processes in this region during

  15. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: the influences of biological and chemical variables.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater fanti values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the fanti values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles.

  16. [Effects of planting rubber and crops on the keeping number of livestock and poultry in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Leng, Jing; Zhang, Chun-xia; Lü, Jia-qi; Mao, Hua-ming

    2011-10-01

    A total of 207 householders from 13 natural villages in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve were chosen for a systematic survey on the farming and livestock husbandry, aimed to evaluate the effects of planting rubber and crops on the keeping number of livestock and poultry in the study area. The livestock and poultry bred in the Reserve were mainly buffalo, Yunnan Yellow cattle, small-eared pig, Chahua chicken, and a few Banna game fowls. Exotic breeds were very limited. From 1991 to 2008, the planting area of rubber increased year by year, giving negative effects on the corn, rice, and cash crop production as well as the keeping number of livestock and poultry. Planting rubber had significant negative effects on the keeping number of buffalo and small-eared pig. The families planting rubber kept significantly less buffalo and small-eared pig, as compared to those not planting rubber. The planting areas of corn, rice, and cash crops had positive effects on the keeping number of buffalo, Yunnan Yellow cattle, and small-eared pig, and the total planting area of the crops had active effects on the keeping number of buffalo and Chahua chicken. The development of rubber production led to an obvious change in land use pattern, which in turn had significant effects on the keeping number of livestock and poultry. With the increasing rubber planting area year by year, the local livestock husbandry would be restrained.

  17. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depth<1m, no canopy coverage of trees and shrubs) was significantly higher at the sites with increased biomass of green algae (p<0.05), climate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution. PMID:27110983

  18. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depth<1m, no canopy coverage of trees and shrubs) was significantly higher at the sites with increased biomass of green algae (p<0.05), climate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution.

  19. Comparative analysis of two edaphic zoocoenoses (Oribatid mites and Carabid beetles) in five habitats of the 'Pietraporciana' and 'Lucciolabella' Nature Reserves (Orcia Valley, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Petrioli, Andrea; Bernini, Fabio

    2002-12-01

    Oribatid mite and Carabid beetle communities were investigated at five sites in the 'Pietraporciana' and 'Lucciolabella' Nature Reserves (central Italy). In this part of southern Tuscany many attempts have been made to encourage the regeneration of native habitats and to preserve existing ones. Human-induced changes in the original forest landscape have had a direct impact on mite and carabid populations. Significant differences in species diversity and abundance among different sites were revealed throughout the sampling period. Species richness, abundance and diversity of oribatid mites decrease from woodland sites to open habitats where evenness was high. There is an inverse trend between the number of species and richness of carabid beetles and those of oribatid mites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of oribatid and carabid beetle compositions discriminated the sites, demonstrating how even small areas with different vegetation, composition, structure, environment and microclimate were characterised by distinct edaphic populations.

  20. New and little known Orthoptera (Ensifera and Caelifera) from the Ñambí River Natural Reserve, Nariño, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Bacca, Tito

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the Orthopterans from the Ñambí River Natural reserve is presented. A total of 26 species were studied, five new species are herein described: Championica nambiensis n. sp., Cocconotus awa n. sp., Cocconotus levyi n. sp. (Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae), Antillicharis kwaiker n. sp. (Gryllidae) and Brachybaenus nariniensis n. sp. (Gryllacrididae). Three species are recorded from Colombia for the first time (Legua crenulata, Uvaroviella (Holacla) nebulosa and Anabropsis alata) and seven species are new records for Nariño department (Allotettix peruvianus, Ripipteryx ecuadoriensis, Neoconocephalus affinis, Anaulacomera poculigera, Orophus conspersus, Orophus tessellatus and Neocurtilla hexadactyla). Further comments on species distribution and taxonomy are given. PMID:27615970

  1. Descriptive study of an outbreak of equine sarcoid in a population of Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) in the Gariep Nature Reserve.

    PubMed

    Nel, P J; Bertschinger, H; Williams, J; Thompson, P N

    2006-12-01

    An outbreak of equine sarcoid occurred in a population of Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) at the Gariep Nature Reserve located in the southern Free State Province of South Africa in 1996. The course of the outbreak during 1996 to 2003 is described. During this period the average population size was 69 animals. Initially (1996) all affected animals were removed from the population. New cases continued to manifest and the incidence varied between 4.6% and 17.6%. Prevalence reached 24.7% in 2002. No sexual predilection was noticed in the 39 recorded cases. Of the affected individuals, 64% had a single lesion and no animal had more than 4 lesions. In males, the majority of lesions occurred in the inguinal area (55.17%), whereas in females they mostly occurred on the head and neck (41.38%). Lesions can increase 260% in size annually and may impede movement.

  2. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  3. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane–Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane–habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes’ habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR. PMID:26065417

  4. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR.

  5. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR. PMID:26065417

  6. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man’s relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people’s knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Methods Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. Results In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve’s natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association’s informal guidelines for gathering reflect people’s attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people’s appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Conclusions Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people’s regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable

  7. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  8. Parasitism of Odonata by Arrenurus (Acari: Hydrachnidia) larvae in the Lake Świdwie, nature reserve (NW Poland).

    PubMed

    Zawal, Andrzej; Buczyński, Paweł

    2013-12-01

    Larvae of a vast majority of water mite species are parasites of aquatic insects. Owing to this, they migrate to new localities, and are able to survive unfavourable environmental conditions. This also concerns species from subgenus Arrenurus s. str., parasites of dragonflies. The detailed analysis of this phenomenon, however, has only been possible in the last several years, since the key to the identification of larvae from genus Arrenurus Dug. was published. In 2010, the parasitism of Arrenurus s. str. larvae on dragonflies in the Lake Świdwie reserve (NW Poland) was analysed. Larvae of 9 species of water mites were recorded on 107 imagines of dragonflies from 8 species. The following were identified as hosts of water mites for the first time: Anax imperator, Libellula quadrimaculata, and Leucorrhinia caudalis. The highest prevalence occurred in the case of: Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas (100%), Coenagrion pulchellum (96.5%), and C. puella (80.0%). Coenagrion pulchellum was infested by 9 species of parasites, C. puella by 6, and Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas by three species. The highest number of host species occurred in the case of Arrenurus maculator (5); followed by A. cuspidator, A. batillifer cf., A. bicuspidator, and A. tetracyphus (3 each); A. papillator, A. tricuspidator, and A. bruzelii (2 each), and A. claviger (1). Differentiation of preferences of particular parasites towards various parts of the host body was observed, probably related to the coevolution of parasites and hosts, and competition between the host species. The body sizes of the parasites suggest that approximately 50% of body size growth of water mites from subgenus Arrenurus s. str. occurs at the stage of parasitic larva. PMID:24338309

  9. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  10. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue

  11. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world.

  12. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  13. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since

  14. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  15. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1202 (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves. (a) Summary of oil and gas... tabular format as provided below: Summary of Oil and Gas Reserves as of Fiscal-Year End Based on Average Fiscal-Year Prices Reserves category Reserves Oil(mbbls) Natural gas(mmcf) Synthetic oil(mbbls)...

  16. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

  17. Trace element concentrations in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and surface sediments in Lake Preola and Gorghi Tondi natural reserve, SW Sicily.

    PubMed

    Bellante, A; Maccarone, V; Buscaino, G; Buffa, G; Filiciotto, F; Traina, A; Del Core, M; Mazzola, S; Sprovieri, M

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Pb, As, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in superficial sediments and in muscle and hepatopancreas tissues of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii from Lake Preola and Gorghi Tondi Natural Reserve (SW Sicily). In particular, hepatopancreas showed a decidedly higher content of all analysed trace elements with respect to muscles (two- to threefold higher for Cd, Cu, As, Zn and V; four- to fivefold higher for Pb and Cr and seven times higher for Ni). However, no statistically reliable differential accumulation pattern emerged with regard to length and weight for trace elements (except for Cd for which significant positive correlations with length were recorded). Trace element concentrations found in crayfish tissues were in the range considered harmful to human health (except for Cd and Cr). Moreover, the As and Pb concentrations, either in sediment or crayfish tissues, are clearly related to intense agricultural activities, with extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that significantly affect the levels of these toxic metals in the study area.

  18. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Min; Wu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL) of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic. PMID:25050355

  19. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly.

  20. Seasonal dynamics of anammox bacteria in estuarial sediment of the Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by analyzing the 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yi-Guo; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The community and population dynamics of anammox bacteria in summer (wet) and winter (dry) seasons in estuarial mudflat sediment of the Mai Po Nature Reserve were investigated by 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes. 16S rRNA phylogenetic diversity showed that sequences related to 'Kuenenia' anammox bacteria were presented in summer but not winter while 'Scalindua' anammox bacteria occurred in both seasons and could be divided into six different clusters. Compared to the 16S rRNA genes, the hzo genes revealed a relatively uniform seasonal diversity, with sequences relating to 'Scalindua', 'Anammoxoglobus', and planctomycete KSU-1 found in both seasons. The seasonal specific bacterial groups and diversity based on the 16S rRNA and hzo genes indicated strong seasonal community structures in estuary sediment of this site. Furthermore, the higher abundance of hzo genes in summer than winter indicates clear seasonal population dynamics. Combining the physicochemical characteristics of estuary sediment in the two seasons and their correlations with anammox bacteria community structure, we proposed the strong seasonal dynamics in estuary sediment of Mai Po to be due to the anthropogenic and terrestrial inputs, especially in summer, which brings in freshwater anammox bacteria, such as 'Kuenenia', interacting with the coastal marine anammox bacteria 'Scalindua'. PMID:21487198

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-18

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR.

  2. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  3. Trace element concentrations in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and surface sediments in Lake Preola and Gorghi Tondi natural reserve, SW Sicily.

    PubMed

    Bellante, A; Maccarone, V; Buscaino, G; Buffa, G; Filiciotto, F; Traina, A; Del Core, M; Mazzola, S; Sprovieri, M

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Pb, As, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in superficial sediments and in muscle and hepatopancreas tissues of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii from Lake Preola and Gorghi Tondi Natural Reserve (SW Sicily). In particular, hepatopancreas showed a decidedly higher content of all analysed trace elements with respect to muscles (two- to threefold higher for Cd, Cu, As, Zn and V; four- to fivefold higher for Pb and Cr and seven times higher for Ni). However, no statistically reliable differential accumulation pattern emerged with regard to length and weight for trace elements (except for Cd for which significant positive correlations with length were recorded). Trace element concentrations found in crayfish tissues were in the range considered harmful to human health (except for Cd and Cr). Moreover, the As and Pb concentrations, either in sediment or crayfish tissues, are clearly related to intense agricultural activities, with extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that significantly affect the levels of these toxic metals in the study area. PMID:26045038

  4. Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Case from Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Kai; Liang, Junhua; Ke, Hongwei; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Liu, Mengyang; Deng, Hengxiang; He, Tong; Wang, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve is a subtropical wetland ecosystem in southeast coast of China, which is of dense population and rapid development. The concentrations, sources, and pollution assessment of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Hg) in surface sediment from 29 sites and the biota specimen were investigated for better ecological risk assessment and environmental management. The ranges of trace metals in mg/kg sediment were as follows: Cu (10.79–26.66), Cd (0.03–0.19), Pb (36.71–59.86), Cr (9.67–134.51), Zn (119.69–157.84), As (15.65–31.60), and Hg (0.00–0.08). The sequences of the bioaccumulation of studied metals are Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg with few exceptions. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the trace metals in the studied area mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, such as industrial effluents, agricultural waste, and domestic sewage. Pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were calculated for trace metals in surface sediments, which indicated unpolluted status in general except Pb, Cr, and As. PMID:27795956

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation

    PubMed Central

    HE, Ya; WANG, Zheng-Huan; WANG, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

  6. Mapping the distribution of mangrove species in the Core Zone of Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, Hong Kong, using hyperspectral data and high-resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingming; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zongming; Song, Kaishan; Ren, Chunying

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove species compositions and distributions are essential for conservation and restoration efforts. In this study, hyperspectral data of EO-1 HYPERION sensor and high spatial resolution data of SPOT-5 sensor were used in Mai Po mangrove species mapping. Objected-oriented method was used in mangrove species classification processing. Firstly, mangrove objects were obtained via segmenting high spatial resolution data of SPOT-5. Then the objects were classified into different mangrove species based on the spectral differences of HYPERION image. The classification result showed that in the top canopy, Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina dominated Mai Po Marshes Natural Reserve, with area of 196.8 ha and 110.8 ha, respectively, Acanthus ilicifolius and Aegiceras corniculatum were mixed together and living at the edge of channels with an area of 11.7 ha. Additionally, mangrove species shows clearly zonations and associations in the Mai Po Core Zone. The overall accuracy of our mangrove map was 88% and the Kappa confidence was 0.83, which indicated great potential of using hyperspectral and high-resolution data for distinguishing and mapping mangrove species.

  7. Identification of Entamoeba polecki with Unique 18S rRNA Gene Sequences from Celebes Crested Macaques and Pigs in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Josef; Feng, Meng; Imada, Mihoko; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Unique species of macaques are distributed across Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and the details of Entamoeba infections in these macaques are unknown. A total of 77 stool samples from Celebes crested macaques (Macaca nigra) and 14 stool samples from pigs were collected in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, and the prevalence of Entamoeba infection was examined by PCR. Entamoeba polecki was detected in 97% of the macaques and all of the pigs, but no other Entamoeba species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from M. nigra was unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki subtype (ST) 4. This is the first case of identification of E. polecki ST4 from wild nonhuman primates. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from pigs was also unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki ST1. These results suggest that the diversity of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki is associated with differences in host species and geographic localization, and that there has been no transmission of E. polecki between macaques and pigs in the study area.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of anammox bacteria in estuarial sediment of the Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by analyzing the 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yi-Guo; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The community and population dynamics of anammox bacteria in summer (wet) and winter (dry) seasons in estuarial mudflat sediment of the Mai Po Nature Reserve were investigated by 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes. 16S rRNA phylogenetic diversity showed that sequences related to 'Kuenenia' anammox bacteria were presented in summer but not winter while 'Scalindua' anammox bacteria occurred in both seasons and could be divided into six different clusters. Compared to the 16S rRNA genes, the hzo genes revealed a relatively uniform seasonal diversity, with sequences relating to 'Scalindua', 'Anammoxoglobus', and planctomycete KSU-1 found in both seasons. The seasonal specific bacterial groups and diversity based on the 16S rRNA and hzo genes indicated strong seasonal community structures in estuary sediment of this site. Furthermore, the higher abundance of hzo genes in summer than winter indicates clear seasonal population dynamics. Combining the physicochemical characteristics of estuary sediment in the two seasons and their correlations with anammox bacteria community structure, we proposed the strong seasonal dynamics in estuary sediment of Mai Po to be due to the anthropogenic and terrestrial inputs, especially in summer, which brings in freshwater anammox bacteria, such as 'Kuenenia', interacting with the coastal marine anammox bacteria 'Scalindua'.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-18

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

  10. [Spatial patterns of and specific correlations between dominant tree species in a karst evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Mulun Karst National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-heng; Xiang, Wu-sheng; Ye, Duo; Lü, Shi-hong; Ding, Tao; Li, Xian-kun

    2010-11-01

    In order to understand the biological characteristics and specific correlations of dominant tree species in a karst characteristic evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Mulun National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, a point pattern analysis was made on the spatial distribution patterns and inter- and intraspecific correlations of four dominant species in a one-hectare plot. Among the four species, Boniodendron minius dominated in tree sublayer I, while Ligustrum japonicum, Sinosideroxylon wightianum, and Rapanea kwangsiensis dominated in tree sublayers II and III. All the four species had a clumped distribution at scale <10 m, a transition from clumped to random distribution at scale 10-25 m, and a random or regular distribution at scale >25 m. The critical scale from clumped to random distribution varied with species. No significant correlations were observed between the B. minius in sublayer I and the dominant species in sublayer II. The correlations of B. minius with the dominant species in sublayers II and III showed greater fluctuation, with significant positive correlation for L. japonicum at scale <50 m, no significant correlation for S. wightianum, and no significant correlation for R. kwangsiensis at scale <20 m but significant negative correlation at scale 20-50 m.

  11. [Spatial patterns of and specific correlations between dominant tree species in a karst evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Mulun Karst National Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-heng; Xiang, Wu-sheng; Ye, Duo; Lü, Shi-hong; Ding, Tao; Li, Xian-kun

    2010-11-01

    In order to understand the biological characteristics and specific correlations of dominant tree species in a karst characteristic evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Mulun National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, a point pattern analysis was made on the spatial distribution patterns and inter- and intraspecific correlations of four dominant species in a one-hectare plot. Among the four species, Boniodendron minius dominated in tree sublayer I, while Ligustrum japonicum, Sinosideroxylon wightianum, and Rapanea kwangsiensis dominated in tree sublayers II and III. All the four species had a clumped distribution at scale <10 m, a transition from clumped to random distribution at scale 10-25 m, and a random or regular distribution at scale >25 m. The critical scale from clumped to random distribution varied with species. No significant correlations were observed between the B. minius in sublayer I and the dominant species in sublayer II. The correlations of B. minius with the dominant species in sublayers II and III showed greater fluctuation, with significant positive correlation for L. japonicum at scale <50 m, no significant correlation for S. wightianum, and no significant correlation for R. kwangsiensis at scale <20 m but significant negative correlation at scale 20-50 m. PMID:21360998

  12. Spatial and Temporal Vegetation Changes of Pinyon and Juniper Woodlands on the Coconino Plateau Natural Reserve Lands in Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arundel, S. T.; Arundel, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to document and describe any vegetational change that has occurred on the test site over the last half century. Consequently, the secondary objective was to determine the extent of any changes that have occurred and to explain these changes. Throughout this study, emphasis was placed on understanding the natural processes that occur between the vegetation associations located on the test site to assist in their conservation and preservation. Historical photographs from 1950s were classified and compared to classified 1997 DOQQs. Classifications were divided into five categories: Tree (trunk), Tree Canopy, Tree Shade, Grass/Shrub, and Bare Ground. Raster calculations using ArcGIS compute classification differences both numerically and spatially. The resulting comparisons showed that trees have increased in density within their previously existing range, which is likely due to fire suppression. They have also expanded onto the northern slopes of mountains, probably due to climate change. Most significantly, they have encroached into both grass/shrubland and baregrounds of the past. There may be many reasons for this. Areas of lowland with encroachment, particularly previously bare ground or low cover (grassland) have probably been invaded due to fire suppression. These are areas where grasses would grow, and any invading saplings would be removed by frequent but low intensity fires. While livestock may have helped spread seed to these lower areas, if the natural fire regime had occurred, saplings would have been killed by small fires, and grasses rejuvenated more quickly to fill burnt areas. Movement of trees into bare ground should also be of concern because grass roots can dominate areas several inches beneath, and grass roots are least dense around juniper canopy.

  13. [Anuran richness and composition in the Eastern region of Iberá Wetlands Provincial Nature Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina].

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Ingaramo María; Etchepare, Eduardo Gabriel; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz; Porcel, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    In recent decades, the concern for biodiversity conservation has increased in importance, especially due to the loss of highly biodiverse natural areas such as wetlands. Despite the high fauna diversity inhabiting the Iberá, the information about its composition, structure and dynamics is scarce, and amphibians are typical and conspicuous representatives of these Neotropical areas. To generate new information about this group, the amphibian composition from two villages (Paraje Galarza and Colonia Carlos Pellegrini), belonging to two different fitogeographic regions in the Eastern edge of the Iberá, were described and compared. Samples were taken, from a respective area of 100km2 that included five landscape units (wetlands, streams and swamps, grasslands, forest and a permanent/temporal pond) each, during the four seasons between January 2007 and March 2008. The techniques applied were the Complete Species Inventories (Unrestricted direct search) and Visual Encounter Surveys (VES). A total of 28 species were found, and represented the 70% of the previously registered taxa for the whole wetland. Scinax similis and Rhinella azarai were recorded for the first time in the Iberá Wetlands. No significant differences were found in the anuran specific richness between the surveyed villages, since the 95% of confidence intervals for the species accumulation curves were superimposed. In both villages, the wetlands, streams and swamps, and the permanent pond landscapes, showed the higher species richness when compared to the others. According to the Chao2, Jacknifel and ICE estimators, the inventory completeness of species, oscillated among 88% and 98% for the whole area. The dendrogram analysis based on the Jaccard similarity index, showed that wetlands, streams and swamps were grouped and well separated from grasslands. To guarantee the conservation of the high anuran richness that inhabit the Iberá Wetland, we recommend that representative areas of each landscape must

  14. On the ecology of the cursorial spider Odo bruchi (Araneae: Zoridae) in a grassland natural reserve from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pompozzi, Gabriel; Copperi, Sofía; Schwerdt, Leonela; Ferretti, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    The "Ernesto Tornquist" Provincial Park (ETPP) is located inside the Ventania system (Argentina) and was created to protect one of the last relicts of pampean grasslands. Even though many studies have looked at the vertebrate faunal diversity, biology, and conservation in this Park, few studies have been dedicated to arthropods. Among these, spiders have been used as ecological indicators to evaluate nature conservation status, nevertheless, basic information on their distribution and ecology is necessary for their use as indicator taxa in this region. Thus the goal of this study was to present the phenology and demography of the spider Odo bruchi, a cursorial spider present in the ETPP. For this, spiders were sampled bimonthly using pitfall traps between September 2009-2010 (first year), and March 2011-2012 (second year). A total of 10 traps were placed every 10m along a transect of 100m parallel to the longest axis ofa grassland slope with native vegetation. Traps were filled with 1 500mL of ethylene glycol, that were examined and refilled every 60 day period. We collected a total of 799 specimens in two years. Juveniles were the most abundant reaching 47.8% of the total, while males corresponded to 27.8% and females 24.4%. We found significant differences in the mean abundance of O. bruchi: the abundance during spring-summer (Nov-Dec-Jan-Feb) was significantly higher than the other periods of the two years period. Moreover, we found an even abundance distribution throughout the year in the entire study. This work represents one of the first contributions to the ecology of this spider family in the area. Also, our results comprise relevant information to encourage future studies on this spider species as a bio-indicator of the conservation status of pampean grasslands. PMID:24912345

  15. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  16. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level. PMID:14627367

  17. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  18. Characteristics of night-time sleeping places selected by golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Samage Forest, Baima Snow Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayong; Grueter, Cyril C; Ren, Baoping; Zhou, Qihai; Li, Ming; Peng, Zhengsong; Wei, Fuwen

    2006-12-01

    We examined the criteria for sleeping place selection in a social band of Rhinopithecus bieti (black-and-white snub-nosed or golden monkeys) living in the mountainous Samage Forest, Baima Snow Mountain Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China. We performed principal component analysis and found that slope aspect, tree height and trunk diameter were likely key variables influencing selection of sleeping places. Sleeping sites were preferentially located in mixed deciduous/conifer forest. The monkeys slept exclusively in evergreen trees, of which 82% were conifers (mostly Picea likiangensis and Tsuga dumosa) and 18% evergreen oaks (Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon and Quercus spp.). Sleeping trees were tall (mean 30.5 m), had high boles (mean 18.4 m), large diameters (mean 62.6 cm) and large crown areas (mean 57.9 m(2) ). A comparative analysis of phytological and architectural features between trees in "sleeping site plots" (n= 18) and trees in "non-sleeping-site plots" (n= 66) revealed that diameter, crown surface area and tree height were significantly (P < 0.01) larger in the former compared with the latter. All investigated roosting sites were situated on steep mountain slopes. Valleys and mountain ridges were avoided. We also detected re-use of roosting sites on several occasions, but not on consecutive nights. It is most likely that a mix of factors (stability of trees, access to food, unit cohesion, monitoring potential) explains the pattern of sleeping site preference, but predation at night seems to be only slightly important. Climate appears to have a profound influence on patterns of sleeping site selection in the monkeys' harsh temperate habitat. This is demonstrated by the monkeys' preference for mixed forest at medium elevations over montane fir forest at high elevations and slopes instead of ridges, with reduced exposure to wind and precipitation inherent in the former. We also emphasize the possibly substantial role that non-environmental factors (the nature of social

  19. US gas reserves show gain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports that the Energy Information Administration reports 1990 U.S. natural gas reserves increased for the first time since 1981. Reserves inched up 1.3% to 169.346 tcf, largely because of coalbed methane development. Gas reserves in Alaska and the Lower 48 not only increased, but the latter are higher than they were in 1985. Gas discoveries increased 23.3% and totaled 12.368 tcf in 1990. Major finds were drilled in New Mexico, in Alabama state water, and off Louisiana. Crude oil reserves dropped less than 1% to 26.254 billion bbl, close to the average decline of 1.2%/year for the past decade. Crude oil discoveries were 20% less than the annual average for the past decade.

  20. [Responses of soil microbial carbolic metabolism characteristics to home-field advantage of leaf litter decomposition in Liaoheyuan Nature Reserve of northern Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-yu; Kang, Feng-feng; Han, Hai-rong; Gao, Jing; Song, Xiao-shuai; Yu, Shu

    2015-07-01

    Using litter bag method, we studied the responses of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers to home-field advantage of Betula platyphlla and Quercus mongolica leaf litter decomposition in Liaoheyuan Nature Reserve, northern Hebei Province. The results showed that the contents of MBC in Betula platyphila and Quercus mongolica leaf litter treatments in home environment (Bh and Qh treatments) were significant higher than that in B. platyphlla and Q. mongolica leaf litter treatments in non-home environment (Ba and Qa treatments). There was no significant difference in MR between home and non-home environments. Response degree of MBC and MR to home-field advantage of different litter decomposition was inconsistent. The MBC of the different soil layers in Qa treatment fell by 39.6%, 34.9% and 33.5% compared to Qh treatment, respectively, and that in B. platyphlla treatment was decreased by 31.6%, 27.1% and 17.0%, respectively. MR of the different soil layers in Qa treatment accounted for 96.3%, 92.4% and 83.7% of Qh treatment, respectively, while MR in B. platyphila treatment was 99. 4%, 97. 3% and 101.3%, respectively. In contrast to MBC, qCO2 in soil showed a reverse pattern. Our study suggested that rich nutrients in soil enhanced microbial activity and weakened the conflict of nutrient uptake between plants and microorganisms, which led to the result that MBC and qCO2 had an obvious response to home-field advantage of litter decomposition, when litter decomposed in its home environment. There was a weak response between MR and home-field advantage of litter decomposition, because of influence of soil temperature, water content and their interaction. Furthermore, MBC, MR and qCO2 had a higher response degree to home-field advantage of Q. mongolica litter than B. platyphila litter, since lower quality litter exhibited higher home-field advantage of litter

  1. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  2. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  3. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world. PMID:17974334

  4. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  5. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  6. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  7. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  8. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  9. [The microclimate of an unoccupied wintering sett of the badger, Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae), in the Darwin State Nature Reserve, Vologda Region].

    PubMed

    Sidorchuk, N V; Rozhnov, V V

    2008-01-01

    Data on the microclimate (air temperature and humidity) within an unoccupied badger sett in the Darwin Reserve (the Vologda Region) between September 2005 and May 2006 have been analyzed in relation to changes in the temperature and humidity of the ground air layer and soil. A positive correlation has been revealed between the temperature regime of the soil and air temperature within the sett. After the establishment of snow cover, air and soil temperatures within the sett vary slightly and barely depend on ambient air temperature.

  10. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    PubMed

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. PMID:24849111

  11. Oil reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory a facility run for the Department of Energy prepared a supplemental environmental impact statements for Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) near Bakersfield, California. This paper concludes that NPR-1 might contribute to the decline of an endangered species the San Joaquin kit fox and contaminate nearby ground water. However, DOE disagreed with Argonne about the impact of NPR-1 operations on the endangered fox and nearby ground water. Because these disagreements were unresolved when DOE took over the preparation of the supplemental environmental impact statement the official draft of which is not yet completed it is unclear how Argonne's views will be reflected in the document when it is published for comment. DOE has not taken sufficient action to ensure that NPR-1 operations have complied with environmental laws and regulations governing endangered species, historic preservation, and wastewater sumping. Noncompliance with these requirements could result in legal action, fines, and even a possible shutdown of NPR-1 operations until compliance is achieved. The Department of Interior is investigating to see if prosecution is warranted for possible endangered species violations. Although DOE is trying to address possible problems, similar problems may occur at NPR-1 in the future unless DOE management controls are improved.

  12. Combining non-invasive methods for the rapid assessment of mammalian richness in a transect-quadrat survey scheme – Case Study of the Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve, North Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Manal R.; El Indary, Shadi; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Abou Dagher, Manale

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lebanon lacks updated information related to the status of mammalian species, their richness and distribution. This study aimed at developing a rapid assessment methodology combining three non-invasive techniques based on the transect-quadrat survey scheme to measure mammalian richness at the Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve. The achieved results showed that the combination of the three techniques, droppings, footprints and photo-trapping for the rapid assessment of mammalian richness supported by Geographical Information System applications is highly effective. Twenty visits covering twenty quadrats out of 49 over a period of nine months allowed the detection of 12 of the 14 targeted species with droppings providing the majority of evidence while footprints and photo-trapping being of equal efficiency. The method can be easily replicated in any region to rapidly assess mammalian richness and the area of activity of the detected species and therefore directing conservation and management activities towards species of interest. PMID:21998518

  13. China's petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  14. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  15. Beyond opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection.

    PubMed

    Pressey, R L; Humphries, C J; Margules, C R; Vane-Wright, R I; Williams, P H

    1993-04-01

    The intention and practice of conservation reserve selection are different. A major reason for systems of reserves is to sustain biological diversity. This involves protecting examples of as many natural features, e.g. species, communities or environments, as possible. In reality, however, new reserves have rarely been dedicated for their representation of features. Furthermore, the opportunism that has characterized the development of reserve systems can actually jeopardize the representation of all features in reserves through the inefficient allocation of limited resources. More systematic approaches are essential if reserves are to play their role in protecting biodiversity. Some basic principles for conservation planning are emerging from recent systematic procedures for reserve selection. These principles will help to link intention and practice.

  16. Reserve growth important to U.S. gas supply

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoker, J.W.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1997-01-27

    The term reserve growth refers to the typical increases in estimated ultimate recovery that occur as oil or gas fields are developed and produced. An example for a particular field helps explain the nature of reserve growth. This gas field was discovered in the mid-1940s. In 1977, its ultimate recovery was estimated to be 2.1 tcf of gas. One might think that after some 30 years of development and production, the resource potential of a field would be well understood. However, by 1991 the estimated ultimate recovery of this field had increased to 3.1 tcf. Reserve growth over the 15 year period totaled 1 tcf, and it shows no sign of stopping. The paper discusses reserve growth trends, reserve growth roots, and future reserve growth. It is concluded that much work remains to be done on the phenomenon of reserve growth, which is arguably the most significant research problem in the field of hydrocarbon resource assessment.

  17. Beyond opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection.

    PubMed

    Pressey, R L; Humphries, C J; Margules, C R; Vane-Wright, R I; Williams, P H

    1993-04-01

    The intention and practice of conservation reserve selection are different. A major reason for systems of reserves is to sustain biological diversity. This involves protecting examples of as many natural features, e.g. species, communities or environments, as possible. In reality, however, new reserves have rarely been dedicated for their representation of features. Furthermore, the opportunism that has characterized the development of reserve systems can actually jeopardize the representation of all features in reserves through the inefficient allocation of limited resources. More systematic approaches are essential if reserves are to play their role in protecting biodiversity. Some basic principles for conservation planning are emerging from recent systematic procedures for reserve selection. These principles will help to link intention and practice. PMID:21236127

  18. 7 CFR 614.5 - Reservation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of authority. 614.5 Section 614.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS NRCS APPEAL PROCEDURES § 614.5 Reservation of...

  19. 24 CFR 968.104 - Reserve for emergencies and disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... disasters. 968.104 Section 968.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.104 Reserve for emergencies and disasters... assistance for its emergency needs from the reserve. (b) Natural and other disasters—(1) Eligibility...

  20. 24 CFR 968.104 - Reserve for emergencies and disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... disasters. 968.104 Section 968.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.104 Reserve for emergencies and disasters... assistance for its emergency needs from the reserve. (b) Natural and other disasters—(1) Eligibility...

  1. 24 CFR 968.104 - Reserve for emergencies and disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... disasters. 968.104 Section 968.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.104 Reserve for emergencies and disasters... assistance for its emergency needs from the reserve. (b) Natural and other disasters—(1) Eligibility...

  2. 24 CFR 968.104 - Reserve for emergencies and disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disasters. 968.104 Section 968.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MODERNIZATION General § 968.104 Reserve for emergencies and disasters... assistance for its emergency needs from the reserve. (b) Natural and other disasters—(1) Eligibility...

  3. Study of CETA Plans and Reservation Economic Development. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; Kelly, Patricia F.

    Field study and analysis of program documents were undertaken in the first phase of a multi-phased research effort to improve and strengthen the relationships between CETA programs and economic development activities on Indian reservations. Exploratory in nature, the study examined the approaches developed by 24 Indian reservations and Native…

  4. Inst. of gas technology world reserves survey-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book provides estimates of proved reserves, resources, current and cumulative production, and life indices of nonrenewable energy sources as of yearend 1987. A new section lists totals for unconventional energy resources, including shale oil, tar-sands oil, and unconventional natural gas. Reserve and resource data appear in conventional and in metric energy units.

  5. Effects of landscape design of forest reserves on Saproxylic beetle diversity.

    PubMed

    Bouget, C; Parmain, G

    2016-02-01

    Increasing the density of natural reserves in the forest landscape may provide conservation benefits for biodiversity within and beyond reserve borders. We used 2 French data sets on saproxylic beetles and landscape cover of forest reserves (LCFR) to test this hypothesis: national standardized data derived from 252 assessment plots in managed and reserve stands in 9 lowland and 5 highland forests and data from the lowland Rambouillet forest, a forested landscape where a pioneer conservation policy led to creation of a dense network of reserves. Abundance of rare and common saproxylic species and total saproxylic species richness were higher in forest reserves than in adjacent managed stands only in highland forests. In the lowland regional case study, as LCFR increased total species richness and common species abundance in reserves increased. In this case study, when there were two or more reserve patches, rare species abundance inside reserves was higher and common species richness in managed stands was higher than when there was a single large reserve. Spillover and habitat amount affected ecological processes underlying these landscape reserve effects. When LCFR positively affected species richness and abundance in reserves or managed stands, >12-20% reserve cover led to the highest species diversity and abundance. This result is consistent with the target of 17% forested land area in reserves set at the Nagoya biodiversity summit in 2010. Therefore, to preserve biodiversity we recommend at least doubling the current proportion of forest reserves in European forested landscapes.

  6. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral... § 802.3 Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves. (a) An acquisition of reserves of oil, natural... or future exploration or production activities associated with the carbon-based mineral reserves...

  7. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral... § 802.3 Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves. (a) An acquisition of reserves of oil, natural... or future exploration or production activities associated with the carbon-based mineral reserves...

  8. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral... § 802.3 Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves. (a) An acquisition of reserves of oil, natural... or future exploration or production activities associated with the carbon-based mineral reserves...

  9. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral... § 802.3 Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves. (a) An acquisition of reserves of oil, natural... or future exploration or production activities associated with the carbon-based mineral reserves...

  10. Environmental and developmental origins of ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Richardson, M C; Guo, M; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oocyte number is established early in life before a gradual loss of this ovarian reserve during reproductive life until oocyte availability becomes limiting at the menopause. Although there is a large genetic component to the ovarian reserve achieved before birth, other influences including the maternal endocrine and nutritional milieu, and environmental factors may represent important developmental determinants. Environmental and nutritional factors may also modify the downward trajectory of ovarian reserve in adult life. The combination of these early and later life influences has the potential to lead to diminished ovarian reserve, compromising fertility in later reproductive years and altering age at natural menopause. METHODS Literature searches of the ISI Web of Knowledge database were carried out using the main terms 'ovarian reserve' and 'menopause AND age' in conjunction with a range of other terms encompassing a variety of factors with potential effects on ovarian reserve. The various searches were inspected manually and the relevant papers selected for critical analysis and interpretation. RESULTS Evidence was identified supporting the view that elevated prenatal androgens have an adverse effect on the early establishment of ovarian reserve, although the implications for ovarian reserve in the polycystic ovary syndrome (which may also be programmed through prenatal androgen exposure) remain uncertain. Recent evidence is cited suggesting that effects of maternal nutrient restriction on ovarian reserve may also involve changes in prenatal androgen exposure. A general rationale is developed through examination of evidence which emphasizes the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) systems in ovarian reserve modulation. Because of their similarity to the natural ligands, many environmental compounds have the ability to bind to these receptors (albeit at lower affinities) and thereby have the potential to

  11. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  12. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  13. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  14. Ancillary-service details: operating reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-11-01

    Operating reserves are the front lines in the defense of bulk-power systems against major generation and transmission outages. Operating reserves are provided by generating units that can increase their output rapidly to restore the system to generation/load balance after a major disturbance occurs. Dramatic changes are under way in the U.S. electricity sector, in particular the unbundling of generation from transmission and the increasingly competitive nature of bulk-power markets. Therefore, it is important to revisit the industry`s definitions of, procurement of, and payment for operating reserves. The procedures traditionally used by vertically integrated utilities may not serve the needs of an increasingly fragmented and competitive electricity industry. This report examines the past and current functions of, as well as the national and regional requirements for, operating reserves. We examine the data and analysis that support minimum-operating-reserve requirements. We obtained data on the number and severity of generator outages for three large U.S. electrical systems, including a power pool, a regional reliability council, and a utility. These limited data sets show a range of 15 to 40 major (>500 MW) outages a year for systems ranging in size from 20, 000 MW to 48,000 MW of peak demand. Finally, we discuss several emerging issues related to the underlying technical support for minimum operating-reserve requirements, alternative ways to pay for these reserves, the data needed to support the analysis of these requirements, and the mix of functions that are currently included within operating reserves.

  15. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    PubMed

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  16. The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1984-01-01

    Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve…

  17. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  18. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  19. AGA; U. S. gas reserve additions lag production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    The American Gas Association estimates 1991 U.S. natural gas reserve additions were only 65-79% of production, compared with a 96% average for 1981-90. AGA found that 75% of 1991 reserve additions occurred as discoveries and field extensions, and only 25% came from revisions of estimates. Total reserve additions may range from 11.1 tcf to 13.4 tcf. The 30 largest gas reserves holders sold more than 1.1 tcf of reserves to other firms. The top 30 companies had reserve additions of 5.754 tcf, down 3.541 tcf from a year earlier. Total gas reserves held by the top 30 dropped by 3.757 tcf. The 30 companies produced 8.417 tcf in 1991, compared with 8.352 tcf in 1989. This paper reports that AGA compiles the reserve addition estimates from data the 30 largest gas companies file with the Securities and exchange Commission, supplemented with data from gas pipelines holding large reserves.

  20. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  1. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  2. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  3. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  4. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-01-01

    the distribution characteristics of mcrA gene-harboring communities in nSCS and stratification of mcrA and pmoA gene diversity and abundance in the Mai Po Nature Reserve. PMID:25774150

  5. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-01-01

    ecosystems, showing the distribution characteristics of mcrA gene-harboring communities in nSCS and stratification of mcrA and pmoA gene diversity and abundance in the Mai Po Nature Reserve.

  6. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  7. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.

    1983-01-01

    This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

  8. Washington: Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an ... CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, ...

  9. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  10. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of uncertainty in the length of evaluation time and in reported reserves during this initial period, reserve growth based on the first production year is more reliable for model development. However, reserve growth models based both on discovery year and first production year show rapid growth in the first few years and slower growth in the following years. In contrast, the reserve growth patterns for the conterminous United States and offshore Gulf of Mexico show a steady reserve increase throughout the productive lives of the fields. The different reserve booking requirements and the lack of capital investment for improved reservoir management and production technologies in West Siberian fields relative to U.S. fields are the probable causes for the difference in growth patterns. Reserve growth models based on the first production year predict that the reserve growth potential in the 42 largest oil fields of West Siberia over a five-year period (1998-2003) ranges from 270-330 million barrels or 0.34-0.42 percent per year. For a similar five-year period (1996-2001), models for the conterminous United States predict a growth of 0.54-0.75 percent per year. This abstract presents the contents of a poster prepared for the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference on Understanding World Oil Resources, November 12-17, 2006 - Colorado Springs, Colorado. A paper 'Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia' was published in Natural Resources Research, v. 12, no. 2, June, 2003.

  11. Coronary flow reserve and oesophageal dysfunction in syndrome X.

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, A.; Mullins, P. A.; Gill, R.; Taylor, G.; Petch, M. C.; Schofield, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The relative prevalence of abnormalities of coronary flow reserve and oesophageal function was ascertained in 32 syndrome X patients with typical angina chest pain, a positive exercise test, and normal coronary arteries. Coronary flow reserve in response to a hyperaemic dose of papaverine was measured using an intracoronary Doppler catheter positioned in the left anterior descending coronary artery. An abnormal coronary flow reserve was defined as being < 3.0. Patients were investigated for oesophageal dysfunction by manometry and 24-hour pH monitoring. Thirteen patients had an impaired coronary flow reserve (group 1) and 19 patients had a normal flow reserve (group 2). Eight of the 13 group 1 patients (62%) and 13 of the 19 group 2 patients (68%, p = NS) had evidence of oesophageal dysfunction on either manometry or pH studies. Therefore, a total of 26 (81%) syndrome X patients had either an abnormality of coronary flow reserve or oesophageal dysfunction suggesting that chest pain in these patients may be due to myocardial ischaemia or oesophageal dysfunction, thus confirming the heterogeneous nature of this syndrome. The prevalence of oesophageal abnormalities was independent of any abnormalities of coronary flow reserve. PMID:8871460

  12. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Callum M; Hawkins, Julie P; Gell, Fiona R

    2005-01-29

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it.

  13. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Callum M.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Gell, Fiona R.

    2005-01-01

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it. PMID:15713592

  14. Poor ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  15. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  17. 77 FR 73 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Natural Resources... Partnership Initiative (CCPI) and up to $25 million in the Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) through... wetlands. The designated 8-digit HUC focus areas are listed below. A complete list of the smaller-scale,...

  18. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  19. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  20. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Airame, S.; Dugan, J.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; McArdle, D.A.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries management. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies, organizations, and individuals established clear goals for marine reserves in the Channel Islands, including conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, sustainable fisheries, economic viability, natural and cultural heritage, and education. Given the constraints of risk management, experimental design, monitoring, and enforcement, scientists recommended at least one, but no more than four, reserves in each biogeographic region. In general, the percentage of an area to be included in a reserve network depends on the goals. In the Channel Islands, after consideration of both conservation goals and the risk from human threats and natural catastrophes, scientists recommended reserving an area of 30-50% of all representative habitats in each biogeographic region. For most species of concern, except pinnipeds and seabirds, information about distributions, dispersal, and population growth was limited. As an alternative to species distribution information, suitable habitats for species of concern were used to locate potential reserve sites. We used a simulated annealing algorithm to identify potential reserve network scenarios that would represent all habitats within the smallest area possible. The analysis produced an array of potential reserve network scenarios that all met the established goals.

  1. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy continued to operate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 in Wyoming through its contractors. In addition, natural gas operations were conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. All productive acreage owned by the Government at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 in California was produced under lease to private companies. The locations of all six Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves are shown in a figure. Under the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976, production was originally authorized for six years, and based on findings of national interest, the President was authorized to extend production in three-year increments. President Reagan exercised this authority three times (in 1981, 1984, and 1987) and President Bush authorized extended production once (in 1990). President Clinton exercised this authority in 1993 and again in October 1996; production is presently authorized through April 5, 2000. 4 figs. 30 tabs.

  2. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... liabilities of depository institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation... monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes the payment... affect the Federal Reserve's ability to implement monetary policy in the event that all...

  3. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  4. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  5. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Joan, F. Hughes

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  7. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  8. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Post, Vincent E A; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W Mike

    2013-12-01

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry. PMID:24305150

  9. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  10. Online Course Reserves and Graduate Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses student satisfaction with online course reserves in a graduate environment. Surveys indicated that students prefer online course reserves over in-library print course reserves. Pre-printed course readers are preferred when the purchase price of the reader is less than the cost of printing online reserves. Graduate students are…

  11. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions.

    PubMed

    Graves, K J

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed.

  12. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed. PMID:10658960

  13. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  15. Oil and gas reserves estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrell, R.; Gajdica, R.; Elliot, D.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Khurana, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a summary of a panel session at the 2005 Offshore Technology Conference. Oil and gas reserves estimates are further complicated with the expanding importance of the worldwide deepwater arena. These deepwater reserves can be analyzed, interpreted, and conveyed in a consistent, reliable way to investors and other stakeholders. Continually improving technologies can lead to improved estimates of production and reserves, but the estimates are not necessarily recognized by regulatory authorities as an indicator of "reasonable certainty," a term used since 1964 to describe proved reserves in several venues. Solutions are being debated in the industry to arrive at a reporting mechanism that generates consistency and at the same time leads to useful parameters in assessing a company's value without compromising confidentiality. Copyright 2005 Offshore Technology Conference.

  16. New U.S. Geological Survey Method for the Assessment of Reserve Growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Freeman, P.A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Le, Phuong A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Reserve growth is defined as the estimated increases in quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids that have the potential to be added to remaining reserves in discovered accumulations through extension, revision, improved recovery efficiency, and additions of new pools or reservoirs. A new U.S. Geological Survey method was developed to assess the reserve-growth potential of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas to be added to reserves under proven technology currently in practice within the trend or play, or which reasonably can be extrapolated from geologically similar trends or plays. This method currently is in use to assess potential additions to reserves in discovered fields of the United States. The new approach involves (1) individual analysis of selected large accumulations that contribute most to reserve growth, and (2) conventional statistical modeling of reserve growth in remaining accumulations. This report will focus on the individual accumulation analysis. In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated reserve growth by statistical methods using historical recoverable-quantity data. Those statistical methods were based on growth rates averaged by the number of years since accumulation discovery. Accumulations in mature petroleum provinces with volumetrically significant reserve growth, however, bias statistical models of the data; therefore, accumulations with significant reserve growth are best analyzed separately from those with less significant reserve growth. Large (greater than 500 million barrels) and older (with respect to year of discovery) oil accumulations increase in size at greater rates late in their development history in contrast to more recently discovered accumulations that achieve most growth early in their development history. Such differences greatly affect the statistical methods commonly used to forecast reserve growth. The individual accumulation-analysis method involves estimating the in

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

  18. 17 CFR 229.1203 - (Item 1203) Proved undeveloped reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reserves that occurred during the year, including proved undeveloped reserves converted into proved developed reserves. (c) Discuss investments and progress made during the year to convert proved...

  19. One Space, Many Places: Folklife and Land Use in New Jersey's Pinelands National Reserve. Report and Recommendations to the New Jersey Pinelands Commission for Cultural Conservation in the Pinelands National Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufford, Mary

    In 1978, the U.S. Congress established the Pinelands National Reserve on a million-acre landscape of New Jersey woodlands, farms, marshes, suburbs, towns, rivers, and bays. The reserve was to protect not only the region's great natural beauty and scientific value, but also the cultural life of its people, which is largely undocumented. In 1983,…

  20. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  1. Biomarkers of ovarian reserve as predictors of reproductive potential.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Anne Z

    2013-11-01

    The size of the oocyte pool, the ovarian reserve, can determine a woman's reproductive stage. Chronologic age, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, early follicular phase follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and early follicular phase inhibin B levels are correlated with ovarian reserve. Therefore, these biomarkers of ovarian reserve should serve as predictors of reproductive potential. Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that historical and laboratory biomarkers of ovarian reserve are associated with natural and treatment-related fertility. However, controversy remains as to their ability to predict reproductive potential. For infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment, these biomarkers tend to be highly specific but not sensitive for cycle failure (nonpregnancy). While these biomarkers are being used as "fertility tests" in the general population, their value as predictors of unassisted fertility is still uncertain. Among laboratory biomarkers, AMH appears to have the most promise; however, further studies are needed to refine cutoff values and to determine test characteristics in the prediction of natural fertility or infertility in the general population.

  2. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  3. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  4. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  5. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  6. The Writing Project on the Navajo Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Greg

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Navajo reservation in Arizona, its inhabitants, and the inservice workshop given there by consultants of the National Writing Project. Relates personal anecdotes. Claims that life and education on the reservation are much like they are everywhere else. (HB)

  7. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit

    PubMed Central

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 370–379 PMID:18205836

  8. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  9. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of 24 CFR 891.405. (b) The mixed-finance owner may obtain a disbursement from the reserve only if... viability, or as otherwise agreed by HUD. (c) Subject to HUD's approval, reserves may be used to reduce...

  10. Cognitive reserve: implications for assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This article reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies that can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.

  11. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  12. 48 CFR 49.109-2 - Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservations. 49.109-2 Section 49.109-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-2 Reservations. (a) The TCO shall— (1) Reserve in...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... out of reserve funds. Structural repairs and other significant work on major building systems such...

  14. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  15. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  16. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  17. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  18. 7 CFR 984.26 - Reserve walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve walnuts. 984.26 Section 984.26 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.26 Reserve walnuts. Reserve walnuts means those walnuts which are...

  19. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  20. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  1. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  2. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  3. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... establish and fund a reserve account that meets the requirements of § 3560.306. The applicant must agree...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  6. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  7. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  8. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  9. 7 CFR 3560.614 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.614 Section 3560.614... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.614 Reserve accounts... to comply with the reserve account requirements in § 3560.65....

  10. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... establish and fund a reserve account that meets the requirements of § 3560.306. The applicant must agree...

  11. 75 FR 4349 - National Estuarine Reserve System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... solicitation period for the National Estuarine research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program FY10... notice to re-open the solicitation period for the National Estuarine Research Reserve Land Acquisition and Construction Program FY10 to provide National Estuarine Research Reserve lead State agencies...

  12. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  13. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves. PMID:17708206

  14. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reserve up to 71/2 percent of the State's allotment for the same purpose. (c) Reserve for innovative and... innovative or alternative wastewater treatment processes and techniques. Of this amount not less than one... projects using innovative processes and techniques. (d) Reserve for water quality management. Each...

  15. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Susanne Banta

    1979-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  16. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Effectiveness of vegetation surrogates for parasitoid wasps in reserve selection.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sally E M; Beresford, Alison E; Peters, Jennifer; Redhead, John W; Welch, Alastair J; Mayhew, Peter J; Dytham, Calvin

    2009-02-01

    Selecting suitable nature reserves is a continuing challenge in conservation, particularly for target groups that are time-consuming to survey, species rich, and extinction prone. One such group is the parasitoid Hymenoptera, which have been excluded from conservation planning. If basic characteristics of habitats or vegetation could be used as reliable surrogates of specific target taxa, this would greatly facilitate appropriate reserve selection. We identified a range of potential habitat indicators of the species richness of pimpline parasitoid communities (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae, Diacritinae, Poemeniinae) and tested their efficiency at capturing the observed diversity in a group of small woodlands in the agricultural landscape of the Vale of York (United Kingdom). Eight of the 18 vegetation-based reserve-selection strategies were significantly better at parasitoid species inclusion than random selection of areas. The best strategy maximized richness of tree species over the entire reserve network through complementarity. This strategy omitted only 2-3 species more (out of 38 captured in the landscape as a whole) than selections derived from the parasitoid survey data. In general, strategies worked equally well at capturing species richness and rarity. Our results suggest that vegetation data as a surrogate for species richness could prove an informative tool in parasitoid conservation, but further work is needed to test how broadly applicable these indicators may be.

  2. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  3. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  4. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  5. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk" chronic…

  6. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... this final rule Rural Development will now base the reserve account amount on a life-cycle analysis or... formula that will be used in the life cycle analysis. A commenter suggested defining the formula to be used in the life cycle analysis as this could serve as a chart. Having the chart could alleviate...

  7. Development of the Hopi Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seig, Louis

    Repeated encroachments by Mormons and Navajos upon Arizona lands traditionally inhabited by the Hopi American Indians occasioned the Executive Order of December 16, 1882 and creation of the Executive Order Reservation. However, assignment of lands was not limited to the Hopi, for the Order stated that the lands should be "set apart for the use and…

  8. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances.

  9. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  10. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  11. Water resources of the Santa Ynez Indian Reservation, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, John A.

    1979-01-01

    The Santa Ynez Indian Reservation is situated above a bedrock ridge that forms the southern boundary of the Santa Ynez upland ground-water basin. A pumping depression exists upgradient from the reservation, and water levels have declined an average of 1.0 to 1.5 feet per year since the 1940's. This decline in the water level has led to the cessation of perennial flow in Zanja de Cota Creek that traverses the reservation. In the past this creek was fed by the natural discharge of water from the ground-water basin. Water-bearing rock beneath the reservation is limited in thickness and may become unusable as a water supply source in the near future if water levels continue to decline. The chemical quality of water beneath the reservation is generally acceptable for both irrigation and domestic use; however, large-scale pumping could induce the flow of contaminated water from an area just upgradient. Declines in ground-water levels and the existence of fecal contamination upgradient from the reservation make the successful development of a ground-water supply for the reservation doubtful. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Worldwide use of natural gas to climb 8% in next 3 years

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.J.

    1996-04-22

    This paper provides historical information on worldwide natural gas productions from 1984 to present and makes predictions on future demand and refinery capacities. It provides information on natural gas reserves on a world scale and the pricing of these commodities. It breaks reserves, production and capacities down into developed and developing countries. It then provides general narratives on the consumption patterns, international gas trade, and gas reserves.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  14. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Callum M.; Andelman, Sandy; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; Lubchenco, Jane; McArdle, Deborah; Possingham, Hugh P.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Several schemes have been developed to help select the locations of marine reserves. All of them combine social, economic, and biological criteria, and few offer any guidance as to how to prioritize among the criteria identified. This can imply that the relative weights given to different criteria are unimportant. Where two sites are of equal value ecologically, then socioeconomic criteria should dominate the choice of which should be protected. However, in many cases, socioeconomic criteria are given equal or greater weight than ecological considerations in the choice of sites. This can lead to selection of reserves with little biological value that fail to meet many of the desired objectives. To avoid such a possibility, we develop a series of criteria that allow preliminary evaluation of candidate sites according to their relative biological values in advance of the application of socioeconomic criteria. We include criteria that, while not strictly biological, have a strong influence on the species present or ecological processes. Our scheme enables sites to be assessed according to their biodiversity, the processes which underpin that diversity, and the processes that support fisheries and provide a spectrum of other services important to people. Criteria that capture biodiversity values include biogeographic representation, habitat representation and heterogeneity, and presence of species or populations of special interest (e.g., threatened species). Criteria that capture sustainability of biodiversity and fishery values include the size of reserves necessary to protect viable habitats, presence of exploitable species, vulnerable life stages, connectivity among reserves, links among ecosystems, and provision of ecosystem services to people. Criteria measuring human and natural threats enable candidate sites to be eliminated from consideration if risks are too great, but also help prioritize among sites where threats can be mitigated by protection. While our

  15. Connectivity, biodiversity conservation and the design of marine reserve networks for coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almany, G. R.; Connolly, S. R.; Heath, D. D.; Hogan, J. D.; Jones, G. P.; McCook, L. J.; Mills, M.; Pressey, R. L.; Williamson, D. H.

    2009-06-01

    Networks of no-take reserves are important for protecting coral reef biodiversity from climate change and other human impacts. Ensuring that reserve populations are connected to each other and non-reserve populations by larval dispersal allows for recovery from disturbance and is a key aspect of resilience. In general, connectivity between reserves should increase as the distance between them decreases. However, enhancing connectivity may often tradeoff against a network’s ability to representatively sample the system’s natural variability. This “representation” objective is typically measured in terms of species richness or diversity of habitats, but has other important elements (e.g., minimizing the risk that multiple reserves will be impacted by catastrophic events). Such representation objectives tend to be better achieved as reserves become more widely spaced. Thus, optimizing the location, size and spacing of reserves requires both an understanding of larval dispersal and explicit consideration of how well the network represents the broader system; indeed the lack of an integrated theory for optimizing tradeoffs between connectivity and representation objectives has inhibited the incorporation of connectivity into reserve selection algorithms. This article addresses these issues by (1) updating general recommendations for the location, size and spacing of reserves based on emerging data on larval dispersal in corals and reef fishes, and on considerations for maintaining genetic diversity; (2) using a spatial analysis of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park to examine potential tradeoffs between connectivity and representation of biodiversity and (3) describing a framework for incorporating environmental fluctuations into the conceptualization of the tradeoff between connectivity and representation, and that expresses both in a common, demographically meaningful currency, thus making optimization possible.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  17. Graphic comparison of reserve-growth models for conventional oil and accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources of the world. The assessment procedure requires estimated recover-able oil and natural gas volumes (field size, cumulative production plus remaining reserves) in discovered fields. Because initial reserves are typically conservative, subsequent estimates increase through time as these fields are developed and produced. The USGS assessment of petroleum resources makes estimates, or forecasts, of the potential additions to reserves in discovered oil and gas fields resulting from field development, and it also estimates the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. The term ?reserve growth? refers to the commonly observed upward adjustment of reserve estimates. Because such additions are related to increases in the total size of a field, the USGS uses field sizes to model reserve growth. Future reserve growth in existing fields is a major component of remaining U.S. oil and natural gas resources and has therefore become a necessary element of U.S. petroleum resource assessments. Past and currently proposed reserve-growth models compared herein aid in the selection of a suitable set of forecast functions to provide an estimate of potential additions to reserves from reserve growth in the ongoing National Oil and Gas Assessment Project (NOGA). Reserve growth is modeled by construction of a curve that represents annual fractional changes of recoverable oil and natural gas volumes (for fields and reservoirs), which provides growth factors. Growth factors are used to calculate forecast functions, which are sets of field- or reservoir-size multipliers. Comparisons of forecast functions were made based on datasets used to construct the models, field type, modeling method, and length of forecast span. Comparisons were also made between forecast functions based on field-level and reservoir- level growth, and between forecast functions based on older

  18. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  19. Traumatic brain injury and reserve.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  20. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 91 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salable natural gas available from domestic in-the-ground reserves; gas purchased under contracts with other interstate pipeline companies; domestically produced coal gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas (SNG); and imported natural gas and LNG. The domestic in-the-ground reserves consist of company owned reserves including natural gas in underground storage, reserves dedicated to or warranted under contracts with independent producers, and supplemental or short-term supplies purchased from independent producers and intrastate pipeline companies. To avoid duplicate reporting of domestic in-the-ground reserves, the volumes of gas under contract agreement between jurisdictional pipelines have been excluded in summarizing state and national reserves. Volumes contracted under agreements with foreign suppliers include pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico and LNG from Algeria. 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1985-12-04

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of 89 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salable natural gas available from domestic in-the-ground reserves; gas purchased under contracts with other interstate pipeline companies; domestically produced coal gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas (SNG); and imported natural gas and LNG. The domestic in-the-ground reserves consist of company-owned reserves including natural gas in underground storage, reserves dedicated to or warranted under contracts with independent producers, and supplemental or short-term supplies purchased from independent producers and intrastate pipeline companies. To avoid duplicate reporting of domestic in-the-ground reserves, the volumes of gas under contract agreement between jurisdictional pipelines have been excluded in summarizing state and national reserves. Volumes contracted under agreements with foreign suppliers include pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico and LNG from Algeria. 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208... - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserved F Appendix F to Part 208 Reserved Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF... concerning institutional customers. Appendix F to Part 208Reserved...

  3. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  4. Coordinated Action of Fast and Slow Reserves for Optimal Sequential and Dynamic Emergency Reserve Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkuti, Surender Reddy; Bijwe, P. R.; Abhyankar, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimal dynamic reserve activation plan after the occurrence of an emergency situation (generator/transmission line outage, load increase or both). An optimal plan is developed to handle the emergency situation, using coordinated action of fast and slow reserves, for secure operation with minimum overall cost. This paper considers the reserves supplied by generators (spinning reserves) and loads (demand-side reserves). The optimal backing down of costly/fast reserves and bringing up of slow reserves in each sub-interval in an integrated manner is proposed. The simulation studies are performed on IEEE 30, 57 and 300 bus test systems to demonstrate the advantage of proposed integrated/dynamic reserve activation plan over the conventional/sequential approach.

  5. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  6. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  7. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  8. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  9. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  10. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community may...

  11. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  12. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community may...

  13. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  14. 24 CFR 598.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special... Empowerment Zone by State and local governments. An area completely within an Indian reservation may...

  15. 24 CFR 597.500 - Indian Reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.500 Indian Reservations. No urban Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  17. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  18. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  19. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  20. 7 CFR 1207.344 - Operating reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.344 Operating reserve....

  1. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  3. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 984.456 - Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 984.456 Disposition of reserve walnuts and walnuts used for reserve disposition credit. (a)...

  6. 75 FR 49887 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY... Period for Revised Management Plans for the following National Estuarine Research Reserves: Narragansett... management plans of the Narragansett Bay, RI National Estuarine Research Reserve and the Tijuana, CA...

  7. Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan: Real Estate, Custer Reserve Forces Training Area, Military Reservation, USACOE, 20 July 1948 - Fort Custer Military Reservation, Bounded by Territorial, Dickman, & Longman Roads & Route 94 Business, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. 78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA... its final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the redevelopment of the Muscle Shoals Reservation... Statement for the Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment was published in the Federal Register on...

  9. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes of reserve growth were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil; 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world’s oil and gas resources and represent the potential future growth of current global reserves over time based on better assessment methodology, new technologies, and greater understanding of reservoirs.

  10. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, Mark A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  12. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  13. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  14. Reserve network planning for fishes in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin by systematic conservation approaches.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyi; Li, Fan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-03-01

    Although China has established more than 600 wetland nature reserves, conservation gaps still exist for many species, especially for freshwater fishes. Underlying this problem is the fact that top-level planning is missing in the construction of nature reserves. To promote the development of nature reserves for fishes, this study took the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin (MLYRB) as an example to carry out top-level reserve network planning for fishes using approaches of systematic conservation planning. Typical fish species living in freshwater habitats were defined and considered in the planning. Based on sample data collected from large quantities of literatures, continuous distribution patterns of 142 fishes were obtained with species distribution modeling and subsequent processing, and the distributions of another eleven species were artificially designated. With the distribution pattern of species, Marxan was used to carry out conservation planning. To obtain ideal solutions with representativeness, persistence, and efficiency, parameters were set with careful consideration regarding existing wetland reserves, human disturbances, hydrological connectivity, and representation targets of species. Marxan produced the selection frequency of planning units (PUs) and a best solution. Selection frequency indicates the relative protection importance of a PU. The best solution is a representative of ideal fish reserve networks. Both of the PUs with high selection frequency and those in the best solution have low proportions included in existing wetland nature reserves, suggesting that there are significant conservation gaps for fish species in MLYRB. The best solution could serve as a reference for establishing a fish reserve network in the MLYRB. There is great flexibility for replacing selected PUs in the solution, and such flexibility facilitates the implementation of the solution in reality in case of unexpected obstacles. Further, we suggested

  15. 49 CFR 220.41 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false [Reserved] 220.41 Section 220.41 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.41 [Reserved]...

  16. 14 CFR § 1266.103 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1266.103 Section § 1266.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CROSS-WAIVER OF LIABILITY § 1266.103 [Reserved]...

  17. A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

    The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

  18. 12 CFR 229.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 229.11 Section 229.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of Funds Availability...

  19. 14 CFR § 1267.301 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1267.301 Section § 1267.301 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Who Are Individuals § 1267.301 [Reserved]...

  20. 14 CFR § 1230.121 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1230.121 Section § 1230.121 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.121 [Reserved]...

  1. 14 CFR § 1204.502 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1204.502 Section § 1204.502 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Delegations and Designations § 1204.502 [Reserved]...

  2. 14 CFR § 1260.29 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1260.29 Section § 1260.29 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.29 [Reserved]...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.564 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.564 Section 3560.564 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.564 Reserve...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.564 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.564 Section 3560.564 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.564 Reserve...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... heating or air conditioning must be done in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... heating or air conditioning must be done in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.564 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.564 Section 3560.564 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.564 Reserve...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.564 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.564 Section 3560.564 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.564 Reserve...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... heating or air conditioning must be done in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.564 - Reserve accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve accounts. 3560.564 Section 3560.564 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.564 Reserve...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make...

  14. Major oil, gas reserve additions reported

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-10

    Several large, internationally active, US-based companies have recently reported sizable gains in oil and gas reserves in 1996. The biggest reserves addition in absolute terms reported to date belongs to Exxon Corp. However, Amoco Corp. scored the largest percentage gain. The paper discusses gains reported by Exxon, Amoco, ARCO, Phillips, and Oryx.

  15. 12 CFR 615.5134 - Liquidity reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reserve and supplemental liquidity buffer in accordance with this section must be unencumbered. For the.... (e) Supplemental liquidity buffer. Each Farm Credit bank must hold supplemental liquid assets in excess of the 90-day minimum liquidity reserve. The supplemental liquidity buffer must be comprised...

  16. 12 CFR 230.10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 230.10 Section 230.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.10...

  17. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  18. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2020 Reserves. In developing its priority list the... the last allotment. (b) Reserve for alternative systems for small communities. Each State with 25... alternatives to conventional treatment works for small communities. The Governor of any non-rural State...

  19. 12 CFR 229.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 229.11 Section 229.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of Funds Availability...

  20. 12 CFR 229.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 229.11 Section 229.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of Funds Availability...

  1. 12 CFR 229.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 229.11 Section 229.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of...

  2. 12 CFR 229.11 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 229.11 Section 229.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of...

  3. 12 CFR 230.10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 230.10 Section 230.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.10...

  4. 14 CFR § 1203.403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] § 1203.403 Section § 1203.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.403 [Reserved]...

  5. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  6. IGT world reserves survey. 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report is an updating of previous IGT reports on U.S. and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Tables VII-1, VII-2, and VII-3, which provide resource data for the United States and the world as a whole, are abstracted below with minor modifications to assure comparability. The United States is endowed with roughly one-fifth of the world's proved reserves of conventional fossil fuels and nearly 9% of the uranium in the free world. It is particularly fortunate in having vast amounts of coal, oil shale, and peat. Although these underutilized resources present difficult economic and environmental challenges with regards to extraction and ease of use, a serious effort should be made to use them to a much greater extent to reduce our dependence on imported oil and insure abundant sources of energy for the future.

  7. Genetics of the ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Emanuele; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David

    2015-01-01

    Primordial follicles or non-growing follicles (NGFs) are the functional unit of reproduction, each comprising a single germ cell surrounded by supporting somatic cells. NGFs constitute the ovarian reserve (OR), prerequisite for germ cell ovulation and the continuation of the species. The dynamics of the reserve is determined by the number of NGFs formed and their complex subsequent fates. During the reproductive lifespan, the OR progressively diminishes due to follicle atresia as well as recruitment, maturation, and ovulation. The depletion of the OR is the major determining driver of menopause, which ensues when the number of primordial follicles falls below a threshold of ∼1,000. Therefore, genes and processes involved in follicle dynamics are particularly important to understand the process of menopause, both in the typical reproductive lifespan and in conditions like primary ovarian insufficiency, defined as menopause before age 40. Genes and their variants that affect the timing of menopause thereby provide candidates for diagnosis of and intervention in problems of reproductive lifespan. We review the current knowledge of processes and genes involved in the development of the OR and in the dynamics of ovarian follicles. PMID:26528328

  8. Teenage Mothering on the Navajo Reservation: An Examination of Intergenerational Perceptions and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalla, Rochelle L.; Gamble, Wendy C.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined attitudes towards teenage motherhood among 25 Navajo reservation residents, including 8 teenage mothers, their mothers, and 4 teenage fathers. Findings indicate that teenage parenting was discouraged despite the matrilineal nature of Navajo society, men were frequently absent from family life, single maternity was preferable to…

  9. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. (a) Designation of new Resource Conservation and Development...

  10. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. (a) Designation of new Resource Conservation and Development...

  11. Development of the renewal on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Standing Rock Sioux Reservation is comprised of 2.3 million acres of primarily rangeland that straddle the North Dakota – South Dakota border. Many of its inhabitants face issues with unemployment and dietary problems. In addition, there are concerns about the management of its natural resourc...

  12. UKCS future beyond 2000 depends on price and reserve trends

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, A.G.; Stephen, L.

    1996-10-01

    During the next four years, activity on the United Kingdom`s continental shelf (UKCS) should retain a robust pace. A recent study by the authors of potential activity from 1996 through 2010 indicates oil production will grow from 2.7 million bpd in 1996 to a peak of about 2.8 million bpd in 1999. Natural gas output could increase from around 2.5 Tcf in 1996 to a peak of about 4.2 Tcf in 2001, based on fields whose reserves are reasonably well-known. This paper discusses the study methodology, production implications, investment and cost outlook, revenues and cost containment, and tax implications.

  13. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.T.

    1984-04-27

    The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to turn to more costly supplies of gas as the closer, traditional areas of gas supply are exhausted. A principal motivation for Canada's participation in the ANGTS was the prospect of a jointly sponsored pipeline through Canada which would facilitate bringing frontier gas to market - through the so-called Dempster lateral. The high cost of transportation systems in the Artic necessitates pipelines with large capacities in order to minimize the cost of transportation per unit of gas delivered. It is clear that Canada still strongly supports the ANGTS project as a means of opening up the frontier resources of both Alaska and Canada.

  14. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. US coal reserves: A review and update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  16. Fort Peck Reservations Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walter White Tail Feather

    2007-08-15

    The research area adds to the understanding of the area investigated by installing two 50kW Wind Turbines in a distributed generation project to save money by reducing the annual bill from the local utility. These turbines have been producing power and reducing the kWh consumed at the Tribal Headquarters Building for approximately 11 months. The Turbines are almost one year old and the Tribe is conducting regular maintenance checks and inspections to keep the Turbines in good working order. These Turbines are the impetus for the development of an Energy Department to serve as the focal point for wind development on the Reservation and to provide management for the business side of wind energy, (i.e. green tag sales, O & M contracts, and Power Purchase Agreements).

  17. 75 FR 9093 - Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... primary credit rate at each Federal Reserve Bank. ] The secondary credit rate at each Reserve Bank... rates that the twelve Federal Reserve Banks charge for extensions of credit under these programs. In... the federal funds rate for an extended period. The Board approved requests by the Reserve Banks...

  18. 12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. 209.3 Section 209.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.3 Cancellation...

  19. 25 CFR 141.32 - Reservation pawnbroker license required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts due by an Indian within the exterior boundaries of the Navajo, Hopi or Zuni Reservations unless... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reservation pawnbroker license required. 141.32 Section... PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Pawnbroker Practices § 141.32 Reservation...

  20. 25 CFR 141.32 - Reservation pawnbroker license required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts due by an Indian within the exterior boundaries of the Navajo, Hopi or Zuni Reservations unless... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reservation pawnbroker license required. 141.32 Section... PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Pawnbroker Practices § 141.32 Reservation...

  1. Indian Reservation Labor Markets: A Navajo Assessment and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1985-01-01

    Assesses report by 1983 Commission on Indian Reservation Economies, which links slow economic growth on Indian reservations to lack of education. Contradicts report's conclusions using data from Navajo reservation. Examines apparent federal assumptions regarding reservation economies. Challenges these assumptions and suggests alternative approach…

  2. 25 CFR 141.32 - Reservation pawnbroker license required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounts due by an Indian within the exterior boundaries of the Navajo, Hopi or Zuni Reservations unless... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reservation pawnbroker license required. 141.32 Section... PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Pawnbroker Practices § 141.32 Reservation...

  3. 25 CFR 141.32 - Reservation pawnbroker license required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounts due by an Indian within the exterior boundaries of the Navajo, Hopi or Zuni Reservations unless... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reservation pawnbroker license required. 141.32 Section... PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Pawnbroker Practices § 141.32 Reservation...

  4. 25 CFR 141.5 - Reservation business license required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reservation business license required. 141.5 Section 141.5... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.5 Reservation... applicant and employees of the applicant to reside on the Indian reservation. (c) Upon the request of...

  5. 12 CFR 210.4 - Sending items to Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sending items to Reserve Banks. 210.4 Section 210.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE...

  6. 12 CFR 210.4 - Sending items to Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sending items to Reserve Banks. 210.4 Section 210.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE...

  7. 12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. 209.3 Section 209.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.3 Cancellation...

  8. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  9. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  10. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  11. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  12. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  13. 24 CFR 811.108 - Debt service reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Debt service reserve. 811.108... Debt service reserve. (a) FHA-Insured projects. (1) The debt service reserve shall be invested and the... funding of the debt service reserve. Any excess investment income shall be added to the debt...

  14. 24 CFR 811.108 - Debt service reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Debt service reserve. 811.108... Debt service reserve. (a) FHA-Insured projects. (1) The debt service reserve shall be invested and the... funding of the debt service reserve. Any excess investment income shall be added to the debt...

  15. 12 CFR 210.4 - Sending items to Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sending items to Reserve Banks. 210.4 Section 210.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE...

  16. 26 CFR 1.803-1 - Life insurance reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life insurance reserves. 1.803-1 Section 1.803-1...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-1 Life insurance reserves. (a) The term “life insurance... covered by the premiums are not included in life insurance reserves. Unpaid loss reserves...

  17. 27 CFR 19.764 - Inventory reserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory reserve records... Inventory reserve records. (a) General. The proprietor shall establish an inventory reserve account, as... shall enter into the inventory reserve account a deposit record, which may be combined with the...

  18. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  19. Report to the President on agreements and programs relating to the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy monitors commercial natural gas production activities along the boundaries of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3, which are located in Garfield County, Colorado, and were created in the early part of this century to provide a future source of shale oil for the military. In response to the private sector`s drilling of natural gas wells along the south and southwest boundaries of the Reserves, which began in the early 1980`s, the Department developed a Natural Gas Protection Program to protect the Government`s resources from drainage due to the increasing number of commercial gas wells contiguous to Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3. This report provides an update of the Gas Protection Program being implemented and the agreements that have been placed in effect since December 19, 1991, and also includes the one communitized well containing Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 lands. The Protection Program employs two methods to protect the Government`s resources: (1) sharing with the private sector in the costs and production of wells by entering into ``communitization`` agreements; and (2) drilling wholly-owned Government wells to ``offset`` commercial wells that threaten to drain natural gas from the Reserves. The methods designed to protect the Government`s resources are achieving their objective of abating gas drainage and migration. As a result of the Protection Program, the Department of Energy is able to produce natural gas and either sell its share on the open market or transfer it for use at Government facilities. The Natural Gas Protection Program is a reactive, ongoing program that is continually revised as natural gas transportation constraints, market conditions, and nearby commercial production activities change.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  1. 77 FR 48923 - Approval and Promulgation of Federal Implementation Plan for Oil and Natural Gas Well Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Well Production Facilities; Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nations... from oil and natural gas production facilities located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation located... Federal Implementation Plan requires owners and operators of oil and natural gas production facilities...

  2. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  3. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  4. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  5. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  6. 32 CFR 635.22 - Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.22 Reserve component, U.S. Army Reserve, and Army National Guard personnel....

  7. Equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management

    PubMed

    Hastings; Botsford

    1999-05-28

    Marine reserves have been proposed as a remedy for overfishing and declining marine biodiversity, but concern that reserves would inherently reduce yields has impeded their implementation. It was found that management of fisheries through reserves and management through effort control produce identical yields under a reasonable set of simplifying assumptions corresponding to a broad range of biological conditions. Indeed, for populations with sedentary adults (invertebrates and reef fishes), reserves have important advantages for sustainability, making marine reserves the preferred management approach.

  8. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  9. Suicides on a Southwestern American Indian Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marv

    1979-01-01

    Results showed suicides clustered by day of the week, season, and reservation location, and typical victims as young, unmarried males holding unskilled or semiskilled jobs. Suggested are strategies maximizing suicide prevention efforts. Journal availability: see RC 503 481. (DS)

  10. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    PubMed Central

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  11. The Problem of Managing a Strategic Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The problem of managing the reserve of cobalt is presented, followed by a method for bringing the stockpiled amount from any level to a desired goal. Solving a stochastic programming problem is involved. The procedure is discussed in detail. (MNS)

  12. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  13. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences.

    PubMed

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D

    2010-10-26

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

  14. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... percentages are in effect for any crop year, the reserve obligation of a handler shall approximate the average... prunes, as well as prunes for consumption as prunes, will be met. The salable prunes permitted to...

  15. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... percentages are in effect for any crop year, the reserve obligation of a handler shall approximate the average... prunes, as well as prunes for consumption as prunes, will be met. The salable prunes permitted to...

  16. There Go Those Kids in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budianto, Ivonne I.; Thorsch, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Kids In Nature (KIN) program which is a partnership between Sedgwick Reserve and the University of California-Santa Barbara's Museum of Systematics and Ecology (MSE). Involves low-performing high school and feeder elementary school students in the restoration of their own land with plants and animals. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  17. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  19. Making better estimates of prospect reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Most geoscientists predict reserve-sizes of successful exploratory prospects poorly. They are overconfident as to possible ranges of reserves; strongly overoptimistic; and therefore frequently surprised, usually on the downside. So investors suffer, and exploration staffs lose credibility. Prospect reserves (ultimate recoverable bbl/mcf) depends on three variables: Area of accumulation (ac); Average net feet of pay (ft); and Hydrocarbon-recovery factor (bbl or mcf/ac-ft). These variables are nearly always independent, and appear to be distributed lognormally. Their product, the prospect reserves distribution, commonly generated by Monte Carlo simulation, is also lognormal. Prospectors can learn to make better forecasts of prospect reserves through routine use of six different but mutually supportive estimating techniques: (1) mapping both genesis and geometry of traps employing multiple working hypotheses; (2) avoiding common psychological biases, such as [open quotes]anchoring[close quotes]; (3) constructing distributions of Area, Pay, HC-recovery, and Reserves which are constrained by the expectation of lognormality; (4) applying [open quote]reality-checks[close quote] to estimates based on (a) known analogous or parent geological situations such as field-size distributions, (b) P[sub 1%], P[sub 50%], and P[sub 99%] reserves estimates that are consequent to the proposed lognormal distribution and believable geologically; and (c) variance of reserves distribution that is consistent with that class of exploratory well, and with prospect data quality and quantity; (5) combining independent estimates by multiple seasoned explorers, who have utilized identical prospect data-sets; (6) getting [open quote]feedback[close quote] through routine comparisons of prior predictions and actual outcomes.

  20. Making better estimates of prospect reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Most geoscientists predict reserve-sizes of successful exploratory prospects poorly. They are overconfident as to possible ranges of reserves; strongly overoptimistic; and therefore frequently surprised, usually on the downside. So investors suffer, and exploration staffs lose credibility. Prospect reserves (ultimate recoverable bbl/mcf) depends on three variables: Area of accumulation (ac); Average net feet of pay (ft); and Hydrocarbon-recovery factor (bbl or mcf/ac-ft). These variables are nearly always independent, and appear to be distributed lognormally. Their product, the prospect reserves distribution, commonly generated by Monte Carlo simulation, is also lognormal. Prospectors can learn to make better forecasts of prospect reserves through routine use of six different but mutually supportive estimating techniques: (1) mapping both genesis and geometry of traps employing multiple working hypotheses; (2) avoiding common psychological biases, such as {open_quotes}anchoring{close_quotes}; (3) constructing distributions of Area, Pay, HC-recovery, and Reserves which are constrained by the expectation of lognormality; (4) applying {open_quote}reality-checks{close_quote} to estimates based on (a) known analogous or parent geological situations such as field-size distributions, (b) P{sub 1%}, P{sub 50%}, and P{sub 99%} reserves estimates that are consequent to the proposed lognormal distribution and believable geologically; and (c) variance of reserves distribution that is consistent with that class of exploratory well, and with prospect data quality and quantity; (5) combining independent estimates by multiple seasoned explorers, who have utilized identical prospect data-sets; (6) getting {open_quote}feedback{close_quote} through routine comparisons of prior predictions and actual outcomes.

  1. Per-packet reservation MAC protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrasnica, Halid

    2006-10-01

    Recent and future communications networks have to provide QoS guarantees for a rapidly growing number of various telecommunications services. Therefore, various communications systems, such as wireless and fixed access networks, apply reservation MAC protocols, providing a good network utilization, which is particularly important access networks with typically limited data rates, and ensuring realization of different QoS guarantees for various telecommunications services. This is important because of a hard competition among communications technologies applied in the access area. The considered MAC protocols apply a per-packet reservation method to avoid the transmission gaps caused by per-burst reservation, and accordingly to achieve a better network utilization. However, the per-packet reservation increases the network load caused by the signaling, which calls for an efficient resource sharing strategy in the signaling channel. There are two basic solutions for capacity sharing in the signaling channel: random access, usually using slotted ALOHA, and dedicated access, realized by a polling method. Performance improvement of basic protocols can be carried out in different ways; by protocol extensions, a combination of different protocol solutions, and the application of adaptive protocols providing a change of access parameters according to the current network status. The best network performance is achieved by application of two-step reservation protocol, which combined with additional features, such as appropriate signaling procedure, priority and fairness mechanisms, and combined reservation domains, can fulfill requirements of services with high QoS demands.

  2. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  3. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of... role of reserve requirements in the implementation of monetary policy. The Board believes that these... institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy). \\7\\ The exemption amount is the amount of...

  4. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disentangling trophic interactions inside a Caribbean marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Julie B; Litvin, Steven Y; Hastings, Alan; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mumby, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Recent empirical studies have demonstrated that human activities such as fishing can strongly affect the natural capital and services provided by tropical seascapes. However, policies to mitigate anthropogenic impacts can also alter food web structure and interactions, regardless of whether the regulations are aimed at single or multiple species, with possible unexpected consequences for the ecosystems and their associated services. Complex community response to management interventions have been highlighted in the Caribbean, where, contrary to predictions from linear food chain models, a reduction in fishing intensity through the establishment of a marine reserve has led to greater biomass of herbivorous fish inside the reserve, despite an increased abundance of large predatory piscivores. This positive multi-trophic response, where both predators and prey benefit from protection, highlights the need to take an integrated approach that considers how numerous factors control species coexistence in both fished and unfished systems. In order to understand these complex relationships, we developed a general model to examine the trade-offs between fishing pressure and trophic control on reef fish communities, including an exploration of top-down and bottom-up effects. We then validated the general model predictions by parameterizing the model for a reef system in the Bahamas in order to tease apart the wide range of species responses to reserves in the Caribbean. Combining the development of general theory and site-specific models parameterized with field data reveals the underlying driving forces in these communities and enables us to make better predictions about possible population and community responses to different management schemes.

  6. NREL Variability and Reserves Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; King, J.

    2011-10-01

    Additional variability and uncertainty increase reserve requirements. In this light, this presentation discusses how use of generation reserves can be optimized for managing variability and uncertainty. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Provided a method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) Method is based on statistical analysis of historical time series data; (3) Reserves are dynamic, produced for each hour; (4) Reserve time series are calculated from and synchronized to simulation data; (5) PROMOD can not model directly, but workarounds exist for regulation and spin; and (6) Other production modeling packages have varying capability for reserves modeling.

  7. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  8. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Nativ, R.; Hunley, A.E.

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small.

  9. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  10. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  11. Extrapolation of gas-reserve growth potential: Development of examples from macro approaches. Final report, October 1990-November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.W.; Finley, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    An analysis of infield completions and reserve growth potential was made in Tertiary nonassociated gas reservoirs in South Texas. Infield well completions were defined from a concurrent GRI project involving macro-scale prediction of reserve growth. The report validates 78 percent, or 5.6 Tcf, of a high-end infill estimate of 7.2 Tcf for nine stratigraphic units in South Texas. This is a significant resource volume given the historical expectation that natural gas can be efficiently drained with widely spaced wells (1 or 2 per square mile) in conventional reservoirs. Groups of infield completions, or reservoir sections, from Frio, Vicksburg, Wilcox, and Miocene reservoirs were examined using geophysical well logs and production and pressure analyses. Seven reservoir-section types that contributed to the macro reserve growth estimate were evaluated. About 20 percent of the estimate consists of gas volumes extrapolated using consolidated reservoir groups, cycled reservoirs with invalid data. Additional gas volumes in the estimate were extrapolated from reservoir sections representing rate acceleration. The estimate also includes reservoir volumes from the low-permeability Wilcox Lobo trend, where limited drainage radii lead to expected reserve growth. Volumes that represent within-reservoir reserve growth and volumes that represent shallower- or deeper-pool reservoirs determined not to be in pressure communication with preceding completions in a reservoir section formed most of the macro reserve growth estimate.

  12. Using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator of PCBs and PBDEs in the dinghushan biosphere reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ke-Lin; Peng, Ying; Feng, An-Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-07-01

    The Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve and a site for the study of tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems. Rapid industrialization and intensive electronic waste-recycling activities around the biosphere reserve have resulted in elevated levels of industrial organic contaminants in the local environment that may cause adverse effects on wildlife that inhabits this area. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 2 alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs)-decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE)-were investigated in the biosphere reserve and a reference site by using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator. Residue concentrations in kingfishers from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve ranged from 490 ng/g to 3000 ng/g, 51 ng/g to 420 ng/g, 0.44 ng/g to 90 ng/g, and 0.04 ng/g to 0.87 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, DBDPE, and BTBPE, respectively. With the exception of the BTBPE, these levels were 2 to 5 times higher than those detected in kingfishers from the reference site. The contaminant patterns from the biosphere reserve were also different, with larger PCB contributions in comparison with the reference site. The estimated predator-prey biomagnification factors (BMFs) showed that most of the PCB and PBDE congeners and BTBPE were biomagnified in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve. The calculated toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) concentrations of major coplanar PCB congeners in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve ranged from 18 pg/g to 66 pg/g wet weight, with some of these TEQ concentrations reaching or exceeding the levels known to impair bird reproduction and survival.

  13. Marine reserves can enhance ecological resilience.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lewis A K; Baskett, Marissa L

    2015-12-01

    The goals of ecosystem-based management (EBM) include protecting ecological resilience, the magnitude of a perturbation that a community can withstand and remain in a given state. As a tool to achieve this goal, no-take marine reserves may enhance resilience by protecting source populations or reduce it by concentrating fishing in harvested areas. Here, we test whether spatial management with marine reserves can increase ecological resilience compared to non-spatial (conventional) management using a dynamic model of a simplified fish community with structured predation and competition that causes alternative stable states. Relative to non-spatial management, reserves increase the resilience of the desired (predator-dominated) equilibrium state in both stochastic and deterministic environments, especially under intensive fishing. As a result, spatial management also increases the feasibility of restoring degraded (competitor-dominated) systems, particularly if combined with culling of competitors or stock enhancement of adult predators.

  14. Army Reserve Comprehensive Water Efficiency Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Kearney, Jaime

    2015-04-14

    The Army Reserve has partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop comprehensive water assessments for numerous Army Reserve Centers in all five regions including the Pacific islands and Puerto Rico, and at Fort Buchanan and Fort Hunter Liggett. The objective of these assessments is to quantify water use at the site, and identify innovative water efficiency projects that can be implemented to help reduce water demand and increase efficiency. Several of these assessments have focused on a strategic plan for achieving net zero water to help meet the Army’s Net Zero Directive . The Army Reserve has also leveraged this approach as part of the energy conservation investment program (ECIP), energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs), and utility energy service contracts (UESCs). This article documents the process involved.

  15. 49 CFR 1106.6 - Reservation of Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 1106.6 Reservation of Jurisdiction. The Board reserves the right to require a SIP in cases other than those enumerated in this part, or to adopt modified SIP requirements in individual cases, if...

  16. 49 CFR 1106.6 - Reservation of Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 1106.6 Reservation of Jurisdiction. The Board reserves the right to require a SIP in cases other than those enumerated in this part, or to adopt modified SIP requirements in individual cases, if...

  17. View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate Edward E. McDonnell - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 40 CFR 49.9901-49.9920 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, Washington §§ 49.9901-49.9920 Implementation Plan for the Coeur D'Alene Tribe of the Coeur D'Alene Reservation, Idaho Source: 70 FR 18111, Apr. 8, 2005, unless...

  19. Marine Ecology: Reserve Networks Are Necessary, but Not Sufficient.

    PubMed

    Almany, Glenn R

    2015-04-20

    New work reveals that the large network of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef is working splendidly. However, bold, global action is needed to eliminate threats that reserves cannot guard against. PMID:25898101

  20. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September...