Science.gov

Sample records for right-ascension interval 7h

  1. Search for first harmonic modulation in the right ascension distribution of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5 × 1017 eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% C.L. for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations.

  2. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  3. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  4. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 6E: Right ascension range 16h 00m to 19h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2 launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  5. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  6. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  7. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  8. Resonance State in {sup 7}H

    SciTech Connect

    Caamano, M.; Mittig, W.; Savajols, H.; Demonchy, C. E.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Gillibert, A.; Obertelli, A.; Lemmon, R.; Wolski, R.

    2007-08-10

    The existence of the {sup 7}H nuclear system was investigated via a one-proton transfer reaction with a {sup 8}He beam at 15.4A MeV and a {sup 12}C gas target. The experimental setup was based on the active-target MAYA which allowed a complete reconstruction of the reaction kinematics. The existence of the {sup 7}H was confirmed with the identification of seven events where the system was formed with a resonance energy of 0.57{sub -0.21}{sup +0.42} MeV above the {sup 3}H+4n threshold and a resonance width of 0.09{sub -0.06}{sup +0.94} MeV. This study represents an unambiguous proof of the existence of the most neutron-proton unbalanced system presently found.

  9. B7-H4 is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, YongHui; Li, ZhiHan

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, some studies were performed to evaluate the relevance of B7-H4 and gastric cancer (GC) prognosis. However, the results remained controversial. Therefore, we performed the present meta-analysis. Material/Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science databases. All data were extracted and reviewed from each eligible study independently by 2 investigators. The strength of association between B7-H4 and GC prognosis was assessed by computing odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Six studies that evaluated the association between B7-H4 and GC prognosis were included. The results showed a statistically significant association of B7-H4 and GC prognosis (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.30–2.03). Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analysis based on source of B7-H4; the results from blood (OR=1.71; 95%CI, 1.09–2.68) and tissue (OR=1.60; 95%CI, 1.03–2.07) indicated B7-H4 was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that GC patients with high B7-H4 have poor prognosis. PMID:27820598

  10. Production and Characterization of the 7H Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Caamano, M.; Cortina, D.; Demonchy, C. E.; Jurado, B.; Mittig, W.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Savajols, H.; Chartier, M.; Fernandez, B.; Gomez Hornillos, M. B.; Gillibert, A.; Obertelli, A.; Lemmon, R.; Wolski, R.

    2007-05-22

    The 7H resonance was produced via one-proton transfer reaction between a 8He beam at 15.4A MeV and a 12C gas target. The experimental setup was based on the active-target MAYA which allowed a complete reconstruction of the reaction kinematics. The characterization of the identified 7H events resulted in a resonance energy of 600 keV above the 3H+4n threshold and a resonance width of 100 keV. This study represents the first unambiguous proof of the existence of the 7H state.

  11. Interval Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... before trying any type of interval training. Recent studies suggest, however, that interval training can be used safely for short periods even in individuals with heart disease. Also keep the risk of overuse injury in mind. If you rush into a strenuous workout before ...

  12. Characterization of a Soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) Spliced from the Intron and Analysis of sB7-H3 in the Sera of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Peixin; Wang, Yedong; Nie, Weimin; Li, Zhiwei; Xu, Wen; Li, Fengyi; Zhou, Zhiping; Zhao, Min; Liu, Henggui

    2013-01-01

    B7-H3 is a recently discovered member of the B7 superfamily molecules and has been found to play a negative role in T cell responses. In this study, we identified a new B7-H3 isoform that is produced by alternative splicing from the forth intron of B7-H3 and encodes the sB7-H3 protein. Protein sequence analysis showed that sB7-H3 contains an additional four amino acids, encoded by the intron sequence, at the C-terminus compared to the ectodomain of 2Ig-B7-H3. We further found that this spliced sB7-H3 plays a negative regulatory role in T cell responses and serum sB7-H3 is higher in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy donors. Furthermore, we found that the expression of the spliced sb7-h3 gene is higher in carcinoma and peritumor tissues than in PBMCs of both healthy controls and patients, indicating that the high level of serum sB7-H3 in patients with HCC is caused by the increased expression of this newly discovered spliced sB7-H3 isoform in carcinoma and peritumor tissues. PMID:24194851

  13. Tumor Regression and Delayed Onset Toxicity Following B7-H4 CAR T Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jenessa B; Lanitis, Evripidis; Dangaj, Denarda; Buza, Elizabeth; Poussin, Mathilde; Stashwick, Caitlin; Scholler, Nathalie; Powell, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    B7-H4 protein is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Here, we engineered T cells with novel B7-H4-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognized both human and murine B7-H4 to test the hypothesis that B7-H4 CAR T cell therapy can be applied safely in preclinical models. B7-H4 CAR T cells specifically secreted IFN-γ and lysed B7-H4(+) targets. In vivo, B7-H4 CAR T cells displayed antitumor reactivity against B7-H4(+) human ovarian tumor xenografts. Unexpectedly, B7-H4 CAR T cell treatment reproducibly showed delayed, lethal toxicity 6-8 weeks after therapy. Comprehensive assessment of murine B7-H4 protein distribution uncovered expression in ductal and mucosal epithelial cells in normal tissues. Postmortem analysis revealed the presence of widespread histologic lesions that correlated with B7-H4(+) expression, and were inconsistent with graft versus host disease. Lastly, expression patterns of B7-H4 protein in normal human tissue were comparable to distribution in mice, advancing our understanding of B7-H4. We conclude that B7-H4 CAR therapy mediates control of cancer outgrowth. However, long-term engraftment of B7-H4 CAR T cells mediates lethal, off-tumor toxicity that is likely due to wide expression of B7-H4 in healthy mouse organs. This model system provides a unique opportunity for preclinical evaluation of safety approaches that limit CAR-mediated toxicity after tumor destruction in vivo.

  14. Assessment of combined expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 as prognostic marker in esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liangrong; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    The co-stimulatory ligands of B7-family have been confirmed to play an important role in negatively regulating the T-cell mediated anti-tumor immunity. In addition, these inhibitory molecules are also aberrantly expressed on various human cancers tissues, and significantly associated with cancer progression and patients' poor prognoses. We have previously reported that B7-H3 and B7-H4 ligands are highly expressed in human esophageal cancer tissues. Herein, we tried to further analyze the value of their combined expression on prognostic prediction for esophageal cancer patients. We found that the combined expression of both B7-H3 and B7-H4 could be used as a valuable risk factor for predicting the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients (P=0.003). Moreover the status of these patients with high expression of both B7-H3 and B7-H4, was positively and significantly associated with the tumor invasion depth (P=0.0414) and TNM stage (P=0.0414). The Cox multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the tumor size (P=0.007), the TNM stage (P=0.024) and the status of both B7-H3 and B7-H4 high expression (P=0.011), could be used as an independent risk factor for predicting patients' postoperative prognosis, respectively. In conclusion, our data indicated that the combined application of B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression can be effectively used as a prognostic marker in esophageal cancer patients. PMID:27764786

  15. B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0466 TITLE: B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer ...COVERED 1 June 2011 - 31 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER...immune escape generated in breast cancer . Here we report the generation of 84 mouse monoclonal antibodies for the detection of B7-H4 by ELISA, 25 for

  16. B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    intracellular B7- H4 has been shown to have anti-apoptotic effects in biliary epithelial cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis [9]. In biliary...epithelial cells acquired from primary biliary cirrhosis , Chen et al. [9] showed that silencing of B7-H4 using RNA interference was able to induce...Intracellular B7-H4 suppresses bile duct epithelial cell apoptosis in human biliary cirrhosis . Inflammation 34, 688-697 (2011). 11

  17. Prognostic significance of B7-H4 expression in matched primary pancreatic cancer and liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yun; Sang, Yiwen; Wang, Frederick X.C.; Hong, Bo; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Xinhui; Weng, Tianhao; Wu, Zhigang; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Hong; Yao, Hangping

    2016-01-01

    Liver metastasis development in pancreatic cancer patients is common and confers a poor prognosis. Clinical relevance of biomarker analysis in metastatic tissue is necessary. B7-H4 has an inhibitory effect on T cell mediated response and may be involved in tumor development. Although B7-H4 expression has been detected in pancreatic cancer, its expression in liver metastases from pancreatic cancer is still unknown. In this study, overall 43 pancreatic cancer liver metastases (with matched primaries in 15/43 cases) and 57 pancreatic cancer cases without liver metastases or other distant metastases were analyzed for their expression of B7-H4 by immunohistochemistry. Survival curves and log-rank tests were used to test the association of B7-H4 expression with survival. B7-H4 was highly expressed in 28 (65.1%) of the 43 liver metastases and 9 (60.0%) of the 15 matched primary tumors. The expression of B7-H4 in liver metastases was significantly higher than in the matched primary tumors (p < 0.05). Patients with high B7-H4 expression in their primary pancreatic cancer had higher risk of developing liver metastases (p < 0.05). In univariate analysis, B7-H4 expression was significantly associated with the risk of death (p < 0.05). And the multivariate analysis identified that B7-H4 was an independent prognostic indicator (p < 0.05). Our results revealed B7-H4 to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. B7-H4 may promote pancreatic cancer metastasis and was promising to be a potential prognostic indicator of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27750217

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Toluene C7H8 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4556_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Toluene C7H8 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4556_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Toluene C7H8 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4562_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Toluene C7H8 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4562_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. B7-H3 silencing inhibits tumor progression of mantle cell lymphoma and enhances chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanfang; Wang, Jing; Dong, Fei; Zhu, Mingxia; Wan, Wenli; Li, Haishen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Xinxing; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    B7-H3 (CD276), known as a member of B7 immunoregulatory family, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein aberrantly expressed in numerous types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of B7-H3 in oncogenesis and chemosensitivity of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains unknown. We determined the effects of downregulating B7-H3 expression on tumor progression and the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drug in mantle cell lymphoma. B7-H3 knockdown was performed using lentivirus transduction in the Maver and Z138 mantle cell lymphoma cell lines, respectively. The effects of B7-H3 on cell proliferation, cycle, migration and invasion were investigated by CCK-8 assay, methyl cellulose colony forming assay, PI staining, and Transwell assays in vitro. By establishing Maver and Z138 xenograft models, the effects of B7-H3 on tumorigenicity were observed, and Ki-67 and PCNA was detected by immunohistochemistry. The downregulation of B7-H3 significantly decreased tumor proliferation in MCL in vitro and in vivo. In the B7-H3 knockdown groups of Maver and Z138 xenograft models, the mean inhibition rate of tumor growth was 59.1 and 65.0% (p=0.010 and 0.003), and the expression of both Ki-67 and PCNA were significantly lower, respectively. After B7-H3 silencing, the cell cycles of Maver and Z138 were both arrested at G0/G1 phase, and the cell migration rates and invasion capacity were decreased as well. Moreover, the impacts of B7-H3 RNAi on the antitumor effect of chemotherapy drugs were determined with CCK-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays in vitro and with xenograft models in vivo. The silencing of B7-H3 increased the sensitivity of Maver and Z138 cells to rituximab and bendamustine and enhanced the drug-induced apoptosis, respectively. Our study demonstrates for the first time that B7-H3 promotes mantle cell lymphoma progression and B7-H3 knockdown significantly enhances the chemosensitivity. This may provide a new therapeutic approach to mantle cell lymphoma.

  1. Tissue-expressed B7-H1 Critically Controls Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaya; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Abadi, Yael M.; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Lin, Elaine Y.; Liu, Qiang; Jeon, Hyungjun; Almo, Steven C.; Chen, Lieping; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B7-H1 (PD-L1) on immune cells plays an important role in T cell coinhibition by binding its receptor PD-1. Here we show that both human and mouse intestinal epithelium expressed B7-H1 and that B7-H1-deficient mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate- or trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced gut injury. B7-H1 deficiency during intestinal inflammation led to high mortality and morbidity, which were associated with severe pathological manifestations in the colon, including loss of epithelial integrity and overgrowth of commensal bacteria. Results from bone marrow chimeric and knock-out mice showed B7-H1 expressed on intestinal parenchyma, but not on hematopoietic cells, controlled intestinal inflammation in an adaptive immunity-independent fashion. Finally, we demonstrated that B7-H1 dampened intestinal inflammation by inhibiting TNF-α production and by stimulating IL-22 from CD11c+CD11b+ lamina propria cells. Thus, our data uncover a new mechanism by which intestinal tissue-expressed B7-H1 functions as an essential ligand for innate immune cells to prevent gut inflammation. PMID:24529703

  2. High resolution mapping of Dense spike-ar (dsp.ar) to the genetic centromere of barley chromosome 7H.

    PubMed

    Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2012-02-01

    Spike density in barley is under the control of several major genes, as documented previously by genetic analysis of a number of morphological mutants. One such class of mutants affects the rachis internode length leading to dense or compact spikes and the underlying genes were designated dense spike (dsp). We previously delimited two introgressed genomic segments on chromosome 3H (21 SNP loci, 35.5 cM) and 7H (17 SNP loci, 20.34 cM) in BW265, a BC(7)F(3) nearly isogenic line (NIL) of cv. Bowman as potentially containing the dense spike mutant locus dsp.ar, by genotyping 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in both BW265 and its recurrent parent. Here, the gene was allocated by high-resolution bi-parental mapping to a 0.37 cM interval between markers SC57808 (Hv_SPL14)-CAPSK06413 residing on the short and long arm at the genetic centromere of chromosome 7H, respectively. This region putatively contains more than 800 genes as deduced by comparison with the collinear regions of barley, rice, sorghum and Brachypodium, Classical map-based isolation of the gene dsp.ar thus will be complicated due to the infavorable relationship of genetic to physical distances at the target locus.

  3. Structure and Electronic Transitions of C7H4O2(+) and C7H5O2(+) Ions: Neon Matrix and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Fulara, Jan; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Garkusha, Iryna; Maier, John P

    2016-12-29

    C7H4O2(+) and C7H5O2(+) ions and the respective neutrals have been investigated by absorption spectroscopy in neon matrixes following mass selection of ions produced from salicylic acid. Three electronic transitions starting at 649.6, 431.0, and 372.0 nm are detected for C7H4O2(+) and assigned on the basis of CASPT2 energies and Franck-Condon simulations as the excitations from the X (2)A″ to the 1 (2)A″, 2 (2)A″, and 3 (2)A″ electronic states of 6-(oxomethylene)-2,4-cyclohexadien-1-one ion (A(+)). Absorptions commencing at 366.4 nm are observed for C7H5O2(+) and assigned to the 1 (2)A' ← X (2)A' electronic transition of (2-hydroxyphenyl)methanone ion (J(+)). Neutralization of J(+) leads to the appearance of four absorption systems attributed to the 4 (2)A″, 3 (2)A″, 2 (2)A″, and 1 (2)A″ ← X (2)A″ transitions of J with origin bands 291.3, 361.2, 393.8, and 461.2 nm.

  4. Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells Express B7-H1 and B7-DC Receptors in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Groeger, Sabine; Howaldt, H P; Raifer, H; Gattenloehner, S; Chakraborty, T; Meyle, J

    2017-01-01

    B7-H1 and B7-DC ligands are members of the B7 family with important regulatory functions in cell-mediated immune response. Both receptors are ligands of the programmed death receptor PD-1. B7-H1 expression has been detected in the majority of human carcinomas in vivo. B7-H1 mediated signals are able to negatively regulate activated T cell functions and survival, and enable tumor cells to overcome host response. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC proteins in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in vivo. Tissues from 15 samples were cryo-sected and following histological routine staining (HE), incubated with antibodies against human B7-H1 and B7-DC. Immuno-staining of pan-cytokeratin was performed to ascertain the epithelial origin of the tissue and CK 19 to demonstrate the proliferating stage. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the presence of both B7-H1 and B7-DC in all 15 OSCC. The B7-H1 and B7-DC staining was located in areas of the tissue that were identified as cancerous lesions in the previously stained HE sections before. Staining with Pan-CK and CK19 provided evidence for the epithelial origin and the proliferating stage of the tissue. The in vivo expression of the B7-H1 and B7-DC receptors in oral squamous cell carcinomas suggest that general mechanisms for immune evasion of tumors are also found in OSCC.

  5. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3-Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bachawal, Sunitha V; Jensen, Kristin C; Wilson, Katheryne E; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T-cell coregulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor, and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an IHC analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients.

  6. Tumor associated endothelial expression of B7-H3 predicts survival in ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xingxing; Sullivan, Peggy S; Soslow, Robert A; Waitz, Rebecca; Reuter, Victor E; Wilton, Andrew; Thaler, Howard T; Arul, Manonmani; Slovin, Susan F; Wei, Joyce; Spriggs, David R; Dupont, Jakob; Allison, James P

    2010-01-01

    B7-H3 and B7x are members of the B7 family of immune regulatory ligands that are thought to attenuate peripheral immune responses through co-inhibition. Previous studies have correlated their overexpression with poor prognosis and decreased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in various carcinomas including uterine endometrioid carcinomas, and mounting evidence supports an immuno-inhibitory role in ovarian cancer prognosis. We sought to examine the expression of B7-H3 and B7x in 103 ovarian borderline tumors and carcinomas and study associations with clinical outcome. Using immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis on tumor specimens, we found that 93 and 100% of these ovarian tumors express B7-H3 and B7x, respectively, with expression found predominantly on cell membranes and in cytoplasm. In contrast, only scattered B7-H3- and B7x-positive cells were detected in non-neoplastic ovarian tissues. B7-H3 was also expressed in the endothelium of tumor-associated vasculature in 44% of patients, including 78% of patients with high-stage tumors (FIGO stages III and IV), nearly all of which were high-grade serous carcinomas, and 26% of patients with low-stage tumors (FIGO stages I and II; P<0.001), including borderline tumors. Analysis of cumulative survival time and recurrence incidence revealed that carcinomas with B7-H3-positive tumor vasculature were associated with a significantly shorter survival time (P=0.02) and a higher incidence of recurrence (P=0.03). The association between B7-H3-positive tumor vasculature and poor clinical outcome remained significant even when the analysis was limited to the high-stage subgroup. These results show that ovarian borderline tumors and carcinomas aberrantly express B7-H3 and B7x, and that B7-H3-positive tumor vasculature is associated with high-grade serous histological subtype, increased recurrence and reduced survival. B7-H3 expression in tumor vasculature may be a reflection of tumor aggressiveness and has diagnostic and

  7. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  8. Glycoprotein B7-H3 overexpression and aberrant glycosylation in oral cancer and immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Tsu; Chen, Chein-Hung; Ku, Ko-Li; Hsiao, Michael; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Hsu, Tsui-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of oral cancer continue to rise, partly due to the lack of effective early diagnosis and increasing environmental exposure to cancer-causing agents. To identify new markers for oral cancer, we used a sialylation probe to investigate the glycoproteins differentially expressed on oral cancer cells. Of the glycoproteins identified, B7 Homolog 3 (B7-H3) was significantly overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and its overexpression correlated with larger tumor size, advanced clinical stage, and low survival rate in OSCC patients. In addition, knockdown of B7-H3 suppressed tumor cell proliferation, and restoration of B7-H3 expression enhanced tumor growth. It was also found that the N-glycans of B7-H3 from Ca9-22 oral cancer cells contain the terminal α-galactose and are more diverse with higher fucosylation and better interaction with DC-SIGN [DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)–grabbing nonintegrin] and Langerin on immune cells than that from normal cells, suggesting that the glycans on B7-H3 may also play an important role in the disease. PMID:26438868

  9. B7-H4 expression in ovarian serous carcinoma: a study of 306 cases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Jun-Song; Niu, Na; Piao, Jin; Ning, Jing; Zu, Youli; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-11-01

    The B7 family of immune costimulatory ligands is a group of cell surface proteins that bind to the surface receptors of lymphocytes to fine-tune immune responses. The aberrant expression of these proteins plays a key role in tumor immune evasion. Immunotherapy targeting certain B7 family members, including programmed death ligand 1, has proven quite effective in suppressing tumor growth. However, why such therapy works in only a subgroup of tumors is unclear. We hypothesized that other B7 family members, either alone or in concert with programmed death ligand 1, play a crucial role in tumor pathogenesis and progression. We therefore examined the expression of a newly discovered B7 family member, B7-H4, in 306 cases of ovarian serous carcinoma by immunohistochemistry. We found that 91% (267/293) of the high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas and 69% (9/13) of the low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas expressed B7-H4. The difference between B7-H4 expression in high-grade and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma was statistically significant (P=.002). Moreover, B7-H4 protein expression in high-grade serous carcinoma was associated with tumor stage (P<.01) but not overall survival or disease-free survival. In conclusion, B7-H4 is frequently expressed in ovarian serous carcinomas, especially high-grade serous carcinomas, and may represent a novel immunotherapeutic target in this cancer.

  10. B7-H1 is a ubiquitous antiapoptotic receptor on cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Takeshi; Yao, Sheng; Zhu, Gefeng; Flies, Andrew S.; Flies, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    B7-H1 is an immunoglobulin-like immune suppressive molecule broadly detectable on the majority of human and rodent cancers, and its functions have been attributed to delivering an inhibitory signal to its counter-receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) on T cells. Here we report that B7-H1 on cancer cells receives a signal from PD-1 to rapidly induce resistance against T cell–mediated killing because crippling signaling capacity of B7-H1 but not PD-1 ablates this resistance. Importantly, loss of B7-H1 signaling is accompanied by increased susceptibility to immune-mediated tumoricidal activity. In addition to resistance against T-cell destruction, B7-H1+ cancer cells also become refractory to apoptosis induced by Fas ligation or the protein kinase inhibitor Staurosporine. Our study reveals a new mechanism by which cancer cells use a receptor on immune cells as a ligand to induce resistance to therapy. PMID:18223165

  11. Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3

    PubMed Central

    Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Å resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold. PMID:23583036

  12. Turbulence in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Okong'o, Nora

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a study of numerical simulations of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of paired fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 at similar reduced initial pressures (reduced pressure is defined as pressure divided by critical pressure). Thermodynamically, O2/H2 behaves more nearly like an ideal mixture and has greater solubility, relative to C7H16/N2, which departs strongly from ideality. Because of a specified smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16/N2 layers exhibited greater levels of growth, global molecular mixing, and turbulence. However, smaller density gradients at the transitional state for the O2/H2 system were interpreted as indicating that locally, this system exhibits enhanced mixing as a consequence of its greater solubility and closer approach to ideality. These thermodynamic features were shown to affect entropy dissipation, which was found to be larger for O2/H2 and concentrated in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that are distortions of the initial density-stratification boundary. In C7H16/N2, the regions of largest dissipation were found to lie in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that result from mixing of the two fluids.

  13. TGF-β1 promotes colorectal cancer immune escape by elevating B7-H3 and B7-H4 via the miR-155/miR-143 axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianjie; Meng, Fanyi; Chen, Qi; Tao, Lihua; Li, Rui; Fu, Fengqing; Liu, Cuiping; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Weipeng; Zhang, Hongjian; Hua, Dong; Chen, Weichang; Zhang, Xueguang

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) suppresses T cell function, promoting tumor immune escape. Yet, whether the depression of TGF-β1 on T cell function is mediated by co-inhibitory molecules B7-H3 and B7-H4 remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 elevated the expression of miR-155 in colorectal cancer cells through SMAD3 and SMAD4. The upregulated miR-155 attenuated miR-143 by inhibiting its direct target, the transcription factor CEBPB. Consequently, the direct target genes of miR-143, B7-H3 and B7-H4, were augmented in the cytoplasm and membrane of tumor cells. Over-expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 in HCT-116 cells induced T cells to secrete TGF-β1 and the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17. Restoration of miR-143 inhibited the growth of HCT-116 xenograft tumors in mice, and also repressed the expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 in the tumors. Thus, this study reveals the mechanism by which TGF-β1 leads to T cell-mediated tumor evasion through an increase in B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression. PMID:27626488

  14. Expression levels of B7-H3 and TLT-2 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHAN-SHAN; TANG, JING; YU, SHU-YI; MA, LI; WANG, FENG; XIE, SHU-LE; JIN, LONG; YANG, HONG-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of immune regulatory molecules B7-H3 [also known as cluster of differentiation 276] and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript-2 (TLT-2) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Human OSCC samples were obtained from 76 patients (female, 32; male, 44; age range, 23–81 years; median age, 50.9 years) that underwent resection for OSCC at Peking University Shenzhen Hospital (Shenzhen, China) between 2007 and 2010. In addition, control oral mucosal samples were obtained from 76 healthy individuals (female, 36; male, 40; age range, 21–62 years; median age, 45.3 years) during wisdom tooth extraction. Protein and gene expression levels of B7-H3 and TLT-2 were determined by immunohistochemical analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the healthy oral mucosa samples, B7-H3 expression was identified to be weak, while the expression of TLT-2 was only detected sporadically in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. By contrast, the two regulatory molecules were widely expressed in the aforementioned localizations in human OSCC specimens upon immunohistochemical examination. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the presence of significantly higher B7-H3 and TLT-2 expression levels in OSCC specimens compared with the oral mucosa of healthy individuals. The significantly higher expression levels of B7-H3 and TLT-2 in human OSCC specimens may indicate an inhibitory role of these molecules in the antitumoral immune response. To investigate interactions between these two molecules and individual antitumoral immune response in OSCC patients, prospective clinical studies with an adequate sample size are required. PMID:26622626

  15. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  16. The Expression of B7-H3 Molecule in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    John, Saumya; Kurumathur, Arun; Talwar, Avaneendra; Kumar, Keerthana; Abraham, Teenu; Alagiri, Ananthi; Walaja, Gnanasagar; Clements, Jasmine

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: T cells have been shown to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. B7-H3, a costimulatory molecule, is found to be associated with regulation of T cell function in some tumoral tissues, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of B7-H3 molecule in healthy and diseased gingival tissue samples. Materials and Method: Gingival samples were taken from 2 groups (A and B) representing periodontal health and periodontal disease, respectively. These were paraffinized and processed to carry out immunostaining to identify B7-H3 expression. The slides were then examined under light microscope to assess the positive staining in epithelium and connective tissue. The intensity of positive staining in epithelium and the number of positive cells in the connective tissue were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done using kappa analysis and independent t-test. Results: Kappa analysis revealed good inter-examiner agreement for both the groups (group A: 0.718; group B: 0.797). Intensity of staining in the epithelium ranged from intense to moderate for both the groups. In the connective tissue, there was a statistically insignificant decrease (p value= 0.415) in the number of positive cells from group A (mean labeling index: 50.28±26.09) to group B (mean labeling index= 41.37±25.29). Conclusion: B7-H3 molecule has been found to be expressed in gingival tissue samples; however, it showed a statistically insignificant decrease in periodontal disease group compared to healthy group. PMID:28293664

  17. Helicity in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a study of databases produced by direct numerical simulation of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of two fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence, with emphasis on helicity. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs -- O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 -- at similar values of reduced pressure.

  18. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  19. The co-stimulatory molecule B7-H3 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Fen; Sun, Zhangzhang; Shi, Hanping; Hua, Dong; Yang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    B7-H3, first recognized as a co-stimulatory molecule, is abnormally expressed in cancer tissues and is associated with cancer metastasis and a poor prognosis. However, as an initial event of metastasis, the relationship between the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in cancer cells and B7-H3 has still not been investigated. In this study, we first analyzed B7-H3 expression by immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancer tissues. B7-H3 was expressed in the cancer cell membrane and was associated with the T stage of colorectal cancer; it also showed a positive correlation with MMP2 and MMP9 expression in cancer tissues. Over-expression of B7-H3 in SW480 cells allowed cancer cells to invade and metastasize more than the control cells, whereas invasion and metastasis capabilities were decreased after B7-H3 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells. We further showed that B7-H3 down-regulated the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin and up-regulated N-cadherin and Vimentin expression, implying that B7-H3 promoted the EMT in colorectal cancer cells. We also checked another character of the EMT, the stemness of cancer cells. CD133, CD44 and Oct4 were significantly elevated after the SW480 cells were transfected with B7-H3 and reduced in Caco-2 cells after B7-H3 was inhibited. In subsequent studies, we proved that B7-H3 upregulated the expression of Smad1 via PI3K-Akt. In conclusion, B7-H3 promotes the EMT in colorectal cancer cells by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway and upregulating the expression of Smad1. PMID:27145365

  20. Immune accessory functions of human endothelial cells are modulated by overexpression of B7-H1 (PDL1).

    PubMed

    LaGier, Adriana J; Pober, Jordan S

    2006-08-01

    B7-H1 (PDL1) is a B7-related protein that inhibits T-cell responses. Human endothelial cells (EC), which can support polyclonal stimulation (by anti-CD3 or Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)) or direct alloantigen stimulation of T cells, basally express B7-H1 and increase expression in response to IFN-gamma or coculture with allogeneic T cells. Previous studies have suggested that endogenous B7-H1 on EC reduces T-cell responses. We engineered overexpression of B7-H1 in EC (B7H1-EC) to evaluate whether this manipulation could reduce T-cell responses even further. Compared with green fluorescent protein-transduced EC (GFP-EC), B7H1-EC support less anti-CD3 or PHA-induced proliferation of CD4+ memory T cells; naive CD4+ T-cell or CD8+ T-cell responses were less inhibited. The effect of transduced B7H1-EC was more apparent when the EC were fixed prior to coculture, a manipulation that reduces the strength of costimulation and prevents upregulation of the endogenous B7-H1 molecule. T-cell activation markers, including CD25, CD62L, CD152 (CTLA-4), and CD154 (CD40L), were not altered by EC overexpression of B7-H1, whereas there was a reduction in CD69. B7-H1 reduced secretion of IL-2 and IL-10 by memory T cells. B7H1-EC were less able to stimulate allogeneic proliferation of CD4+ memory T cells than control EC. These data suggest that B7-H1 overexpression may be a useful approach for reducing allogeneic CD4+ memory T-cell responses to EC.

  1. Thermal Decomposition of C7H7 Radicals; Benzyl, Tropyl, and Norbornadienyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Grant; Ellison, Barney; Daily, John W.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-06-01

    Benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) and two other C7H7 radicals are commonly encountered in the combustion of substituted aromatic compounds found in biofuels and gasoline. High temperature pyrolysis of benzyl radical requires isomerization to other C7H7 radicals that may include cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical (cyc-C7H7) and norbornadienyl radical. The thermal decomposition of all three radicals has now been investigated using a micro-reactor that heats dilute gas-phase samples up to 1600 K and has a residence time of about 100 μ-sec. The pyrolysis products exit the reactor into a supersonic expansion and are detected using synchrotron-based photoionization mass spectrometry and matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy. The products of the pyrolysis of benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) along with three isotopomers (C6H513CH2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5CD2) were detected and identified. The distribution of 13C atoms and D atoms indicate that multiple different decomposition pathways are active. Buckingham, G. T., Ormond, T. K., Porterfield, J. P., Hemberger, P., Kostko, O., Ahmed, M., Robichaud, D. J., Nimlos, M. R., Daily, J. W., Ellison, G. B. 2015, Journal of Chemical Physics 142 044307

  2. Interval estimations in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates interval estimation for a measurand that is known to be positive. Both the Neyman and Bayesian procedures are considered and the difference between the two, not always perceived, is discussed in detail. A solution is proposed to a paradox originated by the frequentist assessment of the long-run success rate of Bayesian intervals.

  3. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  4. Laboratory submillimeter transition frequencies of Li-7H and Li-6H. [used for abundance investigations in red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plummer, G. M.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental (J = 1 - 0) rotational transition frequencies of Li-7H and Li-6H in their ground (v = 0) vibrational states and of Li-7H in its first excited (v = 1) vibrational state have been measured in the laboratory. Use of these transition frequencies should permit astronomical investigations of LiH abundances in red giant stars of high lithium abundance.

  5. The inhibitory role of b7-h4 in antitumor immunity: association with cancer progression and survival.

    PubMed

    He, Changjun; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2011-01-01

    B7-H4 is one of the most recently identified members of B7 superfamily of costimulatory molecules serving as an inhibitory modulator of T-cell response. B7-H4 is broadly expressed in human peripheral tissues and inducibly expressed in immune cells. The expression of B7-H4 has been observed in various types of human cancer tissues, and its soluble form has been detected in blood samples from cancer patients. However, its precise physiological role is still elusive, as its receptor has not been identified and the expression levels are not consistent. This paper summarizes the pertinent data on the inhibitory role of B7-H4 in antitumor immunity and its association with cancer progression and survival in human patients. The paper also discusses the clinical significance of investigating B7-H4 as potential markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, and as therapeutic targets.

  6. Experimental study of resonance states in {sup 7}H and {sup 6}H

    SciTech Connect

    Caamano, M.; Mittig, W.; Savajols, H.; Demonchy, C. E.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Gillibert, A.; Obertelli, A.; Lemmon, R.; Wolski, R.

    2008-10-15

    The {sup 7}H and {sup 6}H nuclear systems were investigated via transfer reactions with a {sup 8}He beam at 15.4A MeV impinging in a {sup 12}C target. The experimental setup allowed a complete reconstruction of the reaction kinematics with the MAYA gas detector, based on the active-target concept, where the carbon atoms of the filling isobutane played also the role of reaction target. The {sup 7}H resonance was observed at 0.57{sub -0.21}{sup +0.42} MeV above the {sup 3}H+4n threshold with a width of 0.09{sub -0.06}{sup +0.94} MeV. The {sup 6}H system was formed at 2.91{sub -0.95}{sup +0.85} MeV with a resonance width of 1.52{sub -0.35}{sup +1.77} MeV. These results show the availability of nuclear structure information well outside the bounding limits, resulting in an extraordinary input to improve the present models and understanding of nuclear matter.

  7. Temperature Dependences for the Reactions of Ar+, O2+, and C7H7+ with Toluene and Ethylbenzene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    containing C7H7+. Products with 4, 5, 6, and 7 carbonswere found. The largest non-C7H7+ cation is C5H6+ at 3–4%. For reactions with known thermochemistry ...154201. 15] N.S. Shuman, T.M. Miller, A.A. Viggiano, J. Troe, Teaching an old dog new tricks: using the flowing afterglow to measure kinetics of electron

  8. The tumor suppressor miR-124 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion by targeting B7-H3 in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Kang, Fu-Biao; Sun, Nan; Wang, Juan; Chen, Wei; Li, Dong; Shan, Bao-En

    2016-11-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the expression level of B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) was correlated with clinical staging and prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS) patients, and its silencing inhibited the proliferation and invasion of OS cells in vitro. However, its overexpression mechanism behind was far from elucidated. On the basis of bioinformatics and the preliminary screening data, we hypothesized that miR-124 might play an important role in OS development and as a lead candidate for modulating B7-H3 expression. In this study, we found that miR-124 was downregulated significantly in OS tumor tissue, compared to normal adjacent tissues (NATs). Lower miR-124 expression levels were associated with advanced Ennecking stage, lower tumor differentiation, and common pulmonary metastasis. The 5-year overall survival rate in the miR-124 upregulated group was 61.5 %, while with low miR-124 expression, only 11.8 % survived. Further studies in vitro showed that B7-H3 was a direct target of miR-124. Overexpression of miR-124 decreased B7-H3 mRNA and protein level and inhibited B7-H3 3'-UTR reporter activity. Treatment of OS cells with miR-124 mimics induced the inhibition of cell growth and invasion in vitro, which could be abrogated by transfected by B7-H3 expression vector. Our findings highlight the potential application of miR-124 as a novel onco-miRNA in OS, and its oncogenic effects are mediated chiefly through downregulation of B7-H3, thus suggesting a model for identifying miR-124 that can be exploited to improve the therapeutic potential efficacy of mAb targeting to B7-H3.

  9. Prognostic role of high B7-H4 expression in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wendong; Xu, Chao; Mao, Huihui; Pei, Honglei; Jiang, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, many studies have shown that B7-H4 exhibits altered expression in various cancers. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of B7-H4 expression in solid tumors. Results Data from 18 observational studies and 2467 patients were summarized. An elevated baseline B7-H4 was significantly associated with worse OS (pooled HR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.56–2.06). Differences across subgroups of tumor type, patients' ethnicity, analysis type, HR obtain method and cut-off value were not significant (PD = 0.313, PD = 0.716, PD = 0.896, PD = 0.290 and PD = 0.153, respectively). Furthermore, patients with high B7-H4 had a significantly shorter DFS (pooled HR = 2.12; 95%CI = 1.45–3.09). Materials and Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library (last update by November 26, 2015) to identify studies assessing the effect of B7-H4 on survival of cancer patients. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using fixed-effects models and random-effects models respectively. Conclusions This meta-analysis clarified that high B7-H4 expression in tissue was significantly associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors. Future clinical studies are warranted to determine whether B7-H4 blockade has a favorable effect on disease recurrence and mortality. PMID:27058425

  10. Radiometric method for testing susceptibility of mycobacteria to pyrazinamide in 7H12 broth.

    PubMed Central

    Heifets, L B; Iseman, M D

    1985-01-01

    The test of susceptibility to pyrazinamide requires an acid environment (pH less than or equal to 5.5). This, however, is not favorable to the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially in solid agar media. To obviate this difficulty, we developed a testing method with 7H12 broth medium and based on radiometric readings of the growth. The radiometric method employed in this study (BACTEC system) provides an opportunity to detect the dynamics of growth by daily recording of the growth index, which reflects the metabolic activity of the multiplying bacteria. In our technique, M. tuberculosis isolates were initially cultivated at pH 6.8. After logarithmic growth had begun, phosphoric acid solution was added to obtain pH 5.5. When pyrazinamide was added simultaneously with the acid, the growth index of susceptible cultures decreased, whereas it continued to increase in pH 5.5 control vials and in tests with pyrazinamide-resistant strains. PMID:3972987

  11. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) suppresses host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Ryan A; Feldman, Andrew L; Wada, David A; Yang, Zhi-Zhang; Comfere, Nneka I; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D; Novak, Anne J; Markovic, Svetomir N; Pittelkow, Mark R; Witzig, Thomas E; Ansell, Stephen M

    2009-09-03

    Stromal elements present within the tumor microenvironment may suppress host immunity and promote the growth of malignant lymphocytes in B cell-derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In contrast, little is known about the microenvironment's role in T cell-derived NHL. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274), a member of the B7 family of costimulatory/co-inhibitory ligands expressed by both malignant cells and stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment, has emerged as an important immune modulator capable of suppressing host immunity. Therefore, B7-H1 expression and function were analyzed in cutaneous and peripheral T-cell NHL. B7-H1 was expressed by tumor cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cells within the tumor microenvironment in T-cell NHL and was found to inhibit T-cell proliferation and promote the induction of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Collectively, the data presented provide the first evidence implicating B7-H1 in the suppression of host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and suggest that the targeting of B7-H1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach.

  12. Structure of the Human Activating Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor NKp30 Bound to its Tumor Cell Ligand B7-H6

    SciTech Connect

    Y Li; Q Wang; R Mariuzza

    2011-12-31

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that participate in the elimination of tumor cells. In humans, the activating natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 play a major role in NK cell-mediated tumor cell lysis. NKp30 recognizes B7-H6, a member of the B7 family which is expressed on tumor, but not healthy, cells. To understand the basis for tumor surveillance by NCRs, we determined the structure of NKp30, a member of the CD28 family which includes CTLA-4 and PD-1, in complex with B7-H6. The overall organization of the NKp30-B7-H6-activating complex differs considerably from those of the CTLA-4-B7 and PD-1-PD-L T cell inhibitory complexes. Whereas CTLA-4 and PD-1 use only the front {beta}-sheet of their Ig-like domain to bind ligands, NKp30 uses both front and back {beta}-sheets, resulting in engagement of B7-H6 via the side, as well as face, of the {beta}-sandwich. Moreover, B7-H6 contacts NKp30 through the complementarity-determining region (CDR) - like loops of its V-like domain in an antibody-like interaction that is not observed for B7 or PD-L. This first structure of an NCR bound to ligand provides a template for designing molecules to stimulate NKp30-mediated cytolytic activity for tumor immunotherapy.

  13. B7-H1 antibodies lose antitumor activity due to activation of p38 MAPK that leads to apoptosis of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wu, Xiaosheng; Cao, Siyu; Harrington, Susan M.; Yin, Peng; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Dong, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    B7-H1 (aka PD-L1) blocking antibodies have been used in treatment of human cancers through blocking B7-H1 expressed by tumor cells; however, their impact on B7-H1 expressing tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells is still unknown. Here, we report that tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells expressing B7-H1 are functional effector cells. In contrast to normal B7-H1 blocking antibody, B7-H1 antibodies capable of activating p38 MAPK lose their antitumor activity by deleting B7-H1+ tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells via p38 MAPK pathway. B7-H1 deficiency or engagement with certain antibody results in more activation of p38 MAPK that leads to T cell apoptosis. DNA-PKcs is a new intracellular partner of B7-H1 in the cytoplasm of activated CD8+ T cells. B7-H1 suppresses p38 MAPK activation by sequestering DNA-PKcs in order to preserve T cell survival. Our findings provide a new mechanism of action of B7-H1 in T cells and have clinical implications in cancer immunotherapy when anti-B7-H1 (PD-L1) antibody is applied. PMID:27824138

  14. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed.

  15. Origination of new immunological functions in the costimulatory molecule B7-H3: the role of exon duplication in evolution of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Fu, Fengqing; Gu, Wenchao; Yan, Ruhong; Zhang, Guangbo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yinghui; Wang, Han; Shen, Bairong; Zhang, Xueguang

    2011-01-01

    B7-H3, a recently identified B7 family member, has different isoforms in human and mouse. Mouse B7-H3 gene has only one isoform (2IgB7-H3) with two Ig-like domains, whereas human B7-H3 has two isoforms (2IgB7-H3 and 4IgB7-H3). In this study a systematic genomic survey across various species from teleost fishes to mammals revealed that 4IgB7-H3 isoform also appeared in pigs, guinea pigs, cows, dogs, African elephants, pandas, megabats and higher primate animals, which resulted from tandem exon duplication. Further sequence analysis indicated that this duplication generated a new conserved region in the first IgC domain, which might disable 4IgB7-H3 from releasing soluble form, while 2IgB7-H3 presented both membrane and soluble forms. Through three-dimensional (3D) structure modeling and fusion-protein binding assays, we discovered that the duplicated isoform had a different structure and might bind to another potential receptor on activated T cells. In T cell proliferation assay, human 2IgB7-H3 (h2IgB7-H3) and mouse B7-H3 (mB7-H3) both increased T cell proliferation and IL-2, IFN-γ production, whereas human 4IgB7-H3 (h4IgB7-H3) reduced cytokine production and T cell proliferation compared to control. Furthermore, both h2IgB7-H3 and mB7-H3 upregulated the function of lipopolysacharide (LPS)-activated monocyte in vitro. Taken together, our data implied that during the evolution of vertebrates, B7-H3 exon duplication contributed to the generation of a new 4IgB7-H3 isoform in many mammalian species, which have carried out distinct functions in the immune responses.

  16. Interval hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L

    2001-01-01

    Interval hypoxic training (IHT) is a technique developed in the former Soviet Union, that consists of repeated exposures to 5-7 minutes of steady or progressive hypoxia, interrupted by equal periods of recovery. It has been proposed for training in sports, to acclimatize to high altitude, and to treat a variety of clinical conditions, spanning from coronary heart disease to Cesarean delivery. Some of these results may originate by the different effects of continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia (IH), which can be obtained by manipulating the repetition rate, the duration and the intensity of the hypoxic stimulus. The present article will attempt to examine some of the effects of IH, and, whenever possible, compare them to those of typical IHT. IH can modify oxygen transport and energy utilization, alter respiratory and blood pressure control mechanisms, induce permanent modifications in the cardiovascular system. IHT increases the hypoxic ventilatory response, increase red blood cell count and increase aerobic capacity. Some of these effects might be potentially beneficial in specific physiologic or pathologic conditions. At this stage, this technique appears interesting for its possible applications, but still largely to be explored for its mechanisms, potentials and limitations.

  17. Synergistic effects of host B7-H4 deficiency and gemcitabine treatment on tumor regression and anti-tumor T cell immunity in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joanne; St-Onge, Philippe; Stagg, John; Suh, Woong-Kyung

    2017-04-01

    B7-H4 (B7x/B7S1), a B7 family inhibitor of T cell activity, is expressed in multiple human cancers and correlates with decreased infiltrating lymphocytes and poor prognosis. In murine models, tumor-expressed B7-H4 enhances tumor growth and reduces T cell immunity, and blockade of tumor-B7-H4 rescues T cell activity and lowers tumor burden. This implicates B7-H4 as a target for cancer immunotherapy, yet limits the efficacy of B7-H4 blockade exclusively to patients with B7-H4+ tumors. Given the expression of B7-H4 on host immune cells, we have previously shown that BALB/c mice lacking host B7-H4 have enhanced anti-tumor profiles, yet similar 4T1 tumor growth relative to control. Given that T cell-mediated immunotherapies work best for tumors presenting tumor-associated neoantigens, we further investigated the function of host B7-H4 in the growth of a more immunogenic derivative, 4T1-12B, which is known to elicit strong anti-tumor CD8 T cell responses due to expression of a surrogate tumor-specific antigen, firefly luciferase. Notably, B7-H4 knockout hosts not only mounted greater tumor-associated anti-tumor T cell responses, but also displayed reduced tumors. Additionally, B7-H4-deficiency synergized with gemcitabine to further inhibit tumor growth, often leading to tumor eradication and the generation of protective T cell immunity. These findings imply that inhibition of host B7-H4 can enhance anti-tumor T cell immunity in immunogenic cancers, and can be combined with other anti-cancer therapies to further reduce tumor burden regardless of tumor-B7-H4 positivity.

  18. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  19. Effect of Taiwan mutation (D7H) on structures of amyloid-β peptides: replica exchange molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Truong, Phan Minh; Viet, Man Hoang; Nguyen, Phuong H; Hu, Chin-Kun; Li, Mai Suan

    2014-07-31

    Recent experiments have shown that the Taiwan mutation (D7H) slows the fibril formation of amyloid peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42. Motivated by this finding, we have studied the influence of D7H mutation on structures of Aβ peptide monomers using the replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS force field and implicit water model. Our study reveals that the mechanism behind modulation of aggregation rates is associated with decrease of β-content and dynamics of the salt bridge D23-K28. Estimating the bending free energy of this salt bridge, we have found that, in agreement with the experiments, the fibril formation rate of both peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 is reduced about two times by mutation.

  20. Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

    2014-10-01

    Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels than unmodified Middlebrook 7H11 agar despite MG being a common adjunct of Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified for M. bovis growth. Subsequently, a selective MG-free Middlebrook 7H11 agar modified using haemolysed red cells and calf serum was demonstrated as the best performing (P < 0·05) medium for recovery of M. bovis from typical UK cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products.

  1. Differing metabolic responses to salt stress in wheat-barley addition lines containing different 7H chromosomal fragments

    PubMed Central

    Gierczik, Krisztián; Hudák, Orsolya; Forgó, Péter; Pál, Magda; Türkösi, Edina; Kovács, Viktória; Dulai, Sándor; Majláth, Imre; Molnár, István; Janda, Tibor; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Salinity-induced osmotic, ionic and oxidative stress responses were investigated on Asakaze/Manas wheat/barley addition lines 7H, 7HL and 7HS, together with their barley (salt-tolerant) and wheat (relatively salt-sensitive) parents. Growth, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll degradation, proline, glycine betaine accumulation, sugar metabolism, Na+ and K+ uptake and transport processes and the role of polyamines and antioxidants were studied in young plants grown in hydroponic culture with or without salt treatment. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic activity of plants demonstrated that the salt tolerance of the addition lines 7H and 7HL was similar to that of barley parent cv. Manas, while the sensitivity of the addition line 7HS was similar to that of the wheat parent cv. Asakaze. The Na accumulation in the roots and shoots did not differ between the addition lines and wheat parent. The activation of various genes related to Na uptake and transport was not correlated with the salt tolerance of the genotypes. These results indicated that the direct regulation of Na transport processes is not the main reason for the salt tolerance of these genotypes. Salt treatment induced a complex metabolic rearrangement in both the roots and shoots of all the genotypes. Elevated proline accumulation in the roots and enhanced sugar metabolism in the shoots were found to be important for salt tolerance in the 7H and 7HL addition lines and in barley cv. Manas. In wheat cv. Asakaze and the 7HS addition line the polyamine metabolism was activated. It seems that osmotic adjustment is a more important process in the improvement of salt tolerance in 7H addition lines than the direct regulation of Na transport processes or antioxidant defence. PMID:28328973

  2. Temporal binding of interval markers

    PubMed Central

    Derichs, Christina; Zimmermann, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    How we estimate the passage of time is an unsolved mystery in neuroscience. Illusions of subjective time provide an experimental access to this question. Here we show that time compression and expansion of visually marked intervals result from a binding of temporal interval markers. Interval markers whose onset signals were artificially weakened by briefly flashing a whole-field mask were bound in time towards markers with a strong onset signal. We explain temporal compression as the consequence of summing response distributions of weak and strong onset signals. Crucially, temporal binding occurred irrespective of the temporal order of weak and strong onset markers, thus ruling out processing latencies as an explanation for changes in interval duration judgments. If both interval markers were presented together with a mask or the mask was shown in the temporal interval center, no compression occurred. In a sequence of two intervals, masking the middle marker led to time compression for the first and time expansion for the second interval. All these results are consistent with a model view of temporal binding that serves a functional role by reducing uncertainty in the final estimate of interval duration. PMID:27958311

  3. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  4. Synthesis and characterization of PVP/TbL(phen)0.5 x 7H2O nanorods.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenfeng; Ren, Huijuan; Sun, Dehui; Yang, Mei; Hong, Guangyan

    2011-11-01

    The luminescent complex terbium (III)-trimesic acid (TMA)-1,10-phenanthroline (phen) nanorod was synthesized in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix by a co-precipitation method. The chemical formula of the synthesized complex was speculated to be PVP/TbL(phen)0.5 x 7H2O by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), elemental analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) of PVP/TbL(phen)0.5 x 7H2O indicated that it was a crystalline complex. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result showed that the complex was nanorods with diameters of about 80-100 nm. The thermogravimetric curve (TGA) analysis exhibited that the complex has good stability below 400 degrees C. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that there is a maximum absorption at 300 nm. The photoluminescence analyses (PLA) showed that the synthesized complex emitted the characteristic green fluorescence of Tb (III) ions under ultraviolet light excitation. The emission peaks of PVP/TbL(phen)0.5 x 7H2O at 488, 542, 581, and 618 nm using 278 nm as exciting wavelength can be assigned to the 5D4 --> 7F6, 5D4 --> 7F5, 5D4 --> 7F4, and 5D4 --> 7F3 electron transitions of the Tb3+ ions, respectively.

  5. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  6. Children's Discrimination of Melodic Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1996-01-01

    Adults and children listened to tone sequences and were required to detect changes either from intervals with simple frequency ratios to intervals with complex ratios or vice versa. Adults performed better on changes from simple to complex ratios than on the reverse changes. Similar performance was observed for 6-year olds who had never taken…

  7. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  8. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  9. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  10. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  11. Effects of lung cancer cell-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K.; Huang, H.T.; Hang, W.J.; Pan, L.B.; Ma, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is the most potent immunoinhibitory molecule in the B7 family. In this study, we examined the effects of tumor-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation in lung cancer. The expression of B7-H1 in human adenocarcinoma A549 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were examined by flow cytometry. To assess the in vitro effect of tumor-associated B7-H1 on T-cell proliferation, we isolated T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals, labeled them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester, and co-cultured them with A549 cells in the absence or presence of anti-B7-H1 antibody. For in vivo analysis, LLC cells were subcutaneously injected into mice treated or not with anti-B7-H1 antibody. T-cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo assays was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro, co-culturing T cells with A549 cells significantly inhibited the proliferation of the former compared with the proliferation of T cells alone (P<0.01), and the addition of B7-H1 blocking antibody dramatically reversed the inhibition of T-cell proliferation by A549 cells. Similarly, in mice bearing LLC-derived xenograft tumors, in vivo administration of anti-B7-H1 antibody significantly increased the total number of spleen and tumor T cells compared to levels in control mice that did not receive anti-B7-H1 antibody. Functionally, in vivo administration of anti-B7-H1 antibody markedly reduced tumor growth. Tumor-associated B7-H1 may facilitate immune evasion by inhibiting T-cell proliferation. Targeting of this mechanism offers a promising therapy for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27332773

  12. B7-H3 Promotes the Migration and Invasion of Human Bladder Cancer Cells via the PI3K/Akt/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuchao; Guo, Guoning; Song, Jie; Cai, Zhiping; Yang, Jin; Chen, Zhiwen; Wang, Yun; Huang, Yaqin; Gao, Qiangguo

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of most common malignant cancer. Although previous studies have found abnormal expression of B7-H3 in human bladder cancer tissues, the exact role and molecular mechanism of B7-H3 in bladder cancer remain unknown. In this study, we first detected the expression of B7-H3 in human bladder cancer samples and cell lines, and analyzed its correlations with clinicopathological pathological parameters. Next, siRNAs or overexpression plasmids of B7-H3 were transfected into T24 or 5637 cells, and cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed via CCK-8, colony formation, flow cytometry and transwell assays, protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. The results presented here showed B7-H3 was upregulated in bladder cancer samples compared with normal tissues, and the expression level was correlated with local invasion status. B7-H3 did not affect cell proliferation and apoptosis, but cell migration and invasion were changed through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/9. Knockdown of B7-H3 resulted in decreased activity of the STAT3 and PI3K/Akt pathways, and the Akt served as an upstream regulator of the STAT3. Our results suggest that the overexpression of B7-H3 promotes the migration and invasion of human bladder cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:28382144

  13. B7-H3 regulates migration and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Teng-Fei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Wu, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    B7 Homolog 3 (B7-H3), a newly identified member of the B7 family, is over-expressed in various human cancers and plays a vital role in tumor progression. To identify the expression pattern of B7-H3 in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and its underlying mechanisms, we characterized B7-H3 expression in AdCC tissue microarrays using immunohistochemical staining, and analyzed potentially associated molecules. The results showed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in salivary AdCC, compared with normal salivary glands. Statistical analyses of immunohistochemical staining showed that B7-H3 was closely correlated with Slug and p-STAT3. Functional studies showed that knockdown of B7-H3 in AdCC cell lines using RNA interference did not influence cell growth and apoptosis, but decreased migration and invasion in vitro. Further mechanism studies suggested that B7-H3 influenced the migration and invasion of AdCC cells by regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via JAK2/STAT3 pathway components. Collectively, these findings suggested that B7-H3 may be a potential therapeutic target for AdCC. PMID:28386362

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit Cytomegalovirus Inflammation through Interleukin-27 and B7-H4

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ankita; Trout, Rodney; Spector, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    HIV/CMV co-infected persons despite prolonged viral suppression often experience persistent immune activation, have an increased frequency of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined how HIV MDSC control CD4+ T cell IFNγ response to a CMVpp65 peptide pool (CMVpp65). We show that HIV/CMV co-infected persons with virologic suppression and recovered CD4+ T cells compared to HIV(−)/CMV(+) controls exhibit an increase in CD4+CX3CR1+IFNγ+ cells in response to CMVpp65; MDSC depletion further augmented CD4+CX3CR1+IFNγ+ cells and IFNγ production. IL-2 and IFNγ in response to CMVpp65 were enhanced with depletion of MDSC expanded in presence of HIV (HIV MDSC), but decreased with culture of HIV MDSC with autologous PBMCs. CMVpp65 specific CD4+CX3CR1+IFNγ+ cells were also decreased in presence of HIV MDSC. HIV MDSC overexpressed B7-H4 and silencing B7-H4 increased the production of IL-2 and IFNγ from autologous cells; a process mediated through increased phosphorylated (p)-Akt upon stimulation with CMVpp65. Additionally, IL-27 regulated the expression of B7-H4 on HIV MDSC, and controlled CMV-specific T cell activity by limiting CMVpp65-IFNγ production and expanding CD4+IL-10+ regulatory T cells. These findings provide new therapeutic targets to control the chronic immune activation and endothelial cell inflammation observed in HIV-infected persons. PMID:28338007

  15. Potential mosquito repellent compounds of Ocimum species against 3N7H and 3Q8I of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Gaddaguti, Venugopal; Venkateswara Rao, Talluri; Prasada Rao, Allu

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes are exceptionally efficient in detecting their hosts for blood meal using odorant binding proteins, viz. 3N7H and 3Q8I and spread several dreadful diseases. DEET is a synthetic mosquito repellent widely used all over world for protection against mosquito bite. Reports reveal that, synthetic mosquito repellents may pose health problems in considerably large population. In view of the above fact, we made an attempt to discover efficient and novel natural mosquito repellent compounds with least impact on human health. Methanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (willd.)-Benth and Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU were subjected to GC-MS analysis and obtained 35 phytochemical constituents. Repellent potentiality of the Ocimum compounds was assessed against 3Q8I and 3N7H of Anopheles gambiae. PDB structures of mosquito odorant binding proteins were downloaded, processed and docking studies were performed along with reference ligand DEET using Schrodinger MAESTRO 9.2 software. Molecular docking results reveal that phenol, 2-methoxy-3-(2-propenyl)-, licopersin, gamma sitosterol and benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- from O. tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU are strongly bound with 3N7H. Whereas, 4h-1-benzopyran-4-one, 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, catechol and monoacetin from O. basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (willd.)-Benth. show high binding affinity with odorant binding protein 3Q8I. All natural compounds tested in the present study display better docking scores than DEET. The results further substantiate that the 12 out of 35 compounds of the two Ocimum species found to be ideal candidates for design and development of potential mosquito repellents. ADME properties of the tested compounds further confirm that bioactive compounds of Ocimum species were found to be in acceptable range. Synchronized application of at least two different natural compounds (with best docking scores) which target 3N7H and 3Q8I (Odorant Binding Proteins

  16. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  17. B7-H1 Blockade Increases Survival of Dysfunctional CD8+ T Cells and Confers Protection against Leishmania donovani Infections

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Trupti; Rodriguez, Susana; Perovic, Vladimir; Cockburn, Ian A.; Stäger, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents an exquisite model to study CD8+ T cell responses in a context of chronic inflammation and antigen persistence, since it is characterized by chronic infection in the spleen and CD8+ T cells are required for the development of protective immunity. However, antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in VL have so far not been studied, due to the absence of any defined Leishmania-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes. In this study, transgenic Leishmania donovani parasites expressing ovalbumin were used to characterize the development, function, and fate of Leishmania-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Here we show that L. donovani parasites evade CD8+ T cell responses by limiting their expansion and inducing functional exhaustion and cell death. Dysfunctional CD8+ T cells could be partially rescued by in vivo B7-H1 blockade, which increased CD8+ T cell survival but failed to restore cytokine production. Nevertheless, B7-H1 blockade significantly reduced the splenic parasite burden. These findings could be exploited for the design of new strategies for immunotherapeutic interventions against VL. PMID:19436710

  18. Therapy to target renal cell carcinoma using 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqin; Zhang, Guangbo; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    B7-H3 is a tumor-associated antigen that plays a critical role in potential tumor-targeted therapy. In this study, we aimed to assess the radiobiological effect of 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody (131I-4H7) in nude mice with human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate the effect of 131I-4H7 on RCC treatment. The radiobiological activity and tumor uptake of 131I-4H7, and its effect on tumor growth were measured. 131I-4H7 was absorbed by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake rate (3.32% injected dose [ID]/g) at 24 h, at which point the drug concentration in the tumor was 7.36-, 2.06-, 1.80-, and 2.78-fold higher than that in muscle, kidneys, liver, and heart, respectively. Measurements and positron emission tomography–computed tomography imaging showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by 131I-4H7. HE staining revealed that 131I-4H7 significantly injures tumor cells. Our results suggest that 131I-4H7 is markedly absorbed by the tumor and did suppress the development of RCC xenografted tumors in nude mice, which might provide a new candidate for antibody-mediated targeted radiotherapy in human RCC. PMID:27058890

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells suppress T cells by inducing apoptosis and through PD-1/B7-H1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhidong; Zhuansun, Yongxun; Liu, Guirong; Chen, Rui; Li, Jianguo; Ran, Pixin

    2014-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert a suppressive role toward T cells which has been widely studied in recent decades. However, the underlying mechanisms utilized by MSCs are still not fully elucidated. Herein, we performed traditional suppressive assays using co-cultured MSCs and conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells (Tconv) with and without transwell systems. We showed that the expression of programmed cell death-1 receptor (PD-1) on activated Tconv was significantly elevated after they were exposed to MSCs. And we demonstrated that PD-1/B7-H1 pathway was involved in the suppression of MSCs on activated Tconv. Further analysis revealed that the up-regulation of PD-1 was related to an increasing apoptosis of activated Tconv. Finally, we demonstrated that the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway was not related to the elevated immunosuppressive cytokines including IL-10 and TGF-β1 which in turn played dispensable roles in the up-regulation of PD-1 on activated Tconv in MSC-Tconv co-culture systems.

  20. A novel subset of B7-H3(+)CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with progression of human NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbo; Huang, Haitao; Zhu, Yibei; Yu, Gehua; Gao, Xin; Xu, Yunyun; Liu, Cuiping; Hou, Jianquan; Zhang, Xueguang

    2015-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) potently inhibit antitumor immune responses, and thereby promoti tumor progression and metastasis. However, the nature of human tumor-infiltrating MDSC remains poorly characterized. Here, we find B7-H3 is exclusively expressed on a subset of intratumoral CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSC but absent from adjacent normal lung tissues of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Cytokine analysis revealed that B7-H3(+)CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSC (B7-H3(+)MDSC) produced higher levels of IL-10 and TNFα but lower levels of IL-1β and IL-6 when compared with B7-H3(-)CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (B7-H3(-)MDSC). In a murine lung cancer model, B7-H3(+)MDSCs were found only in the tumor microenvironment and their frequencies increased during tumor progression. Clinical data analysis indicated that a higher frequency of B7-H3(+)MDSCs was associated with reduced recurrence-free survival in patients with NSCLC. Taken together, we identify a novel subset of MDSCs within the tumor microenvironment that fosters tumor progression.

  1. B7-H3 participates in the development of Asthma by augmentation of the inflammatory response independent of TLR2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xinxing; Yan, Yongdong; Wang, Yuqing; Huang, Li; Wang, Meijuan; Shao, Xuejun; Chen, Zhengrong; Ji, Wei

    2017-01-01

    B7-H3, a new member of the B7 superfamily, acts as both a T cell costimulator and coinhibitor. Recent studies identified B7-H3 plays a critical role in the development of asthma. But the definitive mechanism is not clear. In this study, we further report that B7-H3 participates in the development of OVA-induced asthma in a murine model. And study its mechanism through the vitro and vivo experiment. Exogenous administration of B7-H3 strongly amplified the inflammatory response and augmented proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and vivo. These B7-H3–associated proinflammatory effects were not dependent on TLR2 signaling, as airway inflammation, eosinophils infiltration and cytokins (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-gamma) augment were still amplified in TLR2-deficient mice after administrated recombinant mouse B7-H3. These results indicated an important role for B7-H3 in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in a murine model of asthma and its proinflammatory effects are not dependent on TLR2 signaling. PMID:28094276

  2. B7-H4 reverse signaling induces the apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells through Fas ligand up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunkeun; Park, Gabin; Kim, Yeong-Seok; Hur, Indo; Kim, Hyunjin; Ryu, Jeoung Whan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Cho, Dae-Ho; Choi, In-Hak; Lee, Wang Jae; Hur, Dae Young

    2008-08-08

    B7-H4 has an inhibitory effect on immune responses via the down-regulation of T cell-mediated immunity, but how the engagement of B7-H4 molecules by counter molecules affects the signaling mechanism of the B7-H4-expressing cells is poorly defined. In this study, we found that B7-H4 expression was enhanced on B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and that triggering of these molecules induced apoptosis of EBV-transformed B cells. Engagement of B7-H4 initially increased intracellular level of ROS, which then induced the expression of FasL. Engagement of B7-H4 subsequently provoked Fas-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in association with cytochrome c and AIF, and EndoG was released from the mitochondria on EBV-transformed B cells. These results suggest that B7-H4 may be a potential therapeutic target for EBV involved malignancy diseases.

  3. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  4. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  5. B7-H1 shapes T-cell–mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction and regional encephalitogenicity in spontaneous CNS autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Luisa; Kuzmanov, Ivan; Hucke, Stephanie; Gross, Catharina C.; Posevitz, Vilmos; Dreykluft, Angela; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Janoschka, Claudia; Lindner, Maren; Herold, Martin; Schwab, Nicholas; Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Kurts, Christian; Meuth, Sven G.; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that determine lesion localization or phenotype variation in multiple sclerosis are mostly unidentified. Although transmigration of activated encephalitogenic T cells across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the disease pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity, the consequences on brain endothelial barrier integrity upon interaction with such T cells and subsequent lesion formation and distribution are largely unknown. We made use of a transgenic spontaneous mouse model of CNS autoimmunity characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions confined to optic nerves and spinal cord (OSE mice). Genetic ablation of a single immune-regulatory molecule in this model [i.e., B7-homolog 1 (B7-H1, PD-L1)] not only significantly increased incidence of spontaneous CNS autoimmunity and aggravated disease course, especially in the later stages of disease, but also importantly resulted in encephalitogenic T-cell infiltration and lesion formation in normally unaffected brain regions, such as the cerebrum and cerebellum. Interestingly, B7-H1 ablation on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cells, but not on antigen-presenting cells, amplified T-cell effector functions, such as IFN-γ and granzyme B production. Therefore, these T cells were rendered more capable of eliciting cell contact-dependent brain endothelial cell dysfunction and increased barrier permeability in an in vitro model of the BBB. Our findings suggest that a single immune-regulatory molecule on T cells can be ultimately responsible for localized BBB breakdown, and thus substantial changes in lesion topography in the context of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27671636

  6. Chemically activated reactions on the C7H5 energy surface: propargyl + diacetylene, i-C5H3 + acetylene, and n-C5H3 + acetylene.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel; Trevitt, Adam J

    2011-05-21

    This study uses computational chemistry and statistical reaction rate theory to investigate the chemically activated reaction of diacetylene (butadiyne, C(4)H(2)) with the propargyl radical (C˙H(2)CCH) and the reaction of acetylene (C(2)H(2)) with the i-C(5)H(3) (CH(2)CCCC˙H) and n-C(5)H(3) (CHCC˙HCCH) radicals. A detailed G3SX-level C(7)H(5) energy surface demonstrates that the C(3)H(3) + C(4)H(2) and C(5)H(3) + C(2)H(2) addition reactions proceed with moderate barriers, on the order of 10 to 15 kcal mol(-1), and form activated open-chain C(7)H(5) species that can isomerize to the fulvenallenyl radical with the highest barrier still significantly below the entrance channel energy. Higher-energy pathways are available leading to other C(7)H(5) isomers and to a number of C(7)H(4) species + H. Rate constants in the large multiple-well (15) multiple-channel (30) chemically activated system are obtained from a stochastic solution of the one-dimensional master equation, with RRKM theory for microcanonical rate constants. The dominant products of the C(4)H(2) + C(3)H(3) reaction at combustion-relevant temperatures and pressures are i-C(5)H(3) + C(2)H(2) and CH(2)CCHCCCCH + H, along with several quenched C(7)H(5) intermediate species below 1500 K. The major products in the n-C(5)H(3) + C(2)H(2) reaction are i-C(5)H(3) + C(2)H(2) and a number of C(7)H(4) species + H, with C(7)H(5) radical stabilization at lower temperatures. The i-C(5)H(3) + C(2)H(2) reaction predominantly leads to C(7)H(4) + H and to stabilized C(7)H(5) products. The title reactions may play an important role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in combustion systems. The C(7)H(5) potential energy surface developed here also provides insight into several other important reacting gas-phase systems relevant to combustion and astrochemistry, including C(2)H + the C(3)H(4) isomers propyne and allene, benzyne + CH, benzene + C((3)P), and C(7)H(5) radical decomposition, for which some

  7. B7-H3 and B7x are highly expressed in human prostate cancer and associated with disease spread and poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xingxing; Thompson, R. Houston; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Serio, Angel M.; Reuter, Victor E.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Sharma, Padmanee; Allison, James P.

    2007-01-01

    B7-H3 and B7x are recently discovered members of the B7-CD28 family thought to dampen peripheral immune responses via negative costimulation. We evaluated their potential expression in human prostate cancer using a large cohort of patients with 7 years of follow-up. We identified 823 patients with tissue available treated with radical prostatectomy between 1985 and 2003. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray sections using anti-B7-H3 and -B7x. The percentage and intensity of immunoreactivity by tumor cells were blindly evaluated by two urological pathologists, and outcome analyses were conducted. Both B7-H3 and B7x were highly expressed; 93% and 99% of tumors had aberrant expression, respectively. The median percentage of tumor cells staining positive was 80% for each molecule. Strong intensity for B7-H3 and B7x was noted in 212 (26%) and 120 (15%) patients, respectively. Patients with strong intensity for B7-H3 and B7x were significantly more likely to have disease spread at time of surgery (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). Additionally, patients with strong intensity for B7-H3 and B7x were at significantly increased risk of clinical cancer recurrence (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005) and cancer-specific death (P = 0.004 and P = 0.04, respectively). To our knowledge, we present the largest investigation of B7 family molecules in a human malignancy and a previously undescribed evaluation of B7x in prostate cancer. B7-H3 and B7x are abundantly expressed in prostate cancer and associated with disease spread and poor outcome. Given the proposed immune-inhibitory mechanisms of B7-H3 and B7x, these molecules represent attractive targets for therapeutic manipulation in prostate cancer. PMID:18042703

  8. Metalloprotease-mediated tumor cell shedding of B7-H6, the ligand of the natural killer cell-activating receptor NKp30.

    PubMed

    Schlecker, Eva; Fiegler, Nathalie; Arnold, Annette; Altevogt, Peter; Rose-John, Stefan; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Sucker, Antje; Paschen, Annette; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge; Textor, Sonja; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2014-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent immune effector cells capable of mediating antitumor responses. Thus, during immunoediting, tumor cell populations evolve strategies to escape NK-cell-mediated recognition. In this study, we report a novel mechanism of immune escape involving tumor cell shedding of B7-H6, a ligand for the activating receptor NKp30 that mediates NK-cell binding and NK-cell-mediated killing. Tumor cells from different cancer entities released B7-H6 by ectodomain shedding mediated by the cell surface proteases "a disintegrin and metalloproteases" (ADAM)-10 and ADAM-17, as demonstrated through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA-mediated gene attenuation. Inhibiting this proteolytic shedding process increased the levels of B7-H6 expressed on the surface of tumor cells, enhancing NKp30-mediated activation of NK cells. Notably, we documented elevated levels of soluble B7-H6 levels in blood sera obtained from a subset of patients with malignant melanoma, compared with healthy control individuals, along with evidence of elevated B7-H6 expression in melanoma specimens in situ. Taken together, our results illustrated a novel mechanism of immune escape in which tumor cells impede NK-mediated recognition by metalloprotease-mediated shedding of B7-H6. One implication of our findings is that therapeutic inhibition of specific metalloproteases may help support NK-cell-based cancer therapy.

  9. B7-H3 Augments Inflammatory Responses and Exacerbates Brain Damage via Amplifying NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 Activation during Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqin; Li, Yan; Blankson, Siobhan; Liu, Min; Huang, Danping; Redmond, H. Paul; Huang, Jing; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The costimulatory protein B7-H3 has been shown to play a contributory role in the development and progression of experimental pneumococcal meningitis by augmentation of the innate immunity-associated inflammatory response via a TLR2-dependent manner. This study aimed to clarify the component(s) of TLR2-mediated signal transduction pathways responsible for B7-H3-augmented inflammatory response and subsequent brain damage during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Administration of B7-H3 did not augment expression of TLR2 and other TLR2 upstream components, but led to an enhanced formation of MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex in the brain of S. pneumoniae-infected mice. Furthermore, B7-H3 substantially augmented S. pneumoniae-induced activation of TLR2 downstream NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 pathways in the brain of S. pneumoniae-infected mice. Notably, blockage of NF-κB p65 and/or MAPK p38 with their specific inhibitors strongly attenuated B7-H3-amplified inflammatory response with significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and markedly ameliorated B7-H3-exacerbated disruption of blood-brain barrier and severity of disease status in S. pneumoniae-infected mice. These results indicate that targeting NF-κB p65 and/or MAPK p38 may represent a promising therapeutic option for amelioration of overwhelming inflammatory response-associated brain injury frequently observed during pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:28141831

  10. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  11. The PD-1/B7-H1 Pathway Modulates the Natural Killer Cells versus Mouse Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Wen Jing; Yu, Chun Jiang; Li, Jun Fa; Qu, Yan Ming; Han, Song

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary type of brain tumor in adults. There has been increased focus on the immunotherapies to treat GBM patients, the therapeutic value of natural killer (NK) cells is still unknown. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a major immunological checkpoint that can negatively regulate the T-cell-mediated immune response. We tested the combination of the inhibiting the PD-1/B7H1 pathway with a NK-cell mediated immune response in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. Methods and Materials Mouse glioma stem cells (GL261GSCs) and mouse NK cells were isolated and identified. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was perfomed to detect the cytotoxicity of NK cells against GL261GSCs. GL261GSCs were intracranially implanted into mice, and the mice were stratified into 3 treatment groups: 1) control, 2) NK cells treatment, and 3) PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group. Overall survival was quantified, and animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine tumor growth. The brains were harvested after the mice were euthanized, and immunohistochemistry against CD45 and PCNA was performed. Results The mouse NK cells were identified as 90% CD3- NK1.1+CD335+ by flow cytometric analysis. In the LDH assay, the ratios of the damaged GL261GSCs, with the E:T ratios of 2.5:1, 5:1, and 10:1, were as follows: 1) non-inhibited group: 7.42%, 11.31%, and 15.1%, 2) B7H1 inhibited group: 14.75%, 18.25% and 29.1%, 3) PD-1 inhibited group: 15.53%, 19.21% and 29.93%, 4) double inhibited group: 33.24%, 42.86% and 54.91%. In the in vivo experiments, the mice in the PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group and IL-2-stimulated-NK cells treatment group displayed a slowest tumor growth (F = 308.5, P<0.01) and a slower tumor growth compared with control group (F = 118.9, P<0.01), respectively. The median survival of the mice in the three groups were as follows: 1) conrol group: 29 days, 2) NK cells treatment group: 35 days (P = 0.0012), 3) PD

  12. Structural Insights into the Inhibitory Mechanism of an Antibody against B7-H6, a Stress-Induced Cellular Ligand for the Natural Killer Cell Receptor NKp30.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoping; Narni-Mancinelli, Emilie; Cantoni, Claudia; Li, Yili; Guia, Sophie; Gauthier, Laurent; Chen, Qianming; Moretta, Alessandro; Vély, Frédéric; Eisenstein, Edward; Rangarajan, Sneha; Vivier, Eric; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2016-11-06

    Antibodies have been shown to block signaling through cell surface receptors using several mechanisms. The two most common are binding to the ligand-binding site of the receptor and, conversely, binding to the receptor-binding site of the ligand. Here, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of an antibody (17B1.3) against human B7-H6, a stress-induced cellular ligand for the natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKp30. Binding of this antibody to B7-H6, a transmembrane protein expressed on tumor and other stressed cells, but not on normal cells, prevents NK cell activation via NKp30. We determined the crystal structure of antibody 17B1.3 in complex with the ectodomain of B7-H6 to 2.5Å resolution. Surprisingly, 17B1.3 binds to a site on B7-H6 that is completely distinct from the binding site for NKp30, such that 17B1.3 does not block the NKp30-B7-H6 interaction. We then asked whether 17B1.3 prevents signaling by binding to a putative site for B7-H6 dimerization. However, structure-based mutations designed to disrupt potential B7-H6 dimerization through this site did not diminish NKp30-mediated cell activation. We conclude that the bulky 17B1.3 antibody most likely acts by sterically interfering with close cell-cell contacts at the NK cell-target cell interface that are required for NK cell activation. A similar inhibitory mechanism may apply to other antibodies, including therapeutic antibodies that block signaling through cell surface receptors whose ligands are also cell surface proteins.

  13. Raman Spectroscopy of a-C:H Films Deposited Using Ar + H2 + C7H8 Plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Koga, Kazunori; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Shiratani, Masaharu; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effects of ion energy on Raman spectra of a-C:H films prepared by Ar + H2 + C7H8 plasma CVD. Raman spectra were measured with a laser Raman spectrometer (JASCO NRS-3100). Both the D-peak position and G-peak position shift toward higher wavenumbers as ion energy increases. The intensity ratio of the D-peak and G-peak, ID/IG increases with increasing the ion energy, indicating that the amount of ring-like sp2 clusters increases. The H content in a-C:H derived from photoluminescence (PL) background decreases with increasing the ion energy. The full width at half maximum of the G-peak, FWHMG related to the C-C sp3 content and H content increases with increasing the ion energy to 100 eV, whereas it decreases with increasing further the ion energy to 105 eV. The variation of FWHMG is consistent with that of mass density. There results indicate that the structure of a-C:H films transforms from polymer-like carbon to diamond-like one with increasing the ion energy above the threshold value of ~ 100 eV.

  14. B7-H1–expressing antigen-presenting cells mediate polarization of protumorigenic Th22 subsets

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Dong-Ming; Xiao, Xiao; Zhao, Qiyi; Chen, Min-Min; Li, Xue-Feng; Liu, Rui-Xian; Wei, Yuan; Ouyang, Fang-Zhu; Chen, Dong-Ping; Wu, Yan; Lao, Xiang-Ming; Deng, Hong; Zheng, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Classical IL-22–producing T helper cells (Th22 cells) mediate inflammatory responses independently of IFN-γ and IL-17; however, nonclassical Th22 cells have been recently identified and coexpress IFN-γ and/or IL-17 along with IL-22. Little is known about how classical and nonclassical Th22 subsets in human diseases are regulated. Here, we used samples of human blood, normal and peritumoral liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to delineate the phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional relevance of various Th22 subsets. Three nonclassical Th22 subsets constituted the majority of all Th22 cells in human liver and HCC tissues, although the classical Th22 subset was predominant in blood. Monocytes activated by TLR2 and TLR4 agonists served as the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that most efficiently triggered the expansion of nonclassical Th22 subsets from memory T cells and classical Th22 subsets from naive T cells. Moreover, B7-H1–expressing monocytes skewed Th22 polarization away from IFN-γ and toward IL-17 through interaction with programmed death 1 (PD-1), an effect that can create favorable conditions for in vivo aggressive cancer growth and angiogenesis. Our results provide insight into the selective modulation of Th22 subsets and suggest that strategies to influence functional activities of inflammatory cells may benefit anticancer therapy. PMID:25244097

  15. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  16. PI3K-delta mediates double-stranded RNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kan-o, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Asai-Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Hamano, Saaka; Seki, Nanae; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Double-stranded RNA upregulates B7-H1 on BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. •The upregulation of B7-H1 is attenuated by inhibition of PI3Kδ isoform. •PI3Kδ-mediated upregulation of B7-H1 is independent of NF-κB activation. •Inhibition of PI3Kδ may prevent persistent viral infection induced by B7-H1. -- Abstract: Airway viral infection disturbs the health-related quality of life. B7-H1 (also known as PD-L1) is a coinhibitory molecule associated with the escape of viruses from the mucosal immunity, leading to persistent infection. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during replication. The stimulation of cultured airway epithelial cells with an analog of viral dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) upregulates the expression of B7-H1 via activation of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB). The mechanism of upregulation was investigated in association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was profoundly suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor and partially by an inhibitor or a small interfering (si)RNA for PI3Kδ in BEAS-2B cells. Similar results were observed in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. The expression of p110δ was detected by Western blot and suppressed by pretreatment with PI3Kδ siRNA. The activation of PI3Kδ is typically induced by oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species was increased by poly IC. Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, or by oxypurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Poly IC-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor but not by a PI3Kδ inhibitor. These results suggest that PI3Kδ mediates dsRNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 without affecting the activation of NF-κB.

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Promote B7-H1 Expression by Suppressing miR-152 and miR-200b in Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gengchen; Li, Wei; Li, Ruidong; Wu, Ke; Zhao, Ende; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Liang; Wang, Di; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-01-01

    The most common cause of gastric cancer is infection with helicobacter pylori (HP), but the associated molecular mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we found a marked increase in the expression of B7-H1, a member of the B7 co-stimulatory family of molecules that bind to programmed death-1 (PD-1) and play a critical immunoregulatory role in the cell-mediated immune response, in HP-positive gastric cancer tissue. Infection of cultured gastric cancer cells with HP promoted B7-H1 expression and inhibited miR-152 and miR-200b expression. We further demonstrated that these two miRNAs targeted B7-H1 mRNA and suppressed B7-H1 expression in gastric cancer cells. Finally, B7-H1 expression was found to correlate with miR-152 and miR-200b levels in gastric tumor tissues from human patients. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which HP infection promotes gastric cancer and also suggest potential targets, i.e., miR-152 and miR-200b, for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:28056089

  18. Low-lying excited states and nonradiative processes of the adenine analogues 7H- and 9H-2-aminopurine.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Sinha, Rajeev K; Trachsel, Maria; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2011-03-21

    We have investigated the UV vibronic spectra and excited-state nonradiative processes of the 7H- and 9H-tautomers of jet-cooled 2-aminopurine (2AP) and of the 9H-2AP-d(4) and -d(5) isotopomers, using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy at 0.3 and 0.045  cm(-1) resolution. The S(1) ← S(0) transition of 7H-2AP was observed for the first time. It lies ∼1600  cm(-1) below that of 9H-2AP, is ∼1000 times weaker and exhibits only in-plane vibronic excitations. In contrast, the S(1) ← S(0) spectra of 9H-2AP, 9H-2AP-d(4), and 9H-2AP-d(5) show numerous low-frequency bands that can be systematically assigned to overtone and combinations of the out-of-plane vibrations ν(1)', ν(2)', and ν(3)'. The intensity of these out-of-plane bands reflects an out-of-plane deformation in the (1)ππ∗(L(a)) state. Approximate second-order coupled-cluster theory also predicts that 2-aminopurine undergoes a "butterfly" deformation in its lowest (1)ππ∗ state. The rotational contours of the 9H-2AP, 9H-2AP-d(4), and 9H-2AP-d(5) 0(0)(0) bands and of eight vibronic bands of 9H-2AP up to 0(0)(0) + 600 cm(-1) exhibit 75%-80% in-plane (a∕b) polarization, which is characteristic for a (1)ππ∗ excitation. A 20%-25% c-axis (perpendicular) transition dipole moment component may indicate coupling of the (1)ππ∗ bright state to the close-lying (1)nπ∗ dark state. However, no (1)nπ∗ vibronic bands were detected below or up to 500  cm(-1) above the (1)ππ∗ 0(0)(0) band. Following (1)ππ∗ excitation, 9H-2AP undergoes a rapid nonradiative transition to a lower-lying long-lived state with a lifetime ≥5 μs. The ionization potential of 9H-2AP was measured via the (1)ππ∗ state (IP = 8.020 eV) and the long-lived state (IP > 9.10 eV). The difference shows that the long-lived state lies ≥1.08 eV below the (1)ππ∗ state. Time-dependent B3LYP calculations predict the (3)ππ∗ (T(1)) state 1.12 eV below the (1)ππ∗ state, but place the (1)n

  19. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  20. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  1. The high-pressure phase diagram of synthetic epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O and MgSO4·7D2O) from ultrasonic and neutron powder diffraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Yagafarov, O. F.; Lyapin, A. G.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Wood, I. G.; Tucker, M. G.; Fortes, A. D.

    2013-03-01

    We present an ultrasonic and neutron powder diffraction study of crystalline MgSO4·7H2O (synthetic epsomite) and MgSO4·7D2O under pressure up to ~3 GPa near room temperature and up to ~2 GPa at lower temperatures. Both methods provide complementary data on the phase transitions and elasticity of magnesium sulphate heptahydrate, where protonated and deuterated counterparts exhibit very similar behaviour and properties. Under compression in the declared pressure intervals, we observed three different sequences of phase transitions: between 280 and 295 K, phase transitions occurred at approximately 1.4, 1.6, and 2.5 GPa; between 240 and 280 K, only a single phase transition occurred; below 240 K, there were no phase transformations. Overall, we have identified four new phase fields at high pressure, in addition to that of the room-pressure orthorhombic structure. Of these, we present neutron powder diffraction data obtained in situ in the three phase fields observed near room temperature. We present evidence that these high-pressure phase fields correspond to regions where MgSO4·7H2O decomposes to a lower hydrate by exsolving water. Upon cooling to liquid nitrogen temperatures, the ratio of shear modulus G to bulk modulus B increases and we observe elastic softening of both moduli with pressure, which may be a precursor to pressure-induced amorphization. These observations may have important consequences for modelling the interiors of icy planetary bodies in which hydrated sulphates are important rock-forming minerals, such as the large icy moons of Jupiter, influencing their internal structure, dynamics, and potential for supporting life.

  2. Immune evasion of mantle cell lymphoma: expression of B7-H1 leads to inhibited T-cell response to and killing of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Bao, Hanying; He, Donghua; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Li, Yi; Neelapu, Sattva; Yang, Jing; Kwak, Larry W; Yi, Qing; Cai, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Clinical trials of immunotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma have not yet delivered desirable results, partly because of the inhibitory machinery of the tumor and its microenvironment. Here we investigated the role of B7-H1, a member of the B7 family of co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory ligands, in mantle cell lymphoma-mediated immunosuppression. Allogeneic CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were purified and co-cultured with irradiated mantle cell lymphoma cells. Mantle cell lymphoma-reactive T-cell lines from HLA-A*0201(+) healthy blood donors were generated after in vitro restimulation, and were subjected to functional tests. We found that B7-H1 expressed on mantle cell lymphoma cells was able to inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by the tumor cells, impair the generation of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and render mantle cell lymphoma cells resistant to T-cell-mediated cytolysis. Blocking or knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells enhanced T-cell responses and restored tumor-cell sensitivity to T-cell-mediated killing in vitro and in vivo. Knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells primed more CD4(+) or CD8(+) memory effector T cells. Our study demonstrates for the first time that lymphoma cell-expressed B7-H1 may lead to the suppression of host anti-tumor immune responses in mantle cell lymphoma and targeting tumor cell B7-H1 may represent a novel approach to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

  3. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  4. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  5. Determining titan's spin state from cassini radar images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stiles, B.W.; Kirk, R.L.; Lorenz, R.D.; Hensley, S.; Lee, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Allison, M.D.; Callahan, P.S.; Gim, Y.; Iess, L.; Del Marmo, P.P.; Hamilton, G.; Johnson, W.T.K.; West, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    For some 19 areas of Titan's surface, the Cassini RADAR instrument has obtained synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images during two different flybys. The time interval between flybys varies from several weeks to two years. We have used the apparent misregistration (by 10-30 km) of features between separate flybys to construct a refined model of Titan's spin state, estimating six parameters: north pole right ascension and declination, spin rate, and these quantities' first time derivatives We determine a pole location with right ascension of 39.48 degrees and declination of 83.43 degrees corresponding to a 0.3 degree obliquity. We determine the spin rate to be 22.5781 deg day -1 or 0.001 deg day-1 faster than the synchronous spin rate. Our estimated corrections to the pole and spin rate exceed their corresponding standard errors by factors of 80 and 8, respectively. We also found that the rate of change in the pole right ascension is -30 deg century-1, ten times faster than right ascension rate of change for the orbit normal. The spin rate is increasing at a rate of 0.05 deg day -1 per century. We observed no significant change in pole declination over the period for which we have data. Applying our pole correction reduces the feature misregistration from tens of km to 3 km. Applying the spin rate and derivative corrections further reduces the misregistration to 1.2 km. ?? 2008. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor Therapeutics Work as Stress Inducers to Enhance Tumor Sensitivity to Natural Killer (NK) Cell Cytolysis by Up-regulating NKp30 Ligand B7-H6.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoshuai; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang; Sun, Rui

    2015-12-11

    Immune cells are believed to participate in initiating anti-tumor effects during regular tumor therapy such as chemotherapy, radiation, hyperthermia, and cytokine injection. One of the mechanisms underlying this process is the expression of so-called stress-inducible immunostimulating ligands. Although the activating receptor NKG2D has been proven to play roles in tumor therapy through targeting its ligands, the role of NKp30, another key activating receptor, is seldom addressed. In this study, we found that the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 was widely expressed in tumor cells and closely correlated to their susceptibility to NK cell lysis. Further studies showed that treatment of tumor cells with almost all standard tumor therapeutics, including chemotherapy (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil), radiation therapy, non-lethal heat shock, and cytokine therapy (TNF-α), could up-regulate the expression of B7-H6 in tumor cells and enhance tumor sensitivity to NK cell cytolysis. B7-H6 shRNA treatment effectively dampened sensitization of tumor cells to NK-mediated lysis. Our study not only reveals the possibility that tumor therapeutics work as stress inducers to enhance tumor sensitivity to NK cell cytolysis but also suggests that B7-H6 could be a potential target for tumor therapy in the future.

  7. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) D7H mutation increases oligomeric Aβ42 and alters properties of Aβ-zinc/copper assemblies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Hong, Chen-Jee; Lin, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen-Han; Huang, He-Ting; Liao, Jhih-Ying; Chang, Yu-Jen; Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Chih-Ya; Liu, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Yun-Ru; Cheng, Irene H

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations associated with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually lead to increases in amyloid β-protein (Aβ) levels or aggregation. Here, we identified a novel APP mutation, located within the Aβ sequence (Aβ(D7H)), in a Taiwanese family with early onset AD and explored the pathogenicity of this mutation. Cellular and biochemical analysis reveal that this mutation increased Aβ production, Aβ42/40 ratio and prolonged Aβ42 oligomer state with higher neurotoxicity. Because the D7H mutant Aβ has an additional metal ion-coordinating residue, histidine, we speculate that this mutation may promote susceptibility of Aβ to ion. When co-incubated with Zn(2+) or Cu(2+), Aβ(D7H) aggregated into low molecular weight oligomers. Together, the D7H mutation could contribute to AD pathology through a "double punch" effect on elevating both Aβ production and oligomerization. Although the pathogenic nature of this mutation needs further confirmation, our findings suggest that the Aβ N-terminal region potentially modulates APP processing and Aβ aggregation, and further provides a genetic indication of the importance of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) in the etiology of AD.

  8. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  9. Familiarity-Frequency Ratings of Melodic Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Thomas B.

    1972-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine subjects' reliability in rating randomly played ascending and descending melodic intervals within the octave on the basis of their familiarity with each type of interval and the frequency of their having experienced each type of interval in music. (Author/CB)

  10. Interpregnancy interval and obstetrical complications.

    PubMed

    Shachar, Bat Zion; Lyell, Deirdre J

    2012-09-01

    Obstetricians are often presented with questions regarding the optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI). Short IPI has been associated with adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, ranging from preterm birth and low birth weight to neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Long IPI has in turn been associated with increased risk for preeclampsia and labor dystocia. In this review, we discuss the data regarding these associations along with recent studies revealing associations of short IPI with birth defects, schizophrenia, and autism. The optimal IPI may vary for different subgroups. We discuss the consequences of short IPI in women with a prior cesarean section, in particular the increased risk for uterine rupture and the considerations regarding a trial of labor in this subgroup. We review studies examining the interaction between short IPI and advanced maternal age and discuss the risk-benefit assessment for these women. Finally, we turn our attention to women after a stillbirth or an abortion, who often desire to conceive again with minimal delay. We discuss studies speaking in favor of a shorter IPI in this group. The accumulated data allow for the reevaluation of current IPI recommendations and management guidelines for women in general and among subpopulations with special circumstances. In particular, we suggest lowering the current minimal IPI recommendation to only 18 months (vs 24 months according to the latest World Health Organization recommendations), with even shorter recommended minimal IPI for women of advanced age and those who conceive after a spontaneous or induced abortion.

  11. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  12. Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Marcel; Schwaiger, Wolfgang; Bernhard, David; Wrulich, Oliver A; Cosaceanu, Daria; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ueberall, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways. PMID:16138918

  13. Crystal structure of a new amine nitrate: 4-dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2})NO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Benhassan, D. Rekik, W.; Naïli, H.; Ślepokura, Katarzyna

    2015-12-15

    The title compound (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2})NO{sub 3} (I) was obtained by the slow evaporation method at room temperature. Its crystal structure consists of organic cations (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2}){sup +} and nitrate anions (NO{sub 3}){sup –} linked by two types of hydrogen bonds. Each monoprotonated nitrogen atom, called bifurcated, is engaged in two N–H···O hydrogen bonds with two symmetric oxygen atoms. In addition, the crystal structure stability is established by C–H···O hydrogen bonds that ensure the formation of infinite layers, parallel to (001) plane. These layers are related together through π···π interactions established between aromatic amines.

  14. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

    2013-12-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.

  15. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  16. Crystal structure of magnesium selenate hepta­hydrate, MgSeO4·7H2O, from neutron time-of-flight data

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2014-01-01

    MgSeO4·7H2O is isostructural with the analogous sulfate, MgSO4·7H2O, consisting of isolated [Mg(H2O)6]2+ octa­hedra and [SeO4]2− tetra­hedra, linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with a single inter­stitial lattice water mol­ecule. As in the sulfate, the [Mg(H2O)6]2+ coordination octa­hedron is elongated along one axis due to the tetra­hedral coordination of the two apical water mol­ecules; these have Mg—O distances of ∼2.10 Å, whereas the remaining four trigonally coordinated water mol­ecules have Mg—O distances of ∼2.05 Å. The mean Se—O bond length is 1.641 Å and is in excellent agreement with other selenates. The unit-cell volume of MgSeO4·7H2O at 10 K is 4.1% larger than that of the sulfate at 2 K, although this is not uniform; the greater part of the expansion is along the a axis of the crystal. PMID:25309161

  17. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  18. Crystal structure of magnesium selenate hepta-hydrate, MgSeO4·7H2O, from neutron time-of-flight data.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic; Gutmann, Matthias J

    2014-09-01

    MgSeO4·7H2O is isostructural with the analogous sulfate, MgSO4·7H2O, consisting of isolated [Mg(H2O)6](2+) octa-hedra and [SeO4](2-) tetra-hedra, linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with a single inter-stitial lattice water mol-ecule. As in the sulfate, the [Mg(H2O)6](2+) coordination octa-hedron is elongated along one axis due to the tetra-hedral coordination of the two apical water mol-ecules; these have Mg-O distances of ∼2.10 Å, whereas the remaining four trigonally coordinated water mol-ecules have Mg-O distances of ∼2.05 Å. The mean Se-O bond length is 1.641 Å and is in excellent agreement with other selenates. The unit-cell volume of MgSeO4·7H2O at 10 K is 4.1% larger than that of the sulfate at 2 K, although this is not uniform; the greater part of the expansion is along the a axis of the crystal.

  19. Confidence Interval Procedures for Reliability Growth Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    Plj2s tSAA - TECHNICAL RPORT NO. 197 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL PROCEDURES FOR RELIABILITY, GROWTH ANALYSIS LARRY H. CROW JUNE 1977 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...dence Intervals for M(T). ¶-. fl [ ] 1 Siion IIS0III0N/AVAI Ale ITY ClOtS Next page is blank. So3 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL PROCIEDURIS• FOR RELTABILITY...and confidence interval procedures for the parameters B and P = X are presented in [l , [2], [4]. In the application of the Weibull process model to

  20. QT-Interval Duration and Mortality Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2012-01-01

    Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (≥439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. PMID:22025428

  1. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  2. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  3. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  4. Biomathematics and Interval Analysis: A Prosperous Marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, S. M.

    2010-11-01

    In this survey paper we focus our attention on dynamical bio-systems involving uncertainties and the use of interval methods for the modelling study of such systems. The kind of envisioned uncertain systems are those described by a dynamical model with parameters bounded in intervals. We point out to a fruitful symbiosis between dynamical modelling in biology and computational methods of interval analysis. Both fields are presently in the stage of rapid development and can benefit from each other. We point out on recent studies in the field of interval arithmetic from a new perspective—the midpoint-radius arithmetic which explores the properties of error bounds and approximate numbers. The midpoint-radius approach provides a bridge between interval methods and the "uncertain but bounded" approach used for model estimation and identification. We briefly discuss certain recently obtained algebraic properties of errors and approximate numbers.

  5. Improved interval estimation of comparative treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Krevelen, Ryne Christian

    Comparative experiments, in which subjects are randomized to one of two treatments, are performed often. There is no shortage of papers testing whether a treatment effect exists and providing confidence intervals for the magnitude of this effect. While it is well understood that the object and scope of inference for an experiment will depend on what assumptions are made, these entities are not always clearly presented. We have proposed one possible method, which is based on the ideas of Jerzy Neyman, that can be used for constructing confidence intervals in a comparative experiment. The resulting intervals, referred to as Neyman-type confidence intervals, can be applied in a wide range of cases. Special care is taken to note which assumptions are made and what object and scope of inference are being investigated. We have presented a notation that highlights which parts of a problem are being treated as random. This helps ensure the focus on the appropriate scope of inference. The Neyman-type confidence intervals are compared to possible alternatives in two different inference settings: one in which inference is made about the units in the sample and one in which inference is made about units in a fixed population. A third inference setting, one in which inference is made about a process distribution, is also discussed. It is stressed that certain assumptions underlying this third type of inference are unverifiable. When these assumptions are not met, the resulting confidence intervals may cover their intended target well below the desired rate. Through simulation, we demonstrate that the Neyman-type intervals have good coverage properties when inference is being made about a sample or a population. In some cases the alternative intervals are much wider than necessary on average. Therefore, we recommend that researchers consider using our Neyman-type confidence intervals when carrying out inference about a sample or a population as it may provide them with more

  6. Sampling Theory and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Using ESCI To Illustrate "Bouncing"; Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

  7. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  8. The microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G. David; Weiss, Bernard; Laties, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation in shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. PMID:16812324

  9. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.

  11. The Total Interval of a Graph.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    definitions for all of these clases . A Husimi tree is a graph for which every block is a clique. A cactus is a graph for which every edge is in at most one...proportion of graphs with n vertices that we can represent with q(n) intervals is at most n-2 and this approaches zero as n gets large . Hence the...representations will have relatively few intervals of small depth and relatively many intervals of large depth. It is nevertheless often useful to restrict

  12. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  13. Learned interval time facilitates associate memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue–time–target associations between cue–target pairs and specific cue–target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue–target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue–time associations. We suggest that “elapsed time” can act as a temporal mnemonic associate that can facilitate retrieval of events associated in memory. PMID:28298554

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,2-Dibromoethane C2H4Br2 + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB5022_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,2-Dibromoethane C2H4Br2 + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB5022_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butan-1-ol C4H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4559_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butan-1-ol C4H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4559_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1-Chlorobutane C4H9Cl + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB3891_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1-Chlorobutane C4H9Cl + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB3891_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclopentanol C5H10O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1412, LB4378_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclopentanol C5H10O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1412, LB4378_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanol C6H12O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1511, LB4375_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanol C6H12O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1511, LB4375_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloroethene C2HCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4854_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloroethene C2HCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4854_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclopentanol C5H10O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1511, LB4376_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclopentanol C5H10O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1511, LB4376_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butan-1-ol C4H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4565_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Butan-1-ol C4H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4565_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Pentan-1-ol C5H12O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4566_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Pentan-1-ol C5H12O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4566_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Toluene C7H8 + C10H7Cl 1-Chloronaphthalene (VMSD1511, LB4812_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Toluene C7H8 + C10H7Cl 1-Chloronaphthalene (VMSD1511, LB4812_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Pentan-1-ol C5H12O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4560_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Pentan-1-ol C5H12O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4560_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,5-Dibromopentane C5H10Br2 + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB5019_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,5-Dibromopentane C5H10Br2 + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB5019_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloroethene C2HCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1412, LB4859_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloroethene C2HCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1412, LB4859_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-ol C3H8O + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB3551_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-ol C3H8O + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB3551_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanol C6H12O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1412, LB4377_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanol C6H12O + C7H14O Cycloheptanol (VMSD1412, LB4377_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4561_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4561_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4558_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4558_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methyl phenyl ether C7H8O + C10H7Cl 1-Chloronaphthalene (VMSD1511, LB4815_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methyl phenyl ether C7H8O + C10H7Cl 1-Chloronaphthalene (VMSD1511, LB4815_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4555_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Benzene C6H6 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4555_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4564_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1412, LB4564_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4833_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4833_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1212, LB4828_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1212, LB4828_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8 Toluene (VMSD1111, LB4820_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8 Toluene (VMSD1111, LB4820_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8 Toluene (VMSD1511, LB4831_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8 Toluene (VMSD1511, LB4831_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H14 Methylcyclohexane (VMSD1112, LB3138_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H14 Methylcyclohexane (VMSD1112, LB3138_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H14 Methylcyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3134_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H14 Methylcyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3134_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8 Toluene (VMSD1212, LB4826_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8 Toluene (VMSD1212, LB4826_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1111, LB4823_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1111, LB4823_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1992-01-01

    Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

  4. Application of Interval Analysis to Error Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    We give simple examples of ways in which interval arithmetic can be used to alert instabilities in computer algorithms , roundoff error accumulation, and even the effects of hardware inadequacies. This paper is primarily tutorial. (Author)

  5. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  6. A robust measure of food web intervality

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B.; Camacho, Juan; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Intervality of a food web is related to the number of trophic dimensions characterizing the niches in a community. We introduce here a mathematically robust measure for food web intervality. It has previously been noted that empirical food webs are not strictly interval; however, upon comparison to suitable null hypotheses, we conclude that empirical food webs actually do exhibit a strong bias toward contiguity of prey, that is, toward intervality. Further, our results strongly suggest that empirically observed species and their diets can be mapped onto a single dimension. This finding validates a critical assumption in the recently proposed static niche model and provides guidance for ongoing efforts to develop dynamic models of ecosystems. PMID:17146055

  7. Interval and contour processing in autism.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group differences emerged. These findings confirm earlier studies showing facilitated pitch processing and a preserved ability to represent small-scale musical structures in autism.

  8. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    statistically strong periodicity is identified in the counting function giving the total number of intervals of a certain size. The nature of the periodic...positive intervals among the first n<=10^6 prime numbers as a probe of the global nature of the sequence of primes. A statistically strong periodicity is...Let x = x1, x2, . . . be an increasing sequence of real numbers which may be either finite or infinitely long. Throughout the following every bold

  9. Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Hill, Mary C.

    2012-09-01

    Confidence intervals based on classical regression theories augmented to include prior information and credible intervals based on Bayesian theories are conceptually different ways to quantify parametric and predictive uncertainties. Because both confidence and credible intervals are used in environmental modeling, we seek to understand their differences and similarities. This is of interest in part because calculating confidence intervals typically requires tens to thousands of model runs, while Bayesian credible intervals typically require tens of thousands to millions of model runs. Given multi-Gaussian distributed observation errors, our theoretical analysis shows that, for linear or linearized-nonlinear models, confidence and credible intervals are always numerically identical when consistent prior information is used. For nonlinear models, nonlinear confidence and credible intervals can be numerically identical if parameter confidence regions defined using the approximate likelihood method and parameter credible regions estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo realizations are numerically identical and predictions are a smooth, monotonic function of the parameters. Both occur if intrinsic model nonlinearity is small. While the conditions of Gaussian errors and small intrinsic model nonlinearity are violated by many environmental models, heuristic tests using analytical and numerical models suggest that linear and nonlinear confidence intervals can be useful approximations of uncertainty even under significantly nonideal conditions. In the context of epistemic model error for a complex synthetic nonlinear groundwater problem, the linear and nonlinear confidence and credible intervals for individual models performed similarly enough to indicate that the computationally frugal confidence intervals can be useful in many circumstances. Experiences with these groundwater models are expected to be broadly applicable to many environmental models. We suggest that for

  10. Cross-linking of B7-H1 on EBV-transformed B cells induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production, JNK signaling activation, and fasL expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong Seok; Park, Ga Bin; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Song, Hyunkeun; Choi, In-Hak; Lee, Wang Jae; Hur, Dae Young

    2008-11-01

    B7-H1 is a newly identified member of the B7 family with important regulatory functions in cell-mediated immune responses, and it is expressed in human immune cells and several tumors. We first observed that expression of surface B7-H1 on B cells was increased during the immortalization process by EBV, which is strongly related to both inflammation and tumorigenesis. Cross-linking of B7-H1 on EBV-transformed B cells using anti-B7-H1 Ab (clone 130002) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial disruption, release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, and subsequent apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases and ROS generation recovered B7-H1-mediated apoptosis and proteolytic activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We observed that B7-H1 stimulation induced both transcription and translation of fasL. ZB4, an antagonistic anti-fas Ab, and NOK-1, an antagonistic anti-fasL Ab, effectively blocked apoptosis without exerting any influence on ROS generation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely blocked the induction of fasL mRNA and protein. We found that B7-H1 stimulation activated the phosphorylation of JNK and c-jun and down-regulated ERK1/2 and p-Akt. NAC blocked the activation of JNK and down-regulation of ERK, but both z-VAD-fmk (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone) and ZB4 did not inhibit JNK activation of B7-H1 stimulation. SP600125 blocked fasL induction and apoptosis but did not affect ROS generation after B7-H1 stimulation. Taken together, we concluded that B7-H1-mediated apoptosis on EBV-transformed B cells may be involved in the induction of fasL, which is evoked by ROS generation and JNK activation after cross-linking of B7-H1. These results provide a new concept for understanding reverse signaling through B7-H1 and another mechanism of tumor immunotherapy using anti-B7-H1.

  11. Pyrolysis of Tropyl Radical (C7H7) and Benzyl Radical (C6H5CH2) in a Heated Micro-Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Grant; Ellison, Barney; Porterfield, Jessica P.; Daily, John W.; Ahmed, Musahid; Robichaud, David; Nimlos, Mark R.

    2016-06-01

    Benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) is a crucial intermediate in the combustion and pyrolysis of substituted aromatic species that are common both in modern gasoline and potential future biofuels. The decomposition of benzyl radical is complicated and has been shown by isotopic labeling to require interesting isomerizations pathways. To better understand these pathways, a set of C7H7 radicals has been studied in a heated micro-reactor. Through multiple experiments, it has be shown that benzyl radical and cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical (c-C7H7) do not interconvert, even at temperatures where both have completely thermally decomposed. To confirm this, tropyl radical has been studied directly and its pyrolysis is quite simple, only cyclopentadienyl radical (c-C5H5) and acetylene (HCCH) are formed. Cyclopentadienyl radical then decomposes to acetylene and propargyl radical (HCCCH2). These products have all been identified through use of tunable synchrotron radiation by confirming their respective photoionization spectra. Matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopy has also been used to identity these products. A previously unanswered question in benzyl radical decomposition has been addressed by studying the pyrolysis of 2,5-norbornadiene, which indicates benzyl radical may decompose through a norbornadiene-like bicyclic radical intermediate. This pathways successfully predicts the correct isotopically labeled products observed previously during 13C labeled benzyl pyrolysis.

  12. Increased antigen presentation but impaired T cells priming after upregulation of interferon-beta induced by lipopolysaccharides is mediated by upregulation of B7H1 and GITRL.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan Yan; Li, Juan; You, Xiang; Qiu, Xin Hui; Wang, Yi Nan; Gao, Feng Guang

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells are able to present Ag-derived peptides on MHC class I and II molecules and induce T cells priming. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an activator of Toll-like 4 receptor (TLR4) signaling, has been demonstrated to facilitate Ag-presentation, up-regulate surface molecules expression but impair T cells priming. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPS on nicotine-enhanced DCs-dependent T cells priming and the mechanisms of LPS orchestrating the immunosuppressive program. We could demonstrate that the treatment with LPS resulted in increased surface molecules expression, enhanced Ag-presentation, up-regulated release of TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IFN-beta. Concomititantly, the upregulation of IFN-beta in DCs induces the up-regulation of coinhibitory molecules B7H1 and GITRL, which cause an impaired activation of naïve Ag-specific T cells and the induction of T cell tolerance by enhancing B7H1-PD-1 interactions and promoting GITRL-GITL facilitated Treg generation, respectively. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the immunomodulatory action of IFN-beta which might open new possibilities in the development of therapeutic approaches aimed at the control of excessive immune response and persistent infection.

  13. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kuzio

    2004-09-22

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  14. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  15. Intervality and coherence in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-06-01

    Food webs-networks of predators and prey-have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis-usually identified with a "niche" dimension-has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  16. Intervality and coherence in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Food webs—networks of predators and prey—have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis—usually identified with a "niche" dimension—has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  17. Interval Estimation of Seismic Hazard Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2017-03-01

    The paper considers Poisson temporal occurrence of earthquakes and presents a way to integrate uncertainties of the estimates of mean activity rate and magnitude cumulative distribution function in the interval estimation of the most widely used seismic hazard functions, such as the exceedance probability and the mean return period. The proposed algorithm can be used either when the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is accepted or when the nonparametric estimation is in use. When the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is used the interval estimation of its parameters is based on the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator. When the nonparametric kernel estimation of magnitude distribution is used, we propose the iterated bias corrected and accelerated method for interval estimation based on the smoothed bootstrap and second-order bootstrap samples. The changes resulted from the integrated approach in the interval estimation of the seismic hazard functions with respect to the approach, which neglects the uncertainty of the mean activity rate estimates have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations and two real dataset examples. The results indicate that the uncertainty of mean activity rate affects significantly the interval estimates of hazard functions only when the product of activity rate and the time period, for which the hazard is estimated, is no more than 5.0. When this product becomes greater than 5.0, the impact of the uncertainty of cumulative distribution function of magnitude dominates the impact of the uncertainty of mean activity rate in the aggregated uncertainty of the hazard functions. Following, the interval estimates with and without inclusion of the uncertainty of mean activity rate converge. The presented algorithm is generic and can be applied also to capture the propagation of uncertainty of estimates, which are parameters of a multiparameter function, onto this function.

  18. Structure and magnetism of the mono-layer hydrate Na 0.3NiO 2 ṡ 0.7H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yoon, W.-S.; Vogt, T.

    2007-04-01

    The mono-layer hydrate (Ni-MLH) Na 0.3NiO 2ṡ0.7H 2O was synthesized with an average Ni valence close to one in the bi-layer hydrate (Ni-BLH) Na 0.3NiO 2ṡ1.3H 2O. A weak unsaturated ferromagnetism and divergence of the magnetic susceptibilities of field and zero-field cooled samples of both Ni-MLH and Ni-BLH are observed. However, as a result of the increased three-dimensional electronic and magnetic character present in Ni-MLH, a frequency dependence of the AC magnetic susceptibility indicative of spin-glass-like behavior, as seen in Ni-BLH, was no longer observed.

  19. Coevolution of MHC genes (LMP/TAP/class Ia, NKT-class Ib, NKp30-B7H6): lessons from cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin F

    2015-09-01

    Comparative immunology provides the long view of what is conserved across all vertebrate taxa versus what is specific to particular organisms or group of organisms. Regarding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and coevolution, three striking cases have been revealed in cold-blooded vertebrates: lineages of class Ia antigen-processing and -presenting genes, evolutionary conservation of NKT-class Ib recognition, and the ancient emergence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 and its ligand B7H6. While coevolution of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and class Ia has been documented in endothermic birds and two mammals, lineages of LMP7 are restricted to ectotherms. The unambiguous discovery of natural killer T (NKT) cells in Xenopus demonstrated that NKT cells are not restricted to mammals and are likely to have emerged at the same time in evolution as classical α/β and γ/δ T cells. NK cell receptors evolve at a rapid rate, and orthologues are nearly impossible to identify in different vertebrate classes. By contrast, we have detected NKp30 in all gnathostomes, except in species where it was lost. The recently discovered ligand of NKp30, B7H6, shows strong signs of coevolution with NKp30 throughout evolution, i.e. coincident loss or expansion of both genes in some species. NKp30 also offers an attractive IgSF candidate for the invasion of the RAG transposon, which is believed to have initiated T-cell receptor/immunoglobulin adaptive immunity. Besides reviewing these intriguing features of MHC evolution and coevolution, we offer suggestions for future studies and propose a model for the primordial or proto MHC.

  20. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  1. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous…

  2. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  3. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  4. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  5. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  6. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  7. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  8. Interval coding. II. Dendrite-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Oswald, Anne-Marie M; Maler, Leonard

    2007-04-01

    The rich temporal structure of neural spike trains provides multiple dimensions to code dynamic stimuli. Popular examples are spike trains from sensory cells where bursts and isolated spikes can serve distinct coding roles. In contrast to analyses of neural coding, the cellular mechanics of burst mechanisms are typically elucidated from the neural response to static input. Bridging the mechanics of bursting with coding of dynamic stimuli is an important step in establishing theories of neural coding. Electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) pyramidal neurons respond to static inputs with a complex dendrite-dependent burst mechanism. Here we show that in response to dynamic broadband stimuli, these bursts lack some of the electrophysiological characteristics observed in response to static inputs. A simple leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF)-style model with a dendrite-dependent depolarizing afterpotential (DAP) is sufficient to match both the output statistics and coding performance of experimental spike trains. We use this model to investigate a simplification of interval coding where the burst interspike interval (ISI) codes for the scale of a canonical upstroke rather than a multidimensional stimulus feature. Using this stimulus reduction, we compute a quantization of the burst ISIs and the upstroke scale to show that the mutual information rate of the interval code is maximized at a moderate DAP amplitude. The combination of a reduced description of ELL pyramidal cell bursting and a simplification of the interval code increases the generality of ELL burst codes to other sensory modalities.

  9. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  10. Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…

  11. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  12. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  13. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  14. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  15. Physiological adjustments to intensive interval treadmill training

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, F. S.; Elliott, B. C.; Morton, A. R.; Roberts, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    During a one month training period, eight active men, aged 23-35 years, completed sixteen 30 minute sessions of high intensity interval (5 second work bouts at 16.9 km/hr up 20-25% grade alternated with 10 second rest intervals) treadmill work. In this training period, V̇O2, V̇E and blood lactate in a 10 minute run at 12.9 km/hr on a level treadmill were unchanged but heart rate during this work decreased by an average of 9 beats/min. During a 4 minute interval work effort at the training intensity, blood lactate accumulation decreased by 40.4%. In exhausting work, mean values of V̇O2, V̇E and blood lactate increased by 6.2%, 8.2% and 31.6% respectively. Maximal heart rate decreased by an average of 4 beats/min. The average work production of the men in the training sessions improved by 64.5% from 28,160 kgm to 43,685 kgm. No significant improvements were observed in either a short sprint or a stair climbing test which assessed the ability to generate mechanical power from alactacid anaerobic sources. It was concluded that the training regime is an effective method of producing a high total work output in competitive athletes and results in improvements in aerobic power, glycolytic capacity and ability to tolerate the short duration interval work encountered in many games.

  16. Toward Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Guang Yong

    2007-01-01

    Confidence intervals are widely accepted as a preferred way to present study results. They encompass significance tests and provide an estimate of the magnitude of the effect. However, comparisons of correlations still rely heavily on significance testing. The persistence of this practice is caused primarily by the lack of simple yet accurate…

  17. Exact and Asymptotic Weighted Logrank Tests for Interval Censored Data: The interval R package

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael P.; Shaw, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    For right-censored data perhaps the most commonly used tests are weighted logrank tests, such as the logrank and Wilcoxon-type tests. In this paper we review several generalizations of those weighted logrank tests to interval-censored data and present an R package, interval, to implement many of them. The interval package depends on the perm package, also presented here, which performs exact and asymptotic linear permutation tests. The perm package performs many of the tests included in the already available coin package, and provides an independent validation of coin. We review analysis methods for interval-censored data, and we describe and show how to use the interval and perm packages. PMID:25285054

  18. A Robust Confidence Interval for Samples of Five Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    A robust confidence interval using biweights for the case of five observations is proposed when the underlying distribution has somewhat heavier...probabilities, the intervals proposed are highly efficient, in terms of the expected length of the confidence interval . (Author)

  19. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Brendan Morris; Pugh, Jamie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valerie; Moulin, Philippe; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control) or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise). On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05) (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h) compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h) with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05) after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05). There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  20. Zincobotryogen, ZnFe3+(SO4)2(OH)ṡ7H2O: validation as a mineral species and new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhuming; Giester, Gerald; Mao, Qian; Ma, Yuguang; Zhang, Di; Li, He

    2016-11-01

    Zincobotryogen occurs in the oxidation zone of the Xitieshan lead-zinc deposit, Qinghai, China. The mineral is associated with jarosite, copiapite, zincocopiapite, and quartz. The mineral forms prismatic crystals, 0.05 to 2 mm in size. It is optically positive (2Vcalc = 54.1°), with Z ‖ b and X ∧ c = 10°. The elongation is negative. The refractive indices are n α = 1.542(5), n β = 1.551(5), n γ = 1.587(5). The pleochroism scheme is X = colorless, Y = light yellow, Z = yellow. Microprobe analysis gave (in wt%): SO3 = 38.04, Al2O3 = 0.04, Fe2O3 = 18.46, ZnO = 13.75, MgO = 1.52, MnO = 1.23, H2O = 31.06 (by calculation), Total = 104.10. The simplified formula is (Zn,Mg)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH)ṡ7H2O. The mineral is monoclinic, P121/n1, a = 10.504(2), b = 17.801(4), c = 7.1263(14) Å, and β = 100.08(3)°, V = 1311.9(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern d(I)(hkl) are: 8.92 (100)(110), 6.32 (77)(-101), 5.56 (23)(021), 4.08 (22)(-221),3.21 (31)(231), 3.03 (34)(032), 2.77 (22)(042). The crystal structure was refined using 2816 unique reflections to R1(F) = 0.0355 and wR2(F 2) = 0.0651. The refined formula is (Zn0.84Mg0.16)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH)ṡ7H2O. The atomic arrangement is characterized by chains with composition [Fe3+(SO4)2(OH)(H2O)]2- and 7 Å repeat distance running parallel to the c-axis. The chain links to a [MO(H2O)5] octahedron (M = Zn, Mg) and an unshared H2O molecule, and forms a larger chain building module with composition [M 2+Fe3+(SO4)2(OH)(H2O)6(H2O)]. The inter-chain module linkage involves only hydrogen bonding.

  1. One-way ANOVA based on interval information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  2. The Rotator Interval of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Taylor, Dean; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Mologne, Timothy S.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown that repair or plication of rotator interval (RI) ligamentous and capsular structures decreases glenohumeral joint laxity in various directions. Clinical outcomes studies have reported successful outcomes after repair or plication of these structures in patients undergoing shoulder stabilization procedures. Recent studies describing arthroscopic techniques to address these structures have intensified the debate over the potential benefit of these procedures as well as highlighted the differences between open and arthroscopic RI procedures. The purposes of this study were to review the structures of the RI and their contribution to shoulder instability, to discuss the biomechanical and clinical effects of repair or plication of rotator interval structures, and to describe the various surgical techniques used for these procedures and outcomes. PMID:26779554

  3. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  4. Using interval logic for order assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself appears to be limited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic where the concepts of metric information, local orientation and uncertainty are merged. Then, we present and discuss a deductive and object-oriented data model based on this formalism for a genetic deductive database, and the inference rules required. The formalism supports the maintenance of coarser knowledge of unordered, partially ordered and completely ordered genetic data in a relational hierarchy. We believe that this integrated formalism also provides a formal basis for designing a declarative query language.

  5. Reliable prediction intervals with regression neural networks.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Harris; Haralambous, Haris

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes an extension to conventional regression neural networks (NNs) for replacing the point predictions they produce with prediction intervals that satisfy a required level of confidence. Our approach follows a novel machine learning framework, called Conformal Prediction (CP), for assigning reliable confidence measures to predictions without assuming anything more than that the data are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). We evaluate the proposed method on four benchmark datasets and on the problem of predicting Total Electron Content (TEC), which is an important parameter in trans-ionospheric links; for the latter we use a dataset of more than 60000 TEC measurements collected over a period of 11 years. Our experimental results show that the prediction intervals produced by our method are both well calibrated and tight enough to be useful in practice.

  6. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  7. Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.

  8. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Shihalov, G. M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the problem of characterization of chaotic dynamics at the input of a threshold device described by an integrate-and-fire (IF) or a threshold crossing (TC) model from the output sequences of interspike intervals (ISIs). We consider the conditions under which quite short sequences of spiking events provide correct identification of the dynamical regime characterized by the single positive Lyapunov exponent (LE). We discuss features of detecting the second LE for both types of the considered models of events generation.

  9. Temporal control mechanism in equaled interval tapping.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1996-05-01

    Subjects who were at intermediate levels of musical performance made equaled interval tapping in several tempos. The temporal fluctuation for the tapping was observed and analysed. The power spectrum of the fluctuation showed a critical phenomenon at around a frequency which corresponds to the period of 20 taps, for all tempos and all subjects, i.e., the slope of the spectrum was flat or had a positive value in the high frequency region above the critical frequency but it increased as the frequency decreased in the low frequency region below the critical frequency. Moreover, auto-regressive models and Akaike's information criterion were introduced to determine the critical tap number. The order of the best auto-regressive model for the temporal fluctuation data was distributed around 20 taps. These results show that the memory capacity of 20 taps governs the control of equaled interval tapping. To interpret the critical phenomenon of 20 taps with the memory capacity of the short term memory, the so called magic number seven, a simple chunking assumption was introduced; subjects might have unconsciously chunked every three taps during the tapping. If the chunking assumption is true, when subjects consciously chunk every seven taps, the memory capacity of taps should shift to about 50 taps. To test if the assumption is true or not, subjects made a three-beat rhythm tapping and a seven-beat rhythm tapping with equaled intervals. As a result, the memory capacity for these accented tappings were also estimated as 20 taps. This suggests that the critical phenomenon cannot be explained by the chunking assumption and the magic number seven, rather this finding suggests that there exists a memory capacity of 20 taps and this is used for equaled interval tapping.

  10. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  11. New Madrid seismic zone recurrence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S. Center for Earthquake Research and Information, Memphis, TN ); Ellis, M.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Frequency-magnitude relations in the New Madrid seismic zone suggest that great earthquakes should occur every 700--1,200 yrs, implying relatively high strain rates. These estimates are supported by some geological and GPS results. Recurrence intervals of this order should have produced about 50 km of strike-slip offset since Miocene time. No subsurface evidence for such large displacements is known within the seismic zone. Moreover, the irregular fault pattern forming a compressive step that one sees today is not compatible with large displacements. There are at least three possible interpretations of the observations of short recurrence intervals and high strain rates, but apparently youthful fault geometry and lack of major post-Miocene deformation. One is that the seismological and geodetic evidence are misleading. A second possibility is that activity in the region is cyclic. That is, the geological and geodetic observations that suggest relatively short recurrence intervals reflect a time of high, but geologically temporary, pore-fluid pressure. Zoback and Zoback have suggested such a model for intraplate seismicity in general. Alternatively, the New Madrid seismic zone is geologically young feature that has been active for only the last few tens of thousands of years. In support of this, observe an irregular fault geometry associated with a unstable compressive step, a series of en echelon and discontinuous lineaments that may define the position of a youthful linking fault, and the general absence of significant post-Eocene faulting or topography.

  12. Comparison of the antidepressive effects of trans-resveratrol and 5-methoxy-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-one.

    PubMed

    López, Miriam Cebey; Fontenla, José A; Uriarte, Eugenio; Santana, Lourdes; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the in vivo antidepressant effect of a natural phenolic compound, trans-resveratrol, and a synthetic derivative from Menispermum dauricum DC (Menispermaceae) 5-methoxy-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7- one known as 5-methoxyoxoisoaporphine (OXO 4). The antidepressant-like effect of trans-resveratrol and OXO 4 were evaluated through a Forced Swimming Test (FST), and they were compared with reference antidepressants: imipramine, desipramine, nomifensine, bupropion, nisoxetine, citalopram and moclobemide. Trans-resveratrol (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally i.p. significantly decreased the immobility time in mouse model of despair test (69.03 ± 8.74 sec) p<0.05, as well as OXO 4 (1mg/kg, i.p. (60.92 ± 11.37 sec); p<0.05. We also evaluate the OXO 4 at 15, 30 and 45 min. affording the mayor reduction at 30 minutes after the administration. Thus, our results suggest that OXO 4 has a great antidepressant effect non-reported for this type of isoquinoline alkaloids. The pharmaceutical use of OXO 4 in the treatment of depressive disorders is a therapeutic alternative to be studied.

  13. PTR-MS assessment of photocatalytic and sorption-based purification of recirculated cabin air during simulated 7-h flights with high passenger density.

    PubMed

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei; Arnaud, Timothy J; Hansel, Armin; Märk, Tilmann D; Wyon, David P

    2007-01-01

    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefilter; and a two-stage sorption-based air filter (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h flights with 17 occupants. Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was efficiently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units were found to incompletely oxidize ethanol released by the wet wipes commonly supplied with airline mealsto produce unacceptably high levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.

  14. Characterization of the sulphate mineral amarantite - Fe2(3+)(SO4)O·7H2O using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Xi, Yunfei; da Silveira, Aléssio J; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    The mineral amarantite Fe2(3+)(SO4)O·7H2O has been studied using a combination of techniques including thermogravimetry, electron probe analyses and vibrational spectroscopy. Thermal analysis shows decomposition steps at 77.63, 192.2, 550 and 641.4°C. The Raman spectrum of amarantite is dominated by an intense band at 1017 cm(-1) assigned to the SO4(2-) ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands at 1039, 1054, 1098, 1131, 1195 and 1233 cm(-1) are attributed to the SO4(2-) ν3 antisymmetric stretching modes. Very intense Raman band is observed at 409 cm(-1) with shoulder bands at 399, 451 and 491 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν2 bending modes. A series of low intensity Raman bands are found at 543, 602, 622 and 650 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 bending modes. A very sharp Raman band at 3529 cm(-1) is assigned to the stretching vibration of OH units. A series of Raman bands observed at 3025, 3089, 3227, 3340, 3401 and 3480 cm(-1) are assigned to water bands. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral amarantite to be ascertained.

  15. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Whole-Genome Sequence Data of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- Strains by Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Hirai, Shinichiro; Ishige, Taichiro; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Nine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- (O157) strains were serially cultured three times on LB agar plates. After each sub-culture, five colonies were picked for DNA isolation and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. After exclusion of possible recombination-related SNPs, 11, 9, and 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in genes in the backbone, O-island, and mobile elements gene categories. This suggested that those SNPs due to cultivation could influence the threshold value set for molecular epidemiological studies of O157. Significant differences were observed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.01) when the number of the SNPs in a strain was compared to that in other strains. This indicated that a specific number of strains could be used for setting the threshold value in molecular epidemiological studies. Due to cultivation, the SNPs were also detected in genes in a few core genome or core gene sets, suggesting that those SNPs could affect studies of phylogeny as well as molecular epidemiology. To improve the accuracy of phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies, genes in which the SNPs have arisen due to cultivation should be excluded from WGS data.

  16. Anti-proliferative activity of 2,6-dichloro-9- or 7-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-9H- or 7H-purines against several human solid tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Morales, Fátima; Ramírez, Alberto; Conejo-García, Ana; Morata, Cynthia; Marchal, Juan A; Campos, Joaquín M

    2014-04-09

    As leads we took several benzo-fused seven- and six-membered scaffolds linked to the pyrimidine or purine moieties with notable anti-proliferative activity against human breast, colon and melanoma cancerous cell lines. We then decided to maintain the double-ringed nitrogenous bases and change the other components to the ethyl acetate moiety. This way six purine and two 5-fluorouracil derivatives were obtained and evaluated against the MCF-7, HCT-116, A-375 and G-361 cancer cell lines. Two QSARs are obtained between the anti-proliferative IC₅₀ values for compounds 26-33 and the clog P against the melanoma cell lines A-375 and G-361. Our results show that two of the analogues [ethyl 2-(2,6-dichloro-9H- or 7H-purine-9- or 7-yl)acetates (30 and 33, respectively)] are potent cytotoxic agents against all the tumour cell lines assayed, showing single-digit micromolar IC₅₀ values. This exemplifies the potential of our previously reported purine compounds to qualify as lead structures for medicinal chemistry campaigns, affording simplified analogues easy to synthesize and with a noteworthy bioactivity. The selective activity of 30 and 33 against the melanoma cell line A-375, via apoptosis, supposes a great advantage for a future therapeutic use.

  17. Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaowen; Jiang, Zhiben; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Quanjiao; Tu, Xiaobin; Chen, Ze; Chang, Jianyu; Li, Laixing; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-22

    Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society.

  18. [Normal confidence interval for a summary measure].

    PubMed

    Bernard, P M

    2000-10-01

    This paper proposes an approach for calculating the normal confidence interval of a weighted summary measure which requires a particular continuous transformation for its variance estimation. By using the transformation properties and applying the delta method, the variance of transformed measure is easily expressed in terms of the transformed specific measure variances and the squared weights. The confidence limits of the summary measure are easily deduced by inverse transformation of those of transformed measure. The method is illustrated by applying it to some well known epidemiological measures. It seems appropriate for application in stratified analysis context where size allows normal approximation.

  19. Feedback functions for variable-interval reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.; Baum, William M.

    1980-01-01

    On a given variable-interval schedule, the average obtained rate of reinforcement depends on the average rate of responding. An expression for this feedback effect is derived from the assumptions that free-operant responding occurs in bursts with a constant tempo, alternating with periods of engagement in other activities; that the durations of bursts and other activities are exponentially distributed; and that the rates of initiating and terminating bursts are inversely related. The expression provides a satisfactory account of the data of three experiments. PMID:16812187

  20. Asymptotic Theory for Nonparametric Confidence Intervals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    distributions. Ann. Math Statist. 14, 56-62. 24. ROY, S.N. and POTTHOFF, R.F. (1958). Confidence bounds on vector analogues of the "ratio of the mean" and...fl c,~_________ 14L TITLE feed &MV) S. TYPE or REPORT a PeftOo COVx:REC Asympeocic Theory for Nonaparuetric Technical Report Confidence Intevals 6...S..C-0S78 UNCLASSIFIED TŗU *uuuuumuuumhhhhmhhhm_4 ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR NONPARAMETRIC CONFIDENCE INTERVALS by Peter W. Glynn TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 63

  1. The mixed anion mineral parnauite Cu 9[(OH) 10|SO 4|(AsO 4) 2]·7H 2O—A Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Keeffe, Eloise C.

    2011-10-01

    The mixed anion mineral parnauite Cu 9[(OH) 10|SO 4|(AsO 4) 2]·7H 2O from two localities namely Cap Garonne Mine, Le Pradet, France and Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County, Nevada, USA has been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum of the French sample is dominated by an intense band at 975 cm -1 assigned to the ν1 (SO 4) 2- symmetric stretching mode and Raman bands at 1077 and 1097 cm -1 may be attributed to the ν3 (SO 4) 2- antisymmetric stretching mode. Two Raman bands 1107 and 1126 cm -1 are assigned to carbonate CO 32- symmetric stretching bands and confirms the presence of carbonate in the structure of parnauite. The comparatively sharp band for the Pershing County mineral at 976 cm -1 is assigned to the ν1 (SO 4) 2- symmetric stretching mode and a broad spectral profile centered upon 1097 cm -1 is attributed to the ν3 (SO 4) 2- antisymmetric stretching mode. Two intense bands for the Pershing County mineral at 851 and 810 cm -1 are assigned to the ν1 (AsO 4) 3- symmetric stretching and ν3 (AsO 4) 3- antisymmetric stretching modes. Two Raman bands for the French mineral observed at 725 and 777 cm -1 are attributed to the ν3 (AsO 4) 3- antisymmetric stretching mode. For the French mineral, a low intensity Raman band is observed at 869 cm -1 and is assigned to the ν1 (AsO 4) 3- symmetric stretching vibration. Chemical composition of parnauite remains open and the question may be raised is parnauite a solid solution of two or more minerals such as a copper hydroxy-arsenate and a copper hydroxy sulphate.

  2. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1)

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Michal; Zhang, Qian; Goradia, Ami; Raghunath, Puthiyaveettil N.; Liu, Xiaobin; Paessler, Michele; Wang, Hong Yi; Wysocka, Maria; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce A.; Wasik, Mariusz A.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation caused by the oncogenic, chimeric nucleophosmin (NPM)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) remain only partially understood, with most of the previous studies focusing mainly on the impact of NPM/ALK on cell survival and proliferation. Here we report that the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells strongly express the immunosuppressive cell-surface protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1), as determined on the mRNA and protein level. The CD274 expression is strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK, as demonstrated by inhibition of the NPM/ALK function in ALK+TCL cells by the small molecule ALK inhibitor CEP-14083 and by documenting CD274 expression in IL-3-depleted BaF3 cells transfected with the wild-type NPM/ALK, but not the kinase-inactive NPM/ALK K210R mutant or empty vector alone. NPM/ALK induces CD274 expression by activating its key signal transmitter, transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 binds to the CD274 gene promoter in vitro and in vivo, as shown in the gel electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and is required for the PD-L1 gene expression, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated STAT3 depletion. These findings identify an additional cell-transforming property of NPM/ALK and describe a direct link between an oncoprotein and an immunosuppressive cell-surface protein. These results also provide an additional rationale to therapeutically target NPM/ALK and STAT3 in ALK+TCL. Finally, they suggest that future immunotherapeutic protocols for this type of lymphoma may need to include the inhibition of NPM/ALK and STAT3 to achieve optimal clinical efficacy. PMID:19088198

  3. Amniotic fluid stem cells provide considerable advantages in epidermal regeneration: B7H4 creates a moderate inflammation microenvironment to promote wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing; Li, Fang; Li, Hong; Chen, Rui-Hua; Gu, Yan-Zheng; Chen, Ying; Liang, Han-Si; You, Xin-Ran; Ding, Si-Si; Gao, Ling; Wang, Yun-Liang; Qin, Ming-De; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments for severe skin injury all involve skin grafting. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor skin tissue. In this study, we examined the advantages of using human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells in skin wound healing. In vitro, hAFS cells differentiate into keratinocytes (termed hAFS-K). Like keratinocytes, hAFS-K cells express the markers K5, K14, K10 and involucrin; display typical cellular structure, including a tonofibril-rich cytoplasm; and construct a completely pluristratified epithelium in 3D culture. In vivo, in a mouse excisional wound model, GFP-positive hAFS cells participate in wound repair. Co-localization of GFP/K14 and GFP/K10 in the repaired epidermis demonstrated that hAFS cells can differentiate into keratinocytes. Real-time PCR results confirmed that hAFS cells can initiate and promote early-stage repair of skin damage. During wound repair, hAFS cells did not directly secrete repair-related factors, such as bFGF, VEGF, CXCL12, TGF-β1 and KGF, and provided a moderate inflammation reaction with lower expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Cox2 and Mac3. In hAFS cells, the negative co-stimulatory molecule B7H4 regulates low immunogenicity, which can provide a modest inflammatory reaction microenvironment for wound repair. Furthermore, with their uniquely high proliferation rate, hAFS cells offer a promising alternative for epidermal regeneration. PMID:26101181

  4. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    PubMed

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  5. Neurocomputational Models of Interval and Pattern Timing

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nicholas F.; Buonomano, Dean V.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the computations and tasks performed by the brain require the ability to tell time, and process and generate temporal patterns. Thus, there is a diverse set of neural mechanisms in place to allow the brain to tell time across a wide range of scales: from interaural delays on the order of microseconds to circadian rhythms and beyond. Temporal processing is most sophisticated on the scale of tens of milliseconds to a few seconds, because it is within this range that the brain must recognize and produce complex temporal patterns—such as those that characterize speech and music. Most models of timing, however, have focused primarily on simple intervals and durations, thus it is not clear whether they will generalize to complex pattern-based temporal tasks. Here, we review neurobiologically based models of timing in the subsecond range, focusing on whether they generalize to tasks that require placing consecutive intervals in the context of an overall pattern, that is, pattern timing. PMID:27790629

  6. [Severe craniocerebral injuries with a lucid interval].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, J; Rubio, E; Castaño, C H; Guitart, J M; Bosch, J

    1993-02-01

    Some variables were analyzed in 35 patients with severe cranioencephalic injuries following a lucid interval according to mortality. The variables analyzed were: age of less than 40 years, interval of time accident-admission (TAA), admission-operation (TAO), level of consciousness (Glasgow scale), associated extracranial lesions, type of intracranial lesion, and tomodensitometric signs of intracranial hypertension. The only variables demonstrating significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) were the level of consciousness (Glasgow scale < 6 points) and the presence of subdural hematoma. Twelve (70.5%) patients who died had less than 6 on the Glasgow scale and in contrast only 5 (27.7%) of the living. Eleven (64.7%) of the group who died and 4 (22.2%) of the living had subdural hematoma. These data suggest that the level of consciousness and the type of lesion are determining factors of the mortality in this type of patients. Early detection and energic treatment of secondary lesions contribute to prognostic improvement of cranioencephalic injuries.

  7. Cationic cobalt(III) complex as anion receptor for biologically important anion: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structure of [Co(phen) 3](C 7H 4NSO 3) 3.8.5H 2O where C 7H 4NSO 3 = saccharinate ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajnesh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Brandão, Paula; Felix, Vitor; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2008-11-01

    In an effort to explore [Co(phen) 3] 3+ complex cation as anion receptor for biologically important saccharinate ion, yellow coloured single crystals of [Co(phen) 3](C 7H 4NSO 3) 3.8.5H 2O were obtained by slow evaporation of solution, obtained by mixing the separately dissolved, tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III)chloride and sodium saccharinate in aqueous medium in 1:3 molar ratio. The newly synthesized complex salt was characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, conductance, solubility product measurements and spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/Visible, 1H and 13C NMR). Single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(phen) 3](C 7H 4NSO 3) 3.8.5H 2O revealed that compound crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with space group P1¯ where a = 12.3795(4), b = 12.7598(4), c = 19.0414(5) Å, α = 71.544(2), β = 76.457(2), γ = 9 77.213(2)°, V = 2738.19(14) Å 3, Z = 2. The crystal lattice is stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions of type O sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯O (through second sphere coordination) besides the electrostatic forces of attraction. The solubility product and conductance measurements indicated that the affinity of cationic tris(1,10-phenanthroline) cobalt (III), [Co(phen) 3] 3+ is greater for saccharinate ion than for chloride ion in aqueous medium. The structural studies suggest that [Co(phen) 3] 3+ is a potential anion receptor for the saccharinate ion.

  8. A novel technique for measurement of thermal rate constants and temperature dependences of dissociative recombination: CO2+, CF3+, N2O+, C7H8+, C7H7+, C6H6+, C6H5+, C5H6+, C4H4+, and C3H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Joseph A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Melko, Joshua J.; Ard, Shaun G.; Viggiano, Albert A.

    2013-04-01

    A novel technique using a flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatus for measurement of temperature dependences of rate constants for dissociative recombination (DR) is presented. Low (˜1011 cm-3) concentrations of a neutral precursor are added to a noble gas/electron afterglow plasma thermalized at 300-500 K. Charge exchange yields one or many cation species, each of which may undergo DR. Relative ion concentrations are monitored at a fixed reaction time while the initial plasma density is varied between 109 and 1010 cm-3. Modeling of the decrease in concentration of each cation relative to the non-recombining noble gas cation yields the rate constant for DR. The technique is applied to several species (O2+, CO2+, CF3+, N2O+) with previously determined 300 K values, showing excellent agreement. The measurements of those species are extended to 500 K, with good agreement to literature values where they exist. Measurements are also made for a range of CnHm+ (C7H7+, C7H8+, C5H6+, C4H4+, C6H5+, C3H3+, and C6H6+) derived from benzene and toluene neutral precursors. CnHm+ DR rate constants vary from 8-12 × 10-7 cm3 s-1 at 300 K with temperature dependences of approximately T-0.7. Where prior measurements exist these results are in agreement, with the exception of C3H3+ where the present results disagree with a previously reported flat temperature dependence.

  9. A novel technique for measurement of thermal rate constants and temperature dependences of dissociative recombination: CO2(+), CF3(+), N2O(+), C7H8(+), C7H7(+), C6H6(+), C6H5(+), C5H6(+), C4H4(+), and C3H3(+).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Joseph A; Shuman, Nicholas S; Melko, Joshua J; Ard, Shaun G; Viggiano, Albert A

    2013-04-21

    A novel technique using a flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatus for measurement of temperature dependences of rate constants for dissociative recombination (DR) is presented. Low (~10(11) cm(-3)) concentrations of a neutral precursor are added to a noble gas∕electron afterglow plasma thermalized at 300-500 K. Charge exchange yields one or many cation species, each of which may undergo DR. Relative ion concentrations are monitored at a fixed reaction time while the initial plasma density is varied between 10(9) and 10(10) cm(-3). Modeling of the decrease in concentration of each cation relative to the non-recombining noble gas cation yields the rate constant for DR. The technique is applied to several species (O2(+), CO2(+), CF3(+), N2O(+)) with previously determined 300 K values, showing excellent agreement. The measurements of those species are extended to 500 K, with good agreement to literature values where they exist. Measurements are also made for a range of CnHm(+) (C7H7(+), C7H8(+), C5H6(+), C4H4(+), C6H5(+), C3H3(+), and C6H6(+)) derived from benzene and toluene neutral precursors. CnHm(+) DR rate constants vary from 8-12 × 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) at 300 K with temperature dependences of approximately T(-0.7). Where prior measurements exist these results are in agreement, with the exception of C3H3(+) where the present results disagree with a previously reported flat temperature dependence.

  10. Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Exercise Differing in Interval Duration.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-12-01

    We determined the oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate responses to 2 high-intensity interval exercise protocols differing in interval length. On separate days, 14 recreationally active males performed a 4 × 4 (four 4-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 3-minute recovery at 50 W) and 16 × 1 (sixteen 1-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 1-minute recovery at 50 W) protocol on a cycle ergometer. The 4 × 4 elicited a higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (2.44 ± 0.4 vs. 2.36 ± 0.4 L·min) and "peak" V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (90-99% vs. 76-85% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and HR (95-98% HRpeak vs. 81-95% HRpeak) during the high-intensity intervals. Average power maintained was higher for the 16 × 1 (241 ± 45 vs. 204 ± 37 W), and recovery interval V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR were higher during the 16 × 1. No differences were observed for blood lactate concentrations at the midpoint (12.1 ± 2.2 vs. 10.8 ± 3.1 mmol·L) and end (10.6 ± 1.5 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 mmol·L) of the protocols or ratings of perceived exertion (7.0 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4) and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores (91 ± 15 vs. 93 ± 12). Despite a 4-fold difference in interval duration that produced greater between-interval transitions in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR and slightly higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 during the 4 × 4, mean HR during each protocol was the same, and both protocols were rated similarly for perceived exertion and enjoyment. The major difference was that power output had to be reduced during the 4 × 4 protocol to maintain the desired HR.

  11. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tanzy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs) for QTL. Support interval (SI) methods based on the shape of the QTL likelihood curve have proven adequate for standard interval mapping, but have not been shown to be appropriate for use with composite interval mapping (CIM), which is one of the most commonly used QTL mapping methods. Results Based on a non-parametric confidence interval (NPCI) method designed for use with the Haley-Knott regression method for mapping QTL, a CIM-specific method (CIM-NPCI) was developed to appropriately account for the selection of background markers during analysis of bootstrap-resampled data sets. Coverage probabilities and interval widths resulting from use of the NPCI, SI, and CIM-NPCI methods were compared in a series of simulations analyzed via CIM, wherein four genetic effects were simulated in chromosomal regions with distinct marker densities while heritability was fixed at 0.6 for a population of 200 isolines. CIM-NPCIs consistently capture the simulated QTL across these conditions while slightly narrower SIs and NPCIs fail at unacceptably high rates, especially in genomic regions where marker density is high, which is increasingly common for real studies. The effects of a known CIM bias toward locating QTL peaks at markers were also investigated for each marker density case. Evaluation of sub-simulations that varied according to the positions of simulated effects relative to the nearest markers showed that the CIM-NPCI method overcomes this bias, offering an explanation for the improved coverage probabilities when marker densities are high. Conclusions Extensive simulation studies herein demonstrate that the QTL confidence interval methods typically used to positionally evaluate CIM results can be dramatically improved

  12. A primer on confidence intervals in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-01

    Research papers and research summaries frequently present results in the form of data accompanied by 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Not all students and clinicians know how to interpret CIs. This article provides a nontechnical, nonmathematical discussion on how to understand and glean information from CIs; all explanations are accompanied by simple examples. A statistically accurate explanation about CIs is also provided. CIs are differentiated from standard deviations, standard errors, and confidence levels. The interpretation of narrow and wide CIs is discussed. Factors that influence the width of a CI are listed. Explanations are provided for how CIs can be used to assess statistical significance. The significance of overlapping and nonoverlapping CIs is considered. It is concluded that CIs are far more informative than, say, mere P values when drawing conclusions about a result.

  13. How do I interpret a confidence interval?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Yi, Qi Long

    2016-07-01

    A 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean is a range with an upper and lower number calculated from a sample. Because the true population mean is unknown, this range describes possible values that the mean could be. If multiple samples were drawn from the same population and a 95% CI calculated for each sample, we would expect the population mean to be found within 95% of these CIs. CIs are sensitive to variability in the population (spread of values) and sample size. When used to compare the means of two or more treatment groups, a CI shows the magnitude of a difference between groups. This is helpful in understanding both the statistical significance and the clinical significance of a treatment. In this article we describe the basic principles of CIs and their interpretation.

  14. The role of human cytochrome P4503A4 in biotransformation of tissue-specific derivatives of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Mesarosova, Monika; Valovicova, Zuzana; Srancikova, Annamaria; Krajcovicova, Zdenka; Milcova, Alena; Sokolova, Romana; Schmuczerova, Jana; Topinka, Jan; Gabelova, Alena

    2011-09-15

    The environmental pollutant 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and its derivative, 5,9-dimethylDBC (DiMeDBC), produced significant and dose-dependent levels of micronuclei followed by a substantial increase in the frequency of apoptotic cells in the V79MZh3A4 cell line stably expressing the human cytochrome P450 (hCYP) 3A4. In contrast, neither micronuclei nor apoptosis were found in cells exposed to the sarcomagenic carcinogen, N-methylDBC (N-MeDBC). A slight but significant level of gene mutations and DNA adducts detected in V79MZh3A4 cells treated with N-MeDBC, only at the highest concentration (30 {mu}M), revealed that this sarcomagenic carcinogen was also metabolized by hCYP3A4. Surprisingly, DBC increased the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant (6-TG{sup r}) mutations only at the highest concentration (30 {mu}M), while DiMeDBC failed to increase the frequency of these mutations. The resistance to 6-thioguanine is caused by the mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) gene. The molecular analysis of the coding region of Hprt gene showed a deletion of the entire exon 8 in DiMeDBC-induced 6-TG{sup r} mutants, while no changes in the nucleotide sequences were identified in 6-TG{sup r} mutants produced by DBC and N-MeDBC. Based on our results, we suggest that hCYP3A4 is involved in the metabolism of DBC and its tissue-specific derivatives. While hCYP3A4 probably plays an important role in biotransformation of the liver carcinogens, DBC and DiMeDBC, it might only have a marginal function in N-MeDBC metabolism. - Highlights: > DBC activation via CYP3A4 resulted in micronuclei, DNA adduct formation and mutations in V79MZh3A4 cells. > The CYP3A4-mediated DiMeDBC activation caused micronuclei followed by apoptosis in V79MZh3A4 cells. > The genotoxic effects produced by N-MeDBC in V79MZh3A4 cells were negligible. > The hCYP3A4 may play an important role in DBC and DiMeDBC metabolism. > The CYP3A4 might only have a marginal function in N

  15. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  16. Interval Estimation of the Population Squared Multiple Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, John T.; Moore, James F.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is presented which applies the Neyman theory of confidence intervals to interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient. A computer program is presented which can be used to apply the technique. (Author/JKS)

  17. COMPARISON OF BLOOD PROTEIN AND TARGET ORGAN DNA AND PROTEIN BINDING FOLLOWING TOPICAL APPLICATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE AND 7H-DIBENZO[C,G]CARBAZOLE TO MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) induces skin and liver tumors in mice following topical application, whereas benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces only skin tumors. DBC also binds to liver DNA to a much greater extent than does BP. The present study examined factors that might account for t...

  18. Characteristics of supercritical turbulence from Direct Numerical Simulations of C(sub 7)H(sub 16)/N(sub 2) and O(sub 2)/H(sub 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N. A.; Bellan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) transitional states of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 shows that the evolution of all layers is characterized by the formation of high-density-gradient magnitude (HDGM) regions.

  19. Overestimation of the second time interval replaces time-shrinking when the difference between two adjacent time intervals increases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Emi; Yamashita, Miki; Haraguchi, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    When the onsets of three successive sound bursts mark two adjacent time intervals, the second time interval can be underestimated when it is physically longer than the first time interval by up to 100 ms. This illusion, time-shrinking, is very stable when the first time interval is 200 ms or shorter (Nakajima et al., 2004, Perception, 33). Time-shrinking had been considered a kind of perceptual assimilation to make the first and the second time interval more similar to each other. Here we investigated whether the underestimation of the second time interval was replaced by an overestimation if the physical difference between the neighboring time intervals was too large for the assimilation to take place; this was a typical situation in which a perceptual contrast could be expected. Three experiments to measure the overestimation/underestimation of the second time interval by the method of adjustment were conducted. The first time interval was varied from 40 to 280 ms, and such overestimations indeed took place when the first time interval was 80-280 ms. The overestimations were robust when the second time interval was longer than the first time interval by 240 ms or more, and the magnitude of the overestimation was larger than 100 ms in some conditions. Thus, a perceptual contrast to replace time-shrinking was established. An additional experiment indicated that this contrast did not affect the perception of the first time interval substantially: The contrast in the present conditions seemed unilateral.

  20. Application of Sequential Interval Estimation to Adaptive Mastery Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we apply sequential one-sided confidence interval estimation procedures with beta-protection to adaptive mastery testing. The procedures of fixed-width and fixed proportional accuracy confidence interval estimation can be viewed as extensions of one-sided confidence interval procedures. It can be shown that the adaptive mastery…

  1. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  2. A METHOD OF DETERMINING A CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR AVAILABILITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents a method of determining a confidence interval for availability when it is estimated from the mean time between equipment...for a confidence interval for availability. An example is included to demonstrate the procedure of placing a confidence interval about the estimated availability.

  3. Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Departure Interval: Does Patient Age Matter?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Bruno; Pasquier, Mathieu; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Dami, Fabrice

    2016-12-01

    Introduction The concept of response time with minimal interval is intimately related to the practice of emergency medicine. The factors influencing this time interval are poorly understood. Problem In a process of improvement of response time, the impact of the patient's age on ambulance departure intervals was investigated.

  4. MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jun; Lei, Ting; Xu, Congjie; Li, Huan; Ma, Wenmin; Yang, Yunxia; Fan, Shuming; Liu, Yuchen

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •miR-187 is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). •Down-regulation of miR-187 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ccRCC. •miR-187 inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3 in ccRCC. -- Abstract: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5 years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3′-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC.

  5. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  6. Statistical Coding and Decoding of Heartbeat Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C.; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems. PMID:21694763

  7. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  8. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  9. Interval bisection in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Orduña, Vladimir; Hong, Enrique; Bouzas, Arturo

    2007-01-10

    An interval bisection procedure was used to study time discrimination in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which have been proposed as an animal model for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats were used as comparison groups. In this procedure, after subjects learn to make one response (S) following a short duration stimulus, and another (L) following a long duration stimulus, stimuli of intermediate durations are presented, and the percentage of L is calculated for each duration. A logistic function is fitted to these data, and different parameters that describe the time discrimination process are obtained. Four conditions, with different short and long durations (1-4, 2-8, 3-12, 4-16s) were used. The results indicate that time discrimination is not altered in SHR, given that no difference in any of the parameters obtained were significant. Given that temporal processing has been proposed as a fundamental factor in the development of the main symptoms of ADHD, and that deficits in time discrimination have been found in individuals with that disorder, the present results suggest the necessity of exploring time perception in SHR with other procedures and sensory modalities, in order to assess its validity as an animal model of ADHD.

  10. Hydrido copper clusters supported by dithiocarbamates: oxidative hydride removal and neutron diffraction analysis of [Cu7(H){S2C(aza-15-crown-5)}6].

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping-Kuei; Fang, Ching-Shiang; Edwards, Alison J; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2012-06-18

    Reactions of Cu(I) salts with Na(S(2)CR) (R = N(n)Pr(2), NEt(2), aza-15-crown-5), and (Bu(4)N)(BH(4)) in an 8:6:1 ratio in CH(3)CN solution at room temperature yield the monocationic hydride-centered octanuclear Cu(I) clusters, [Cu(8)(H){S(2)CR}(6)](PF(6)) (R = N(n)Pr(2), 1(H); NEt(2), 2(H); aza-15-crown-5, 3(H)). Further reactions of [Cu(8)(H){S(2)CR}(6)](PF(6)) with 1 equiv of (Bu(4)N)(BH(4)) produced neutral heptanuclear copper clusters, [Cu(7)(H){S(2)CR}(6)] (R = N(n)Pr(2), 4(H); NEt(2), 5(H); aza-15-crown-5, 6(H)) and clusters 4-6 can also be generated from the reaction of Cu(BF(4))(2), Na(S(2)CR), and (Bu(4)N)(BH(4)) in a 7:6:8 molar ratio in CH(3)CN. Reformation of cationic Cu(I)(8) clusters by adding 1 equiv of Cu(I) salt to the neutral Cu(7) clusters in solution is observed. Intriguingly, the central hydride in [Cu(8)(H){S(2)CN(n)Pr(2)}(6)](PF(6)) can be oxidatively removed as H(2) by Ce(NO(3))(6)(2-) to yield [Cu(II)(S(2)CN(n)Pr(2))(2)] exploiting the redox-tolerant nature of dithiocarbamates. Regeneration of hydride-centered octanuclear copper clusters from the [Cu(II)(S(2)CN(n)Pr(2))(2)] can be achieved by reaction with Cu(I) ions and borohydride. The hydride release and regeneration of Cu(I)(8) was monitored by UV-visible titration experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first time that hydride encapsulated within a copper cluster can be released as H(2) via chemical means. All complexes have been fully characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, and elemental analysis, and molecular structures of 1(H), 2(H), and 6(H) were clearly established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both 1(H) and 2(H) exhibit a tetracapped tetrahedral Cu(8) skeleton, which is inscribed within a S(12) icosahedron constituted by six dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands in a tetrametallic-tetraconnective (μ(2), μ(2)) bonding mode. The copper framework of 6(H) is a tricapped distorted tetrahedron in which the four-coordinate hydride is demonstrated to occupy the central site by

  11. Yegorovite, Na4[Si4O8(OH)4]·7H2O, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Grishin, V. G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A new mineral, yegorovite, has been identified in the late hydrothermal, low-temperature assemblage of the Palitra hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mt. Kedykverpakhk, Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is intimately associated with revdite and megacyclite, earlier natrosilite, microcline, and villiaumite. Yegorovite occurs as coarse, usually split prismatic (up to 0.05 × 0.15 × 1 mm) or lamellar (up to 0.05 × 0.7 × 0.8 mm) crystals. Polysynthetic twins and parallel intergrowths are typical. Mineral individuals are combined in bunches or chaotic groups (up to 2 mm); radial-lamellar clusters are less frequent. Yegorovite is colorless, transparent with vitreous luster. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and (001). Fracture is splintery; crystals are readily split into acicular fragments. The Mohs hardness is ˜2. Density is 1.90(2) g/cm3 (meas) and 1.92 g/cm3 (calc). Yegorovite is biaxial (-), with α = 1.474(2), β = 1.479(2), and γ = 1.482(2), 2 V meas > 70°, 2 V calc = 75°. The optical orientation is X ∧ a ˜ 15°, Y = c, Z = b. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition determined using an electron microprobe (H2O determined from total deficiency) is (wt %): 23.28 Na2O, 45.45 SiO2, 31.27 H2Ocalc; the total is 100.00. The empirical formula is Na3.98Si4.01O8.02(OH)3.98 · 7.205H2O. The idealized formula is Na4[Si4O8(OH)4] · 7H2O. Yegorovite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 9.874, b= 12.398, c = 14.897 Å, β = 104.68°, V = 1764.3 Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å ( I, %)([ hkl]) are 7.21(70)[002], 6.21(72)[012, 020], 4.696(44)[022], 4.003(49)[211], 3.734(46)[ bar 2 13], 3.116(100)[024, 040], 2.463(38)[ bar 4 02, bar 2 43]. The crystal structure was studied by single-crystal method, R hkl = 0.0745. Yegorovite is a representative of a new structural type. Its structure consists of single chains of Si tetrahedrons [Si4O8(OH)4]∞ and sixfold polyhedrons

  12. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  13. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine.

  14. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  15. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  16. Lutein ester profile in wheat and tritordeum can be modulated by temperature: Evidences for regioselectivity and fatty acid preferential of enzymes encoded by genes on chromosomes 7D and 7H(ch).

    PubMed

    Mattera, M G; Hornero-Méndez, D; Atienza, S G

    2017-03-15

    The increase of lutein retention through the food chain is desirable for wheat breeding. Lutein esters are more stable than free lutein during post-harvest storage and two loci on chromosomes 7D and 7H(ch) are important for esterification. We investigated the effect of temperature during grain filling on carotenoid accumulation and lutein ester profile including fatty acid selectivity (palmitic vs. linoleic) and regioselectivity (esterification at positions 3 vs. 3'). Three different temperature regimes were assayed (controlled, semi-controlled and non-controlled). Lutein esters were more stable than free carotenoids in vivo and the enzymes encoded by chromosomes 7H(ch) and 7D are complementary. Indeed, they show differential preferences for the fatty acid (palmitic and linoleic, respectively) and regioselectivity (3 and 3', respectively). Besides, H. chilense has additional genes for esterification. Finally, the increase of temperature favoured the accumulation of lutein esters with linoleic acid and the synthesis of regioisomers at position 3'.

  17. Tetrahedral-Atom 3-Ring Groupings in One-Dimensional Inorganic Chains: Be2AsO4OH-4H2O and Na2ZnPO4OH-7H2O

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-15

    connections. Adjacent stacks are interconnected vio a complex arrangement of sodium cations and water molecules. I&. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...rings which include Zn-(OH)-Zn connections. Adjacent stacks are interconnected via a complex arrangement of sodium cations and water molecules. MTrC...above paragraph, we describe the preparations, structures and properties of two new phases; a zincophosphate , Na2ZnPO 4OH-7H 20 (NaZnPO), and a

  18. 7-cyclopentyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-ylamine inhibits the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK and Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyang-Hee; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Chang Youn; Lim, Kyu Hee; Lee, Jiyun; Lim, Soyeon; Lee, Seahyoung; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2017-03-05

    Excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration after vascular injury significantly contributes to the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, inhibiting the proliferation and migration of VSMCs is a validated therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, we screened chemical compounds for their anti-proliferative effects on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as MTT assays, wound healing assays, and trans-well migration assays. Our data indicate that 7-cyclopentyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-ylamine, a lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) inhibitor, significantly inhibited both VSMC proliferation and migration. 7-cyclopentyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamine suppresses VSMC proliferation and migration via down-regulating the protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, and it significantly decreased the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and, the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Additionally, 7-cyclopentyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-ylamine suppressed the migration of VSMCs from endothelium-removed aortic rings, as well as neointima formation following rat carotid balloon injury. The present study identified 7-cyclopentyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamine as a potent VSMC proliferation and migration inhibitor and warrants further studies to elucidate its more detailed molecular mechanisms, such as its primary target, and to further validate its in vivo efficacy as a therapeutic agent for pathologic vascular conditions, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis.

  19. Immune Sculpting of Norepinephrine on MHC-I, B7-1, IDO and B7-H1 Expression and Regulation of Proliferation and Invasion in Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liancai; Liu, Han; Chen, Xiangli; Zhang, Min; Xie, Keping; Ma, Qingyong

    2012-01-01

    Background The sympathetic neurotransmitter Norepinephrine (NE) contributes to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. This study aims to investigate the role of NE in modulating the immune phenotype and allowing pancreatic carcinoma (PC) cells to escape the immune response. Methods Varied concentrations of NE and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were administrated to MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cell lines for 48 hours. Proliferation and invasion were then investigated using an MTT assay and a membrane invasion culture system respectively. MHC-I, B7-1, IDO and B7-H1 expression were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The synergistic and time-dependent effects of NE/IFN-γ were also investigated. Adrenergic antagonists were used to identify the relevant target receptor of NE. Results The results showed that NE had dose-dependent and time-dependent effects on cell biological processes as well as on the expression of MHC-I, B7-1, IDO and B7-H1. These effects occurred mainly via the β2-adrenergic receptor. Long-term NE treatment was able to antagonize some of the effects of IFN-γ (after 2 weeks of treatment), but NE and IFN-γ had significant synergistic stimulatory effects on IDO and B7-H1 expression. The residual effects on biological activities lasted for 2 weeks, while the immunophenotypic changes decreased at early time points after treatment. Conclusions NE plays important roles in modulating PC cell biological activities and affecting MHC-I, B7-1, IDO and B7-H1 expression in vitro, mainly via the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Only at extended treatment durations could NE affect PC cell progression and immune evasion. PMID:23029049

  20. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hebisz, Rafal; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid–base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists. PMID:28149346

  1. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience.

    PubMed

    Hebisz, Rafal; Hebisz, Paulina; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid-base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists.

  2. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish.

  3. Contrasting Diversity Values: Statistical Inferences Based on Overlapping Confidence Intervals

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  4. Contrasting diversity values: statistical inferences based on overlapping confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance).

  5. IBM system/360 assembly language interval arithmetic software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Computer software designed to perform interval arithmetic is described. An interval is defined as the set of all real numbers between two given numbers including or excluding one or both endpoints. Interval arithmetic consists of the various elementary arithmetic operations defined on the set of all intervals, such as interval addition, subtraction, union, etc. One of the main applications of interval arithmetic is in the area of error analysis of computer calculations. For example, it has been used sucessfully to compute bounds on sounding errors in the solution of linear algebraic systems, error bounds in numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations, as well as integral equations and boundary value problems. The described software enables users to implement algorithms of the type described in references efficiently on the IBM 360 system.

  6. Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    RDECOIW 40 Years of SAA Excellence in Analysis AMSAA TECHNICAL REPORT NO. TR-2010-35 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL METHODOLOGY FOR RATIO MEANS (CIM4RM...COVERED Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM) 5 FUNDING NUMBERS 6 AUTHOR!SI John Nierwinski...LIST OF ACRONYMS CIM4RM - Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means MH - Man-Hours MR - Maintenance Ratio PCM - Parts Cost per Mile CI

  7. Hydrologic studies in wells open through large intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes activities, data, and preliminary data interpretation from the INEL Oversight Program R D-1 project titled Hydrologic Studies In Wells Open Through Large Intervals.'' The project is designed to use a straddle-packer system to isolate, hydraulically test, and sample specific intervals of monitoring wells that are open (uncased, unscreened) over large intervals of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The objectives of the project are to determine and compare vertical variations in water quality and aquifer properties that have previously only been determined in an integrated fashion over the entire thickness of the open interval of the observation wells.

  8. The Strength-Interval Curve in Cardiac Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sunil M.; Roth, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    The bidomain model describes the electrical properties of cardiac tissue and is often used to simulate the response of the heart to an electric shock. The strength-interval curve summarizes how refractory tissue is excited. This paper analyzes calculations of the strength-interval curve when a stimulus is applied through a unipolar electrode. In particular, the bidomain model is used to clarify why the cathodal and anodal strength-interval curves are different, and what the mechanism of the “dip” in the anodal strength-interval curve is. PMID:23509598

  9. The factors influence compatibility of pulse-pulse intervals with R-R intervals.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Bang; Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Liu, Cyuan-Cin; Hsu, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Ding-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction assessed by power spectral analysis of electrocardigographic (ECG) R-R intervals (RRI) is a useful method in clinical research. The compatibility of pulse-pulse intervals (PPI) acquired by photoplethysmography (PPG) with RRI is equivocal. In this study, we would like to investigate factors influence the compatibility. We recruited 25 young and health subjects divided into two groups: normal subjects (Group1, BMI < 24, n=15) and overweight subjects (Group2, BMI >/= 24, n=10). ECG and PPG were measured for 5 minutes. Used cross-approximate entropy (CAE) and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtained compatibility between RRI and PPI. The CAE value in Group1 were significantly lower than in Group2 (1.71 ± 0.12 vs. 1.83 ± 0.11, P = 0.011). A positive linear relationship between CAE value and risk factors of metabolic syndrome. No significantly difference between LFP/HFP ratio of RRI (LHRRRI) and LFP/HFP ratio of PPI (LHRPPI) in Group1 (1.42 ± 0.19 vs. 1.38 ± 0.17, P = 0.064), LHRRRI significantly higher than LHRPPI in Group2 (2.18 ± 0.37 vs. 1.93 ± 0.30, P = 0.005). It should be careful that using PPI to assess autonomic function in the obese subjects or the patients with metabolic syndrome.

  10. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  11. Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in Cynomolgus Macaques of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guo-jie; Budzynski, Ewa; Sonnentag, Peter; Nork, T Michael; Miller, Paul E; Sharma, Alok K; Ver Hoeve, James N; Smith, Leia M; Arndt, Tara; Calcedo, Roberto; Gaskin, Chantelle; Robinson, Paulette M; Knop, David R; Hauswirth, William W; Chulay, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation (AGTC) is developing rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGB3 gene, for treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity, and absence of color discrimination. We report here results of a study evaluating the safety and biodistribution of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in cynomolgus macaques. Three groups of animals (n = 2 males and 2 females per group) received a subretinal injection in one eye of 300 μl containing either vehicle or rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 at one of two concentrations (4 × 10(11) or 4 × 10(12) vector genomes/ml) and were evaluated over a 3-month period before being euthanized. Administration of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 was associated with a dose-related anterior and posterior segment inflammatory response that was greater than that observed in eyes injected with the vehicle control. Most manifestations of inflammation improved over time except that vitreous cells persisted in vector-treated eyes until the end of the study. One animal in the lower vector dose group was euthanized on study day 5, based on a clinical diagnosis of endophthalmitis. There were no test article-related effects on intraocular pressure, visual evoked potential responses, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or gross necropsy observations. Histopathological examination demonstrated minimal mononuclear infiltrates in all vector-injected eyes. Serum anti-AAV antibodies developed in all vector-injected animals. No animals developed antibodies to CNGB3. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high levels of vector DNA in the injected eye but minimal or no vector DNA in any other tissue. These results support the use of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in clinical studies in patients with achromatopsia caused by CNGB3 mutations.

  12. Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in Cynomolgus Macaques of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guo-Jie; Budzynski, Ewa; Sonnentag, Peter; Nork, T Michael; Miller, Paul E; Sharma, Alok K; Ver Hoeve, James N; Smith, Leia; Arndt, Tara; Calcedo, Roberto; Gaskin, Chantelle; Robinson, Paulette; Knop, David R; Hauswirth, William W; Chulay, Jeffrey David

    2016-03-08

    AGTC is developing rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGB3 gene, for treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity and absence of color discrimination. We report here results of a study evaluating the safety and biodistribution of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in cynomolgus macaques. Three groups of animals (n=2 males and 2 females per group) received a subretinal injection in one eye of 300 µL containing either vehicle or rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 at one of two concentrations (4 × 1011 or 4 × 1012 vg/mL) and were evaluated over a 3 month period prior to being euthanized. Administration of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 was associated with a dose-related anterior and posterior segment inflammatory response that was greater than that observed in eyes injected with the vehicle control. Most manifestations of inflammation improved over time except that vitreous cells persisted in vector-treated eyes until the end of the study. One animal in the lower vector dose group was euthanized on Study Day 5 based on a clinical diagnosis of endophthalmitis. There were no test article-related effects on intraocular pressure, visual evoked potential responses, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or gross necropsy observations. Histopathological examination demonstrated minimal mononuclear infiltrates in all vector-injected eyes. Serum anti-AAV antibodies developed in all vector-injected animals. No animals developed antibodies to CNGB3. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high levels of vector DNA in the injected eye but minimal or no vector DNA in any other tissue. These results support the use of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in clinical studies in patients with achromatopsia caused by CNGB3 mutations.

  13. Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in Cynomolgus Macaques of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Guo-jie; Budzynski, Ewa; Sonnentag, Peter; Nork, T. Michael; Miller, Paul E.; Sharma, Alok K.; Ver Hoeve, James N.; Smith, Leia M.; Arndt, Tara; Calcedo, Roberto; Gaskin, Chantelle; Robinson, Paulette M.; Knop, David R.; Hauswirth, William W.; Chulay, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation (AGTC) is developing rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGB3 gene, for treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity, and absence of color discrimination. We report here results of a study evaluating the safety and biodistribution of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in cynomolgus macaques. Three groups of animals (n = 2 males and 2 females per group) received a subretinal injection in one eye of 300 μl containing either vehicle or rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 at one of two concentrations (4 × 1011 or 4 × 1012 vector genomes/ml) and were evaluated over a 3-month period before being euthanized. Administration of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 was associated with a dose-related anterior and posterior segment inflammatory response that was greater than that observed in eyes injected with the vehicle control. Most manifestations of inflammation improved over time except that vitreous cells persisted in vector-treated eyes until the end of the study. One animal in the lower vector dose group was euthanized on study day 5, based on a clinical diagnosis of endophthalmitis. There were no test article-related effects on intraocular pressure, visual evoked potential responses, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or gross necropsy observations. Histopathological examination demonstrated minimal mononuclear infiltrates in all vector-injected eyes. Serum anti-AAV antibodies developed in all vector-injected animals. No animals developed antibodies to CNGB3. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high levels of vector DNA in the injected eye but minimal or no vector DNA in any other tissue. These results support the use of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in clinical studies in patients with achromatopsia caused by CNGB3 mutations. PMID:27003753

  14. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  15. A Note on Confidence Interval Estimation and Margin of Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Dennis; Melfi, Vince

    2010-01-01

    Confidence interval estimation is a fundamental technique in statistical inference. Margin of error is used to delimit the error in estimation. Dispelling misinterpretations that teachers and students give to these terms is important. In this note, we give examples of the confusion that can arise in regard to confidence interval estimation and…

  16. A neural mechanism for sensing and reproducing a time interval

    PubMed Central

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad; Shadlen, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Timing plays a crucial role in sensorimotor function. The neural mechanisms that enable the brain to flexibly measure and reproduce time intervals are however not known. We recorded neural activity in parietal cortex of monkeys in a time reproduction task. Monkeys were trained to measure and immediately afterwards reproduce different sample intervals. While measuring an interval, neural responses had a nonlinear profile that increased with the duration of the sample interval. Activity was reset during the transition from measurement to production, and was followed by a ramping activity whose slope encoded the previously measured sample interval. We found that firing rates at the end of the measurement epoch were correlated with both the slope of the ramp and the monkey’s corresponding production interval on a trial-by-trial basis. Analysis of response dynamics further linked the rate of change of firing rates in the measurement epoch to the slope of the ramp in the production epoch. These observations suggest that, during time reproduction, an interval is measured prospectively in relation to the desired motor plan to reproduce that interval. PMID:26455307

  17. Min and Max Exponential Extreme Interval Values and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Thomopoulos, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The extreme interval values and statistics (expected value, median, mode, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation) for the smallest (min) and largest (max) values of exponentially distributed variables with parameter ? = 1 are examined for different observation (sample) sizes. An extreme interval value g[subscript a] is defined as a…

  18. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Applying Bootstrap Resampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjanovic, Erin S.; Osborne, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Confidence intervals for effect sizes (CIES) provide readers with an estimate of the strength of a reported statistic as well as the relative precision of the point estimate. These statistics offer more information and context than null hypothesis statistic testing. Although confidence intervals have been recommended by scholars for many years,…

  19. Why Aren't They Called Probability Intervals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for teaching confidence intervals, a fundamental statistical tool often misinterpreted by beginning students. A historical perspective presenting the interpretation given by their inventor is supported with examples and the use of technology. A method for determining confidence intervals for the seldom-discussed…

  20. A Comparison of Approximate Interval Estimators for the Bernoulli Parameter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the accuracy of two approximate confidence interval estimators for the Bernoulli parameter p. The approximate...is appropriate for certain sample sizes and point estimators. Confidence interval , Binomial distribution, Bernoulli distribution, Poisson distribution.

  1. Lower Confidence Interval Bounds for Coherent Systems with Cyclic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Three lower confidence interval estimation procedures for system reliability of coherent systems with cyclic components are developed and their...failure times and applied to yield a lower confidence interval procedures for the reliability of coherent systems with cyclic and continuously operating components.

  2. New Confidence Interval Estimators Using Standardized Time Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    We develop new confidence interval estimators for the underlying mean of a stationary simulation process. These estimators can be viewed as...generalizations of Schruben’s so-called standardized time series area confidence interval estimators. Various properties of the new estimators are given.

  3. Appropriate Recall Interval for Periodontal Maintenance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Owais A.; Wehler, Carolyn J.; Gibson, Gretchen; Jurasic, M. Marianne; Jones, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to assess the evidence to support a specific time interval between periodontal maintenance (PM) visits. Methods Relevant articles were identified through searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed using specific search terms, until April, 2014, resulting in 1095 abstracts and/or titles with possible relevance. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines were used to evaluate the strength of studies and synthesize findings. If mean recall interval was not reported for study groups, authors were contacted to attempt to retrieve this information. Results Eight cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. No randomized control trials were found. All included studies assessed the effect of PM recall intervals in terms of compliance with a recommended regimen (3–6 months) as a primary outcome. Shorter PM intervals (3–6 months) favored more teeth retention but also statistically insignificant differences between RC and IC/EC, or converse findings are also found. In the 2 studies reporting mean recall interval in groups, significant tooth loss differences were noted as the interval neared the 12 month limit. Conclusions Evidence for a specific recall interval (e.g. every 3 months) for all patients following periodontal therapy is weak. Further studies, such as RCTs or large electronic database evaluations would be appropriate. The merits of risk-based recommendations over fixed recall interval regimens should be explored. PMID:26698003

  4. Sample Size for the "Z" Test and Its Confidence Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2012-01-01

    The statistical power of a significance test is closely related to the length of the confidence interval (i.e. estimate precision). In the case of a "Z" test, the length of the confidence interval can be expressed as a function of the statistical power. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  5. A comparison of approximate interval estimators for the Bernoulli parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leemis, Lawrence; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the accuracy of two approximate confidence interval estimators for the Bernoulli parameter p. The approximate confidence intervals are based on the normal and Poisson approximations to the binomial distribution. Charts are given to indicate which approximation is appropriate for certain sample sizes and point estimators.

  6. Reporting Confidence Intervals and Effect Sizes: Collecting the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Ozel, Z. Ebrar Yetkiner; Ozel, Serkan; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) and effect sizes are essential to encourage meta-analytic thinking and to accumulate research findings. CIs provide a range of plausible values for population parameters with a degree of confidence that the parameter is in that particular interval. CIs also give information about how precise the estimates are. Comparison…

  7. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates: What Does Expertise Buy You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Craig R. M.; Liersch, Michael J.; Yaniv, Ilan

    2008-01-01

    People's 90% subjective confidence intervals typically contain the true value about 50% of the time, indicating extreme overconfidence. Previous results have been mixed regarding whether experts are as overconfident as novices. Experiment 1 examined interval estimates from information technology (IT) professionals and UC San Diego (UCSD) students…

  8. Analysis of interval constants in calendars affiliated with the Shoushili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook

    2014-04-01

    We study interval constants that are related to motions of the Sun and Moon, i.e., the Qi, Intercalation, Revolution and Crossing interval, in calendars affiliated with the Shoushi calendar (Shoushili), such as Datongli and Chiljeongsannaepyeon. It is known that these interval constants were newly introduced in the Shoushili calendar and revised afterward, except for the Qi interval constant, and the revised values were adopted in later calendars affiliated with the Shoushili. We first investigate the accuracy of these interval constants and then the accuracy of calendars affiliated with the Shoushili in terms of these constants by comparing times for the new moon and the maximum solar eclipse calculated by each calendar with modern methods of calculation. During our study, we found that the Qi and Intercalation interval constants used in the early Shoushili were well determined, whereas the Revolution and Crossing interval constants were relatively poorly measured. We also found that the interval constants used by the early Shoushili were better than those of the later one, and hence better than those of Datongli and Chiljeongsannaepyeon. On the other hand, we found that the early Shoushili is, in general, a worse calendar than Datongli for use in China but a better one than Chiljeongsannaepyeon for use in Korea in terms of times for the new moon and when a solar eclipse occurs, at least for the period 1281 - 1644. Finally, we verified that the times for sunrise and sunset in the Shoushili-Li-Cheng and Mingshi are those at Beijing and Nanjing, respectively.

  9. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments.

  10. Order and chaos in fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Hoyert, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    Fixed-interval schedule performance is characterized by high levels of variability. Responding is absent at the onset of the interval and gradually increases in frequency until reinforcer delivery. Measures of behavior also vary drastically and unpredictably between successive intervals. Recent advances in the study of nonlinear dynamics have allowed researchers to study irregular and unpredictable behavior in a number of fields. This paper reviews several concepts and techniques from nonlinear dynamics and examines their utility in predicting the behavior of pigeons responding to a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement. The analysis provided fairly accurate a priori accounts of response rates, accounting for 92.8% of the variance when predicting response rate 1 second in the future and 64% of the variance when predicting response rates for each second over the entire next interreinforcer interval. The nonlinear dynamics account suggests that even the “noisiest” behavior might be the product of purely deterministic mechanisms. PMID:16812657

  11. Corrected profile likelihood confidence interval for binomial paired incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Vivek; Menon, Sandeep; Das, Ujjwal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials often use paired binomial data as their clinical endpoint. The confidence interval is frequently used to estimate the treatment performance. Tang et al. (2009) have proposed exact and approximate unconditional methods for constructing a confidence interval in the presence of incomplete paired binary data. The approach proposed by Tang et al. can be overly conservative with large expected confidence interval width (ECIW) in some situations. We propose a profile likelihood-based method with a Jeffreys' prior correction to construct the confidence interval. This approach generates confidence interval with a much better coverage probability and shorter ECIWs. The performances of the method along with the corrections are demonstrated through extensive simulation. Finally, three real world data sets are analyzed by all the methods. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) codes to execute the profile likelihood-based methods are also presented.

  12. Timing Intervals Using Population Synchrony and Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Baker, Stuart N.

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational model by which ensembles of regularly spiking neurons can encode different time intervals through synchronous firing. We show that a neuron responding to a large population of convergent inputs has the potential to learn to produce an appropriately-timed output via spike-time dependent plasticity. We explain why temporal variability of this population synchrony increases with increasing time intervals. We also show that the scalar property of timing and its violation at short intervals can be explained by the spike-wise accumulation of jitter in the inter-spike intervals of timing neurons. We explore how the challenge of encoding longer time intervals can be overcome and conclude that this may involve a switch to a different population of neurons with lower firing rate, with the added effect of producing an earlier bias in response. Experimental data on human timing performance show features in agreement with the model's output. PMID:27990109

  13. Changes in QT interval before and after hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Khosoosi Niaki, Mohammad Reza; Saravi, Mehrdad; Oliaee, Farshid; Akbari, Roghayeh; Noorkhomami, Sepideh; Bozorgi Rad, Seyed Hassan; Fallahpoor, Kobra; Ramezani, Mir Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are high in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Increased dispersion of QT intervals is known to predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This study was conducted to assess the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on corrected QT (QTc) intervals and their dispersions (QTd) in chronic hemodialyzed patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients ( mean age 54.2±15.8 years) with chronic renal disease on chronic hemodialysis (HD) were assessed by standard examination including blood pressure, body weight, heart rate, 12–lead electrocardiography and laboratory tests like electrolytes (Na +, K +, Ca ++, phosphate), urea, and creatinine 30 minutes before and after HD. The QT intervals and QTc QTc= QT √R-R/ (in milli seconds [ms]) for each lead were measured manually by one observer using calipers. The difference between the maximum and the minimum of QT interval was noted as QT dispersion (QT d). Results: The mean of pre and post dialysis R-R intervals was 859.22±96.85 ms and 870.43±91.45 ms, respectively (p>0.05). The mean of corrected QT cmax intervals increased significantly from 423.45±24.10 to 454.41±30.25 ms (p<0.05). The mean of QT dispersions and the corrected QT interval dispersions changed from 51.56±12.45 to 63.21±14.43 ms (p<0.05) from 59.40±13.58 to 68.33±14.55 ms (p<0.05), respectively. The changes in serum potassium and calcium levels were related with QT interval prolongation. Conclusion: QT and QTc interval and dispersion increase in HD patients. Prolonged QT interval indices had relation with K+ and Ca++ ions before but not after HD. PMID:24009942

  14. Intonation of musical intervals by musical intervals by deaf subjects stimulated with single bipolar cochlear implant electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pijl, S; Schwarz, D W

    1995-09-01

    Some subjects with cochlear implants have been shown to associate electrical stimulus pulse rates with the pitches of musical tones. In order to clarify the role of these pitch sensations in a musical context, the present investigation examined the intonation accuracy achieved by implant subjects when adjusting pulse rates in the reconstruction of musical intervals. Using a method of adjustment, the subjects altered a variable pulse rate, relative to a fixed reference rate, on one electrode, in the tuning of musical intervals abstracted from familiar melodies. At low pulse rates, subjects generally tuned the intervals to the same frequency ratios which define tonal musical intervals in normal-hearing listeners, with error margins comparable to musically untrained subjects. Two subjects were, in addition, able to transpose these melodic intervals from a standard reference pulse rate to higher and lower reference rates (reference and target pulse rates with geometric means of the intervals ranging from 81 to 466 pulses/s). Generally, the intervals were adjusted on a ratio scale, according to the same frequency ratios which define analogous acoustical musical intervals. These results support the hypothesis that, at low pulse rates, a temporal code in the auditory nerve alone is capable of defining musical pitch.

  15. Modelling volatility recurrence intervals in the Chinese commodity futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijie; Wang, Zhengxin; Guo, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    The law of extreme event occurrence attracts much research. The volatility recurrence intervals of Chinese commodity futures market prices are studied: the results show that the probability distributions of the scaled volatility recurrence intervals have a uniform scaling curve for different thresholds q. So we can deduce the probability distribution of extreme events from normal events. The tail of a scaling curve can be well fitted by a Weibull form, which is significance-tested by KS measures. Both short-term and long-term memories are present in the recurrence intervals with different thresholds q, which denotes that the recurrence intervals can be predicted. In addition, similar to volatility, volatility recurrence intervals also have clustering features. Through Monte Carlo simulation, we artificially synthesise ARMA, GARCH-class sequences similar to the original data, and find out the reason behind the clustering. The larger the parameter d of the FIGARCH model, the stronger the clustering effect is. Finally, we use the Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Conditional Duration model (FIACD) to analyse the recurrence interval characteristics. The results indicated that the FIACD model may provide a method to analyse volatility recurrence intervals.

  16. Interaction between respiratory and RR interval oscillations at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A; Wodicka, G R; Maayan, C; Shannon, D C

    1990-03-01

    Oscillations in RR interval between 0.02 and 1.00 cycles per second (Hz) have been related to the action of the autonomic nervous system. Respiration has been shown to influence RR interval at normal breathing frequencies between approximately 0.16 and 0.5 Hz in children and adults--a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the effect of respiration on RR interval in a lower frequency range between 0.02 and 0.12 Hz. Low frequency oscillations in respiration were induced in healthy sleeping adult subjects via the administration of a bolus of CO2 during inhalation. Power spectra of RR interval and respiration were obtained before and after the CO2 pulse, and the frequency content in the low frequency range was quantitatively compared. An increase in the spectral energy in both respiration and RR interval was observed for the group. However, this increase was accounted for by six of 29 epochs. We conclude that respiration (tidal volume) can influence RR interval at frequencies below those usually associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia. This influence may be mediated through a sympathetic reflex. This result is applicable to the measurement and interpretation of heart rate variability and to autonomic influences of low frequency fluctuations in RR interval.

  17. Recommended tests and confidence intervals for paired binomial proportions.

    PubMed

    Fagerland, Morten W; Lydersen, Stian; Laake, Petter

    2014-07-20

    We describe, evaluate, and recommend statistical methods for the analysis of paired binomial proportions. A total of 24 methods are considered. The best tests for association include the asymptotic McNemar test and the McNemar mid- p test. For the difference between proportions, we recommend two simple confidence intervals with closed-form expressions and the asymptotic score interval. The asymptotic score interval is also recommended for the ratio of proportions, as is an interval with closed-form expression based on combining two Wilson score intervals for the single proportion. For the odds ratio, we recommend a transformation of the Wilson score interval and a transformation of the Clopper-Pearson mid- p interval. We illustrate the practical application of the methods using data from a recently published study of airway reactivity in children before and after stem cell transplantation and a matched case-control study of the association between floppy eyelid syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

  18. Safety and Biodistribution Evaluation in CNGB3-Deficient Mice of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a Recombinant AAV Vector for Treatment of Achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guo-jie; Budzynski, Ewa; Sonnentag, Peter; Nork, T Michael; Miller, Paul E; McPherson, Leslie; Ver Hoeve, James N; Smith, Leia M; Arndt, Tara; Mandapati, Savitri; Robinson, Paulette M; Calcedo, Roberto; Knop, David R; Hauswirth, William W; Chulay, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation (AGTC) is developing rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGB3 gene, for treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity, and absence of color discrimination. We report here results of a study evaluating safety and biodistribution of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in CNGB3-deficient mice. Three groups of animals (n = 35 males and 35 females per group) received a subretinal injection in one eye of 1 μl containing either vehicle or rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 at one of two dose concentrations (1 × 10(12) or 4.2 × 10(12) vg/ml) and were euthanized 4 or 13 weeks later. There were no test-article-related changes in clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, ocular examinations, clinical pathology parameters, organ weights, or macroscopic observations at necropsy. Cone-mediated electroretinography (ERG) responses were detected after vector administration in the treated eyes in 90% of animals in the higher dose group and 31% of animals in the lower dose group. Rod-mediated ERG responses were reduced in the treated eye for all groups, with the greatest reduction in males given the higher dose of vector, but returned to normal by the end of the study. Microscopic pathology results demonstrated minimal mononuclear cell infiltrates in the retina and vitreous of some animals at the interim euthanasia and in the vitreous of some animals at the terminal euthanasia. Serum anti-AAV antibodies developed in most vector-injected animals. No animals developed antibodies to hCNGB3. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high levels of vector DNA in vector-injected eyes but little or no vector DNA in nonocular tissue. These results support the use of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGB3 in clinical studies in patients with achromatopsia caused by CNGB3 mutations.

  19. Determination of the anti-tumor agent, 10-chloro-5-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-7h-indolo[2,3-c] quinoline-6(5h)-one. HCl in blood or plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Strojny, N; D'Arconte, L; de Silva, J A

    1981-04-10

    A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic assay was developed for the determination of 10-chloro-5-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-7H-indolo [2,3-C] quinolin-6(5H) one [I] in blood or plasma with an overall recovery of 100.3 +/- 9.1% and a limit of quantitation of 1.0 ng per ml of blood or plasma. the assay was used to determine blood concentrations of the drug in the rat following oral administration by intubation of a 1.17-mg dose of [I] . HCl.

  20. Nqrs Data for C9H26N3Na2O14P [C9H12N3Na2O7P·7(H2O)] (Subst. No. 1198)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C9H26N3Na2O14P [C9H12N3Na2O7P·7(H2O)] (Subst. No. 1198)

  1. Drug discrimination under two concurrent fixed-interval fixed-interval schedules.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D E; Li, M

    2000-01-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a two-key concurrent fixed-interval (FI) 100-s FI 200-s schedule of food presentation, and later tinder a concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, in which the FI component with the shorter time requirement reinforced responding on one key after drug administration (pentobarbital-biased key) and on the other key after saline administration (saline-biased key). After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 100-s FI 200-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 66% (after pentobarbital) to 68% (after saline) of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 100-s component of the concurrent schedule. These birds made an average of 70% of their responses on both the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital and the saline-biased key after saline. After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 67% of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 40 component after both saline and the training dose of pentobarbital. These birds made an average of 75% of their responses on the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital, but only 55% of their responses on the saline-biased key after saline. In test sessions preceded by doses of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, ethanol, phencyclidine, or methamphetamine, the dose-response curves were similar under these two concurrent schedules. Pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and ethanol produced dose-dependent increases in responding on the pentobarbital-biased key as the doses increased. For some birds, at the highest doses of these drugs, the dose-response curve turned over. Increasing doses of phencyclidine produced increased responding on the pentobarbital-biased key in some, but not all, birds. After methamphetamine, responding was largely confined to the saline-biased key. These data show that pigeons can perform drug discriminations under concurrent

  2. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  3. The Role of Higher Harmonics In Musical Interval Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Using an alternative parameterization of the roughness curve we make direct use of critical band results to investigate the role of higher harmonics on the perception of tonal consonance. We scale the spectral amplitudes in the complex home tone and complex interval tone to simulate acoustic signals of constant energy. Our analysis reveals that even with a relatively small addition of higher harmonics the perfect fifth emerges as a consonant interval with more, musically important, just intervals emerging as consonant as more and more energy is shifted into higher frequencies.

  4. Small Sample Theory for Steady State Confidence Intervals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    confidence interval for the mean of a stationary sequence. As indicated in the literature, nonparametric confidence intervals in practice often have undesirable small-sample asymmetry and coverage characteristics. These phenomena are partially due to the fact that the third and fourth cumulants of the point estimator for the stationary mean, unlike those of the standard normal random variable, are not zero. We will apply Edgeworth and Cornish-Fisher expansions to obtain asymptotic expansions for the errors associated with confidence intervals. The analysis isolates various

  5. Detectability of auditory signals presented without defined observation intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, C. S.; Nichols, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Ability to detect tones in noise was measured without defined observation intervals. Latency density functions were estimated for the first response following a signal and, separately, for the first response following randomly distributed instances of background noise. Detection performance was measured by the maximum separation between the cumulative latency density functions for signal-plus-noise and for noise alone. Values of the index of detectability, estimated by this procedure, were approximately those obtained with a 2-dB weaker signal and defined observation intervals. Simulation of defined- and non-defined-interval tasks with an energy detector showed that this device performs very similarly to the human listener in both cases.

  6. A new method for wavelength interval selection that intelligently optimizes the locations, widths and combinations of the intervals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Ma, Pan; Lin, Chen-Chen; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-03-21

    In this study, a new algorithm for wavelength interval selection, known as interval variable iterative space shrinkage approach (iVISSA), is proposed based on the VISSA algorithm. It combines global and local searches to iteratively and intelligently optimize the locations, widths and combinations of the spectral intervals. In the global search procedure, it inherits the merit of soft shrinkage from VISSA to search the locations and combinations of informative wavelengths, whereas in the local search procedure, it utilizes the information of continuity in spectroscopic data to determine the widths of wavelength intervals. The global and local search procedures are carried out alternatively to realize wavelength interval selection. This method was tested using three near infrared (NIR) datasets. Some high-performing wavelength selection methods, such as synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), moving window partial least squares (MW-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), genetic algorithm PLS (GA-PLS) and interval random frog (iRF), were used for comparison. The results show that the proposed method is very promising with good results both on prediction capability and stability. The MATLAB codes for implementing iVISSA are freely available on the website: .

  7. The effects of type of interval, sensory modality, base duration, and psychophysical task on the discrimination of brief time intervals.

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the influences of type of psychophysical task (two-alternative forced-choice [2AFC] and reminder tasks), type of interval (filled vs. empty), sensory modality (auditory vs. visual), and base duration (ranging from 100 through 1,000 ms) on performance on duration discrimination. All of these factors were systematically varied in an experiment comprising 192 participants. This approach allowed for obtaining information not only on the general (main) effect of each factor alone, but also on the functional interplay and mutual interactions of some or all of these factors combined. Temporal sensitivity was markedly higher for auditory than for visual intervals, as well as for the reminder relative to the 2AFC task. With regard to base duration, discrimination performance deteriorated with decreasing base durations for intervals below 400 ms, whereas longer intervals were not affected. No indication emerged that overall performance on duration discrimination was influenced by the type of interval, and only two significant interactions were apparent: Base Duration × Type of Interval and Base Duration × Sensory Modality. With filled intervals, the deteriorating effect of base duration was limited to very brief base durations, not exceeding 100 ms, whereas with empty intervals, temporal discriminability was also affected for the 200-ms base duration. Similarly, the performance decrement observed with visual relative to auditory intervals increased with decreasing base durations. These findings suggest that type of task, sensory modality, and base duration represent largely independent sources of variance for performance on duration discrimination that can be accounted for by distinct nontemporal mechanisms.

  8. Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shihabi, Mazen M. (Inventor); Hinedi, Sami M. (Inventor); Shah, Biren N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.

  9. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Interval Management Program. The arrivals and approach operations are explored in detail including the primary operation and variations. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area in the highly automated terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic and Pilots and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the operations are explored.

  10. The 32nd CDC: System identification using interval dynamic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, L. H.; Lew, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    Motivated by the recent explosive development of results in the area of parametric robust control, a new technique to identify a family of uncertain systems is identified. The new technique takes the frequency domain input and output data obtained from experimental test signals and produces an 'interval transfer function' that contains the complete frequency domain behavior with respect to the test signals. This interval transfer function is one of the key concepts in the parametric robust control approach and identification with such an interval model allows one to predict the worst case performance and stability margins using recent results on interval systems. The algorithm is illustrated by applying it to an 18 bay Mini-Mast truss structure.

  11. On computations of variance, covariance and correlation for interval data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Masako

    2017-02-01

    In many practical situations, the data on which statistical analysis is to be performed is only known with interval uncertainty. Different combinations of values from the interval data usually lead to different values of variance, covariance, and correlation. Hence, it is desirable to compute the endpoints of possible values of these statistics. This problem is, however, NP-hard in general. This paper shows that the problem of computing the endpoints of possible values of these statistics can be rewritten as the problem of computing skewed structured singular values ν, for which there exist feasible (polynomial-time) algorithms that compute reasonably tight bounds in most practical cases. This allows one to find tight intervals of the aforementioned statistics for interval data.

  12. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  13. Confidence Interval for Parameter n in a Binomial Distribution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    procedure of estimating n in the form of a confidence interval . The last section consists of some concluding remark. A simulation procedure, an interactive computer program, and selected tables are included in the appendixes.

  14. Weibull distribution based on maximum likelihood with interval inspection data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The two Weibull parameters based upon the method of maximum likelihood are determined. The test data used were failures observed at inspection intervals. The application was the reliability analysis of the SSME oxidizer turbine blades.

  15. Simulation of Interval Censored Data in Medical and Biological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Kaveh; Arasan, Jayanthi

    This research looks at the simulation of interval censored data when the survivor function of the survival time is known and attendance probability of the subjects for follow-ups can take any number between 0 to 1. Interval censored data often arise in the medical and biological follow-up studies where the event of interest occurs somewhere between two known times. Regardless of the methods used to analyze these types of data, simulation of interval censored data is an important and challenging step toward model building and prediction of survival time. The simulation itself is rather tedious and very computer intensive due to the interval monitoring of subjects at prescheduled times and subject's incomplete attendance to follow-ups. In this paper the simulated data by the proposed method were assessed using the bias, standard error and root mean square error (RMSE) of the parameter estimates where the survival time T is assumed to follow the Gompertz distribution function.

  16. Probabilistic robust stabilization of fractional order systems with interval uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Yeroglu, Celaleddin; Senol, Bilal; Ates, Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates effects of fractional order perturbation on the robust stability of linear time invariant systems with interval uncertainty. For this propose, a probabilistic stability analysis method based on characteristic root region accommodation in the first Riemann sheet is developed for interval systems. Stability probability distribution is calculated with respect to value of fractional order. Thus, we can figure out the fractional order interval, which makes the system robust stable. Moreover, the dependence of robust stability on the fractional order perturbation is analyzed by calculating the order sensitivity of characteristic polynomials. This probabilistic approach is also used to develop a robust stabilization algorithm based on parametric perturbation strategy. We present numerical examples demonstrating utilization of stability probability distribution in robust stabilization problems of interval uncertain systems.

  17. Experimental uncertainty estimation and statistics for data having interval uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Kreinovich, Vladik (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Oberkampf, William Louis (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ginzburg, Lev (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York)

    2007-05-01

    This report addresses the characterization of measurements that include epistemic uncertainties in the form of intervals. It reviews the application of basic descriptive statistics to data sets which contain intervals rather than exclusively point estimates. It describes algorithms to compute various means, the median and other percentiles, variance, interquartile range, moments, confidence limits, and other important statistics and summarizes the computability of these statistics as a function of sample size and characteristics of the intervals in the data (degree of overlap, size and regularity of widths, etc.). It also reviews the prospects for analyzing such data sets with the methods of inferential statistics such as outlier detection and regressions. The report explores the tradeoff between measurement precision and sample size in statistical results that are sensitive to both. It also argues that an approach based on interval statistics could be a reasonable alternative to current standard methods for evaluating, expressing and propagating measurement uncertainties.

  18. Electrocardiographic QT interval and mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Dalal, Darshan; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely abnormal prolongation of the electrocardiographic QT interval is associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, the implications of variations in QT-interval length within normal limits for mortality in the general population are still unclear. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the relation of QT interval with mortality endpoints. Inverse-variance weighted random-effects models were used to summarize the relative risks across studies. Twenty-three observational studies were included. Results The pooled relative risk estimates comparing the highest with the lowest categories of QT-interval length were 1.35 (95% confidence interval = 1.24–1.46) for total mortality, 1.51 (1.29–1.78) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.71 (1.36–2.15) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.44 (1.01–2.04) for sudden cardiac death. A 50 msec increase in QT interval was associated with a relative risk of 1.20 (1.15–1.26) for total mortality, 1.29 (1.15–1.46) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.49 (1.25–1.76) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.24 (0.97–1.60) for sudden cardiac death. Conclusions We found consistent associations between prolonged QT interval and increased risk of total, cardiovascular, coronary, and sudden cardiac death. QT-interval length is a determinant of mortality in the general population. PMID:21709561

  19. Updating metacognitive control in response to expected retention intervals.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, Joshua L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-10-21

    In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval. No effect of the expected retention interval was found for 1 min versus 4 min (Exp. 1), 30 s versus 3 min (Exp. 2), and 30 s versus 10 min (Exps. 3 and 4), even when subjects were given complete control over the pacing of study items (Exp. 4). However, when the difference between the expected retention intervals was increased massively (10 min vs. 24 h; Exp. 5), subjects remembered more items that they expected to be tested sooner, an effect consistent with the idea that they traded off efforts to remember items for the later test versus items that were about to be tested. Overall, this set of results accords with much of the test-expectancy literature, revealing that subjects are often reluctant to adjust encoding strategies on an item-by-item basis, and when they do, they usually make quantitative, rather than qualitative, adjustments.

  20. QT interval and dispersion in primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, S. S.; Mathias, C. J.; Sutton, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in determining QT interval and dispersion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 32 patients with chronic primary (idiopathic) autonomic failure (19 men, mean age 60 years) and 21 normal controls (11 men, mean age 59) without symptoms of ischaemic heart disease were studied retrospectively. Autonomic failure was diagnosed by a combination of symptomatic postural hypotension, subnormal plasma noradrenaline response to head-up tilt, and abnormal cardiovascular responses to standing, Valsalva manoeuvre, mental stress, cutaneous cold, isometric exercise, and deep breathing. QT intervals were measured from surface electrocardiograms and QT dispersion was defined as maximum QT--minimum QT occurring in any of the 12 leads. RESULTS: Mean heart rate (RR intervals) was similar in patients with autonomic failure and controls (S2 lead: 865 (132) v 857 (108) ms, P = NS; V2 lead: 865 (130) v 868 (113) ms, P = NS). QT intervals measured from electrocardiogram leads S2 and V2 were significantly longer in patients than in controls (401 (40) v 376 (16) ms, P < 0.01; and 403 (41) v 381 (20) ms, P < 0.05 respectively). The mean maximum QT interval in any lead, which is the best estimate of the maximum duration of electrical systole, was significantly longer in the patients than in controls (417 (48) v 388 (23) ms, P < 0.005). Linear regression analysis of QT and RR intervals for both groups showed a significant difference between the slopes of the two regression lines (F = 8.4, P < 0.001). However, QT dispersions were similar between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with primary autonomic failure have prolongation of QT intervals, indicating that the autonomic nervous system is an important determinant of QT interval. However, QT dispersion does not seem to be affected by chronic primary autonomic denervation. PMID:8665344

  1. Reinforcing value of interval and continuous physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jacob E; Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N

    2009-08-04

    During play children engage in short bouts of intense activity, much like interval training. This natural preference for interval-type activity may have important implications for prescribing the most motivating type of physical activity, but the motivation of children to be physically active in interval or continuous fashion has not yet been examined. In the present study, ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO2 peak were determined in boys (n=16) and girls (n=16) age 10+/-1.3 years. Children sampled interval and continuous constant-load physical activity protocols on a cycle ergometer at 20% VT on another day. The physical activity protocols were matched for energy expenditure. Children then completed an operant button pressing task using a progressive fixed ratio schedule to assess the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of interval versus continuous physical activity. The number of button presses performed to gain access in interval or continuous physical activity and output maximum (O(max)) were the primary outcome variables. Children performed more button presses (P<0.005) and had a greater O(max) (P<0.005) when working to gain access to interval compared to continuous physical activity at intensities >VT and interval-type physical activity was more reinforcing than continuous constant-load physical activity for children when exercising both >VT and

  2. Supra-molecular architecture in a co-crystal of the N(7)-H tautomeric form of N (6)-benzoyl-adenine with adipic acid (1/0.5).

    PubMed

    Swinton Darious, Robert; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C12H9N5O·0.5C6H10O4, consists of one mol-ecule of N (6)-benzoyl-adenine (BA) and one half-mol-ecule of adipic acid (AA), the other half being generated by inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the adenine and phenyl ring planes is 26.71 (7)°. The N (6)-benzoyl-adenine mol-ecule crystallizes in the N(7)-H tautomeric form with three non-protonated N atoms. This tautomeric form is stabilized by intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl (C=O) group and the N(7)-H hydrogen atom on the Hoogsteen face of the purine ring, forming an S(7) ring motif. The two carboxyl groups of adipic acid inter-act with the Watson-Crick face of the BA mol-ecules through O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. The latter units are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-5). A weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present, linking adipic acid mol-ecules in neighbouring layers, enclosing R (2) 2(10) ring motifs and forming a three-dimensional structure. C=O⋯π and C-H⋯π inter-actions are also present in the structure.

  3. Temperature-dependent interactions and disorder in the spin-transition compound [Fe(II)(L)2][ClO4]2.C7H8 through structural, calorimetric, magnetic, photomagnetic, and diffuse reflectance investigations.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vibha; Mukherjee, Rabindranath; Linares, Jorge; Balde, Chérif; Desplanches, Cédric; Létard, Jean-François; Collet, Eric; Toupet, Loic; Castro, Miguel; Varret, François

    2008-09-01

    The title compound [Fe (II)(L) 2][ClO 4] 2.C 7H 8 (L = 2-[3-(2'-pyridyl)pyrazol-1-ylmethyl]pyridine) has been isolated while attempting to grow single crystals of the spin-transition (continuous-type) compound [Fe (II)(L) 2][ClO 4] 2, published earlier ( Dalton Trans. 2003, 3392-3397). Magnetic susceptibility measurements, as well as Mossbauer and calorimetric investigations on polycrystalline samples of [Fe(L) 2][ClO 4] 2.C 7H 8 revealed the occurrence of an abrupt HS ( (5) T 2) <--> LS ( (1) A 1) transition with steep and narrow (2 K) hysteresis at approximately 232 K. The photomagnetic properties exhibit features typical for a broad distribution of activation energies, with relaxation curves in the shape of stretched exponentials. We performed a crystal structure determination of the compound at 120, 240, and 270 K. A noteworthy temperature-dependent behavior of the structural parameters was observed, in terms of disorder of both the anions and solvent molecules, leading to a strong thermal dependence of the strength and dimensionality of the interaction network. Additional data were obtained by diffuse reflectance measurements. We model and discuss the antagonistic effects of interactions and disorder by using a two-level cooperative mean-field approach which includes a distribution of barrier energies at the microscopic scale.

  4. Ab initio/GIAO-CCSD(T) (13)C NMR study of the rearrangement and dynamic aspects of rapidly equilibrating tertiary carbocations, C6H13(+) and C7H15(+).

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya; Rasul, Golam

    2016-01-05

    The rearrangement pathways of the equilibrating tertiary carbocations, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butyl cation (C6H13(+), 1), 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-butyl cation (C7H15(+), 5) and 2,3-dimethyl-2-pentyl cation (C7H15(+), 8 and 9) were investigated using the ab initio/GIAO-CCSD(T) (13)C NMR method. Comparing the calculated and experimental (13)C NMR chemical shifts of a series of carbocations indicates that excellent prediction of δ(13)C could be achieved through scaling. In the case of symmetrical equilibrating cations (1 and 5) the Wagner-Meerwein 1,2-hydride and 1,2-methide shifts, respectively, produce the same structure. This indicates that the overall (13)C NMR chemical shifts are conserved and independent of temperature. However, in the case of unsymmetrical equilibrating cations (8 and 9) the Wagner-Meerwein shift produces different tertiary structures, which have slightly different thermodynamic stabilities and, thus, different spectra. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level structure 8 is only 90 calories/mol more stable than structure 9. Based on computed (13)C NMR chemical shift calculations, mole fractions of these isomers were determined by assuming the observed chemical shifts are due to the weighted average of the chemical shifts of the static ions.

  5. Landslide occurrences and recurrence intervals of heavy rainfalls in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, H.; Uchida, T.; Matsuyama, H.; Korup, O.

    2015-12-01

    Dealing with predicted increases in extreme weather conditions due to climate change requires robust knowledge about controls on rainfall-triggered landslides. This study developed the probable rainfall database from weather radar data, and analyzed the potential correlation between the landslide magnitude-frequency and the recurrence interval of the heavy rainfall across Japan. We analyzed 4,744 rainfall-induced landslides (Saito et al., 2014, Geology), 1 to 72 h rainfalls, and soil water index (SWI). We then estimated recurrence intervals for these rainfall parameters using a Gumbel distribution with jackknife fitting. Results showed that the recurrence intervals of rainfall events which caused landslides (<10^3 m^3) were less than 10 yr across Japan. The recurrence intervals increased with increases in landslide volumes. With regard to the landslides larger than 10^5 m^3, recurrence intervals of the rainfall events were more than 100 yr. These results suggest that recurrence intervals of heavy rainfalls are important for assessing regional landslide hazard in Japan.

  6. Unequal Weber fractions for the categorization of brief temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Simon

    2010-07-01

    How constant is the Weber fraction (WF) for brief time intervals? This question was assessed in three experiments with two base durations (BDs), 0.2 and 1 sec, and with different ways of estimating the WF. In Experiment 1, the psychometric functions were drawn on the basis of 4, 8, or 12 comparison intervals with the shortest to longest duration ranges being kept constant. The results revealed no effect of the number of intervals, but the WF (threshold/BD) was significantly lower at 0.2 sec. In Experiment 2, the comparison intervals were distributed over three duration ranges. There was no range effect, and the WF was generally lower at 0.2 sec than at 1 sec. In Experiment 3, one condition allowed a comparison of the BD with the same range between the shortest and longest comparison intervals. Once again, the WF was lower at 0.2 sec than at 1 sec. Overall, the results reveal (1) that increasing the number of comparison intervals or the duration range does not seem to affect the value of the WF and (2) that the WF is lower at 0.2 sec than at 1 sec, which is inconsistent with the scalar property of some timing models.

  7. Prediction of the confidence interval of quantitative trait Loci location.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Peter M; Goddard, Mike E

    2004-07-01

    In 1997, Darvasi and Soller presented empirical predictions of the confidence interval of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for dense marker maps in experimental crosses. They showed from simulation results for backcross and F2 populations from inbred lines that the 95% confidence interval was a simple function of sample size and the effect of the QTL. In this study, we derive by theory simple equations that can be used to predict any confidence interval and show that for the 95% confidence interval, they are in good agreement with the empirical results given by Darvasi and Soller. A general form of the confidence interval is given that also applies to other population structures (e.g., collections of sib pairs). Furthermore, the expected shape of the likelihood-ratio-test around the true QTL location is derived, which is shown to be extremely leptokurtic. It is shown that this shape explains why confidence intervals from the Log of Odds (LOD) drop-off method and bootstrap results frequently differ for real data sets.

  8. Scaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Kazuko; Muchnik, Lev; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2005-06-01

    For both stock and currency markets, we study the return intervals τ between the daily volatilities of the price changes that are above a certain threshold q. We find that the distribution function Pq(τ) scales with the mean return interval [Formula] as [Formula]. The scaling function f(x) is similar in form for all seven stocks and for all seven currency databases analyzed, and f(x) is consistent with a power-law form, f(x) ˜ x-γ with γ ≈ 2. We also quantify how the conditional distribution Pq(τ|τ0) depends on the previous return interval τ0 and find that small (or large) return intervals are more likely to be followed by small (or large) return intervals. This “clustering” of the volatility return intervals is a previously unrecognized phenomenon that we relate to the long-term correlations known to be present in the volatility. Author contributions: S.H. and H.E.S. designed research; K.Y., L.M., S.H., and H.E.S. performed research; A.B. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; A.B. analyzed data; and S.H. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: pdf, probability density function; S&P 500, Standard and Poor's 500 Index; USD, U.S. dollar; JPY, Japanese yen; SEK, Swedish krona.

  9. Confidence Intervals for Error Rates Observed in Coded Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present methods to compute confidence intervals for the codeword error rate (CWER) and bit error rate (BER) of a coded communications link. We review several methods to compute exact and approximate confidence intervals for the CWER, and specifically consider the situation in which the true CWER is so low that only a handful, if any, codeword errors are able to be simulated. In doing so, we answer the question of how long an error-free simulation must be run in order to certify that a given CWER requirement is met with a given level of confidence, and discuss the bias introduced by aborting a simulation after observing the first codeword error. Next, we turn to the lesser studied problem of determining confidence intervals for the BER of coded systems. Since bit errors in systems that use coding or higher-order modulation do not occur independently, blind application of a method that assumes independence leads to inappropriately narrow confidence intervals. We present a new method to compute the confidence interval properly, using the first and second sample moments of the number of bit errors per codeword. This is the first method we know of to compute a confidence interval for the BER of a coded or higher-order modulation system.

  10. Interval MULTIMOORA method with target values of attributes based on interval distance and preference degree: biomaterials selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezalkotob, Arian; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-12-01

    A target-based MADM method covers beneficial and non-beneficial attributes besides target values for some attributes. Such techniques are considered as the comprehensive forms of MADM approaches. Target-based MADM methods can also be used in traditional decision-making problems in which beneficial and non-beneficial attributes only exist. In many practical selection problems, some attributes have given target values. The values of decision matrix and target-based attributes can be provided as intervals in some of such problems. Some target-based decision-making methods have recently been developed; however, a research gap exists in the area of MADM techniques with target-based attributes under uncertainty of information. We extend the MULTIMOORA method for solving practical material selection problems in which material properties and their target values are given as interval numbers. We employ various concepts of interval computations to reduce degeneration of uncertain data. In this regard, we use interval arithmetic and introduce innovative formula for interval distance of interval numbers to create interval target-based normalization technique. Furthermore, we use a pairwise preference matrix based on the concept of degree of preference of interval numbers to calculate the maximum, minimum, and ranking of these numbers. Two decision-making problems regarding biomaterials selection of hip and knee prostheses are discussed. Preference degree-based ranking lists for subordinate parts of the extended MULTIMOORA method are generated by calculating the relative degrees of preference for the arranged assessment values of the biomaterials. The resultant rankings for the problem are compared with the outcomes of other target-based models in the literature.

  11. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation and torsades de pointes

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval on the electrocardiogram. More than 100 drugs available in Canada, including widely used antibiotics, antidepressants, cardiovascular drugs and many others, may cause QTc interval prolongation and TdP. Risk factors for TdP include QTc interval >500 ms, increase in QTc interval ≥60 ms from the pretreatment value, advanced age, female sex, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, bradycardia, treatment with diuretics and elevated plasma concentrations of QTc interval–prolonging drugs due to drug interactions, inadequate dose adjustment of renally eliminated drugs in patients with kidney disease and rapid intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions associated with the highest risk of TdP include antifungal agents, macrolide antibiotics (except azithromycin) and drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus interacting with amiodarone, disopyramide, dofetilide or pimozide. Other important pharmacokinetic interactions include antidepressants (bupropion, duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine) interacting with flecainide, quinidine or thioridazine. Pharmacists play an important role in minimizing the risk of drug-induced QTc interval prolongation and TdP through knowledge of drugs that are associated with a known or possible risk of TdP, individualized assessment of risk of drug-induced QTc interval prolongation, awareness of drug interactions most likely to result in TdP and attention to dose reduction of renally eliminated QTc interval-prolonging drugs in patients with kidney disease. Treatment of hemodynamically stable TdP consists of discontinuation of the offending drug(s), correction of electrolyte abnormalities and administration of intravenous magnesium sulfate 1 to 2 g. PMID:27212965

  12. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  13. Application of Interval Predictor Models to Space Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy,Daniel P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for predicting the uncertainty range of an output variable given input-output data. These models are called Interval Predictor Models (IPM) because they yield an interval valued function of the input. This paper develops IPMs having a radial basis structure. This structure enables the formal description of (i) the uncertainty in the models parameters, (ii) the predicted output interval, and (iii) the probability that a future observation would fall in such an interval. In contrast to other metamodeling techniques, this probabilistic certi cate of correctness does not require making any assumptions on the structure of the mechanism from which data are drawn. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs having minimal spread while containing all the data are developed. Constraints for bounding the minimum interval spread over the continuum of inputs, regulating the IPMs variation/oscillation, and centering its spread about a target point, are used to prevent data over tting. Furthermore, we develop an approach for using expert opinion during extrapolation. This metamodeling technique is illustrated using a radiation shielding application for space exploration. In this application, we use IPMs to describe the error incurred in predicting the ux of particles resulting from the interaction between a high-energy incident beam and a target.

  14. Toward a universal equation to estimate postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Maile, Amy E; Inoue, Christopher G; Barksdale, Larry E; Carter, David O

    2017-03-01

    Estimating postmortem interval is an important goal in medicolegal death investigations. Although several methods have been developed to achieve this goal, many of these require significant time and advanced expertise to generate a reliable estimate. Unfortunately these techniques do not provide much insight during the early stages of an investigation when critical decisions must be made regarding the allocation of investigative resources. An equation was recently developed to address this problem: provide a preliminary estimate of postmortem interval to initiate an investigation while more advanced techniques are conducted. To evaluate this equation, we used it to estimate postmortem interval at multiple indoor death scenes with known PMI in Nebraska and Hawai'i. This equation allowed us to accurately estimate PMI at 15 of 19 (79%) indoor death scenes. In Nebraska, this equation was accurate at 100% of the scenes. In Hawai'i, this equation was accurate at 60% of the scenes. All inaccurate estimates of postmortem interval were associated with at least 20% mass loss and a postmortem interval of ≥4 days. Although this equation was accurate at the majority of the death scenes attended, we conclude that more research is warranted, particularly the effect of climate on decomposition and the investigators' ability to accurately estimate soft tissue mass loss.

  15. Interval Management: Development and Implementation of an Airborne Spacing Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Penhallegon, William J.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Bone, Randall S.; Levitt, Ian; Flores Kriegsfeld, Julia A.; Arbuckle, Doug; Johnson, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management is a suite of ADS-B-enabled applications that allows the air traffic controller to instruct a flight crew to achieve and maintain a desired spacing relative to another aircraft. The flight crew, assisted by automation, manages the speed of their aircraft to deliver more precise inter-aircraft spacing than is otherwise possible, which increases traffic throughput at the same or higher levels of safety. Interval Management has evolved from a long history of research and is now seen as a core NextGen capability. With avionics standards recently published, completion of an Investment Analysis Readiness Decision by the FAA, and multiple flight tests planned, Interval Management will soon be part of everyday use in the National Airspace System. Second generation, Advanced Interval Management capabilities are being planned to provide a wider range of operations and improved performance and benefits. This paper briefly reviews the evolution of Interval Management and describes current development and deployment plans. It also reviews concepts under development as the next generation of applications.

  16. Statistical regularities in the return intervals of volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Weber, P.; Yamasaki, K.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss recent results concerning statistical regularities in the return intervals of volatility in financial markets. In particular, we show how the analysis of volatility return intervals, defined as the time between two volatilities larger than a given threshold, can help to get a better understanding of the behavior of financial time series. We find scaling in the distribution of return intervals for thresholds ranging over a factor of 25, from 0.6 to 15 standard deviations, and also for various time windows from one minute up to 390 min (an entire trading day). Moreover, these results are universal for different stocks, commodities, interest rates as well as currencies. We also analyze the memory in the return intervals which relates to the memory in the volatility and find two scaling regimes, ℓ<ℓ* with α1=0.64±0.02 and ℓ> ℓ* with α2=0.92±0.04; these exponent values are similar to results of Liu et al. for the volatility. As an application, we use the scaling and memory properties of the return intervals to suggest a possibly useful method for estimating risk.

  17. Racial differences in PSA screening interval and stage at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, William R.; Howard, Daniel L.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Ross, Louie E.; Wobker, Sara E.; Godley, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examined PSA screening interval of black and white men aged 65 or older and its association with prostate cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods SEER-Medicare data were examined for 18,067 black and white men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 2002. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between race, PSA screening interval, and stage at diagnosis. Analysis also controlled for age, marital status, comorbidity, diagnosis year, geographic region, income, and receipt of surgery. Results Compared to whites, blacks diagnosed with prostate cancer were more likely to have had a longer PSA screening interval prior to diagnosis, including a greater likelihood of no pre-diagnosis use of PSA screening. Controlling for PSA screening interval was associated with a reduction in blacks’ relative odds of being diagnosed with advanced (stage III or IV) prostate cancer, to a point that the stage at diagnosis was not statistically different from that of whites (OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.98–1.29). Longer intra-PSA intervals were systematically associated with greater odds of diagnosis with advanced disease. Conclusions More frequent or systematic PSA screening may be a pathway to reducing racial differences in prostate cancer stage at diagnosis, and, by extension, mortality. PMID:20333462

  18. Interval process model and non-random vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Ni, B. Y.; Liu, N. Y.; Han, X.; Liu, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper develops an interval process model for time-varying or dynamic uncertainty analysis when information of the uncertain parameter is inadequate. By using the interval process model to describe a time-varying uncertain parameter, only its upper and lower bounds are required at each time point rather than its precise probability distribution, which is quite different from the traditional stochastic process model. A correlation function is defined for quantification of correlation between the uncertain-but-bounded variables at different times, and a matrix-decomposition-based method is presented to transform the original dependent interval process into an independent one for convenience of subsequent uncertainty analysis. More importantly, based on the interval process model, a non-random vibration analysis method is proposed for response computation of structures subjected to time-varying uncertain external excitations or loads. The structural dynamic responses thus can be derived in the form of upper and lower bounds, providing an important guidance for practical safety analysis and reliability design of structures. Finally, two numerical examples and one engineering application are investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of the interval process model and corresponding non-random vibration analysis method.

  19. Optimal error intervals for properties of the quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xikun; Shang, Jiangwei; Ng, Hui Khoon; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2016-12-01

    Quantum state estimation aims at determining the quantum state from observed data. Estimating the full state can require considerable efforts, but one is often only interested in a few properties of the state, such as the fidelity with a target state, or the degree of correlation for a specified bipartite structure. Rather than first estimating the state, one can, and should, estimate those quantities of interest directly from the data. We propose the use of optimal error intervals as a meaningful way of stating the accuracy of the estimated property values. Optimal error intervals are analogs of the optimal error regions for state estimation [New J. Phys. 15, 123026 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/12/123026]. They are optimal in two ways: They have the largest likelihood for the observed data and the prechosen size, and they are the smallest for the prechosen probability of containing the true value. As in the state situation, such optimal error intervals admit a simple description in terms of the marginal likelihood for the data for the properties of interest. Here, we present the concept and construction of optimal error intervals, report on an iterative algorithm for reliable computation of the marginal likelihood (a quantity difficult to calculate reliably), explain how plausible intervals—a notion of evidence provided by the data—are related to our optimal error intervals, and illustrate our methods with single-qubit and two-qubit examples.

  20. Oxygen uptake in maximal effort constant rate and interval running.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Daniel; O'Brien, Brendan J; Clark, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated differences in average VO2 of maximal effort interval running to maximal effort constant rate running at lactate threshold matched for time. The average VO2 and distance covered of 10 recreational male runners (VO2max: 4158 ± 390 mL · min(-1)) were compared between a maximal effort constant-rate run at lactate threshold (CRLT), a maximal effort interval run (INT) consisting of 2 min at VO2max speed with 2 minutes at 50% of VO2 repeated 5 times, and a run at the average speed sustained during the interval run (CR submax). Data are presented as mean and 95% confidence intervals. The average VO2 for INT, 3451 (3269-3633) mL · min(-1), 83% VO2max, was not significantly different to CRLT, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 84% VO2max, but both were significantly higher than CR sub-max, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 76% VO2max. The distance covered was significantly greater in CLRT, 4431 (4202-3731) metres, compared to INT and CR sub-max, 4070 (3831-4309) metres. The novel finding was that a 20-minute maximal effort constant rate run uses similar amounts of oxygen as a 20-minute maximal effort interval run despite the greater distance covered in the maximal effort constant-rate run.

  1. Scaling and memory in the return intervals of realized volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2009-11-01

    We perform return interval analysis of 1-min realized volatility defined by the sum of absolute high-frequency intraday returns for the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSEC) and 22 constituent stocks of SSEC. The scaling behavior and memory effect of the return intervals between successive realized volatilities above a certain threshold q are carefully investigated. In comparison with the volatility defined by the closest tick prices to the minute marks, the return interval distribution for the realized volatility shows a better scaling behavior since 20 stocks (out of 22 stocks) and the SSEC pass the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and exhibit scaling behaviors, among which the scaling function for 8 stocks could be approximated well by a stretched exponential distribution revealed by the KS goodness-of-fit test under the significance level of 5%. The improved scaling behavior is further confirmed by the relation between the fitted exponent γ and the threshold q. In addition, the similarity of the return interval distributions for different stocks is also observed for the realized volatility. The investigation of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) show that both short-term and long-term memory exists in the return intervals of realized volatility.

  2. Assessment of histological changes in antemortem gingival tissues fixed at various time intervals: A method of estimation of postmortem interval

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, V.; Gururaj, N.; Sathya, R.; Sabarinath, T. R.; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Kalaiselvan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conventional methods to estimate the time of death are adequate, but a histological method is yet unavailable to assess postmortem interval (PMI). The autolytic changes that occur in an unfixed antemortem gingival tissue which reflects histologically at an early stage are similar to changes that occur in postmortem tissue. These histological changes can be used and applied in a postmortem tissue as a method to assess PMI. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the histological changes in a gingival tissue left unfixed for various time intervals and to correlate the findings with duration. Materials and Methods: Sixty gingival tissues obtained from patients following therapeutic extractions, impactions, gingivectomy and crown lengthening procedures were used. Each tissue obtained was divided into two pieces and labeled as “A”, the control group and “ B” the study group. Tissues labeled “A” were fixed in 10% formalin immediately and tissues labeled“B” were placed in closed containers and fixed after 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 2, and 4 h time interval. Of the sixty tissues in the study group “ B”, ten tissues were used for each time interval under investigation. All the fixed tissues were processed, stained, assessed, and analyzed statistically using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: Histological changes appear at 15 min in an unfixed antemortem tissue. At 2 h interval, all layers with few cells in basal cell layer are involved. At 4 h interval, loss of stratification and complete homogenization of cells in the superficial layers with prominent changes in basal layer is evident. There was a positive correlation (<1.0) between the time interval and the appearance of the histological changes. Conclusion: Histological changes such as complete homogenization of cells in superficial layers and loss of epithelial architecture at 4 h in unfixed antemortem tissue may be used as a criterion to estimate PMI, after further studies

  3. Reinforcement omission on fixed-interval schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Innis, Nancy K.

    1969-01-01

    Experiments with pigeons and rats showed that: (1) When a brief blackout was presented in lieu of reinforcement at the end of 25% of intervals on a fixed-interval 2-min schedule, response rate was reliably and persistently higher during the following 2-min intervals (omission effect). This effect was largely due to a decrease in time to first response after reinforcement omission. (2) When blackout duration was varied, within sessions, over the range 2 to 32 sec, time to first response was inversely related to the duration of the preceding blackout, for pigeons, and for rats during the first few sessions after the transition from FI 2-min to FI 2-min with reinforcement omission. Post-blackout pause was independent of blackout duration for rats at asymptote. These results were interpreted in terms of differential depressive effects of reinforcement and blackout on subsequent responding. PMID:16811393

  4. Real-time correction of heart interbeat interval data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J.; Hoover, A.; Pappas, J.; Moss, J.; Fishel, S.; Muth, E.

    2005-05-01

    Measuring heart rate variability is an important component of developing human monitoring systems for soldiers of the next century. Unfortunately, even the best sensors are prone to error in active situations. We have developed a system that detects and corrects errors in interbeat interval data in real time. A six to ten second buffer is used to provide context for a set of rules designed to simulate the way a human expert corrects data offline. Interbeat interval data was gathered from a pool of eighteen subjects with three detection devices used on each subject. Results of the automated correction were compared with human experts to determine the validity of the method. As expected, success varied based on the number of errors in a neighborhood. Isolated errors were corrected with high accuracy, while severely damaged data streams were totally unrecoverable by human or machine. This technique could serve as a crucial component of interbeat interval based monitoring technologies.

  5. Atomic temporal interval relations in branching time: calculation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, Frank D.; Ladkin, Peter B.; Rodriguez, Rita V.

    1991-03-01

    A practical method of reasoning about intervals in a branching-time model which is dense, unbounded, future-branching, without rejoining branches is presented. The discussion is based on heuristic constraint- propagation techniques using the relation algebra of binary temporal relations among the intervals over the branching-time model. This technique has been applied with success to models of intervals over linear time by Allen and others, and is of cubic-time complexity. To extend it to branding-time models, it is necessary to calculate compositions of the relations; thus, the table of compositions for the 'atomic' relations is computed, enabling the rapid determination of the composition of arbitrary relations, expressed as disjunctions or unions of the atomic relations.

  6. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation: mechanisms and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Nachimuthu, Senthil; Assar, Manish D.

    2012-01-01

    The prolonged QT interval is both widely seen and associated with the potentially deadly rhythm, Torsades de Pointes (TdP). While it can occur spontaneously in the congenital form, there is a wide array of drugs that have been implicated in the prolongation of the QT interval. Some of these drugs have either been restricted or withdrawn from the market due to the increased incidence of fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The list of drugs that cause QT prolongation continues to grow, and an updated list of specific drugs that prolong the QT interval can be found at www.qtdrugs.org. This review focuses on the mechanism of drug-induced QT prolongation, risk factors for TdP, culprit drugs, prevention and monitoring of prolonged drug-induced QT prolongation and treatment strategies. PMID:25083239

  7. A new physical model for earthquake time interval distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a new physical model for time interval distribution of earthquakes, which was obtained by borrowing the idea from the research in the time interval distribution of sand-dust storms. Of the model, it was hypothesized that the earthquakes were induced by the magma movement inside the earth, and if the speed of magma ≥ threshold value Ut, the earthquakes with magnitude ≥ M occurred. With this model, it was obtained that for the earthquakes with magnitude ≥ M there existed lg N(> t) = c - dt, where N was the number of time intervals longer than t; the value d decreased with M. This result was also verified by analyzing the earthquake data from the China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC).

  8. Short interval expansion of Rényi entropy on torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy for two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) on a torus. We require the length of the interval ℓ to be small with respect to the spatial and temporal sizes of the torus. The operator product expansion of the twist operators allows us to compute the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy at any temperature. In particular, we pay special attention to the large c CFTs dual to the AdS3 gravity and its cousins. At both low and high temperature limits, we read the Rényi entropies to order ℓ6, and find good agreements with holographic results. Moreover, the expansion allows us to read 1 /c contribution, which is hard to get by expanding the thermal density matrix. We generalize the study to the case with the chemical potential as well.

  9. Unwinding the Molecular Basis of Interval and Circadian Timing

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Patricia V.; Golombek, Diego A.; Meck, Warren H.

    2011-01-01

    Neural timing mechanisms range from the millisecond to diurnal, and possibly annual, frequencies. Two of the main processes under study are the interval timer (seconds-to-minute range) and the circadian clock. The molecular basis of these two mechanisms is the subject of intense research, as well as their possible relationship. This article summarizes data from studies investigating a possible interaction between interval and circadian timing and reviews the molecular basis of both mechanisms, including the discussion of the contribution from studies of genetically modified animal models. While there is currently no common neurochemical substrate for timing mechanisms in the brain, circadian modulation of interval timing suggests an interaction of different frequencies in cerebral temporal processes. PMID:22022309

  10. Confidence intervals for effect parameters common in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews approximate confidence intervals for some effect parameters common in cancer epidemiology. These methods have computational feasibility and give nearly nominal coverage rates. In the analysis of crude data, the simplest type of epidemiologic analysis, parameters of interest are the odds ratio in case-control studies and the rate ratio and difference in cohort studies. These parameters can estimate the instantaneous-incidence-rate ratio and difference that are the most meaningful effect measures in cancer epidemiology. Approximate confidence intervals for these parameters including the classical Cornfield's method are mainly based on efficient scores. When some confounding factors exist, stratified analysis and summary measures for effect parameters are needed. Since the Mantel-Haenszel estimators have been widely used by epidemiologists as summary measures, confidence intervals based on the Mantel-Haenszel estimators are described. The paper also discusses recent developments in these methods. PMID:2269246

  11. Crystal structure of 6,9-dimethyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4]triazepin-8(9H)-one 0.40-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Harmaoui, Abdellah; Bouhfid, Rachid; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, C7H9N5O·0.40H2O, the seven-membered heterocyclic ring exhibits a boat conformation, whereas the five-membered triazole ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.005 Å). In the crystal, centrosymmetric dimers are linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into dimers, which are further connected via O—H⋯N and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The structure contains a partially occupied water mol­ecule lying on a twofold axis with an occupancy factor of 0.4. PMID:25705477

  12. Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Synthesis of 7-(Aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione Derivatives Complemented by Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The problem of bacteria resistance to many known agents has inspired scientists and researchers to discover novel efficient antibacterial drugs. Three rapid, clean, and highly efficient methods were developed for one-pot synthesis of 7-(aryl)-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H)-dione derivatives. Three components are condensed in the synthesis, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP), or ferric chloride (FeCl3), respectively. Each method has different reaction mechanisms according to the catalyst. The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. PMID:27563671

  13. Ocular Hypotensive Response in Nonhuman Primates of (8R)-1-[(2S)-2-Aminopropyl]-8,9-dihydro-7H-pyrano[2,3-g]indazol-8-ol a Selective 5-HT2 Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    May, Jesse A; Sharif, Najam A; McLaughlin, Marsha A; Chen, Hwang-Hsing; Severns, Bryon S; Kelly, Curtis R; Holt, William F; Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A; Hellberg, Mark R; Dean, Thomas R

    2015-11-25

    Recently, it has been reported that 5-HT2 receptor agonists effectively reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in a nonhuman primate model of glaucoma. Although 1-[(2S)-2-aminopropyl]indazol-6-ol (AL-34662) was shown to have good efficacy in this nonhuman primate model of ocular hypertension as well as a desirable physicochemical and permeability profile, subsequently identified cardiovascular side effects in multiple species precluded further clinical evaluation of this compound. Herein, we report selected structural modifications that resulted in the identification of (8R)-1-[(2S)-2-aminopropyl]-8,9-dihydro-7H-pyrano[2,3-g]indazol-8-ol (13), which displayed an acceptable profile to support advancement for further preclinical evaluation as a candidate for proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  14. Gapless spin liquid ground state in the S = 1/2 vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet [NH4]2[C7H14N][V7O6F18].

    PubMed

    Clark, L; Orain, J C; Bert, F; De Vries, M A; Aidoudi, F H; Morris, R E; Lightfoot, P; Lord, J S; Telling, M T F; Bonville, P; Attfield, J P; Mendels, P; Harrison, A

    2013-05-17

    The vanadium oxyfluoride [NH(4)](2)[C(7)H(14)N][V(7)O(6)F(18)] (DQVOF) is a geometrically frustrated magnetic bilayer material. The structure consists of S = 1/2 kagome planes of V(4+) d(1) ions with S = 1 V(3+) d(2) ions located between the kagome layers. Muon spin relaxation measurements demonstrate the absence of spin freezing down to 40 mK despite an energy scale of 60 K for antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. From magnetization and heat capacity measurements we conclude that the S = 1 spins of the interplane V(3+) ions are weakly coupled to the kagome layers, such that DQVOF can be viewed as an experimental model for S = 1/2 kagome physics, and that it displays a gapless spin liquid ground state.

  15. Crystal structure of 6,9-dimethyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4]triazepin-8(9H)-one 0.40-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Harmaoui, Abdellah; Bouhfid, Rachid; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C7H9N5O·0.40H2O, the seven-membered heterocyclic ring exhibits a boat conformation, whereas the five-membered triazole ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.005 Å). In the crystal, centrosymmetric dimers are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into dimers, which are further connected via O-H⋯N and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The structure contains a partially occupied water mol-ecule lying on a twofold axis with an occupancy factor of 0.4.

  16. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<−0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (−2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients. PMID:26161294

  17. Effects of Peginesatide Injection on QTc Interval in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Richard; Kukulka, Michael; Wu, Jing Tao; Qiu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and positive-controlled, three-period crossover study was conducted to evaluate the effect of peginesatide injection on QT interval in healthy adults. Subjects received single doses of placebo, peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg intravenous, or moxifloxacin 400 mg during three treatment periods, separated by 14-day washout intervals. ECG recordings and blood samples for peginesatide and moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were collected prior to dosing and through 22 hours postdose. QT intervals were measured with a high resolution manual on-screen caliper method. The study endpoint was the mean difference between peginesatide and placebo in baseline-adjusted corrected QT interval (ddQTc). The maximum upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI was 2.2 milliseconds at 0.75 hours for Fridericia-corrected ddQTc (ddQTcF) and 2.2 milliseconds at 0.25 hours for individual corrected ddQTcI. The linear relationship between ddQTcF and peginesatide concentrations was essentially flat and not statistically significant [slope = 0.001, P = 0.126, 90% CI: (<-0.0005, 0.002)]. Using this model, the projected ddQTcF effect at the observed mean peak plasma concentration is estimated to be 0.9 milliseconds, 90% CI: (-2.0, 0.3 milliseconds). There were no peginesatide-related effects on heart rate, PR interval, or QRS interval. Thus, there is no anticipated cardiovascular effect of peginesatide injection 0.1 mg/kg in patients.

  18. High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Postprandial Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2015-07-01

    This review examined if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) reduces postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Fifteen studies were identified, in which the effect of interval exercise conducted at an intensity of >65% of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated on postprandial TAG levels. Analysis was divided between studies that included supramaximal exercise and those that included submaximal interval exercise. Ten studies examined the effect of a single session of low-volume HIIE including supramaximal sprints on postprandial TAG. Seven of these studies noted reductions in the postprandial total TAG area under the curve the morning after exercise of between ~10 and 21% compared with rest, but three investigations found no significant difference in TAG levels. Variations in the HIIE protocol used, inter-individual variation or insufficient time post-exercise for an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity are proposed reasons for the divergent results among studies. Five studies examined the effect of high-volume submaximal interval exercise on postprandial TAG. Four of these studies were characterised by high exercise energy expenditure and effectively attenuated total postprandial TAG levels by ~15-30%, but one study with a lower energy expenditure found no effect on TAG. The evidence suggests that supramaximal HIIE can induce large reductions in postprandial TAG levels but findings are inconsistent. Submaximal interval exercise offers no TAG metabolic or time advantage over continuous aerobic exercise but could be appealing in nature to some individuals. Future research should examine if submaximal interval exercise can reduce TAG levels in line with more realistic and achievable exercise durations of 30 min per day.

  19. Persistent Fluctuations in Stride Intervals under Fractal Auditory Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

  20. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  1. [Dispersion of the Q-T interval after myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Kaliská, G; Alberty, R; Kmec, P; Kovár, F; Szentiványi, M

    1997-01-01

    Non-homogenity of ventricular myocardial repolarization is a substrate for the reentry mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias. It is manifestant by dispersion of Q-T and Q-Tc intervals on the standard ECG curve. The authors studied the possibility of using the dispersity of Q-T and Q-Tc intervals in clinical practice. They evaluated the dispersion of these intervals within the set of 21 patients after myocardial infarction with sustained ventricular tachycardia, and compared it with the dispersion within the control set of 17 patients after myocardial infarction without an arrhythmic episode. By means of comparison, they have discovered that: 1) the dispersion of Q-T and Q-Tc intervals is significantly higher in patients with ventricular tachycardia: Q-T (mean +/- SE) 82.8 +/- 7.8 msec vs 42.2 +/- 4.8 msec, Q-Tc 93.0 +/- 10.2 msec vs 47.1 +/- 4.8 msec, p > 0.001, 2) the dispersion of Q-Tc when higher than 60 msec is an optimum discrimination value for the prognosis of sudden arrhythmic death after myocardial infarction (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%) and 3) the dispersion of Q-T and Q-Tc intervals has no relation to the function of the left ventricle. Therefore the authors consider the dispersion of Q-T and Q-Tc intervals as being a useful marker of malignant ventricular arrhythmia which could be included into the algorithm of assessment of the risk of sudden arrhythmic death after myocardial infarction.

  2. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mougios, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    Background The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non‐athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non‐athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was to introduce reference intervals for CK in athletes. Method CK was assayed in serum samples from 483 male athletes and 245 female athletes, aged 7–44. Samples had been obtained throughout the training and competition period. For comparison, CK was also assayed in a smaller number of non‐athletes. Reference intervals (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) were calculated by the non‐parametric method. Results The reference intervals were 82–1083 U/L (37°C) in male and 47–513 U/L in female athletes. The upper reference limits were twice the limits reported for moderately active non‐athletes in the literature or calculated in the non‐athletes in this study. The upper limits were up to six times higher than the limits reported for inactive individuals in the literature. When reference intervals were calculated specifically in male football (soccer) players and swimmers, a threefold difference in the upper reference limit was found (1492 vs 523 U/L, respectively), probably resulting from the different training and competition demands of the two sports. Conclusion Sport training and competition have profound effects on the reference intervals for serum CK. Introducing sport‐specific reference intervals may help to avoid misinterpretation of high values and to optimise training. PMID:17526622

  3. An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.

  4. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  5. Systolic time interval data acquisition system. Specialized cardiovascular studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition system for noninvasive measurement of systolic time intervals is described. R-R interval from the ECG determines instantaneous heart rate prior to the beat to be measured. Total electromechanical systole (Q-S2) is measured from the onset of the ECG Q-wave to the onset of the second heart sound (S2). Ejection time (ET or LVET) is measured from the onset of carotid upstroke to the incisure. Pre-ejection period (PEP) is computed by subtracting ET from Q-S2. PEP/ET ratio is computed directly.

  6. Confidence intervals for low-level, paired counting

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.E.

    1999-11-01

    Fong and Alvarez (1997) make clear the lack of precision at MDA for paired counting. Confidence intervals provide a way of expressing a measurement process that lacks precision. Neyman-Pearson principles are briefly discussed and 95% confidence intervals of the form [0, {number_sign}{number_sign}.{number_sign}{number_sign}] are presented. Use is made of the fact that the probability of the difference of two random variables, each with a Poisson distribution, can be expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions of integral order and elementary functions. The validity of the values is discussed.

  7. Infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations with continuous coefficients.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhaojun; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions to a class of 1-dimensional infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) under the conditions that the coefficients are continuous and have linear growths. We also obtain the existence of a minimal solution. Furthermore, we study the existence and uniqueness theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions of infinite time interval BSDEs with non-uniformly Lipschitz coefficients. It should be pointed out that the assumptions of this result is weaker than that of Theorem 3.1 in Zong (Turkish J Math 37:704-718, 2013).

  8. Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

  9. The lucid interval associated with epidural bleeding: evolving understanding.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the evolution of our understanding of the term "lucid interval." A number of texts were reviewed to assess their suitability for analysis. The primary requirement was that the text contain detailed descriptions of a series of patients. Details of the clinical course, the findings and timing of surgery, and, when relevant, the time of death and postmortem findings were required. Books written by Henri-François Le Dran, Percival Pott, and James Hill fulfilled these criteria. Surgical findings included the presence and type of fractures, changes in the bone, separation of periosteum, malodorous or purulent material, tense brain, and hematoma. Postmortem findings supplemented and/or complemented the surgical findings. The courses of the patients were then tabulated, and the correlation between different clinical and operative findings was thereby determined. Our understanding of a lucid interval began in the early 18th century with the work of Henri-François Le Dran and Percival Pott in London. They did not, however, demonstrate an interval without symptoms between trauma and deterioration in patients with epidural hematomas (EDHs). The interval they described was longer than usually expected with EDHs and occurred exclusively in patients who had a posttraumatic infection. In 1751, James Hill, from Dumfries, Scotland, described the first hematoma-related lucid interval in a patient with a subdural hematoma. The first case of a lucid interval associated with an EDH was described by John Abernethy. In the 19th century, Jonathan Hutchinson and Walter Jacobson described the interval as it is known today, in cases of EDH. The most recent work on the topic came from studies in Cincinnati and Oslo, where it was demonstrated that bleeding can separate dura mater and that hemorrhage into the epidural space can be shunted out via the veins. This shunting could delay the accumulation of a hematoma and thus the rise in intracranial pressure

  10. An interval approach to solve an initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mézo, Thomas; Jaulin, Luc; Zerr, Benoît

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes an original guaranteed interval-based method to solve an Initial Value Problem (IVP) for ordinary differential equations (ODE). Our method uses the geometrical properties of the vector field given by the ODE and a state space discretization to compute an enclosure of the trajectories set that verifies the IVP problem.

  11. Systolic time intervals in children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hedvall, G

    1983-03-01

    Of the systolic time intervals, the preejection period is known to correlate well with invasively measured isometric contraction time, and increase of the quotient preejection period/left ventricular ejection time (PEP/LVET) is considered to be of a good indicator of left ventricular failure. The different systolic time intervals have been recorded from the carotid pulse curve from 40 normal children, 20 aged five and 20 aged ten years. Their PEP/LVET was 0.31 +/- 0.04. Seventy-eight children with different heart diseases were then investigated. In patients with congenital total heart block or extrasystoles, there was a negative correlation between PEP/LVET and the R-R interval, in accordance with the Frank-Starling law. In patients with ventricular septal defects PEP/LVET differentiates between small and large shunts; the increased PEP/LVET of the latter normalizes after operation. The increased PEP/RVET of children with transposition of the great arteries is an expression of the inadequacy of the right ventricle as a systemic chamber. In aortic stenosis "normalization" of a previously decreased PEP/LVET may indicate early left ventricular failure. In primary myocardial disease registration of the systolic time intervals enables us to follow the left ventricular function more closely than is possible with invasive techniques.

  12. Some Improvements in Confidence Intervals for Standardized Regression Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, Paul

    2017-03-13

    Yuan and Chan (Psychometrika 76:670-690, 2011. doi: 10.1007/S11336-011-9224-6 ) derived consistent confidence intervals for standardized regression coefficients under fixed and random score assumptions. Jones and Waller (Psychometrika 80:365-378, 2015. doi: 10.1007/S11336-013-9380-Y ) extended these developments to circumstances where data are non-normal by examining confidence intervals based on Browne's (Br J Math Stat Psychol 37:62-83, 1984. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8317.1984.tb00789.x ) asymptotic distribution-free (ADF) theory. Seven different heteroscedastic-consistent (HC) estimators were investigated in the current study as potentially better solutions for constructing confidence intervals on standardized regression coefficients under non-normality. Normal theory, ADF, and HC estimators were evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation. Findings confirmed the superiority of the HC3 (MacKinnon and White, J Econ 35:305-325, 1985. doi: 10.1016/0304-4076(85)90158-7 ) and HC5 (Cribari-Neto and Da Silva, Adv Stat Anal 95:129-146, 2011. doi: 10.1007/s10182-010-0141-2 ) interval estimators over Jones and Waller's ADF estimator under all conditions investigated, as well as over the normal theory method. The HC5 estimator was more robust in a restricted set of conditions over the HC3 estimator. Some possible extensions of HC estimators to other effect size measures are considered for future developments.

  13. Determining Optimal Machine Replacement Events with Periodic Inspection Intervals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    replacement policies for a generic machine with periodic inspection intervals. The considered reliability models consist of a single machine that can fail...during operation or else may be found to be inoperative during regularly-scheduled maintenance inspections. Most single-machine reliability models ...17 3.1 Model Development

  14. Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Linus; Ullen, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments,…

  15. A Numerical Empirical Bayes Procedure for Finding an Interval Estimate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Frederic M.

    A numerical procedure is outlined for obtaining an interval estimate of a parameter in an empirical Bayes estimation problem. The case where each observed value x has a binomial distribution, conditional on a parameter zeta, is the only case considered. For each x, the parameter estimated is the expected value of zeta given x. The main purpose is…

  16. Response Priming Patterns Differ with Interstimulus Interval Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Kristie A.; Wiley, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Priming paradigms make it possible to study the nature of response preparation before the onset of movement. One way to examine this process is through manipulation of the interstimulus interval (ISI). The timing of the prime and target presentation has been shown to have distinct effects on reaction time patterns, in both healthy and…

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  18. Statistical physics of inter-ELM time interval sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Anthony; Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Sandra; JET-EFDA Team

    2013-10-01

    We report recent studies of the statistical properties of the sequence of time intervals between successive edge localised modes (ELMs). We have compared theoretically derived and empirical probability density functions (pdfs) for the waiting time intervals between ELMs from 85 long steady H-mode plasmas from the Joint European Torus (JET). The Weibull distribution provides a good fit to both type I and type III ELMs, with different parameters. We infer (A J Webster and R O Dendy, Phys Rev Lett 110, 155004 (2013)) that the type III ELMs were generated by a memoryless process, whereas the type I ELMs were consistent with build-up and release. Delay time analysis (F A Calderon, R O Dendy, S C Chapman, A J Webster et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042306 (2013)) of six similar JET H-mode plasmas with different levels of gas puffing strongly suggests that the underlying ELMing process is low dimensional. A current study of a dataset of 15,000 ELMs from two weeks of equivalent JET plasmas yields a combined pdf for inter-ELM time intervals which, surprisingly, displays a series of sharp maxima. All three studies show that rigorous statistical analysis of inter-ELM time intervals can contribute to quantitative classification of ELM types and to physical insight into the ELMing processes.

  19. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  20. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  1. QTc interval prolongation in patients with HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Mahmoud U.; Okeahialam, Basil N.

    2005-01-01

    A higher prevalence of QT prolongation has been reported among HIV/AIDS patients, possibly related to drugs prescribed for them or to an acquired form of long QT syndrome. A prolonged QTc is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality. We set out to study this interval in a group of AIDS patients. One-hundred consecutive AIDS patients admitted into the Jos University Teaching Hospital and who satisfied the inclusion criteria were recruited. All were evaluated for symptomatology of cardiovascular disease and had a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram recording. QT interval, taken from the onset of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave, was corrected for heart rate. Eighty HIV-negative, healthy persons and 78 HIV-positive, asymptomatic subjects were used as controls. Forty-five percent of the AIDS patients had prolonged QTc interval. Prolonged QTc was present in 28% of HIV-positive controls and 10% of HIV-negative controls. The mean QTc interval differs significantly between the AIDS patients and the two control groups. From our study, Nigerian HIV-positive asymptomatic subjects have higher prevalence of QTc prolongation compared to HIV-negative subjects and, as they move to AIDS, the prevalence of QTc prolongation increases. This makes for increased cardiovascular mortality. PMID:16396057

  2. Evaluating the Equal-Interval Hypothesis with Test Score Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingue, Benjamin Webre

    2012-01-01

    In psychometrics, it is difficult to verify that measurement instruments can be used to produce numeric values with the desirable property that differences between units are equal-interval because the attributes being measured are latent. The theory of additive conjoint measurement (e.g., Krantz, Luce, Suppes, & Tversky, 1971, ACM) guarantees…

  3. Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Axe, Michael; Hurd, Wendy; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Context: Baseball throwing injuries are common. Emphasis on injury prevention and rehabilitation is made in an attempt to keep athletes on the field of competition. Interval throwing programs are an integral part of training, conditioning, and returning an injured baseball player to the game. Evidence Acquisition: Development of data-driven programs was based on the number, type, distance, and intensity of throws during games, across the spectrum of ages and positions for baseball athletes at all levels of play. Statistical analysis by age, position, and level of play determined the need for separate throwing programs. Means, the high range, game rules, and practical considerations were used to develop each data-based interval throwing program. Results: Data-based age and level-of-play interval throwing programs for pitchers, catchers, infielders, and outfielders have been developed, tested, and implemented for more than 10 years. Progression is based on type and location of injury, symptoms in response to throwing, and preinjury performance profile. Although the throwing programs are highly structured, there is ample opportunity to modify them to meet the needs of individual athletes. Conclusion: Data-based interval throwing programs for baseball athletes are an integral training and conditioning element for both injured and uninjured athletes who are preparing for sports participation. Medical team members should equip themselves with an understanding of how to use the programs for safe training, conditioning, and return to play. PMID:23015866

  4. 30 CFR 75.360 - Preshift examination at fixed intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of any 8-hour interval during which any person is scheduled to work or travel underground. No person... pumpers are scheduled to work or travel shall not be required prior to the pumper entering the areas if... the area where the pumper works or travels. The examination of the area must be completed before...

  5. Patterns of interval correlations in neural oscillators with adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Schwalger, Tilo; Lindner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Neural firing is often subject to negative feedback by adaptation currents. These currents can induce strong correlations among the time intervals between spikes. Here we study analytically the interval correlations of a broad class of noisy neural oscillators with spike-triggered adaptation of arbitrary strength and time scale. Our weak-noise theory provides a general relation between the correlations and the phase-response curve (PRC) of the oscillator, proves anti-correlations between neighboring intervals for adapting neurons with type I PRC and identifies a single order parameter that determines the qualitative pattern of correlations. Monotonically decaying or oscillating correlation structures can be related to qualitatively different voltage traces after spiking, which can be explained by the phase plane geometry. At high firing rates, the long-term variability of the spike train associated with the cumulative interval correlations becomes small, independent of model details. Our results are verified by comparison with stochastic simulations of the exponential, leaky, and generalized integrate-and-fire models with adaptation. PMID:24348372

  6. Researchers Misunderstand Confidence Intervals and Standard Error Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belia, Sarah; Fidler, Fiona; Williams, Jennifer; Cumming, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about researchers' understanding of confidence intervals (CIs) and standard error (SE) bars. Authors of journal articles in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and medicine were invited to visit a Web site where they adjusted a figure until they judged 2 means, with error bars, to be just statistically significantly different (p…

  7. Parametric likelihood inference for interval censored competing risks data.

    PubMed

    Hudgens, Michael G; Li, Chenxi; Fine, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Parametric estimation of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) is considered for competing risks data subject to interval censoring. Existing parametric models of the CIF for right censored competing risks data are adapted to the general case of interval censoring. Maximum likelihood estimators for the CIF are considered under the assumed models, extending earlier work on nonparametric estimation. A simple naive likelihood estimator is also considered that utilizes only part of the observed data. The naive estimator enables separate estimation of models for each cause, unlike full maximum likelihood in which all models are fit simultaneously. The naive likelihood is shown to be valid under mixed case interval censoring, but not under an independent inspection process model, in contrast with full maximum likelihood which is valid under both interval censoring models. In simulations, the naive estimator is shown to perform well and yield comparable efficiency to the full likelihood estimator in some settings. The methods are applied to data from a large, recent randomized clinical trial for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  8. Quantifying uncertainty on sediment loads using bootstrap confidence intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaets, Johanna I. F.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, Thomas; Cadisch, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Load estimates are more informative than constituent concentrations alone, as they allow quantification of on- and off-site impacts of environmental processes concerning pollutants, nutrients and sediment, such as soil fertility loss, reservoir sedimentation and irrigation channel siltation. While statistical models used to predict constituent concentrations have been developed considerably over the last few years, measures of uncertainty on constituent loads are rarely reported. Loads are the product of two predictions, constituent concentration and discharge, integrated over a time period, which does not make it straightforward to produce a standard error or a confidence interval. In this paper, a linear mixed model is used to estimate sediment concentrations. A bootstrap method is then developed that accounts for the uncertainty in the concentration and discharge predictions, allowing temporal correlation in the constituent data, and can be used when data transformations are required. The method was tested for a small watershed in Northwest Vietnam for the period 2010-2011. The results showed that confidence intervals were asymmetric, with the highest uncertainty in the upper limit, and that a load of 6262 Mg year-1 had a 95 % confidence interval of (4331, 12 267) in 2010 and a load of 5543 Mg an interval of (3593, 8975) in 2011. Additionally, the approach demonstrated that direct estimates from the data were biased downwards compared to bootstrap median estimates. These results imply that constituent loads predicted from regression-type water quality models could frequently be underestimating sediment yields and their environmental impact.

  9. Measurement of Phonated Intervals during Four Fluency-Inducing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Previous investigations of persons who stutter have demonstrated changes in vocalization variables during fluency-inducing conditions (FICs). A series of studies has also shown that a reduction in short intervals of phonation, those from 30 to 200 ms, is associated with decreased stuttering. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to…

  10. Constructing Approximate Confidence Intervals for Parameters with Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. -L.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) for parameters are usually constructed based on the estimated standard errors. These are known as Wald CIs. This article argues that likelihood-based CIs (CIs based on likelihood ratio statistics) are often preferred to Wald CIs. It shows how the likelihood-based CIs and the Wald CIs for many statistics and psychometric…

  11. The Effects of Nonnormal Distributions on Confidence Intervals around the Standardized Mean Difference: Bootstrap and Parametric Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken

    2005-01-01

    The standardized group mean difference, Cohen's "d", is among the most commonly used and intuitively appealing effect sizes for group comparisons. However, reporting this point estimate alone does not reflect the extent to which sampling error may have led to an obtained value. A confidence interval expresses the uncertainty that exists between…

  12. Relationship between the Initial Systolic Time Interval and RR-interval during an exercise stimulus measured with Impedance Cardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Habers, Esther; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Meijer, Jan H.

    2010-04-01

    The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained from the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram, is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and reflects an active period of the heart cycle. The relationship between ISTI and the total heart cycle (RR-interval) was studied in three groups of young, healthy volunteers: low, moderately and highly trained subjects. The three groups were exposed to an exercise stimulus on a cycle ergometer with an increasing work load to increase the heart rate. ISTI was decreased with decreasing RR-interval. However, the relative proportion of ISTI, ISTI/RR, was found to increase with decreasing RR-interval. This relationship was found to be inversely proportional. The rate of this increase in ISTI/RR was significantly higher in highly trained subjects. Also, over the whole range of heart rates ISTI was longer in these subjects. It is concluded that ISTI can be used to evaluate cardiac performance during physical exercise non-invasively and in an extramural setting.

  13. QT Interval Variability Index and QT Interval Duration in Different Sleep Stages: Analysis of Polysomnographic Recordings in Nonapneic Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Viigimae, Moonika; Karai, Deniss; Pirn, Peeter; Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Kaik, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether different sleep stages, especially REM sleep, affect QT interval duration and variability in male patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Polysomnographic recordings of 30 patients were analyzed. Beat-to-beat QT interval variability was calculated using QTV index (QTVI) formula. For QTc interval calculation, in addition to Bazett's formula, linear and parabolic heart rate correction formulas with two separate α values were used. QTVI and QTc values were calculated as means of 2 awake, 3 NREM, and 3 REM sleep episodes; the duration of each episode was 300 sec. Mean QTVI values were not statistically different between sleep stages. Therefore, elevated QTVI values found in patients with OSA cannot be interpreted as physiological sympathetic impact during REM sleep and should be considered as a risk factor for potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The absence of difference of the mean QTc interval values between NREM and REM stages seems to confirm our conclusion that sympathetic surges during REM stage do not induce repolarization variability. In patients without notable structural and electrical remodeling of myocardium, physiological elevation in sympathetic activity during REM sleep remains subthreshold concerning clinically significant increase of myocardial electrical instability. PMID:26693490

  14. QT Interval Variability Index and QT Interval Duration in Different Sleep Stages: Analysis of Polysomnographic Recordings in Nonapneic Male Patients.

    PubMed

    Viigimae, Moonika; Karai, Deniss; Pirn, Peeter; Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Kaik, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether different sleep stages, especially REM sleep, affect QT interval duration and variability in male patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Polysomnographic recordings of 30 patients were analyzed. Beat-to-beat QT interval variability was calculated using QTV index (QTVI) formula. For QTc interval calculation, in addition to Bazett's formula, linear and parabolic heart rate correction formulas with two separate α values were used. QTVI and QTc values were calculated as means of 2 awake, 3 NREM, and 3 REM sleep episodes; the duration of each episode was 300 sec. Mean QTVI values were not statistically different between sleep stages. Therefore, elevated QTVI values found in patients with OSA cannot be interpreted as physiological sympathetic impact during REM sleep and should be considered as a risk factor for potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The absence of difference of the mean QTc interval values between NREM and REM stages seems to confirm our conclusion that sympathetic surges during REM stage do not induce repolarization variability. In patients without notable structural and electrical remodeling of myocardium, physiological elevation in sympathetic activity during REM sleep remains subthreshold concerning clinically significant increase of myocardial electrical instability.

  15. Expanded vs. equal interval spaced retrieval practice: exploring different schedules of spacing and retention interval in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jessica M; Balota, David A

    2008-05-01

    The present study was designed to help answer several questions regarding the impact of spacing and expanded retrieval on memory performance in younger and older adults. Three expanded/equal interval schedule pairings, matched in average spacing (1-2-3/2-2-2; 1-3-5/3-3-3; and 1-3-8/4-4-4), were compared, and the effect of retention interval on spaced retrieval benefits was examined by comparing performance on a same day test to a test delayed by 24 h. Both age groups showed a learning phase retrieval success advantage for expanded items compared to equal interval items. Only older adults in the same day test condition showed a significant expansion effect in final recall. After a 24-h delay, the final recall advantage for items in the expanded condition was lost in both groups, and in fact these items were at a significant recall disadvantage for younger adults. Results indicate that younger and older adults benefit from a rehearsal technique that incorporated any type of spaced retrieval whether it is distributed as an expanding schedule or not. Although we did not find robust advantages for expanded retrieval compared to equal interval practice, there could be certain advantages (such as reinforcement due to high success rates) to using expanded retrieval depending on the ultimate goals of an individual memory training program.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training with Vibration as Rest Intervals Attenuates Fiber Atrophy and Prevents Decreases in Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Aguayo, David; Zuercher, Matthias; Fleischmann, Oliver; Boutellier, Urs; Auer, Maria; Jung, Hans H.; Toigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W′) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W′, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W′ (−14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (−8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (−10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (−6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (−6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146 PMID:25679998

  17. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA RT-qPCR assays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens from women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, which is the third most common cancer in women. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and Ki67 are tumor cell markers indicating cancer cell proliferation in cancer patients, and activation of hTERT and Ki67 leads to progressive cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the CervicGen HPVE6/E7 mRNA RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HPV high-risk (HR) genotypes (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 69), and the CervicGen hTERT and Ki67 mRNA RT-qDx assay using 117 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples. The diagnostic validity of the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay for detecting histologically proven prevalent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 94% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 78.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The most common HPV genotypes detected in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples were HPV 16 (56%) and HPV 18 (10%). The positivity rate of hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expressions in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples on RT-qPCR was 65% and 93% respectively. Moreover, the positivity rates were 92% for a combination of HPV E6/E7 and hTERT mRNA expressions, 97% for HPV E6/E7 and Ki67 mRNA expressions, and 99% (99/100) for the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expressions. These data showed that SSC FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples correlated more strongly with high Ki67 mRNA expressions than with hTERT mRNA expressions. Notably, hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expression level was increased in high-grade cervical lesions, but was very low in normal samples. Our findings suggest that the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expression levels could be used in a complementary manner in diagnosing high-grade cervical lesions. Further studies are required to evaluate these assays as a useful predictive tool for screening low-grade cervical lesions.

  18. Effect of different post-feeding intervals on the total time of development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Mai, Madeleine; Amendt, Jens

    2012-09-10

    By estimating the age of the immature stages of flies developing on a corpse, forensic entomologists are able to establish the minimum post-mortem interval. Blowflies, which are the first and most important colonizers, usually leave the cadaver at the end of the last larval stage searching for a pupation site. This period of development is referred as the post-feeding or wandering stage. The characteristics of the ground where the corpse was placed might be of notable importance for the post-feeding dispersal time: For pupariation the larvae prefer an environment protected from light and predators and may have a longer dispersal time in order to reach an appropriate pupation site. Hence, the dispersal time can vary and may influence the total time of development which may lead to an erroneous calculation of the post-mortem interval. This study investigates the effect of various post-feeding time intervals on the development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata at a temperature of 25°C. As larvae reached the post-feeding stage a pupariation substrate was offered at 0 and after 12, 24 and 48h. Only the larvae with a dispersal time of 24h (total time of development 325.2h; median) and 48h (total time of development 347.7h; median) showed a significantly longer total development time compared to the control group (total time of development 318.4h; median). The mortality rate did not differ between groups; however the flies that emerged from the group with a dispersal of 48h were significantly smaller indicating increased energy consumption during dispersal. The results of this study indicate that a prolonged post-feeding stage could increase the total developmental time of L. sericata which should be taken into consideration when interpreting entomological findings. The need for a serious examination of current rearing practices in forensic entomology laboratories is indicated because reference data sets for the time of development are usually produced by offering the post

  19. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective.

  20. Convergence of the natural approximations of piecewise monotone interval maps.

    PubMed

    Haydn, Nicolai

    2004-06-01

    We consider piecewise monotone interval mappings which are topologically mixing and satisfy the Markov property. It has previously been shown that the invariant densities of the natural approximations converge exponentially fast in uniform pointwise topology to the invariant density of the given map provided its derivative is piecewise Lipshitz continuous. We provide an example of a map which is Lipshitz continuous and for which the densities converge in the bounded variation norm at a logarithmic rate. This shows that in general one cannot expect exponential convergence in the bounded variation norm. Here we prove that if the derivative of the interval map is Holder continuous and its variation is well approximable (gamma-uniform variation for gamma>0), then the densities converge exponentially fast in the norm.

  1. Dual-transverse-mode microsquare lasers with tunable wavelength interval.

    PubMed

    Long, Heng; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Ma, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen

    2015-08-01

    A dual-transverse-mode microsquare laser with a tunable wavelength interval is designed and realized by using a square-ring-patterned contact window. For a 30-μm-side-length microsquare laser with the square-ring width of 4 μm, the wavelength interval varies from 0.25 to 0.37 nm with the intensity ratio less than 2.5 dB as the injection current increases from 89 to 108 mA. Based on the dual-transverse-mode microsquare laser, the microwave signals with the frequencies of 30.56, 32.70, 35.12, and 39.51 GHz and the 3-dB bandwidths of 47, 53, 54, and 47 MHz are obtained at the injection currents of 90, 95, 100, and 105 mA, respectively.

  2. Confidence intervals in Flow Forecasting by using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Tsekouras, George

    2014-05-01

    One of the major inadequacies in implementation of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for flow forecasting is the development of confidence intervals, because the relevant estimation cannot be implemented directly, contrasted to the classical forecasting methods. The variation in the ANN output is a measure of uncertainty in the model predictions based on the training data set. Different methods for uncertainty analysis, such as bootstrap, Bayesian, Monte Carlo, have already proposed for hydrologic and geophysical models, while methods for confidence intervals, such as error output, re-sampling, multi-linear regression adapted to ANN have been used for power load forecasting [1-2]. The aim of this paper is to present the re-sampling method for ANN prediction models and to develop this for flow forecasting of the next day. The re-sampling method is based on the ascending sorting of the errors between real and predicted values for all input vectors. The cumulative sample distribution function of the prediction errors is calculated and the confidence intervals are estimated by keeping the intermediate value, rejecting the extreme values according to the desired confidence levels, and holding the intervals symmetrical in probability. For application of the confidence intervals issue, input vectors are used from the Mesochora catchment in western-central Greece. The ANN's training algorithm is the stochastic training back-propagation process with decreasing functions of learning rate and momentum term, for which an optimization process is conducted regarding the crucial parameters values, such as the number of neurons, the kind of activation functions, the initial values and time parameters of learning rate and momentum term etc. Input variables are historical data of previous days, such as flows, nonlinearly weather related temperatures and nonlinearly weather related rainfalls based on correlation analysis between the under prediction flow and each implicit input

  3. Relativistic rise measurements with very fine sampling intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.; Platner, E.D.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Teramoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The motivation of this work was to determine whether the technique of charged particle identification via the relativistic rise in the ionization loss can be significantly improved by virtue of very small sampling intervals. A fast-sampling ADC and a longitudinal drift geometry were used to provide a large number of samples from a single drift chamber gap, achieving sampling intervals roughly 10 times smaller than any previous study. A single layer drift chamber was used, and tracks of 1 meter length were simulated by combining together samples from many identified particles in this detector. These data were used to study the resolving power for particle identification as a function of sample size, averaging technique, and the number of discrimination levels (ADC bits) used for pulse height measurements.

  4. A Dynamic Interval Decision-Making Method Based on GRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-jun, Tang; Jia, Chen

    According to the basic theory of grey relational analysis, this paper constructs a three-dimensional grey interval relation degree model for the three dimensions of time, index and scheme. On its basis, it sets up and solves a single-targeted optimization model, and obtains each scheme's affiliate degree for the positive/negative ideal scheme and also arranges the schemes in sequence. The result shows that the three-dimensional grey relation degree simplifies the traditional dynamic multi-attribute decision-making method and can better resolve the dynamic multi-attribute decision-making method of interval numbers. Finally, this paper proves the practicality and efficiency of the model through a case study.

  5. Momentary maximizing in concurrent schedules with a minimum interchangeover interval

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio; Souza, Deisy G.; Bori, Carolina M.

    1993-01-01

    Eight pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules with a minimum interchangeover time programmed as a consequence of changeovers. In Experiment 1 the reinforcement schedules remained constant while the minimum interchangeover time varied from 0 to 200 s. Relative response rates and relative time deviated from relative reinforcement rates toward indifference with long minimum interchangeover times. In Experiment 2 different reinforcement ratios were scheduled in successive experimental conditions with the minimum interchangeover time constant at 0, 2, 10, or 120 s. The exponent of the generalized matching equation was close to 1.0 when the minimum interchangeover time was 0 s (the typical procedure for concurrent schedules without a changeover delay) and decreased as that duration was increased. The data support the momentary maximizing theory and contradict molar maximizing theories and the melioration theory. PMID:16812704

  6. Realtime Multichannel System for Beat to Beat QT Interval Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starc, Vito; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) shows clinical promise for identifying several types of cardiac pathology. However, until now, there has been no device capable of displaying, in real time on a beattobeat basis, changes in QTV in all 12 conventional leads in a continuously monitored patient. While several software programs have been designed to analyze QTV, heretofore, such programs have all involved only a few channels (at most) and/or have required laborious user interaction or offline calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. This paper describes a PC-based ECG software program that in real time, acquires, analyzes and displays QTV and also PQ interval variability (PQV) in each of the eight independent channels that constitute the 12lead conventional ECG. The system also processes certain related signals that are derived from singular value decomposition and that help to reduce the overall effects of noise on the realtime QTV and PQV results.

  7. Contrasting effects of interference and of breaks in interval timing.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette; Macar, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    When a break is introduced during an interval to be timed, the interval is perceived shorter as break location is delayed. This is interpreted as a result of attention sharing between timing and monitoring the source of the break signal. Similar effects and interpretations are found in another context involving interfering tasks. Such tasks are assumed to induce transient interruptions in timing, comparable to those obtained with breaks. Break and interference conditions were contrasted in a temporal reproduction procedure with identical stimuli. Both conditions induced temporal underestimation and similar location effects. Similar trends occurred in a control condition where no processing of the interfering signal was required. The data suggest that expectancy, intentional processing, and automatic attraction of attention shorten temporal estimates.

  8. Computing connection coefficients of compactly supported wavelets on bounded intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, C.H.; Peyton, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    Daubechies wavelet basis functions have many properties that make them desirable as a basis for a Galerkin approach to solving PDEs: they are orthogonal, with compact support, and their connection coefficients can be computed. The method developed by Latto et al. to compute connection coefficients does not provide the correct inner product near the endpoints of a bounded interval, making the implementation of boundary conditions problematic. Moreover, the highly oscillatory nature of the wavelet basis functions makes standard numerical quadrature of integrals near the boundary impractical. The authors extend the method of Latto et al. to construct and solve a linear system of equations whose solution provides the exact computation of the integrals at the boundaries. As a consequence, they provide the correct inner product for wavelet basis functions on a bounded interval.

  9. Prolonged QT interval in a man with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Robles, María Dolores; Perez-Clemente, Ana María; Maciá-Bobes, Carmen; Alvarez-Rueda, María Asunción; Pozo-Nuevo, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the avoidance of food intake, which usually leads to a weight loss. Cardiac co-morbility is common and we can find sometimes a mass loss from the left ventricle, which can be seen by echocardiography. But the commonest complications are rhythm variations, typically bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval in up to a 40% of the cases, which altogether elevates ventricular tachycardia and sudden death risk. We present the case of a male who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and developed asthenia, a long QT interval and also a severe both hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia. We intend to discuss the pathogenic paths as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures to this potentially-lethal pathology. PMID:19646241

  10. Computation of robustly stabilizing PID controllers for interval systems.

    PubMed

    Matušů, Radek; Prokop, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The paper is focused on the computation of all possible robustly stabilizing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers for plants with interval uncertainty. The main idea of the proposed method is based on Tan's (et al.) technique for calculation of (nominally) stabilizing PI and PID controllers or robustly stabilizing PI controllers by means of plotting the stability boundary locus in either P-I plane or P-I-D space. Refinement of the existing method by consideration of 16 segment plants instead of 16 Kharitonov plants provides an elegant and efficient tool for finding all robustly stabilizing PID controllers for an interval system. The validity and relatively effortless application of presented theoretical concepts are demonstrated through a computation and simulation example in which the uncertain mathematical model of an experimental oblique wing aircraft is robustly stabilized.

  11. Deriving winds for hurricanes using short interval satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. C.; Rodgers, E.; Shenk, W. E.; Oliver, V.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study program designed to develop a better means of obtaining wind data needed by hurricane forecasters and to determine the optimum space and time resolution of satellite data used to obtain such winds. The discussion covers cloud tracking with an image display and manipulation system and analysis of IR imagery of Hurricane Eloise. It is shown that greater resolution in time and space of satellite imagery made it possible to derive up to six times as many low-level winds in a hurricane case, to eliminate 'bad winds' caused by mistaking cloud growth for cloud motion, and to remove ambiguities that would have caused difficulty in tracking clouds using only the imagery taken at 30-min intervals. It is suggested to use short-interval imagery (less than 10 min) for wind determination for future research in areas of tropical cyclones.

  12. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat; Barmore, Bryan; Swieringa, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the wind information used to generate trajectories for aircraft performing Interval Management (IM) operations is critical to the success of an IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather provider. The second is that only a small subset of the forecast data can be uplinked to the aircraft for use by the FIM equipment, resulting in loss of additional information. This study focuses on what subset of forecast data, such as the number and location of the points where the wind is sampled should be made available to uplink to the aircraft.

  13. Interval timing and Parkinson's disease: heterogeneity in temporal performance.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Hugo; Luciana, Monica; Hooper, Catalina; Majestic, Stacy; Tuite, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Interval timing deficiencies in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have been a matter of debate. Here we test the possibility of PD heterogeneity as a source for this discrepancy. Temporal performance of PD patients and control subjects was assessed during two interval tapping tasks and during a categorization task of time intervals. These tasks involved temporal processing of intervals in the hundreds of milliseconds range; however, they also covered a wide range of behavioral contexts, differing in their perceptual, decision-making, memory, and execution requirements. The results showed the following significant findings. First, there were two clearly segregated subgroups of PD patients: one with high temporal variability in the three timing tasks, and another with a temporal variability that did not differ substantially from control subjects. In contrast, PD patients with high and low temporal variability showed similar perceptual, decision-making, memory, and execution performance in a set of control tasks. Second, a slope analysis, designed to dissociate time-dependent from time-independent sources of variation, revealed that the increase in variability in this group of PD patients was mainly due to an increment in the variability associated with the timing mechanism. Third, while the control subjects showed significant correlations in performance variability across tasks, PD patients, and particularly those with high temporal variability, did not show such task correlations. Finally, the results showed that dopaminergic treatment restored the correlation effect in PD patients, producing a highly significant correlation between the inter-task variability. Altogether, these results indicate that a subpopulation of PD patients shows a strong disruption in temporal processing in the hundreds of milliseconds range. These findings are discussed in terms of the role of dopamine as a tuning element for the synchronization of temporal processing across different

  14. Interpregnancy Interval and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Cathleen; Gunderson, Erica P.; Dorward, Kaht; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether subsequent births after short and long interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) are associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: We assessed the association between IPI and ASD risk in a cohort of 45 261 children born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) between 2000 and 2009. Children with ASD were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Revision 9 diagnostic codes 299.0, 299.8, and 299.9 recorded in KPNC electronic medical records. IPI was defined as the time from the birth of the first child to the conception of the second child. Survival analysis and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between IPI and risk of ASD in second-born children. RESULTS: Children born after an IPI of <12 months or ≥72 months had a 2- to 3-fold increased ASD risk compared with children born after an interval of 36 to 47 months. Respective adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were as follows: <6 months, 3.0 (1.9–4.7); 6 to 8 months, 2.1 (1.4–3.3); 9 to 11 months, 1.9 (1.3–2.1); 12 to 23 months, 1.5 (1.1–2.1); and ≥72 months, 2.4 (1.5–3.7). The results are not explained by maternal BMI or change in BMI between pregnancies or by parental age, maternal antidepressant medication use, or unfavorable events occurring during the first or second pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Children born after interpregnancy intervals <2 years or >6 years may be at increased risk of ASD. The mechanism explaining this association is unknown, and more research is needed. PMID:26371204

  15. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Eric B; Flint, Robert D; Moxon, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g., motor tasks) under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n = 5), while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n = 6). Using perievent time histogram (PETH) analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT), however, only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter), we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R = 0.61) significantly better than nIT animals (R = 0.507, p < 0.01), suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  16. Multifactor analysis of multiscaling in volatility return intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We study the volatility time series of 1137 most traded stocks in the U.S. stock markets for the two-year period 2001-2002 and analyze their return intervals τ , which are time intervals between volatilities above a given threshold q . We explore the probability density function of τ , Pq(τ) , assuming a stretched exponential function, Pq(τ)˜e-τγ . We find that the exponent γ depends on the threshold in the range between q=1 and 6 standard deviations of the volatility. This finding supports the multiscaling nature of the return interval distribution. To better understand the multiscaling origin, we study how γ depends on four essential factors, capitalization, risk, number of trades, and return. We show that γ depends on the capitalization, risk, and return but almost does not depend on the number of trades. This suggests that γ relates to the portfolio selection but not on the market activity. To further characterize the multiscaling of individual stocks, we fit the moments of τ , μm≡⟨(τ/⟨τ⟩)m⟩1/m , in the range of 10<⟨τ⟩⩽100 by a power law, μm˜⟨τ⟩δ . The exponent δ is found also to depend on the capitalization, risk, and return but not on the number of trades, and its tendency is opposite to that of γ . Moreover, we show that δ decreases with increasing γ approximately by a linear relation. The return intervals demonstrate the temporal structure of volatilities and our findings suggest that their multiscaling features may be helpful for portfolio optimization.

  17. Empirical Likelihood-Based Confidence Interval of ROC Curves.

    PubMed

    Su, Haiyan; Qin, Yongsong; Liang, Hua

    2009-11-01

    In this article we propose an empirical likelihood-based confidence interval for receiver operating characteristic curves which are based on a continuous-scale test. The approach is easily understood, simply implemented, and computationally efficient. The results from our simulation studies indicate that the finite-sample numerical performance slightly outperforms the most promising methods published recently. Two real datasets are analyzed by using the proposed method and the existing bootstrap-based method.

  18. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H. Charles; Russo, Frank A.; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants’ ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants’ ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception. PMID:27760134

  19. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric B.; Flint, Robert D.; Moxon, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g., motor tasks) under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n = 5), while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n = 6). Using perievent time histogram (PETH) analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT), however, only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter), we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R = 0.61) significantly better than nIT animals (R = 0.507, p < 0.01), suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time. PMID:23055956

  20. Visual feedback for retuning to just intonation intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, R. Dean; Nordquist, Peter R.; Corn, Justin S.

    2005-04-01

    Musicians become used to equal temperament pitch intervals due to their widespread use in tuning pianos and other fixed-pitch instruments. For unaccompanied singing and some other performance situations, a more harmonious blending of sounds can be achieved by shifting to just intonation intervals. Lissajous figures provide immediate and striking visual feedback that emphasizes the frequency ratios and pitch intervals found among the first few members of a single harmonic series. Spirograph patterns (hypotrochoids) are also especially simple for ratios of small whole numbers, and their use for providing feedback to singers has been suggested previously [G. W. Barton, Jr., Am. J. Phys. 44(6), 593-594 (1976)]. A hybrid mixture of these methods for comparing two frequencies generates what appears to be a three dimensional Lissajous figure-a cylindrical wire mesh that rotates about its tilted vertical axis, with zero tilt yielding the familiar Lissajous figure. Sine wave inputs work best, but the sounds of flute, recorder, whistling, and a sung ``oo'' are good enough approximations to work well. This initial study compares the three modes of presentation in terms of the ease with which a singer can obtain a desired pattern and recognize its shape.

  1. The Behavioral Economics of Choice and Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Jozefowiez, J.; Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple behavioral economic model (BEM) describing how reinforcement and interval timing interact. The model assumes a Weber-law-compliant logarithmic representation of time. Associated with each represented time value are the payoffs that have been obtained for each possible response. At a given real time, the response with the highest payoff is emitted. The model accounts for a wide range of data from procedures such as simple bisection, metacognition in animals, economic effects in free-operant psychophysical procedures and paradoxical choice in double-bisection procedures. Although it assumes logarithmic time representation, it can also account for data from the time-left procedure usually cited in support of linear time representation. It encounters some difficulties in complex free-operant choice procedures, such as concurrent mixed fixed-interval schedules as well as some of the data on double bisection, that may involve additional processes. Overall, BEM provides a theoretical framework for understanding how reinforcement and interval timing work together to determine choice between temporally differentiated reinforcers. PMID:19618985

  2. Robust inter-beat interval estimation in cardiac vibration signals.

    PubMed

    Brüser, C; Winter, S; Leonhardt, S

    2013-02-01

    Reliable and accurate estimation of instantaneous frequencies of physiological rhythms, such as heart rate, is critical for many healthcare applications. Robust estimation is especially challenging when novel unobtrusive sensors are used for continuous health monitoring in uncontrolled environments, because these sensors can create significant amounts of potentially unreliable data. We propose a new flexible algorithm for the robust estimation of local (beat-to-beat) intervals from cardiac vibration signals, specifically ballistocardiograms (BCGs), recorded by an unobtrusive bed-mounted sensor. This sensor allows the measurement of motions of the body which are caused by cardiac activity. Our method requires neither a training phase nor any prior knowledge about the morphology of the heart beats in the analyzed waveforms. Instead, three short-time estimators are combined using a Bayesian approach to continuously estimate the inter-beat intervals. We have validated our method on over-night BCG recordings from 33 subjects (8 normal, 25 insomniacs). On this dataset, containing approximately one million heart beats, our method achieved a mean beat-to-beat interval error of 0.78% with a coverage of 72.69%.

  3. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  4. Nosewitness Identification: Effects of Lineup Size and Retention Interval

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C.; Costa, Liliana P.; Pinto, Elisa; Ferreira, Jacqueline H. T.; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Silva, Carlos F.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2016-01-01

    Although canine identification of body odor (BO) has been widely used as forensic evidence, the concept of nosewitness identification by human observers was only recently put to the test. The results indicated that BOs associated with male characters in authentic crime videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. To further evaluate nosewitness memory, we assessed the effects of lineup size (Experiment 1) and retention interval (Experiment 2), using a forced-choice memory test. The results showed that nosewitness identification works for all lineup sizes (3, 5, and 8 BOs), but that larger lineups compromise identification performance in similarity to observations from eye- and earwitness studies. Also in line with previous eye- and earwitness studies, but in disagreement with some studies on odor memory, Experiment 2 showed significant forgetting between shorter retention intervals (15 min) and longer retention intervals (1-week) using lineups of five BOs. Altogether this study shows that identification of BO in a forensic setting is possible and has limits and characteristics in line with witness identification through other sensory modalities. PMID:27303317

  5. Confidence intervals for expected moments algorithm flood quantile estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Stedinger, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Historical and paleoflood information can substantially improve flood frequency estimates if appropriate statistical procedures are properly applied. However, the Federal guidelines for flood frequency analysis, set forth in Bulletin 17B, rely on an inefficient "weighting" procedure that fails to take advantage of historical and paleoflood information. This has led researchers to propose several more efficient alternatives including the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA), which is attractive because it retains Bulletin 17B's statistical structure (method of moments with the Log Pearson Type 3 distribution) and thus can be easily integrated into flood analyses employing the rest of the Bulletin 17B approach. The practical utility of EMA, however, has been limited because no closed-form method has been available for quantifying the uncertainty of EMA-based flood quantile estimates. This paper addresses that concern by providing analytical expressions for the asymptotic variance of EMA flood-quantile estimators and confidence intervals for flood quantile estimates. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the properties of such confidence intervals for sites where a 25- to 100-year streamgage record is augmented by 50 to 150 years of historical information. The experiments show that the confidence intervals, though not exact, should be acceptable for most purposes.

  6. An uncertain multidisciplinary design optimization method using interval convex models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangyi; Luo, Zhen; Sun, Guangyong; Zhang, Nong

    2013-06-01

    This article proposes an uncertain multi-objective multidisciplinary design optimization methodology, which employs the interval model to represent the uncertainties of uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The interval number programming method is applied to transform each uncertain objective function into two deterministic objective functions, and a satisfaction degree of intervals is used to convert both the uncertain inequality and equality constraints to deterministic inequality constraints. In doing so, an unconstrained deterministic optimization problem will be constructed in association with the penalty function method. The design will be finally formulated as a nested three-loop optimization, a class of highly challenging problems in the area of engineering design optimization. An advanced hierarchical optimization scheme is developed to solve the proposed optimization problem based on the multidisciplinary feasible strategy, which is a well-studied method able to reduce the dimensions of multidisciplinary design optimization problems by using the design variables as independent optimization variables. In the hierarchical optimization system, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, sequential quadratic programming method and Gauss-Seidel iterative approach are applied to the outer, middle and inner loops of the optimization problem, respectively. Typical numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  7. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jaegeun; Jung, Im Y; Yoo, Jaesoo

    2017-04-02

    Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  8. Circadian phase and intertrial interval interfere with social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Moura, Paula J; Gimenes-Júnior, João A; Valentinuzzi, Verónica S; Xavier, Gilberto F

    2009-01-08

    A modified version of the social habituation/dis-habituation paradigm was employed to examine social recognition memory in Wistar rats during two opposing (active and inactive) circadian phases, using different intertrial intervals (30 and 60 min). Wheel-running activity was monitored continuously to identify circadian phase. To avoid possible masking effects of the light-dark cycle, the rats were synchronized to a skeleton photoperiod, which allowed testing during different circadian phases under identical lighting conditions. In each trial, an infantile intruder was introduced into an adult's home-cage for a 5-minute interaction session, and social behaviors were registered. Rats were exposed to 5 trials per day for 4 consecutive days: on days 1 and 2, each resident was exposed to the same intruder; on days 3 and 4, each resident was exposed to a different intruder in each trial. The resident's social investigatory behavior was more intense when different intruders were presented compared to repeated presentation of the same intruder, suggesting social recognition memory. This effect was stronger when the rats were tested during the inactive phase and when the intertrial interval was 60 min. These findings suggest that social recognition memory, as evaluated in this modified habituation/dis-habituation paradigm, is influenced by the circadian rhythm phase during which testing is performed, and by intertrial interval.

  9. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl by D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido [2,3-d:6,5-d′] dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Chandrabhan; Quraishi, M. A.; Kluza, K.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2017-01-01

    D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido-[2,3-d:6,5-d′]-dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone (GPHs) have been synthesized and investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl solution using gravimetric, electrochemical, surface, quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The order of inhibition efficiencies is GPH-3 > GPH-2 > GPH-1. The results further showed that the inhibitor molecules with electron releasing (-OH, -OCH3) substituents exhibit higher efficiency than the parent molecule without any substituents. Polarization study suggests that the studied compounds are mixed-type but exhibited predominantly cathodic inhibitive effect. The adsorption of these compounds on mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM, EDX and AFM analyses were used to confirm the inhibitive actions of the molecules on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical (QC) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations studies were undertaken to further corroborate the experimental results. PMID:28317849

  10. Tautomeric purine forms of 2-amino-6-chloropurine (N9H10 and N7H10): Structures, vibrational assignments, NBO analysis, hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO study using B3 based density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Parimala, K.

    2012-10-01

    Two purine tautomers of 2-amino-6-chloropurine (ACP), in labeled as N9H10 and N7H10, were investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and quantum chemical method. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of ACP have been recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The measured spectra were interpreted by aid of a normal coordinate analysis following DFT full geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. First-order hyperpolarizability, HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated at same level of theory. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the X-ray data. The observed and calculated frequencies were found in good agreement. The obtained NBO data and second-order perturbation energy values to elucidate the Lewis and non-Lewis types of bonding structures in the purine tautomer N9H10, have indicated the presence of an intramolecular hyperconjucative interaction between lone pair N and N-C bond orbital.

  11. Tautomeric purine forms of 2-amino-6-chloropurine (N9H10 and N7H10): structures, vibrational assignments, NBO analysis, hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO study using B3 based density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Parimala, K

    2012-10-01

    Two purine tautomers of 2-amino-6-chloropurine (ACP), in labeled as N(9)H(10) and N(7)H(10), were investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and quantum chemical method. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of ACP have been recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. The measured spectra were interpreted by aid of a normal coordinate analysis following DFT full geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. First-order hyperpolarizability, HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated at same level of theory. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the X-ray data. The observed and calculated frequencies were found in good agreement. The obtained NBO data and second-order perturbation energy values to elucidate the Lewis and non-Lewis types of bonding structures in the purine tautomer N(9)H(10), have indicated the presence of an intramolecular hyperconjucative interaction between lone pair N and N-C bond orbital.

  12. Vibrational spectroscopic study of the minerals nekoite Ca3Si6O15·7H2O and okenite Ca10Si18O46·18H2O - Implications for the molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei

    2012-08-01

    Nekoite Ca3Si6O15·7H2O and okenite Ca10Si18O46·18H2O are both hydrated calcium silicates found respectively in contact metamorphosed limestone and in association with zeolites from the alteration of basalts. The minerals form two-dimensional infinite sheets with other than six-membered rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings. The two minerals have been characterised by Raman, near-infrared and infrared spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum of nekoite is characterised by two sharp peaks at 1061 and 1092 cm-1 with bands of lesser intensity at 974, 994, 1023 and 1132 cm-1. The Raman spectrum of okenite shows an intense single Raman band at 1090 cm-1 with a shoulder band at 1075 cm-1. These bands are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of Si2O5 units. Raman water stretching bands of nekoite are observed at 3071, 3380, 3502 and 3567 cm-1. Raman spectrum of okenite shows water stretching bands at 3029, 3284, 3417, 3531 and 3607 cm-1. NIR spectra of the two minerals are subtly different inferring water with different hydrogen bond strengths. By using a Libowitzky empirical formula, hydrogen bond distances based upon these OH stretching vibrations. Two types of hydrogen bonds are distinguished: strong hydrogen bonds associated with structural water and weaker hydrogen bonds assigned to space filling water molecules.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of trinuclear chromium(III) basic carboxylate assembly: [Cr3O(salH)7(H2O)2] (salH2=salicylic acid), a new member of [Cr3O] family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinlong; Liu, Bin; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-07-01

    Synthesizing a novel trinuclear chromium(III) basic carboxylate complex could give rise to new materials with interesting properties. Complex [Cr3O(salH)7(H2O)2] is formed in a one-pot, self-assembly reaction when the inert reaction mixture is exposed to dioxygen. The structural property of the complex has been acquired by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and further characterized by elemental analysis (EA), infrared (IR), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). X-ray structural analysis shows a slightly distorted equilateral of the Cr triangle. The most important feature of the title complex is the unusual framework of the [Cr3O] family due to a terminal Ph(OH)CO2- ion of Cr(2) center, which is unique among the structurally characterized (μ3-oxo)-trichromium(III) complexes. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that the total spin value of the ground state is 1/2.

  14. Determination of superoxide in seawater using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7- dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3(7H)-one chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Rose, Andrew L; Moffett, James W; Waite, T David

    2008-02-15

    Superoxide, the one-electron reduced form of dioxygen, is known to be generated in marine environments by photochemical and biological processes. Because of its selective reaction with only a few commonly occurring compounds, superoxide is expected to approach concentrations in the high picomolar or low nanomolar range in seawater. Most currently existing methods do not have both the necessary sensitivity and selectivity to measure naturally occurring concentrations. In contrast, we demonstrate here that the chemiluminescence reagent 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-3(7H)-one (MCLA) is selective for superoxide in seawater and can be used with a detection limit of around 50 pM. Although a wide range of potential interferences were shown not to react with MCLA directly, some care must be taken when analyzing samples containing nanomolar concentrations of Fe(II), Cu(I), Mo(V), V(III), or V(IV), since these compounds can react with oxygen to produce superoxide during analysis that is subsequently detected. We describe two methods for calibrating the system, one employing photochemically generated superoxide standards and the other employing the superoxide-generating xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and discuss limitations on the use of each. The method was successfully used in the field to determine steady-state superoxide concentrations in the water column in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.

  15. Structural characterization, thermal, ac conductivity and dielectric properties of (C7H12N2)2[SnCl6]Cl2.1.5H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajji, Rachid; Oueslati, Abderrazek; Hajlaoui, Fadhel; Bulou, Alain; Hlel, Faouzi

    2016-05-01

    (C7H12N2)2[SnCl6]Cl2.1.5H2O is crystallized at room temperature in the monoclinic system (space group P21/n). The isolated molecules form organic and inorganic layers parallel to the (a, b) plane and alternate along the c-axis. The inorganic layer is built up by isolated SnCl6 octahedrons. Besides, the organic layer is formed by 2,4-diammonium toluene cations, between which the spaces are filled with free Cl- ions and water molecules. The crystal packing is governed by means of the ionic N-H...Cl and Ow-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The thermal study of this compound is reported, revealing two phase transitions around 360(±3) and 412(±3) K. The electrical and dielectric measurements were reported, confirming the transition temperatures detected in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The frequency dependence of ac conductivity at different temperatures indicates that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the probable mechanism for the ac conduction behavior.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl by D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido [2,3-d:6,5-d‧] dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Chandrabhan; Quraishi, M. A.; Kluza, K.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2017-03-01

    D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido-[2,3-d:6,5-d‧]-dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone (GPHs) have been synthesized and investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl solution using gravimetric, electrochemical, surface, quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The order of inhibition efficiencies is GPH-3 > GPH-2 > GPH-1. The results further showed that the inhibitor molecules with electron releasing (-OH, -OCH3) substituents exhibit higher efficiency than the parent molecule without any substituents. Polarization study suggests that the studied compounds are mixed-type but exhibited predominantly cathodic inhibitive effect. The adsorption of these compounds on mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM, EDX and AFM analyses were used to confirm the inhibitive actions of the molecules on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical (QC) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations studies were undertaken to further corroborate the experimental results.

  17. Cesium-induced QT-interval prolongation in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Harik, Nada; James, Laura P; Seib, Paul M; Stowe, Cindy D

    2008-08-01

    Alternative medicine is becoming increasingly popular, especially with terminally ill patients. Most alternative remedies have not been adequately studied or proven effective for the diseases for which they are promoted. In the worst cases, these therapies are harmful. We describe a 16-year-old girl with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma who experienced cesium-induced QT-interval prolongation after the start of a cesium chloride-based alternative treatment regimen. She had received seven courses of chemotherapy, with a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 500 mg/m(2) over 5 months, resulting in minimal tumor regression. Against the advice of her oncologist, she abandoned traditional therapy and started an alternative regimen that included cesium chloride supplements. Two weeks later, the patient went to a local emergency department after experiencing two brief syncopal episodes. An electrocardiogram revealed occasional premature ventricular contractions, a QTc interval of 683 msec (normal range for females 450-460 msec), and R on T phenomenon. She was admitted to the hospital and later experienced monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which resolved spontaneously. Lidocaine therapy was started, and the patient was transferred to a cardiac intensive care unit at our hospital. Her plasma cesium level was 2400 microg/dl (normal < 1 microg/dl), and her family was told to stop her alternative treatment regimen. On hospital day 5, as no additional arrhythmias had occurred, lidocaine was discontinued. Two days later, the patient's QTc interval had decreased to 546 msec, and she was discharged home. Two months later, at a follow-up visit, her serum cesium level was 1800 microg/dl, and her QTc interval was 494 msec. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, cesium was the probable cause of the patient's arrhythmia. In animal models, cesium chloride has induced cardiac arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes. It inhibits delayed rectifier potassium

  18. Delay of Feedback Interval, Postfeedback Interval, Distraction, and Task Difficulty as Factors in a Modified Concept-Identification Task with Junior High School Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, F. Michael; Beaton, Virginia L.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of delay of information feedback interval (0 or 7 seconds), postinformation feedback interval (1, 8, or 15 seconds), difficulty (one or three variable irrelevant dimensions), and presence or absence of a tractor in the postinformation feedback interval were investigated with 240 junior high school children in a modified…

  19. On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the Mean of a Skewed Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, W.; Kibria, B. M. Golam

    2007-01-01

    A number of methods are available in the literature to measure confidence intervals. Here, confidence intervals for estimating the population mean of a skewed distribution are considered. This note proposes two alternative confidence intervals, namely, Median t and Mad t, which are simple adjustments to the Student's t confidence interval. In…

  20. An Introduction to Confidence Intervals for Both Statistical Estimates and Effect Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    This paper summarizes methods of estimating confidence intervals, including classical intervals and intervals for effect sizes. The recent American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference report suggested that confidence intervals should always be reported, and the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual"…

  1. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile…

  2. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training with Different Interval Durations on Physical Performance in Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Viaño-Santasmarinas, Jorge; Rey, Ezequiel; Carballeira, Sergio; Padrón-Cabo, Alexis

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training protocols (HIIT) with different interval durations (short (SI) vs long (LI)), based on peak running velocity in 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) in handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (age: 22.7±3.9 years; height: 181.5±6.6 cm; body mass: 84.7±14.1 kg) were randomly assigned to SI (2 sets of 22 intervals of 10-s runs at 95%VIFT) or LI (5 sets of 3 min intervals at 85% VIFT) group. The intervention program had to be carried out 2 times a week over 6 weeks. Before and after training period, 10 m sprint, countermovement jump, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and 30- 15IFT were assessed. In the within-group analysis, significant improvements in VIFT were found in SI (8.18%) and LI (8.19%) from pre-test to post-test. Players in both SI and LI also showed significant enhancements in RSA average time (Effect Size (ES)= 0.72 and 0.38, respectively), total time (ES= 0.72 and 0.38, respectively), and percentage of decrement (ES= 1.08 and 0.77, respectively) from pre-test to post-test. Percentage changes in VIFT, for both groups combined, had a very large correlation with percentage changes in percentage of decrement of RSA (r= 0.857). In the between-groups, there were no differences between the training groups (SI and LI) in any variable (p>0.05). These results indicate that both HIIT protocols are effective for fitness development during pre-season period in handball players. However, SI should be considered as preferred HIIT method due to its higher specificity.

  3. Confidence interval construction for proportion ratio in paired studies based on hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Lai; Li, Hui-Qiong; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we consider confidence interval construction for proportion ratio in paired samples. Previous studies usually reported that score-based confidence intervals consistently outperformed other asymptotic confidence intervals for correlated proportion difference and ratio. However, score-based confidence intervals may not possess closed-form solutions and iterative procedures are therefore required. This article investigates the problem of confidence interval construction for ratio of two correlated proportions based on a hybrid method. Briefly, the hybrid method simply combines two separate confidence intervals for two individual proportions to produce a hybrid confidence interval for the ratio of the two individual proportions in paired studies. Most importantly, confidence intervals based on this hybrid method possess explicit solutions. Our simulation studies indicate that hybrid Wilson score confidence intervals based on Fieller's theorem performs well. The proposed confidence intervals will be illustrated with three real examples.

  4. Determinants of birth intervals in Vietnam: a hazard model analysis.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Thang, N M

    1993-06-01

    There was absence of any regional differences in parity progressions and length of birth intervals, although urban-rural differences persisted at most birth orders, suggesting that, as in other studies, the urban-rural differentials are the primary source of variations in fertility between different areas of a country. The significantly higher probability of a subsequent birth after birth order 2 in areas with high infant mortality compared to those with low infant mortality suggests that women in the high-risk provinces may be more likely to advance beyond parity 2 and continue on into the advanced parities. The provinces identified as having high infant mortality had also been identified in other studies as the provinces with the highest crude birth rates and population growth rates, the least available family planning services, and highest crude death rates. Mothers' education was consistently related to the likelihood of another birth at each birth order, with the most-educated women experiencing a significantly lower probability of having a subsequent birth at every birth order. This concurs with results in other studies, suggesting that the woman's education is a prime determinant of fertility and that increasing the educational attainment of women is one of the most beneficial measures to reduce fertility. The significant relationship between the previous birth interval of the index child and the probability that the index child would be followed by a subsequent birth conforms with other studies of birth interval dynamics that suggest that pregnancy-spacing for a given woman remains constant throughout her reproductive career.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  6. Long-interval intracortical inhibition in a human hand muscle.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Chris J; Martin, Peter G; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2011-03-01

    When two motor cortical stimuli are delivered with an interstimulus interval of 50-200 ms, the response (motor evoked potential; MEP) to the second stimulus is typically suppressed. This phenomenon is termed long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), although data from one subject suggest that facilitation is possible. Moreover, we recently showed that suppression can be mediated at a spinal level. We characterized LICI more fully by exploring a broad range of contraction strengths and test stimulus intensities. MEPs were evoked in first dorsal interosseous by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex. Single test and paired (conditioning-test interval of 100 ms) stimuli at intensities of 100-160% resting motor threshold were delivered at rest or during brief contractions of 10, 25, or 100% maximal voluntary force. Inhibition or facilitation was quantified with the standard ratio in which conditioned MEPs were expressed as a percentage of unconditioned MEPs. Inhibition was greatest at weak-moderate contraction strengths and least at rest and during maximal efforts. Both at rest and during maximal efforts, MEPs evoked by strong stimuli were facilitated. In a subset of subjects, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to activate the corticospinal tract to identify possible spinal influences on changes to MEPs. Contraction strength and test stimulus intensity each had different effects on unconditioned and conditioned MEP size, and hence, LICI is highly dependent on both factors. Further, because motoneurons are facilitated during contraction but disfacilitated after a strong conditioning stimulus, the standard ratio of LICI is of questionable validity during voluntary contractions.

  7. Interval Throwing and Hitting Programs in Baseball: Biomechanics and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Bishop, Meghan E; Baker, Dylan; West, Robin V

    2016-01-01

    Baseball injuries from throwing and hitting generally occur as a consequence of the repetitive and high-energy motions inherent to the sport. Biomechanical studies have contributed to understanding the pathomechanics leading to injury and to the development of rehabilitation programs. Interval-based throwing and hitting programs are designed to return an athlete to competition through a gradual progression of sport-specific exercises. Proper warm-up and strict adherence to the program allows the athlete to return as quickly and safely as possible.

  8. Possible neural coding with interevent intervals of synchronous firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Kazuyuki; Tokuda, Isao

    2002-08-01

    Neural networks composed of excitable neurons with noise generate rich nonlinear dynamics with spatiotemporal structures of neuronal spikes. Among various spatiotemporal patterns of spikes, synchronous firing has been studied most extensively both with physiological experimentation and with theoretical analysis. In this paper, we consider nonlinear neurodynamics in terms of synchronous firing and possibility of neural coding with such synchronous firing, which may be used in the ``noisy brain.'' In particular, reconstruction of a chaotic attractor modeling a dynamical environment is explored with interevent intervals of synchronous firing from the perspective of nonlinear time series analysis and stochastic resonance.

  9. On ``Overestimation-free Computational Version of Interval Analysis''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Evgenija D.

    2013-10-01

    The transformation of interval parameters into trigonometric functions, proposed in Int. J. Comput. Meth. Eng. Sci. Mech., vol. 13, pp. 319-328 (2012), is not motivated in comparison to the infinitely many equivalent algebraic transformations. The conclusions about the efficacy of the methodology used are based on incorrect comparisons between solutions of different problems. We show theoretically, and in the examples considered in the commented article, that changing the number of the parameters in a system of linear algebraic equations may change the initial problem, respectively, its solution set. We also correct various misunderstandings and bugs that appear in the article noted above.

  10. Stability problem for singular Dirac equation system on finite interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Ahu; Panakhov, Etibar

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we show the stability problem for the singular Dirac equation system respect to two spectra on finite interval. The meaning of the stability problem of differential operators is to estimate difference of the spectral functions which considered problems when a finite number of eigenvalues of these problems coincide. The method is based on work by Ryabushko in [12]. The author in [12] studied to what extent only finitely many eigenvalues in one or both spectra determine the potential. We obtain a bound on variation of difference of the spectral functions for singular Dirac equation system.

  11. Interbirth interval and duration of pregnancy in hares.

    PubMed

    Stavy, M; Terkel, J

    1992-07-01

    The possibility of inducing superfetation in hares by artificial insemination (AI) was investigated. AI performed on various days during the second half of gestation did not result in new pregnancies, but all ongoing pregnancies were terminated 1-4 days after AI. We suggest that copulation during the last week of pregnancy, common among captive hares, may have a similar effect to that of AI in terminating pregnancies and inducing early deliveries. Intervals between successive deliveries that are shorter than the normal duration of gestation do not necessarily indicate superfetation and this phenomenon may be rare among hares in captivity as well as in the wild.

  12. Methodological issues for determining intervals of subsequent cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The gap between nationwide recommendations of cancer screening and the related evidences obtained from Korean adults should be filled. Estimation of the mean sojourn time (MST) in a specific cancer is important to determine the intervals of subsequent screening. This author arranged the methods for calculating MST into 5 categories based on the parameters used. Under the legal barrier for protection of individual privacy and confidentiality in a Korean academic situation, the methods involving the use of transition rates or prevalence/incidence ratio would be applicable among these methods.

  13. Fault Detection and Isolation using Viability Theory and Interval Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaniee Zarch, Majid; Puig, Vicenç; Poshtan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of interval observers and viability theory in fault detection and isolation (FDI). Viability theory develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty. These methods can be used for checking the consistency between observed and predicted behavior by using simple sets that approximate the exact set of possible behavior (in the parameter or state space). In this paper, fault detection is based on checking for an inconsistency between the measured and predicted behaviors using viability theory concepts and sets. Finally, an example is provided in order to show the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  14. Methodological issues for determining intervals of subsequent cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The gap between nationwide recommendations of cancer screening and the related evidences obtained from Korean adults should be filled. Estimation of the mean sojourn time (MST) in a specific cancer is important to determine the intervals of subsequent screening. This author arranged the methods for calculating MST into 5 categories based on the parameters used. Under the legal barrier for protection of individual privacy and confidentiality in a Korean academic situation, the methods involving the use of transition rates or prevalence/incidence ratio would be applicable among these methods. PMID:25078383

  15. Dataset of manually measured QT intervals in the electrocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Ivaylo; Dotsinsky, Ivan; Simova, Iana; Prokopova, Rada; Trendafilova, Elina; Naydenov, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Background The QT interval and the QT dispersion are currently a subject of considerable interest. Cardiac repolarization delay is known to favor the development of arrhythmias. The QT dispersion, defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest QT intervals or as the standard deviation of the QT duration in the 12-lead ECG is assumed to be reliable predictor of cardiovascular mortality. The seventh annual PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge, 2006 addresses a question of high clinical interest: Can the QT interval be measured by fully automated methods with accuracy acceptable for clinical evaluations? Method The PTB Diagnostic ECG Database was given to 4 cardiologists and 1 biomedical engineer for manual marking of QRS onsets and T-wave ends in 458 recordings. Each recording consisted of one selected beat in lead II, chosen visually to have minimum baseline shift, noise, and artifact. In cases where no T wave could be observed or its amplitude was very small, the referees were instructed to mark a 'group-T-wave end' taking into consideration leads with better manifested T wave. A modified Delphi approach was used, which included up to three rounds of measurements to obtain results closer to the median. Results A total amount of 2*5*548 Q-onsets and T-wave ends were manually marked during round 1. To obtain closer to the median results, 8.58 % of Q-onsets and 3.21 % of the T-wave ends had to be reviewed during round 2, and 1.50 % Q-onsets and 1.17 % T-wave ends in round 3. The mean and standard deviation of the differences between the values of the referees and the median after round 3 were 2.43 ± 0.96 ms for the Q-onset, and 7.43 ± 3.44 ms for the T-wave end. Conclusion A fully accessible, on the Internet, dataset of manually measured Q-onsets and T-wave ends was created and presented in additional file: 1 (Table 4) with this article. Thus, an available standard can be used for the development of automated methods for the detection of Q

  16. CSL Model Checking of Biochemical Networks with Interval Decision Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarick, Martin; Heiner, Monika

    This paper presents an Interval Decision Diagram based approach to symbolic CSL model checking of Continuous Time Markov Chains which are derived from stochastic Petri nets. Matrix-vector and vector-matrix multiplication are the major tasks of exact analysis. We introduce a simple, but powerful algorithm which uses explicitly the Petri net structure and allows for parallelisation. We present results demonstrating the efficiency of our first prototype implementation when applied to biochemical network models, specifically with increasing token numbers. Our tool currently supports CSL model checking of time-bounded operators and the Next operator for ordinary stochastic Petri nets.

  17. Point and interval estimation in the combination of bioassay results.

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, P.; Bennett, B. M.; Finney, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for combining evidence from different biological assays is shown to be equivalent both to generalized least-squares and to maximum-likelihood estimation. By appropriate nesting of hypotheses, the likelihood function can be used to test the agreement between the assays and to obtain probability limits for the combined estimate of potency. The properties of these limits are examined, with particular reference to the situation, unusual but not impossible in practice, in which the values of relative potency that they define consist of several disjoint segments instead of a single interval. The connection with general theory of estimating linear functional relations is pointed out. PMID:1060692

  18. A Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a new paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm using a mapping to first order logic. We also show that CAIP plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and that planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we show how constraint templates are used to provide a compact mechanism for describing planning domains.

  19. The chemistry and biology of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole: synthesis and characterization of selected derivatives, metabolism in rat liver preparations and mutagenesis mediated by cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Stong, D B; Christian, R T; Jayasimhulu, K; Wilson, R M; Warshawsky, D

    1989-03-01

    Authentic stable standards of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC), a potent environmental carcinogen, were synthesized in order to study the compound's metabolism and mutagenesis in whole cell systems. Complete characterization of 2-OH-DBC, 3-OH-DBC, 4-OH-DBC, 13c-OH-DBC and N-methyl-DBC was accomplished by UV, IR, fluorescence and high resolution NMR spectra, and by high resolution mass spectrometric procedures. Metabolites of DBC were isolated and separated by HPLC from extracts of rat liver microsomal incubations and the medium of primary cultures of rat liver cells. Identification of metabolites was accomplished by comparisons between the authentic standards and isolated metabolites by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectral analyses, and by co-chromatographic techniques. 2-OH-DBC and 3-OH-DBC were found in all rat liver preparations as well as three other unidentified phenols. 4-OH-DBC, 13c-OH-DBC or N-methyl-DBC were not isolated under any conditions. The rates of appearance of DBC metabolites in cultures of rat liver cells were compared to those for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at 10, 25, 50 and 100 microM substrate. At 25 microM substrate or greater, DBC metabolites appeared in the culture medium at significantly faster rates than those of BaP. At 100 microM substrate, DBC metabolites appeared at a rate approximately 4-times the rate observed for BaP. When the mutagenic potential of DBC was compared to that of BaP under identical conditions in a co-cultivation system of rat liver cells and an epithelial cell line, DBC was found to produce significantly higher rates of mutagenesis than BaP at concentrations of 0.4, 4.0 and 40.0 microM in the culture medium. The mutagenic potential of DBC was compared to that of several derivatives of the parent compound. 3-OH-DBC, 13c-OH-DBC and N-methyl-DBC were found to be mutagenic in the co-cultivation system at 40 microM, with mutation frequencies of 4.4 +/- 0.8, 8.0 +/- 3.1 and 12.9 +/- 5.4 mutants per 10(5) survivors

  20. Solid-state synthesis and characterization of σ-alkane complexes, [Rh(L2)(η(2),η(2)-C7H12)][BAr(F)4] (L2 = bidentate chelating phosphine).

    PubMed

    Pike, Sebastian D; Chadwick, F Mark; Rees, Nicholas H; Scott, Mark P; Weller, Andrew S; Krämer, Tobias; Macgregor, Stuart A

    2015-01-21

    The use of solid/gas and single-crystal to single-crystal synthetic routes is reported for the synthesis and characterization of a number of σ-alkane complexes: [Rh(R2P(CH2)nPR2)(η(2),η(2)-C7H12)][BAr(F)4]; R = Cy, n = 2; R = (i)Pr, n = 2,3; Ar = 3,5-C6H3(CF3)2. These norbornane adducts are formed by simple hydrogenation of the corresponding norbornadiene precursor in the solid state. For R = Cy (n = 2), the resulting complex is remarkably stable (months at 298 K), allowing for full characterization using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The solid-state structure shows no disorder, and the structural metrics can be accurately determined, while the (1)H chemical shifts of the Rh···H-C motif can be determined using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. DFT calculations show that the bonding between the metal fragment and the alkane can be best characterized as a three-center, two-electron interaction, of which σCH → Rh donation is the major component. The other alkane complexes exhibit solid-state (31)P NMR data consistent with their formation, but they are now much less persistent at 298 K and ultimately give the corresponding zwitterions in which [BAr(F)4](-) coordinates and NBA is lost. The solid-state structures, as determined by X-ray crystallography, for all these [BAr(F)4](-) adducts are reported. DFT calculations suggest that the molecular zwitterions within these structures are all significantly more stable than their corresponding σ-alkane cations, suggesting that the solid-state motif has a strong influence on their observed relative stabilities.

  1. DMFC (3,5-dimethyl-(7)H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one) regulates Bim to trigger Bax and Bak activation to suppress drug-resistant human hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xia; Sun, Jianguo; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-03-01

    3,5-Dimethyl-(7)H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (DMFC) is a coumarin derivative with anti-cancer activity against human hepatoma cells, but the mechanisms underlying DMFC function in cancer suppression is unknown. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying DMFC anti-cancer activity and determining whether DMFC is effective in suppression of drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma. We show here that DMFC effectively suppresses both the parent and the multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell growth in vitro and DMFC suppresses hepatoma cell growth at least in part through inducing tumor cell apoptosis. In the molecular level, we observed that DMFC treatment decreases Bcl-2 level by a post-transcriptional mechanism and activates Bim transcription to increase Bim mRNA and protein level in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that DMFC-induced Bim interrupts interactions between Bcl-2 and Bax and between Mcl-1 and Bak, resulting in dissociation of Bax from Bcl-2 and Bak from Mcl-1 and subsequent activation of both Bax and Bak. Activation of Bax and Bak leads to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. Consistent with its potent apoptosis-inducing activity, DMFC exhibited potent activity against the multidrug-resistant hepatoma xenograft growth in vivo. Therefore, we determine that DMFC suppresses hepatoma growth through decreasing Bcl-2 and increasing Bim to induce tumor cell apoptosis and hold great promise for further development as a therapeutic agent to treat chemoresistant hepatoma.

  2. CDM analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Robert E.; Mcentire, Paul L.; Oreilly, John G.

    1993-01-01

    The C Data Manager (CDM) is an advanced tool for creating an object-oriented database and for processing queries related to objects stored in that database. The CDM source code was purchased and will be modified over the course of the Arachnid project. In this report, the modified CDM is referred to as MCDM. Using MCDM, a detailed series of experiments was designed and conducted on a Sun Sparcstation. The primary results and analysis of the CDM experiment are provided in this report. The experiments involved creating the Long-form Faint Source Catalog (LFSC) database and then analyzing it with respect to following: (1) the relationships between the volume of data and the time required to create a database; (2) the storage requirements of the database files; and (3) the properties of query algorithms. The effort focused on defining, implementing, and analyzing seven experimental scenarios: (1) find all sources by right ascension--RA; (2) find all sources by declination--DEC; (3) find all sources in the right ascension interval--RA1, RA2; (4) find all sources in the declination interval--DEC1, DEC2; (5) find all sources in the rectangle defined by--RA1, RA2, DEC1, DEC2; (6) find all sources that meet certain compound conditions; and (7) analyze a variety of query algorithms. Throughout this document, the numerical results obtained from these scenarios are reported; conclusions are presented at the end of the document.

  3. Statistical Properties of the Interbeat Interval Cascade in Human Hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Peinke, J.; Reza Rahimi Tabar, M.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    Statistical properties of interbeat intervals cascade in human hearts are evaluated by considering the joint probability distribution P (Δx2, τ2 Δx1, τ1) for two interbeat increments Δx1 and Δx2 of different time scales τ1 and τ2. We present evidence that the conditional probability distribution P (Δx2, τ2 | Δx1, τ1) may be described by a Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The corresponding Kramers-Moyal (KM) coefficients are evaluated. The analysis indicates that while the first and second KM coefficients take on well-defined and significant values, the higher-order coefficients in the KM expansion are small. As a result, the joint probability distributions of the increments in the interbeat intervals are described by a Fokker-Planck equation, with the first two KM coefficients acting as the drift and diffusion coefficients. The method provides a novel technique for distinguishing two classes of subjects, namely, healthy ones and those with congestive heart failure, in terms of the drift and diffusion coefficients which behave differently for two classes of the subjects.

  4. Recurrence Interval and Event Age Data for Type A Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Timothy E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Biasi, Glenn P.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix summarizes available recurrence interval, event age, and timing of most recent event data for Type A faults considered in the Earthquake Rate Model 2 (ERM 2) and used in the ERM 2 Appendix C analysis as well as Appendix N (time-dependent probabilities). These data have been compiled into an Excel workbook named Appendix B A-fault event ages_recurrence_V5.0 (herein referred to as the Appendix B workbook). For convenience, the Appendix B workbook is attached to the end of this document as a series of tables. The tables within the Appendix B workbook include site locations, event ages, and recurrence data, and in some cases, the interval of time between earthquakes is also reported. The Appendix B workbook is organized as individual worksheets, with each worksheet named by fault and paleoseismic site. Each worksheet contains the site location in latitude and longitude, as well as information on event ages, and a summary of recurrence data. Because the data has been compiled from different sources with different presentation styles, descriptions of the contents of each worksheet within the Appendix B spreadsheet are summarized.

  5. Covariate-adjusted confidence interval for the intraclass correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shoukri, Mohamed M; Donner, Allan; El-Dali, Abdelmoneim

    2013-09-01

    A crucial step in designing a new study is to estimate the required sample size. For a design involving cluster sampling, the appropriate sample size depends on the so-called design effect, which is a function of the average cluster size and the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC). It is well-known that under the framework of hierarchical and generalized linear models, a reduction in residual error may be achieved by including risk factors as covariates. In this paper we show that the covariate design, indicating whether the covariates are measured at the cluster level or at the within-cluster subject level affects the estimation of the ICC, and hence the design effect. Therefore, the distinction between these two types of covariates should be made at the design stage. In this paper we use the nested-bootstrap method to assess the accuracy of the estimated ICC for continuous and binary response variables under different covariate structures. The codes of two SAS macros are made available by the authors for interested readers to facilitate the construction of confidence intervals for the ICC. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate the relative efficiency of the estimators and evaluate the accuracy of the coverage probabilities of a 95% confidence interval on the population ICC. The methodology is illustrated using a published data set of blood pressure measurements taken on family members.

  6. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some "off-the-shelf" TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  7. Fractal Dynamics of Heartbeat Interval Fluctuations in Health and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.; Marconi, C.; Rahmel, A.; Grassi, B.; Ferretti, G.; Skinner, J. E.; Cerretelli, P.

    The dynamics of heartbeat interval time series were studied by a modified random walk analysis recently introduced as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. In this analysis, the intrinsic fractal long-range power-law correlation properties of beat-to-beat fluctuations generated by the dynamical system (i.e. cardiac rhythm generator), after decomposition from extrinsic uncorrelated sources, can be quantified by the scaling exponent which, in healthy subjects, is about 1.0. The finding of a scaling coefficient of 1.0, indicating scale-invariant long-range power-law correlations (1/ƒnoise) of heartbeat fluctuations, would reflect a genuinely self-similar fractal process that typically generates fluctuations on a wide range of time scales. Lack of a characteristic time scale suggests that the neuroautonomic system underlying the control of heart rate dynamics helps prevent excessive mode-locking (error tolerance) that would restrict its functional responsiveness (plasticity) to environmental stimuli. The 1/ƒ dynamics of heartbeat interval fluctuations are unaffected by exposure to chronic hypoxia suggesting that the neuroautonomic cardiac control system is preadapted to hypoxia. Functional (hypothermia, cardiac disease) and/or structural (cardiac transplantation, early cardiac development) inactivation of neuroautonomic control is associated with the breakdown or absence of fractal complexity reflected by anticorrelated random walk-like dynamics, indicating that in these conditions the heart is unadapted to its environment.

  8. Planctonic Foraminifera of Lower Cretaceous interval of Essaouira basin (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeoini, Yamina

    2014-05-01

    The studied area is on the west of Morocco in the High moroccan western Atlas. It is limited by Amizmiz and the Essaouira city. Lower Cretaceous - Barremian, Aptian and Albian- of Essaouira basin show tickness and variable lithology from east to west basin. The Barremian is caracterised by clays and calcareous, Aptian and Albian are caracterised by several typical marls and carbonates. The Albian is homogeneous in all the basin. Only Barremian sommit Aptian are very rich on planctonic Foraminifera, the base of this level is poor on planctonic Foraminifera. The Albian present several bentic Foraminifera like Pleurostomella. Biostratigraphy and micropalaentology study, essentially, based on planctonic Foraminifera can listing 24 species indicating 13 biozones in this area. The Barremian interval is composed of three biozones : - Hedbergella sigali biozone indicating the Early Barremian. - Hedbergella similis biozone, Globigerinneloïdes gottisi and Globigerinelloïdes duboisi are incated the Upper Barremian. The Aptian is recognised by six biozones : - Early Aptian interval is caracterised by the Schackoina cabri, Globigerinelloïdes ferreolensis, Globigerinelloïdes algerianus, Hedbergella gorbachikae and Hedbergela trochoïdea biozones. - Upper Aptian is recognised by Ticinella bejaouensis and base of Hedbergella planispira biozones. The Albian is caracterised by three biozones : - Hedbergella planispira biozone of Lower Albian. - Ticinella primula and Biticinella breggiensis biozones who caracterised the Upper Albian. Planomalina buxtorfi is also present but smal size. This study was followed by Pr. Saloua Gargouri Razgallah ( FS- Tunis- Tunisia)

  9. Computing Role Assignments of Proper Interval Graphs in Polynomial Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggernes, Pinar; van't Hof, Pim; Paulusma, Daniël

    A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph R is locally surjective if its restriction to the neighborhood of each vertex of G is surjective. Such a homomorphism is also called an R-role assignment of G. Role assignments have applications in distributed computing, social network theory, and topological graph theory. The Role Assignment problem has as input a pair of graphs (G,R) and asks whether G has an R-role assignment. This problem is NP-complete already on input pairs (G,R) where R is a path on three vertices. So far, the only known non-trivial tractable case consists of input pairs (G,R) where G is a tree. We present a polynomial time algorithm that solves Role Assignment on all input pairs (G,R) where G is a proper interval graph. Thus we identify the first graph class other than trees on which the problem is tractable. As a complementary result, we show that the problem is Graph Isomorphism-hard on chordal graphs, a superclass of proper interval graphs and trees.

  10. Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Collegiate Softball Players

    PubMed Central

    Axe, Michael J.; Windley, Thomas C.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To construct interval throwing programs followed by a simulated game for collegiate softball players at all positions. The programs are intended to be used as functional progressions within a comprehensive rehabilitation program for an injured athlete or to augment off-season conditioning workouts. Design and Setting: We collected data over a single season of National Collegiate Athletic Association softball at the University of Delaware and Goldey Beacom College. We observed 220 half-innings of play and 2785 pitches during data collection. Subjects: The subjects were collegiate-level softball players at all positions of play. Measurements: We recorded the number of pitches for pitchers. For catchers, we recorded the number of sprints to back up a play, time in the squat stance, throws back to the pitcher, and the perceived effort and distance of all other throws. We also collected the perceived effort and distance of all throws for infielders and outfielders. Results: Pitchers threw an average of 89.61 pitches per game; catchers were in the squat stance 14.13 minutes per game; infielders threw the ball between 4.28 times per game and 6.30 times per game; and outfielders threw distances of up to 175 feet. Conclusions: We devised the interval throwing programs from the data collected, field dimensions, the types of injuries found to occur in softball, and a general understanding of tissue healing. We designed programs that allow a safe and efficient progressive return to sport. PMID:12937435

  11. Coronal Inflows during the Interval 1996-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Wang, Y.-M.

    2014-12-01

    We extend our previous counts of coronal inflows from the 5 yr interval 1996-2001 to the 18 yr interval 1996-2014. By comparing stackplots of these counts with similar stackplots of the source-surface magnetic field and its longitudinal gradient, we find that the inflows occur in long-lived streams with counting rates in excess of 18 inflows per day at sector boundaries where the gradient exceeds 0.22 G rad-1. These streams are responsible for the high (86%) correlation between the inflow rate and the longitudinal field gradient. The overall inflow rate was several times larger in sunspot cycle 23 than it has been so far in cycle 24, reflecting the relatively weak source-surface fields during this cycle. By comparison, in cycles 21-22, the source-surface field and its gradient had bursts of great strength, as if large numbers of inflows occurred during those cycles. We find no obvious relation between inflows and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on timescales of days to weeks, regardless of the speeds of the CMEs, and only a 60% correlation on timescales of months, provided the CMEs are fast (V > 600 km s-1). We conclude that most of the flux carried out by CMEs is returned to the Sun via field line reconnection well below the 2.0 R ⊙ inner limit of the LASCO field of view, and that the remainder accumulates in the outer corona for an eventual return at sector boundaries.

  12. Trial order and retention interval in human predictive judgment.

    PubMed

    Stout, Steven C; Amundson, Jeffrey C; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-12-01

    The influences of order of trial type and retention interval on human predictive judgments were assessed for a cue that was reinforced on half of its training presentations. Subjects observed 10 cue-outcome presentations (i.e., reinforced trials) and 10 cue-alone presentations (i.e., nonreinforced trials) in one of three different orders: all nonreinforced trials followed by all reinforced trials(latent inhibition), reinforced and nonreinforced trials interspersed (partial reinforcement), or al lreinforced trials followed by all nonreinforced trials (extinction). Ratings were based mainly on the most recent event type (i.e., a recency effect) when the test occurred immediately after training but were based mainly on initial event types (i.e., a primacy effect) when the test occurred after a 48-h delay. The subjects tested both immediately and with a long retention interval did not exhibit this shift to primacy (i.e., the recency effect persisted). These results demonstrate noncatastrophic forgetting and the flexible use of trial order information in predictive judgments.

  13. Perception of relative depth interval: systematic biases in perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie M; Chopin, Adrien; Zeiner, Katharina; Hibbard, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    Given an estimate of the binocular disparity between a pair of points and an estimate of the viewing distance, or knowledge of eye position, it should be possible to obtain an estimate of their depth separation. Here we show that, when points are arranged in different vertical geometric configurations across two intervals, many observers find this task difficult. Those who can do the task tend to perceive the depth interval in one configuration as very different from depth in the other configuration. We explore two plausible explanations for this effect. The first is the tilt of the empirical vertical horopter: Points perceived along an apparently vertical line correspond to a physical line of points tilted backwards in space. Second, the eyes can rotate in response to a particular stimulus. Without compensation for this rotation, biases in depth perception would result. We measured cyclovergence indirectly, using a standard psychophysical task, while observers viewed our depth configuration. Biases predicted from error due either to cyclovergence or to the tilted vertical horopter were not consistent with the depth configuration results. Our data suggest that, even for the simplest scenes, we do not have ready access to metric depth from binocular disparity.

  14. Behavior of humans in variable-interval schedules of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; Bevan, P

    1976-09-01

    During Phase I, human subjects pressed a button for monetary reinforcement in five variable-interval schedules, each of which specified a different frequency of reinforcement. The rate of responding was an increasing, negatively accelerated function of reinforcement frequency; the data conformed closely to Herrnstein's equation. During Phase II, the same five schedules were in operation, but in addition a concurrent variable-interval schedule (B) was introduced, responses on which were always reinforced at the same frequency. Response rate in component A increased while the response rate in B decreased, as a function of the reinforcement frequency in component A. Relative response rates in the two component schedules matched the relative frequencies of reinforcement. Comparing the absolute response rates in component A during Phase I and Phase II it was found that introduction of the concurrent schedule did not affect the value of the theoretical maximum response rate, but did increase the value of the reinforcement frequency needed to obtain any particular submaximal response rate.

  15. Evaluating the utility of hexapod species for calculating a confidence interval about a succession based postmortem interval estimate.

    PubMed

    Perez, Anne E; Haskell, Neal H; Wells, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Carrion insect succession patterns have long been used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) during a death investigation. However, no published carrion succession study included sufficient replication to calculate a confidence interval about a PMI estimate based on occurrence data. We exposed 53 pig carcasses (16±2.5 kg), near the likely minimum needed for such statistical analysis, at a site in north-central Indiana, USA, over three consecutive summer seasons. Insects and Collembola were sampled daily from each carcass for a total of 14 days, by this time each was skeletonized. The criteria for judging a life stage of a given species to be potentially useful for succession-based PMI estimation were (1) nonreoccurrence (observed during a single period of presence on a corpse), and (2) found in a sufficiently large proportion of carcasses to support a PMI confidence interval. For this data set that proportion threshold is 45/53. Of the 266 species collected and identified, none was nonreoccuring in that each showed at least a gap of one day on a single carcass. If the definition of nonreoccurrence is relaxed to include such a single one-day gap the larval forms of Necrophilaamericana, Fanniascalaris, Cochliomyia macellaria, Phormiaregina, and Luciliaillustris satisfied these two criteria. Adults of Creophilus maxillosus, Necrobiaruficollis, and Necrodessurinamensis were common and showed only a few, single-day gaps in occurrence. C.maxillosus, P.regina, and L.illustris displayed exceptional forensic utility in that they were observed on every carcass. Although these observations were made at a single site during one season of the year, the species we found to be useful have large geographic ranges. We suggest that future carrion insect succession research focus only on a limited set of species with high potential forensic utility so as to reduce sample effort per carcass and thereby enable increased experimental replication.

  16. Filling the blanks in temporal intervals: the type of filling influences perceived duration and discrimination performance

    PubMed Central

    Horr, Ninja K.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate how judgments of perceived duration are influenced by the properties of the signals that define the intervals. Participants compared two auditory intervals that could be any combination of the following four types: intervals filled with continuous tones (filled intervals), intervals filled with regularly-timed short tones (isochronous intervals), intervals filled with irregularly-timed short tones (anisochronous intervals), and intervals demarcated by two short tones (empty intervals). Results indicate that the type of intervals to be compared affects discrimination performance and induces distortions in perceived duration. In particular, we find that duration judgments are most precise when comparing two isochronous and two continuous intervals, while the comparison of two anisochronous intervals leads to the worst performance. Moreover, we determined that the magnitude of the distortions in perceived duration (an effect akin to the filled duration illusion) is higher for tone sequences (no matter whether isochronous or anisochronous) than for continuous tones. Further analysis of how duration distortions depend on the type of filling suggests that distortions are not only due to the perceived duration of the two individual intervals, but they may also be due to the comparison of two different filling types. PMID:25717310

  17. Nonparametric confidence intervals for the one- and two-sample problems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao Hua; Dinh, Phillip

    2005-04-01

    Confidence intervals for the mean of one sample and the difference in means of two independent samples based on the ordinary-t statistic suffer deficiencies when samples come from skewed families. In this article we evaluate several existing techniques and propose new methods to improve coverage accuracy. The methods examined include the ordinary-t, the bootstrap-t, the biased-corrected acceleration and three new intervals based on transformation of the t-statistic. Our study shows that our new transformation intervals and the bootstrap-t intervals give best coverage accuracy for a variety of skewed distributions, and that our new transformation intervals have shorter interval lengths.

  18. Determinants of protogenetic interval in a west Mediterranean rural population: La Alpujarra (southeast Spain).

    PubMed

    Luna, F; Fuster, V

    1999-12-01

    This paper analyzes the protogenetic interval determinants and the influence on family size. The data came from La Alpujarra (Southeast Spain), consisting on a sample of 847 families marrying through-out the first half of the present century. The marital fertility includes 85% deliveries, 5% premarital births and the remaining 10% premarital conceptions. The protogenetic interval was clearly associated with the reproductive success since family size was nearly one child greater for short intervals (= < 16 months). The protogenetic interval largely depends on the occurrence of miscarriages preceding the first liveborn delivery as well as on maternal age. Consanguineous couples show slightly shorter intervals. A temporal decrease of protogenetic intervals was observed.

  19. The recurrence interval of great earthquakes along the Sagami trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.

    2003-12-01

    Along the Sagami trough, an oblique subuduction zone between the Philippine Sea and North American plates, great earthquakes occurred in 1923 (M7.9) and1703 (M8.6), about 50 km southwest of the Tokyo. Both events generated strong ground motions and tsunamis. Strong ground motions equivalent to seismic intensities 6 to 7 in JMA scale and 10 to 12 in MM scale struck over southern Kanto. The two earthquakes are similar more or less in the extent of the damage and the crustal deformation, possibly occurring very near each other. The extent of the damage and the crustal deformation on the southern area was greater in the 1703 event, whose tsunami reached and damaged the coast of the Kii peninsula, 300 to 400 km away from the source. The source region of the 1703 earthquake, therefore, is considered to have extended towards the ocean and much larger than that of the 1923 event. Several studies of uplift coastal terraces suggest the events like the 1703 one have occurred possibly every 1,000-2,000 years, while those like the 1923 Kanto earthquake more frequently without leaving geomorphic evidence on the terraces. Before 1703, a possible candidate for a subduction event is the M7.0-7.5 1257 or M7.0 1293 earthquake that caused serious damage to southern Kanto region. However, no other earthquakes have been found in historical documents. Historically, the Kanto area was not well civilized until 13th century and earthquakes are not well documented. In addition most historical documents recorded between 14th and 16th centuries were lost during the age of civil wars. If an average recurrence interval is 200 years, at least 4 to 5 events should have occurred before 1703,since the 9th century when the first earthquake was reported in this area. The incomplete earthquake history may contain at least two recurrence intervals, 200 and 400 years. However, the 400 year interval can be shortened by inserting additional earthquakes. For the purposes of hazard mitigation and study of

  20. Acceptability of Flight Deck-Based Interval Management Crew Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration - 1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using NextGen surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IM-NOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations, when used with a minimum set of Flight deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface, were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated in LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory. Data were collected from 10 crews of current, qualified 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into DFW, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final, and Tower

  1. QT interval in children with sensory neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    El Habbal, Magdi H; Mahoney, C O

    2002-04-01

    Long QT syndrome was first described in children with congenital sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL). The deafness was attributed to abnormalities in potassium ion channels of the inner ear. Similar channels are present in the heart and its dysfunction causes long QT syndrome. Whether congenital SNHL is associated with prolonged QT is unknown. This study examined 52 patients (median age 8.35 years, range 0.21-17.42 years) with SNHL and compared them to 63 healthy children (median age 10.2 years; range 0.67-19 years). An observer, who was blinded from the presence or absence of SNHL, measured QT, QTc intervals and dispersions from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. To assess the cardiac autonomic enervation, power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was determined using a 24-hour ambulatory heart rate monitor and was expressed as high (HF) to low frequency (LF) ratio. Left ventricular size and functions were evaluated by using two-dimensional echocardiography. The medians (and ranges) of QT intervals were 340 ms (230-420 ms) in patients and 320 ms (240-386 ms) in the control group (P < 0.01). The QTc was longer in patients with SNHL (median 417 ms, range 384-490 ms) than in controls (median 388 ms, range 325-432 ms, P < 0.001). QT dispersions in SNHL were higher (median .038 ms, range 00-11 ms) than controls (median 27 ms, range 00-52 ms, P < 0.001). T wave inversion (n = 16) and alternans (n = 3) occurred in patients with SNHL. Heart rates were similar in both groups. Some deaf patients (n = 8) had dizzy episodes with a QTc > 440 ms. The HF:LF ratio was 1.32 (0.516-2.33) in deaf patients and 1.428 (0.67-2.3) in the control group (P > 0.1). Left ventricular size and functions were similar and normal in deaf patients and controls. In children, congenital SNHL is associated with a prolonged QT interval.

  2. The stabilization interval system of a tethered descent underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayvoronskiy, S. A.; Ezangina, T.; Khozhaev, I.; Efimov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    To damp the vertical oscillations of a descent submersible caused by dusting the control system utilizing a shock-absorbing hoist located on the submersible was developed. A robust proportional-plus-integral action controller was included in the control loop to ensure acceptable dynamic properties of the system by interval variations of the module mass, the rope length, the equivalent value of stiffness of a spring linkage and the equivalent value of damping factor of the spring linkage. A parametric synthesis of the controller was carried out on the basis of the robust expansion of the coefficient method of the quality rating estimation. The system operability was confirmed by the results of the digital simulation parameters

  3. High Intensity Interval Training For Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    2017-04-03

    Regular physical activity or exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT.

  4. A likelihood approach to calculating risk support intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, S.M.; Ott, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Genetic risks are usually computed under the assumption that genetic parameters, such as the recombination fraction, are known without error. Uncertainty in the estimates of these parameters must translate into uncertainty regarding the risk. To allow for uncertainties in parameter values, one may employ Bayesian techniques or, in a maximum-likelihood framework, construct a support interval (SI) for the risk. Here the authors have implemented the latter approach. The SI for the risk is based on the SIs of parameters involved in the pedigree likelihood. As an empirical example, the SI for the risk was calculated for probands who are members of chronic spinal muscular atrophy kindreds. In order to evaluate the accuracy of a risk in genetic counseling situations, the authors advocate that, in addition to a point estimate, an SI for the risk should be calculated. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Robust interval-based regulation for anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-González, V; Harmand, J; Rapaport, A; Steyer, J P; González-Alvarez, V; Pelayo-Ortiz, C

    2005-01-01

    A robust regulation law is applied to the stabilization of a class of biochemical reactors exhibiting partially known highly nonlinear dynamic behavior. An uncertain environment with the presence of unknown inputs is considered. Based on some structural and operational conditions, this regulation law is shown to exponentially stabilize the aforementioned bioreactors around a desired set-point. This approach is experimentally applied and validated on a pilot-scale (1 m3) anaerobic digestion process for the treatment of raw industrial wine distillery wastewater where the objective is the regulation of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by using the dilution rate as the manipulated variable. Despite large disturbances on the input COD and state and parametric uncertainties, this regulation law gave excellent performances leading the output COD towards its set-point and keeping it inside a pre-specified interval.

  6. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  7. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    PubMed

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  8. Iridium abundance maxima in the Upper Cenomanian extinction interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Mao, X. Y.; Kauffman, E. G.; Diner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Two iridium abundance peaks, both 0.11 ppb (whole-rock basis) over a local background of 0.017 ppb, have been found in Middle Cretaceous marine rocks near Pueblo, Colorado. They occur just below the 92-million-year-old Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) stage boundary. No other peaks were found in 45 meters of strata (about 2.5 million years of deposition) above and below the boundary interval. The broad lower peak straddles the first in a series of extinctions of benthic and nektonic macrobiota which comprise the C-T extinction event. The sharp upper peak occurs stratigraphically about 1.2 meters above the lower peak. The excess Ir might be from meteoroid impacts.

  9. Estimation and confidence intervals for empirical mixing distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Questions regarding collections of parameter estimates can frequently be expressed in terms of an empirical mixing distribution (EMD). This report discusses empirical Bayes estimation of an EMD, with emphasis on the construction of interval estimates. Estimation of the EMD is accomplished by substitution of estimates of prior parameters in the posterior mean of the EMD. This procedure is examined in a parametric model (the normal-normal mixture) and in a semi-parametric model. In both cases, the empirical Bayes bootstrap of Laird and Louis (1987, Journal of the American Statistical Association 82, 739-757) is used to assess the variability of the estimated EMD arising from the estimation of prior parameters. The proposed methods are applied to a meta-analysis of population trend estimates for groups of birds.

  10. Mortality rate and confidence interval estimation in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kevin; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2010-01-01

    Surveys are conducted frequently in humanitarian emergencies to assess the health status of the population. Most often, they employ complex sample designs, such as cluster sampling. Mortality is an indicator commonly estimated in such surveys. Confidence limits provide information on the precision of the estimate and it is important to ensure that confidence limits for a mortality rate account for the survey design and utilise an acceptable methodology. This paper describes the calculation of confidence limits for mortality rates from surveys using complex sampling designs and a variety of software programmes and methods. It contains an example that makes use of the SAS, SPSS, and Epi Info software programmes. Of the three confidence interval methods examined--the ratio command approach, the modified rate approach, and the modified proportion approach--the paper recommends the ratio command approach to estimate mortality rates with confidence limits.

  11. Comparing Simultaneous and Pointwise Confidence Intervals for Hydrological Processes.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Fernández, Mario; Quintela-del-Río, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Distribution function estimation of the random variable of river flow is an important problem in hydrology. This issue is directly related to quantile estimation, and consequently to return level prediction. The estimation process can be complemented with the construction of confidence intervals (CIs) to perform a probabilistic assessment of the different variables and/or estimated functions. In this work, several methods for constructing CIs using bootstrap techniques, and parametric and nonparametric procedures in the estimation process are studied and compared. In the case that the target is the joint estimation of a vector of values, some new corrections to obtain joint coverage probabilities closer to the corresponding nominal values are also presented. A comprehensive simulation study compares the different approaches, and the application of the different procedures to real data sets from four rivers in the United States and one in Spain complete the paper.

  12. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

  13. Confidence Intervals for Laboratory Sonic Boom Annoyance Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One deliverable NASA will provide is a predictive model for indoor annoyance to aid in setting an acceptable quiet sonic boom threshold. A laboratory study was conducted to determine how indoor vibrations caused by sonic booms affect annoyance judgments. The test method required finding the point of subjective equality (PSE) between sonic boom signals that cause vibrations and signals not causing vibrations played at various amplitudes. This presentation focuses on a few statistical techniques for estimating the interval around the PSE. The techniques examined are the Delta Method, Parametric and Nonparametric Bootstrapping, and Bayesian Posterior Estimation.

  14. Punished and unpunished responding in multiple variable-interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Tullis, C; Walters, G

    1968-03-01

    The performance of rats trained on multiple variable-interval schedules was examined before, during, and after punishment. The same linear function related relative response rates to relative density of reinforcement both in the presence and absence of punishment. Equal relative suppression was seen in both the high and low reinforcement density components. The intercept value of the function was zero. Each component of the schedule was programmed on a separate lever: thus during any component, there was an opportunity for responses on the nonoperative lever (errors). The proportions of these errors declined to a near-zero value during punishment and did not regain their prepunishment values after punishment was removed, suggesting that some discrimination learning occurred during punishment. Recovery of response rate during punishment was seen only where a greater-than-zero probability of reinforcement was associated with the response.

  15. Probability distributions and confidence intervals for simulated power law noise.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A method for simulating power law noise in clocks and oscillators is presented based on modification of the spectrum of white phase noise, then Fourier transforming to the time domain. Symmetric real matrices are introduced whose traces-the sums of their eigenvalues-are equal to the Allan variances, in overlapping or non-overlapping forms, as well as for the corresponding forms of the modified Allan variance. We show that the standard expressions for spectral densities, and their relations to Allan variance, are obtained with this method. The matrix eigenvalues determine probability distributions for observing a variance at an arbitrary value of the sampling interval τ, and hence for estimating confidence in the measurements. Examples are presented for the common power-law noises. Extension to other variances such as the Hadamard variance, and variances with dead time, are discussed.

  16. Comparing Simultaneous and Pointwise Confidence Intervals for Hydrological Processes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Distribution function estimation of the random variable of river flow is an important problem in hydrology. This issue is directly related to quantile estimation, and consequently to return level prediction. The estimation process can be complemented with the construction of confidence intervals (CIs) to perform a probabilistic assessment of the different variables and/or estimated functions. In this work, several methods for constructing CIs using bootstrap techniques, and parametric and nonparametric procedures in the estimation process are studied and compared. In the case that the target is the joint estimation of a vector of values, some new corrections to obtain joint coverage probabilities closer to the corresponding nominal values are also presented. A comprehensive simulation study compares the different approaches, and the application of the different procedures to real data sets from four rivers in the United States and one in Spain complete the paper. PMID:26828651

  17. Direct magnitude estimation and interval scaling of hypernasality.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Tara L; Lee, Alice S Y; Chun, Joyce C

    2002-02-01

    Hypernasality is most commonly assessed using equal-appearing interval (EAI) scaling. Recently, the validity of EAI scaling for the evaluation of hypernasality has been questioned. The issue of validity rests on the psychophysical nature of the dimension to be rated. The purpose of this study was to compare EAI scaling with direct magnitude estimation (DME), in order to determine whether EAI scaling is a valid procedure for the evaluation of hypernasality. Connected speech samples from 20 individuals with repaired cleft palate and hypernasality were used. Twenty listeners undertook the listening tasks, which included EAI scaling, DME with modulus (DME-M), and DME without modulus (DME-WM). The results showed a curvilinear relationship between EAI and DME-M and between EAI and DME-WM, suggesting that EAI may not be a valid method for the evaluation of hypernasality; DME is recommended.

  18. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gábelová, Alena; Poláková, Veronika; Prochazka, Gabriela; Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína; Segerbäck, Dan

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  19. Reference intervals: current status, recent developments and future considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ozarda, Yesim

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and accurate reference intervals (RIs) for laboratory analyses are an integral part of the process of correct interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. RIs given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding the clinician in interpreting test results in reference to values for healthy populations. Since the 1980s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) has been proactive in establishing recommendations to clarify the true significance of the term ‘RIs, to select the appropriate reference population and statistically analyse the data. The C28-A3 guideline published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and IFCC is still the most widely-used source of reference in this area. In recent years, protocols additional to the Guideline have been published by the IFCC, Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL), including all details of multicenter studies on RIs to meet the requirements in this area. Multicentric RIs studies are the most important development in the area of RIs. Recently, the C-RIDL has performed many multicentric studies to obtain common RIs. Confusion of RIs and clinical decision limits (CDLs) remains an issue and pediatric and geriatric age groups are a significant problem. For future studies of RIs, the genetic effect would seem to be the most challenging area.
The aim of the review is to present the current theory and practice of RIs, with special emphasis given to multicenter RIs studies, RIs studies for pediatric and geriatric age groups, clinical decision limits and partitioning by genetic effects on RIs. PMID:26981015

  20. Fetal magnetocardiography: time intervals and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, P

    2004-11-30

    Biomagnetism in the perinatal domain has been dominated by fetal cardiology, and early work pointed out the potential of both fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI) and heart rate variability (HRV) for future clinical applications. Recent improvements in instrumentation have permitted numerous groups to investigate a substantial number of healthy fetuses in these two areas and to lay the groundwork for a delineation of normal ranges. With respect to fetal CTI it is now clear that in particular the duration of P wave, PR interval and QRS complex reflect fetal growth and development. Preliminary studies have shown that the age-adjusted CTI are shorter in growth-retarded fetuses and altered in cases of structural cardiac defects and in specific types of arrhythmia. Less work has been published on MCG-determined fetal HRV although parameters from both the time and frequency domains as well as complexity have been examined. Concomitant with the gradual change in heart rate during pregnancy, increases in time domain variables and complexity have been described for normal pregnancies. Furthermore, gestational age-related changes in specific spectral bands have been noted and increases in power have been documented at frequencies which are associated with fetal breathing movements. The fact that little has been reported to date on discriminatory power with respect to pathological states may be due to the lack of extended data acquisition in a clinical setting documenting acute states. Nonetheless, it may be expected that both fetal HRV and CTI will supplement standard fetal surveillance techniques in the near future.