Science.gov

Sample records for rights security migration

  1. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    PubMed

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns.

  2. Human rights and migration policies.

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  3. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    PubMed

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation.

  4. A Human Rights Perspective on Immigration, Emigration, and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ranjit S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a general discussion of migration from the perspective of human rights. Focuses on refugees; women, children, and the aged; freedom to migrate; internal migration; and refugees in Canada. (KH)

  5. Campus Security Act & Students' Right To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gus

    In November 1990, the Students' Right to Know and Campus Security Act became law, requiring all postsecondary institutions that receive federal student aid to collect campus crime statistics and make timely reports to the campus community on crimes that are considered a threat to other students and other employees. The law also requires that…

  6. Campus Security Act & Students' Right To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gus

    In November 1990, the Students' Right to Know and Campus Security Act became law, requiring all postsecondary institutions that receive federal student aid to collect campus crime statistics and make timely reports to the campus community on crimes that are considered a threat to other students and other employees. The law also requires that…

  7. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.

    PubMed

    Hill, L B

    1997-01-01

    This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity.

  8. Thoracoscopic Excision of Migrated Kirschner Wire to Right Pulmonary Hilum.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Julián, Gildardo; Mier, José M; Briseño, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Kirschner wires are often used for the stabilization of complex fractures. Wire migration is a rare but still recognized complication of its use. A 56-year-old man suffered a clavicle fracture at age 26 that was stabilized with one Kirschner wire, and for 30 years he was asymptomatic. Recently, he presented with cough and right thoracic pain. Chest radiographs revealed migration of the Kirschner wire, and thoracoscopic visualization revealed that the Kirschner wire had penetrated the middle lobe parenchyma and was in close contact with the right auricle. This case study reports the successful thoracoscopic treatment of a rare complication of Kirschner wire migration. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How Does the Constitution Secure Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Third in a series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication presents six essays addressing the issue of human rights and the Constitution. "How the Constitution Protects Our Rights: A Look at the Seminal Years" (Robert A. Rutland) focuses on James Madison's role…

  10. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SECURITY GATE FOR WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECURITY GATE FOR WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3584), CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS SHOP (BUILDING 3580), AND SECURITY POLICE ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING (BUILDING 3582). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. AIDS, travel and migration: legal and human rights aspects.

    PubMed

    Tomasevski, K

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the legal and human rights aspects of AIDS, travel, and migration in Africa. Restrictions upon migration and travel in the context of HIV/AIDS have directed attention on the jeopardy of free international movement and the need to uphold it. International travel and migration have been blamed for introducing HIV and restrictions imposed to prevent the import of such disease. Contemporary legal and administrative barriers to free movement of people across national borders are similar to the physical barriers imposed to prevent the spread of diseases in past centuries. However, physical barriers failed to prevent the international spread of diseases and legal and administrative barriers have been proven ineffective. Meanwhile, responses to HIV/AIDS set patterns for other health-related issues and to affect the entire legal framework of international travel and migration. Based on previous studies, data on migratory flows and numbers of travelers and migrants are scarce in Africa. Migrants represent more or less 10% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa or 35 million persons, including some 60 million refugees.

  13. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities...

  14. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities...

  16. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities...

  17. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities...

  18. Securing health and human rights: Sandwell's community health network.

    PubMed

    Al-Osaimi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Minority communities face discrimination and abuse. The main health problems they face are those of severe and early chronic disease and poor well-being due to inequality in jobs, education and access to health care. The Sandwell community health network provides support workers to six major minority groups in Sandwell, providing information and access to skilled health services. Without securing health as a basic right for our minorities we perpetuate divisions in our society which cause mistrust, conflict and violence. The health system has a vital role to play in securing people's rights and campaigning for equality and justice for all our communities, to enhance community cohesion.

  19. Rights Management and Security in the Electronic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laura Challman; Lotspiech, Jeffrey B.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses collaborative efforts by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and the IBM Digital Library Group in creating techniques to ensure information integrity, journal article authenticity, user confidentiality, management of copyright, and general security in electronic libraries. Also describes the rights management and security…

  20. Contribution of Security Forces Personnel to Deter Migration and Improve Stability in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    within the Department of Political Affairs. The objective of this organ is to develop policy and strategy to intervene in case of conflict or...Security and Sustainable Development ” (Information sheet, International Organization for Migration, Bamako, Mali, October 2016), accessed 20 February...and Border Management in Mali: IOM Assistance for Security and Sustainable Development .” Information Sheet, International Organization for Migration

  1. The Impact of Migration Processes on the National Security of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korganova, Saipzhamal S.; Taubayeva, Mirash Y.; Sultanov, Serik A.; Rysbayeva, Saule Zh.; Sultanova, Valida I.; Zhumabekov, Madiyr U.; Raximshikova, Mavluda K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of migration processes on the national security of Kazakhstan. However, it should be noted that national security is an expression of national interests and it is provided by means of resources and efforts of a particular state. Consequently, social security is an expression of the public…

  2. WCAM: secured video surveillance with digital rights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadourny, Yulen; Conan, Vania; Serrao, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro

    2005-03-01

    The WCAM project aims to provide an integrated system for secure delivery of video surveillance data over a wireless network, while remaining scalable and robust to transmission errors. To achieve these goals, the content is encoded in Motion-JPEG2000 and streamed with a specific RTP protocol encapsulation to prevent the loss of packets containing the most essential data. Protection of the video data is performed at content level using the standardized JPSEC syntax, along with flexible encryption of quality layers or resolution levels. This selective encryption respects the JPEG2000 structure of the stream, not only ensuring end-to-end ciphered delivery, but also enabling dynamic content adaptation within the wireless network (quality of service, adaptation to the user's terminal). A DRM (Digital Rights Management) solution, called OpenSDRM is added to manage all authenticated peers on the WLAN (from end-users to cameras), as well as to manage the rights to access and display conditionally the video data. This whole integrated architecture addresses several security problems such as data encryption, integrity, access control and rights management. Using several protection layers, the level of confidentiality can depend both on content characteristics and user rights, thus also addressing the critical issue of privacy.

  3. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities. Any purchase or other acquisition of securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe...

  4. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities. Any purchase or other acquisition of securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe...

  5. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities. Any purchase or other acquisition of securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe...

  6. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities. Any purchase or other acquisition of securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe...

  7. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities. Any purchase or other acquisition of securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe...

  8. The Impact of Illegal and Legal Migration on the Defense Security of South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-19

    Defence and Security Management at the Graduate School of Public and Development at the University of the Witwatersrand . He says security, including...According to Loren Landau, director of the African Centre for Migration and Society at the University of Witwatersrand , as long as regional economic

  9. Advanced Computational Methods for Security Constrained Financial Transmission Rights

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Elbert, Stephen T.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu

    2012-07-26

    Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) are financial insurance tools to help power market participants reduce price risks associated with transmission congestion. FTRs are issued based on a process of solving a constrained optimization problem with the objective to maximize the FTR social welfare under power flow security constraints. Security constraints for different FTR categories (monthly, seasonal or annual) are usually coupled and the number of constraints increases exponentially with the number of categories. Commercial software for FTR calculation can only provide limited categories of FTRs due to the inherent computational challenges mentioned above. In this paper, first an innovative mathematical reformulation of the FTR problem is presented which dramatically improves the computational efficiency of optimization problem. After having re-formulated the problem, a novel non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach is proposed to solve the optimization problem. The new formulation and performance of the NDS solver is benchmarked against widely used linear programming (LP) solvers like CPLEX™ and tested on both standard IEEE test systems and large-scale systems using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The performance of the NDS is demonstrated to be comparable and in some cases is shown to outperform the widely used CPLEX algorithms. The proposed formulation and NDS based solver is also easily parallelizable enabling further computational improvement.

  10. Asymptomatic intracardiac migration of a Kirschner wire from the right rib

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhi; Song, Fenglin; Yang, Yifeng; Tang, Jingqun

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year old man diagnosed with intracardiac migration of a Kirschner wire (K-wire). The patient had undergone surgical fixation of rib fracture 32 months previously. Chest roentgenograms, chest computed tomographic scans and echocardiography revealed that one of the K-wires had migrated to the right ventricle. The K-wire was removed immediately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of asymptomatic intracardiac migration of a K-wire from the right rib. PMID:24384499

  11. Climate, migration, and the local food security context: Introducing Terra Populus.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Schlak, Allison M; Kugler, Tracy A

    2016-12-01

    Studies investigating the connection between environmental factors and migration are difficult to execute because they require the integration of microdata and spatial information. In this article, we introduce the novel, publically available data extraction system Terra Populus (TerraPop), which was designed to facilitate population-environment studies. We showcase the use of TerraPop by exploring variations in the climate-migration association in Burkina Faso and Senegal based on differences in the local food security context. Food security was approximated using anthropometric indicators of child stunting and wasting derived from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and linked to the TerraPop extract of climate and migration information. We find that an increase in heat waves was associated with a decrease in international migration from Burkina Faso, while excessive precipitation increased international moves from Senegal. Significant interactions reveal that the adverse effects of heat waves and droughts are strongly amplified in highly food insecure Senegalese departments.

  12. Climate, migration, and the local food security context: Introducing Terra Populus

    PubMed Central

    Schlak, Allison M.; Kugler, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the connection between environmental factors and migration are difficult to execute because they require the integration of microdata and spatial information. In this article, we introduce the novel, publically available data extraction system Terra Populus (TerraPop), which was designed to facilitate population-environment studies. We showcase the use of TerraPop by exploring variations in the climate-migration association in Burkina Faso and Senegal based on differences in the local food security context. Food security was approximated using anthropometric indicators of child stunting and wasting derived from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and linked to the TerraPop extract of climate and migration information. We find that an increase in heat waves was associated with a decrease in international migration from Burkina Faso, while excessive precipitation increased international moves from Senegal. Significant interactions reveal that the adverse effects of heat waves and droughts are strongly amplified in highly food insecure Senegalese departments. PMID:27974863

  13. What's wrong with the global migration of health care professionals? Individual rights and international justice.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, James

    2007-01-01

    When health care workers migrate from poor countries to rich countries, they are exercising an important human right and helping rich countries fulfill obligations of social justice. They are also, however, creating problems of social justice in the countries they leave. Solving these problems requires balancing social needs against individual rights and studying the relationship of social justice to international justice.

  14. Determining the right level for your IT security investment.

    PubMed

    Claunch, Don; McMillan, Mac

    2013-05-01

    Investing sufficiently in IT security not only is essential for a healthcare organization's protection, but also is a responsibility to patients, and its success depends on its being addressed at all levels of management. Hospital data security breaches have the potential to cost as much as $7 million, including fines, litigation, and damaged reputation. Response and cleanup alone can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Developing and following an annual action plan for IT security can lower hospitals' IT security costs in the long run.

  15. Combine Security and Safety with the Right Door Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Patrick R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how door design and construction can add safety and security to educational facilities. Exit device variations, and electromagnetic locks and access control are explored. Also discussed are inexpensive ways to improve the safety and security profiles of a building using door hardware. (GR)

  16. Right Ventricular Migration of a Recovery IVC Filter's Fractured Wire with Subsequent Pericardial Tamponade

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Imran Garcia, Mark; McNicholas, Kathleen

    2006-08-15

    A Recovery filter (C.R. Bard, Tempe, AZ, USA) is a device for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. There have been few case reports involving the migration of this particular filter or of a broken wire migrating to the heart. We report a case of right ventricular migration of a fractured wire from this filter in a patient who subsequently developed pericardial tamponade and required open heart surgery to extract the fractured wire. We discuss the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nonpermanent inferior vena cava filters and their reported complications. These complications can be life-threatening and may require immediate surgical intervention.

  17. 13 CFR 107.1910 - Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Miscellaneous § 107.1910 Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security. SBA's failure to exercise or delay in exercising any right or remedy under the...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1910 - Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Miscellaneous § 107.1910 Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security. SBA's failure to exercise or delay in exercising any right or remedy under the...

  19. 48 CFR 27.305-3 - Securing invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Securing invention rights... Government Contracts 27.305-3 Securing invention rights acquired by the Government. (a) Agencies are responsible for implementing procedures necessary to protect the Government's interest in subject inventions...

  20. 48 CFR 27.305-3 - Securing invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Securing invention rights... Government Contracts 27.305-3 Securing invention rights acquired by the Government. (a) Agencies are responsible for implementing procedures necessary to protect the Government's interest in subject inventions...

  1. 48 CFR 27.305-3 - Securing invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Securing invention rights... Government Contracts 27.305-3 Securing invention rights acquired by the Government. (a) Agencies are responsible for implementing procedures necessary to protect the Government's interest in subject inventions...

  2. 48 CFR 27.305-3 - Securing invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Securing invention rights... Government Contracts 27.305-3 Securing invention rights acquired by the Government. (a) Agencies are responsible for implementing procedures necessary to protect the Government's interest in subject inventions...

  3. 48 CFR 27.305-3 - Securing invention rights acquired by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Securing invention rights... Government Contracts 27.305-3 Securing invention rights acquired by the Government. (a) Agencies are responsible for implementing procedures necessary to protect the Government's interest in subject inventions...

  4. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration--it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become 'de-skilled'. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security, crime, and racial tensions are resolved

  5. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration – it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Results Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become ‘de-skilled’. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Conclusions Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security

  6. Migrating Lobar Atelectasis of the Right Lung: Radiologic Findings in Six Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Sung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Choo, In Wook; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2000-01-01

    Objective To describe the radiologic findings of migrating lobar atelectasis of the right lung. Materials and Methods Chest radiographs (n = 6) and CT scans (n = 5) of six patients with migrating lobar atelectasis of the right lung were analyzed retrospectively. The underlying diseases associated with lobar atelectasis were bronchogenic carcinoma (n = 4), bronchial tuberculosis (n = 1), and tracheobronchial amyloidosis (n = 1). Results Atelectasis involved the right upper lobe (RUL) (n = 3) and both the RUL and right middle lobe (RML) (n = 3). On supine anteroposterior radiographs (n = 5) and on an erect posteroanterior radiograph (n = 1), the atelectatic lobe(s) occupied the right upper lung zone, with a wedge shape abutting onto the right mediastinal border. On erect posteroanterior radiographs (n = 6), the heavy atelectatic lobe(s) migrated downward, forming a peri- or infrahilar area of increased opacity and obscuring the right cardiac margin. Erect lateral radiographs (n = 4) showed inferior shift of the anterosuperiorly located atelectatic lobe(s) to the anteroinferior portion of the hemithorax. Conclusion Atelectatic lobe(s) can move within the hemithorax according to changes in a patient's position. This process involves the RUL or both the RUL and RML. PMID:11752926

  7. Identification of genes that regulate a left-right asymmetric neuronal migration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, QueeLim; Williams, Lisa; Lie, Yung S; Sym, Mary; Whangbo, Jennifer; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    In C. elegans, cells of the QL and QR neuroblast lineages migrate with left-right asymmetry; QL and its descendants migrate posteriorly whereas QR and its descendants migrate anteriorly. One key step in generating this asymmetry is the expression of the Hox gene mab-5 in the QL descendants but not in the QR descendants. This asymmetry appears to be coupled to the asymmetric polarizations and movements of QL and QR as they migrate and relies on an asymmetric response to an EGL-20/Wnt signal. To identify genes involved in these complex layers of regulation and to isolate targets of mab-5 that direct posterior migrations, we screened visually for mutants with cell migration defects in the QL and QR lineages. Here, we describe a set of new mutants (qid-5, qid-6, qid-7, and qid-8) that primarily disrupt the migrations of the QL descendants. Most of these mutants were defective in mab-5 expression in the QL lineage and might identify genes that interact directly or indirectly with the EGL-20/Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:12930745

  8. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  9. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  10. The Impact of Social Security on Return Migration among Latin American Elderly in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Alma

    2014-01-01

    International migration has long been considered the preserve of working-age adults. However, the rapid diversification of the elderly population calls for increased attention to the migration patterns of this group and its possible motivations. This study examines whether Latin American immigrants who are primary Social Security beneficiaries are more likely to return to their home countries during later life if they receive lower Social Security benefits. Using a regression discontinuity approach on restricted data from the U.S. Social Security Administration (N=1,515), this study presents the results of a natural experiment whereby the Social Security Administration unexpectedly lowered the Social Security benefits of the 1917-1921 birth cohorts due to a miscalculation in the benefit-calculation formula. Results suggest that approximately 10% of primary Social Security beneficiaries from Latin America born close to these dates return migrated, the probability of which was not affected by Social Security benefit levels. PMID:26279596

  11. The Impact of Social Security on Return Migration among Latin American Elderly in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Vega, Alma

    2015-06-01

    International migration has long been considered the preserve of working-age adults. However, the rapid diversification of the elderly population calls for increased attention to the migration patterns of this group and its possible motivations. This study examines whether Latin American immigrants who are primary Social Security beneficiaries are more likely to return to their home countries during later life if they receive lower Social Security benefits. Using a regression discontinuity approach on restricted data from the U.S. Social Security Administration (N=1,515), this study presents the results of a natural experiment whereby the Social Security Administration unexpectedly lowered the Social Security benefits of the 1917-1921 birth cohorts due to a miscalculation in the benefit-calculation formula. Results suggest that approximately 10% of primary Social Security beneficiaries from Latin America born close to these dates return migrated, the probability of which was not affected by Social Security benefit levels.

  12. The Securitization of Migration: An Analysis of United States Border Security and Migration Policy Toward Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    efforts directed at the border have been superficial in nature, caused by political demand to “take action” without creating an economic disturbance...33 Buzan et al., Security, 25. 14 expand to the Pacific Ocean. Tensions between Mexico and the United States eventually evolved into...docview /508809004?accountid=12702 Woodbury, Richard and Agua Prieta. “Danger And Alarm On A New Alien Gateway.” Time, September 27, 1999. http

  13. Stalking on Campus: Ensuring Security with Rights and Liberties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Julie; Longo, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    College campuses are often perceived as idyllic communities. While there is much truth in such perceptions, not surprisingly there are many complicated issues on college campuses. Stalking is one such problem that seems to persist and thrive in the cloistered college setting. Campus safety efforts must temper security practices with civil rights…

  14. Social Security Contributions and Return Migration Among Older Male Mexican Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Emma; Vega, Alma

    2017-06-01

    For decades, scholars have studied the effects of immigration on the U.S. social security system. To date, this research has been primarily limited to migrants within the United States and does not consider those who return to their countries of origin. We estimate the proportion of male Mexican return migrants who contributed to the U.S. social security system and analyze their socioeconomic characteristics and migration histories. We also estimate the proportion that receive or expect to receive U.S. social security benefits. Using probit regression on the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), we describe the predictors of having contributed to the U.S. social security system among Mexican males in Mexico aged 50 years and older who at some point lived in the United States. We find that 32% of male return migrants reported having contributed to the U.S. social security system, but only 5% of those who contributed, received or expected to receive benefits. Those who reported having contributed spent more years in the United States and were more likely to be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents than those who did not contribute. Immigrants often pay Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance taxes using legitimate or illegitimate social security numbers and return to their home countries without collecting U.S. social security benefits.

  15. Rights-Based Approaches to Ensure Sustainable Nutrition Security.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    In India, a rights-based approach has been used to address large-scale malnutrition, including both micro- and macro-level nutrition deficiencies. Stunting, which is an intergenerational chronic consequence of malnutrition, is especially widespread in India (38% among children under 5 years old). To tackle this problem, the government of India has designed interventions for the first 1,000 days, a critical period of the life cycle, through a number of community-based programs to fulfill the rights to food and life. However, the entitlements providing these rights have not yet produced the necessary changes in the malnutrition status of people, especially women and children. The government of India has already implemented laws and drafted a constitution that covers the needs of its citizens, but corruption, bureaucracy, lack of awareness of rights and entitlements and social discrimination limit people's access to basic rights and services. To address this crisis, Welthungerhilfe India, working in remote villages of the most backward states in India, has shifted from a welfare-based approach to a rights-based approach. The Fight Hunger First Initiative, started by Welthungerhilfe in 2011, is designed on the premise that in the long term, poor people can only leave poverty behind if adequate welfare systems are in place and if basic rights are fulfilled; these rights include access to proper education, sufficient access to adequate food and income, suitable health services and equal rights. Only then can the next generation of disadvantaged populations look forward to a new and better future and can growth benefit the entire society. The project, co-funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, is a long-term multi-sectoral program that involves institution-building and empowerment. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

  17. The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

  18. Playing Digital Security: Youth Voices on Their Digital Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Conceição; Sousa, Carla; Rogado, José; Henriques, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) Convention (1989) on the Rights of the Child changed the way children are viewed and treated worldwide. The Convention has been affecting governments, civil society and the private sector. ICT driven companies on the internet should not be an exception. According to Livingstone, Carr and Byrne (2015), Internet governance…

  19. Inferior Vena Cava Filter Migration to the Right Ventricle Causing Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Matthew N.; Khazi Syed, Rashad H.; Katz, Morgan J.; Moscona, John C.; Nijjar, Vikram S.; Bisharat, Mohannad B.

    2013-01-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are commonly used to prevent pulmonary embolism in patients who manifest deep vein thrombosis and recurrent pulmonary embolism despite anticoagulation, or in patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a structurally normal heart who experienced migration of an inferior vena cava filter to the right ventricle, which caused the abrupt onset of recurrent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia unresponsive to intravenous antiarrhythmic medication. Cardiac imaging revealed the location of the filter within the right ventricle, and the device was removed, with subsequent resolution of the arrhythmia. We anticipate that the incidence of inferior vena cava filter migration might increase in the future because of recent changes in device construction. The sudden appearance of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in a patient with an inferior vena cava filter might indicate the occurrence of this potentially life-threatening sequela and should lead to emergent cardiac imaging. PMID:23914030

  20. Transmuscular Migration of a Scleral Tunnel-Secured Encircling Silicone Band

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Yui; Fukumoto, Masanori; Kida, Teruyo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    The migration of an encircling silicone band through a rectus muscle is a rare postoperative complication associated with scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment. In this present study, we describe what we believe to be the first reported case of a patient who experienced postoperative migration of an encircling silicone band through the rectus muscle, despite the band being surgically secured to the sclera in a scleral tunnel. A 58-year-old man presented with a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in his left eye. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed with the placement of an encircling silicone band, and the patient's retina was successfully reattached. One year postoperatively, the encircling band became exposed on the nasal side of the conjunctiva next to the limbus without any symptoms. Two weeks later, the exposed encircling band was surgically removed without any complications. The findings of this study show that even when an encircling silicone band is surgically secured around the eye, periodic and careful postoperative follow-up examinations should be performed to ensure no migration of the band. PMID:27790129

  1. Acoustically detected year-round presence of right whales in an urbanized migration corridor.

    PubMed

    Morano, Janelle L; Rice, Aaron N; Tielens, Jamey T; Estabrook, Bobbi J; Murray, Anita; Roberts, Bethany L; Clark, Christopher W

    2012-08-01

    Species' conservation relies on understanding their seasonal habitats and migration routes. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis), listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, migrate from the southeastern U.S. coast to Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts, a federally designated critical habitat, from February through May to feed. The whales then continue north across the Gulf of Maine to northern waters (e.g., Bay of Fundy). To enter Cape Cod Bay, right whales must traverse an area of dense shipping and fishing activity in Massachusetts Bay, where there are no mandatory regulations for the protection of right whales or management of their habitat. We used passive acoustic recordings of right whales collected in Massachusetts Bay from May 2007 through October 2010 to determine the annual spatial and temporal distribution of the whales and their calling activity. We detected right whales in the bay throughout the year, in contrast to results from visual surveys. Right whales were detected on at least 24% of days in each month, with the exception of June 2007, in which there were no detections. Averaged over all years, right whale calls were most abundant from February through May. During this period, calls were most frequent between 17:00 and 20:00 local time; no diel pattern was apparent in other months. The spatial distribution of the approximate locations of calling whales suggests they may use Massachusetts Bay as a conduit to Cape Cod Bay in the spring and as they move between the Gulf of Maine and waters to the south in September through December. Although it is unclear how dependent right whales are on the bay, the discovery of their widespread presence in Massachusetts Bay throughout the year suggests this region may need to be managed to reduce the probability of collisions with ships and entanglement in fishing gear.

  2. 75 FR 38824 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...] Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Records... system name is being changed to, ``Department of Homeland Security/ALL--029 Civil Rights and Civil... Rights and Civil Liberties, as well as all component offices that perform civil rights and civil...

  3. Linking rights and standards: the process of developing "rights-based" minimum standards on food security, nutrition and food aid.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Taylor, Anna; Way, Sally-Anne; Leaning, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. The initial aim of the revision was to ensure that the Sphere Minimum Standards better reflected the principles embodied in the Humanitarian Charter. This was later broadened to ensure that key legal standards and principles from human rights and humanitarian law were considered and also incorporated, in part to fill the "protection gap" within the existing standards. In relation to the food security, nutrition and food aid standards, it was agreed by participants in the process that the human right to adequate food and freedom from hunger should be incorporated. In relation to more general principles underlying the Humanitarian Charter, itself drawn largely from human rights and humanitarian law, it was agreed that there was a need to strengthen "protection" elements within the standards and a need to incorporate the basic principles of the right to life with dignity, non-discrimination, impartiality and participation, as well as to explore the relevance of the concept of the progressive realisation of the right to food. The questions raised in linking rights to operational standards required thought, on the one hand, about whether the technical standards reflected a deep understanding of the values expressed within the legal instruments, and whether the existing standards were adequate in relation to those legal rights. On the other hand, it also required reflection on how operational standards like Sphere could give concrete content to human rights, such as the right to food and the right to be free from hunger. However, there remain challenges in examining what a rights-based approach will mean in terms of the role of humanitarian

  4. 75 FR 39266 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil Rights...,'' January 6, 2004. The system name is being changed to, ``Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil... Department Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties, as well as all component offices that perform civil...

  5. Strategies for the Management of SVC Stent Migration into the Right Atrium

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J. D. Lehmann, E. D.; Belli, A.-M.; Nicholson, A. A.; Kessel, D.; Robertson, I. R.; Pollock, J. G.; Morgan, R. A.

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Stent migration into the right atrium is a potentially fatal complication of stenting in the venous system and is most likely to occur during the treatment of superior vena cava obstruction. Endovascular approaches that can salvage this hazardous situation are described and the keys to successful treatment are highlighted. Materials and Methods. Four different strategies are reviewed: (1) snaring the stent directly, (2) angioplasty balloon-assisted snaring of the stent, (3) guide wire-assisted snaring of the stent, and (4) superior vena cava-to-inferior vena cava bridging stent. Results. These techniques have been employed in the successful management of four cases. No short- or long-term complications as a result of these maneuvers have been identified. Additional treatment of the underlying disease was possible at the same time in each case. Conclusion. We conclude that prompt management of right atrial stent migration is essential and can be successfully achieved by a variety of 'bale-out' techniques which are within the technical range of most interventional radiologists.

  6. A Leadership Imperative: Complying with the Student Right To Know and the Campus Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Rosemary; Odo, Tina; Keener, Barbara

    Focusing on the Student Right to Know and Campus Security Act of 1990, this document presents the text of the Act and an implementation plan developed by Missouri's St. Louis Community College (SLCC). The first section provides a general overview of legal issues and student affairs in community colleges, while the second presents the text of the…

  7. Bringing home the right to food in Canada: challenges and possibilities for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Riches, Graham; Ostry, Aleck; Buckingham, Don; MacRae, Rod

    2007-06-01

    We offer a critique of Canada's approach to domestic food security with respect to international agreements, justiciability and case law, the breakdown of the public safety net, the institutionalisation of charitable approaches to food insecurity, and the need for 'joined-up' food and nutrition policies. We examined Canada's commitments to the right to food, as well as Canadian policies, case law and social trends, in order to assess Canada's performance with respect to the human right to food. We found that while Canada has been a leader in signing international human rights agreements, including those relating to the right to food, domestic action has lagged and food insecurity increased. We provide recommendations for policy changes that could deal with complex issues of state accountability, social safety nets and vulnerable populations, and joined-up policy frameworks that could help realise the right to adequate food in Canada and other developed nations.

  8. Successful Percutaneous Retrieval of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter Migrating to the Right Ventricle in a Bariatric Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Veerapong, Jula; Wahlgren, Carl Magnus; Jolly, Neeraj; Bassiouny, Hisham

    2008-07-15

    The use of an inferior vena cava filter has an important role in the management of patients who are at high risk for development of pulmonary embolism. Migration is a rare but known complication of inferior vena cava filter placement. We herein describe a case of a prophylactic retrievable vena cava filter migrating to the right ventricle in a bariatric patient. The filter was retrieved percutaneously by transjugular approach and the patient did well postoperatively. A review of the current literature is given.

  9. 31 CFR 363.22 - Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities? 363.22 Section 363.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... TreasuryDirect § 363.22 Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities? (a...

  10. Migration of double J stent into the inferior vena cava and the right atrium

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Ravindra B.; Ganpule, Arvind P.; Ganpule, Sanika A.

    2013-01-01

    Migration of a ureteric double J stent down into the bladder or up into the kidney is a well known complication. We recently encountered a case where the stent migrated into the vascular system following attempted ureteroscopy for a lower ureteric calculus. The patient required open surgical exploration for stent retrieval. PMID:24235801

  11. 37 CFR 7.24 - Requests to record security interest or other restriction of holder's rights of disposal or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests to record security... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN FILINGS PURSUANT TO THE PROTOCOL RELATING TO... International Registration § 7.24 Requests to record security interest or other restriction of holder's rights...

  12. Patients' rights to care under Clinton's Health Security Act: the structure of reform.

    PubMed

    Mariner, W K

    1994-08-01

    Like most reform proposals, President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act offers universal access to care but does not significantly alter the nature of patients' legal rights to services. The act would create a system of delegated federal regulation in which the states would act like federal administrative agencies to carry out reform. To achieve uniform, universal coverage, the act would establish a form of mandatory health insurance, with federal law controlling the minimum services to which everyone would be entitled. Because there is no constitutionally protected right to health care and no independent constitutional standard for judging what insurance benefits are appropriate, the federal government would retain considerable freedom to decide what services would and would not be covered. If specific benefits are necessary for patients, they will have to be stated in the legislation that produces reform.

  13. Patients' rights to care under Clinton's Health Security Act: the structure of reform.

    PubMed Central

    Mariner, W K

    1994-01-01

    Like most reform proposals, President Clinton's proposed Health Security Act offers universal access to care but does not significantly alter the nature of patients' legal rights to services. The act would create a system of delegated federal regulation in which the states would act like federal administrative agencies to carry out reform. To achieve uniform, universal coverage, the act would establish a form of mandatory health insurance, with federal law controlling the minimum services to which everyone would be entitled. Because there is no constitutionally protected right to health care and no independent constitutional standard for judging what insurance benefits are appropriate, the federal government would retain considerable freedom to decide what services would and would not be covered. If specific benefits are necessary for patients, they will have to be stated in the legislation that produces reform. PMID:8059899

  14. Fracture and migration into the coronary sinus of a totally implantable catheter introduced via the right internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Pignataro, Bruno Soriano; Nishinari, Kenji; Wolosker, Nelson; Bomfim, Guilherme Andre Zoteli

    2014-12-01

    There has been an increase in the use of totally implantable devices. Catheter fractures are rare but known complications. This case report presents a rare migration site of the catheter fragment into the coronary sinus. The totally implantable catheter was introduced into the right internal jugular vein to deliver chemotherapy. Although it was an unusual site, the catheter fragment was removed without complications using loop-snare technique. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Transmembrane proteins UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and MIG-21 control anterior-posterior neuroblast migration with left-right functional asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Lundquist, Erik A

    2012-12-01

    Migration of neurons and neural crest cells is of central importance to the development of nervous systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the QL neuroblast on the left migrates posteriorly, and QR on the right migrates anteriorly, despite similar lineages and birth positions with regard to the left-right axis. Initial migration is independent of a Wnt signal that controls later anterior-posterior Q descendant migration. Previous studies showed that the transmembrane proteins UNC-40/DCC and MIG-21, a novel thrombospondin type I repeat containing protein, act redundantly in left-side QL posterior migration. Here we show that the LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-3 acts with MIG-21 in parallel to UNC-40 in QL posterior migration. We also show that in right-side QR, the UNC-40 and PTP-3/MIG-21 pathways mutually inhibit each other's role in posterior migration, allowing anterior QR migration. Finally, we present evidence that these proteins act autonomously in the Q neuroblasts. These studies indicate an inherent left-right asymmetry in the Q neuroblasts with regard to UNC-40, PTP-3, and MIG-21 function that results in posterior vs. anterior migration.

  16. Transmembrane Proteins UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and MIG-21 Control Anterior–Posterior Neuroblast Migration with Left–Right Functional Asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Lundquist, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    Migration of neurons and neural crest cells is of central importance to the development of nervous systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the QL neuroblast on the left migrates posteriorly, and QR on the right migrates anteriorly, despite similar lineages and birth positions with regard to the left–right axis. Initial migration is independent of a Wnt signal that controls later anterior–posterior Q descendant migration. Previous studies showed that the transmembrane proteins UNC-40/DCC and MIG-21, a novel thrombospondin type I repeat containing protein, act redundantly in left-side QL posterior migration. Here we show that the LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-3 acts with MIG-21 in parallel to UNC-40 in QL posterior migration. We also show that in right-side QR, the UNC-40 and PTP-3/MIG-21 pathways mutually inhibit each other’s role in posterior migration, allowing anterior QR migration. Finally, we present evidence that these proteins act autonomously in the Q neuroblasts. These studies indicate an inherent left–right asymmetry in the Q neuroblasts with regard to UNC-40, PTP-3, and MIG-21 function that results in posterior vs. anterior migration. PMID:23051647

  17. Advanced Computational Methods for Security Constrained Financial Transmission Rights: Structure and Parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Elbert, Stephen T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Rice, Mark J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Zhou, Ning

    2012-07-26

    Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) help power market participants reduce price risks associated with transmission congestion. FTRs are issued based on a process of solving a constrained optimization problem with the objective to maximize the FTR social welfare under power flow security constraints. Security constraints for different FTR categories (monthly, seasonal or annual) are usually coupled and the number of constraints increases exponentially with the number of categories. Commercial software for FTR calculation can only provide limited categories of FTRs due to the inherent computational challenges mentioned above. In this paper, a novel non-linear dynamical system (NDS) approach is proposed to solve the optimization problem. The new formulation and performance of the NDS solver is benchmarked against widely used linear programming (LP) solvers like CPLEX™ and tested on large-scale systems using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The NDS is demonstrated to outperform the widely used CPLEX algorithms while exhibiting superior scalability. Furthermore, the NDS based solver can be easily parallelized which results in significant computational improvement.

  18. Access and privacy rights using web security standards to increase patient empowerment.

    PubMed

    Falcão-Reis, Filipa; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Correia, Manuel E

    2008-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are becoming more and more sophisticated and include nowadays numerous applications, which are not only accessed by medical professionals, but also by accounting and administrative personnel. This could represent a problem concerning basic rights such as privacy and confidentiality. The principles, guidelines and recommendations compiled by the OECD protection of privacy and trans-border flow of personal data are described and considered within health information system development. Granting access to an EHR should be dependent upon the owner of the record; the patient: he must be entitled to define who is allowed to access his EHRs, besides the access control scheme each health organization may have implemented. In this way, it's not only up to health professionals to decide who have access to what, but the patient himself. Implementing such a policy is walking towards patient empowerment which society should encourage and governments should promote. The paper then introduces a technical solution based on web security standards. This would give patients the ability to monitor and control which entities have access to their personal EHRs, thus empowering them with the knowledge of how much of his medical history is known and by whom. It is necessary to create standard data access protocols, mechanisms and policies to protect the privacy rights and furthermore, to enable patients, to automatically track the movement (flow) of their personal data and information in the context of health information systems. This solution must be functional and, above all, user-friendly and the interface should take in consideration some heuristics of usability in order to provide the user with the best tools. The current official standards on confidentiality and privacy in health care, currently being developed within the EU, are explained, in order to achieve a consensual idea of the guidelines that all member states should follow to transfer

  19. Learning Locked down: Evaluating the Treatment of Students' Rights in High Security School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracy, Nicole L.

    2009-01-01

    Public schools have transformed significantly over the past several decades in response to broad concerns about rising school violence. Today's public schools are high security environments employing tactics commonly found in jails and prisons such as police officers, security cameras, identification systems, and secure building strategies.…

  20. National Security Letters, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the Constitution: The Tensions between National Security and Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Oscilowski, Ursula; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the USA PATRIOT Act greatly expanded the ability of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to use National Security Letters (NSLs) in investigations and the contexts in which they could be used by relaxing the standards under which NSLs could be employed. NSLs allow investigators to acquire a significant…

  1. National Security Letters, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the Constitution: The Tensions between National Security and Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Oscilowski, Ursula; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the USA PATRIOT Act greatly expanded the ability of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to use National Security Letters (NSLs) in investigations and the contexts in which they could be used by relaxing the standards under which NSLs could be employed. NSLs allow investigators to acquire a significant…

  2. Rights.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moli

    2007-08-01

    This article provides an overview of different types of rights to aid consideration of, and debate about, children and young people's rights in the context of paediatrics and child health. It demonstrates how children's rights may or may not differ from adult rights and the implications for practice. It shows that applying a children's rights framework can be more helpful in pursuing a public child health agenda than in reducing ethical or legal conflicts when interacting with child patients and their families.

  3. Seasonal labour migration strategies in the Sahel: coping with poverty or optimising security?

    PubMed

    Hampshire, K; Randall, S

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between seasonal labor migration and poverty for various Fulani populations in the Sahel region of northern Burkina Faso, who represent the spectrum of production systems from pure pastoralism to agropastoralism to cultivation. There is a general trend of rising seasonal labor participation with increasing household wealth; limited financial and human resources mean that families belonging to the lower income population are excluded from this option. However, other ethnic and economic differences among the population compound this picture. Agriculturalists are more likely to migrate than pastoralists, and the Fulani subgroup Fulbe Djelgobe is unlikely to migrate at all unless desperate. The impacts of circular labor also differ. For a few agriculturalists and agropastoralists, migration to the cities is rewarding; for most the gains are small but are still essential. Pastoralists are more likely to experience negative outcomes than agriculturalists. Unless sufficient provision is made to fill in labor deficits in the migrants' absence, the cost of domestic production may seriously outweigh any benefits in the long run.

  4. 31 CFR 363.22 - Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities? 363.22 Section 363.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT...

  5. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    PubMed

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  6. Rights

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Moli

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of different types of rights to aid consideration of, and debate about, children and young people's rights in the context of paediatrics and child health. It demonstrates how children's rights may or may not differ from adult rights and the implications for practice. It shows that applying a children's rights framework can be more helpful in pursuing a public child health agenda than in reducing ethical or legal conflicts when interacting with child patients and their families. PMID:17642486

  7. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular functions in healthy subjects who migrated from the sea level to a moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Arısoy, Arif; Topçu, Selim; Demirelli, Selami; Altunkaş, Fatih; Karayakalı, Metin; Çelik, Ataç; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Aksakal, Enbiya; Sevimli, Serdar; Gürlertop, Hanefi Yekta

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate right ventricle (RV) functions using echocardiography in healthy subjects who migrated from the sea level to moderate altitude (1890 m). The prospective observational in this study population consisted of 33 healthy subjects (23 men; mean age 20.4±3.2 years) who migrated from the sea level to a moderate altitude (Erzurum city centre, 1890 m above sea level) for long-term stay. Subjects underwent echocardiographic evaluation within the first 48 h of exposure to the moderate altitude and at the sixth month of arrival. Conventional echocardiographic parameters such as RV sizes and areas, systolic, and diastolic functional indices [fractional area change (FAC), tricuspid flow velocities, myocardial performance index (MPI), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)] were obtained. Systolic (S) and diastolic (E', A') velocities were acquired from the apical fourchamber view using tissue Doppler imaging. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student's t-test, Wilcoxon test, and chi-square test were used in this study. There were no significant changes in RV size, FAC, MPI, TAPSE, inferior inspiratory vena cava collapse, tricuspid E velocity, and tricuspid annulus E' velocity. Compared with the baseline, there was a significant increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (p=0.001); RV end systolic area (p=0.014); right atrial end diastolic area (p=0.021); tricuspid A velocity (p=0.013); tricuspid annulus S and A' velocity (p=0.031 and p=0.006, respectively); and RV free wall S, E', and A' velocity (p=0.007, p<0.001, and p=0.007 respectively) at the sixth month. Also, there was a significant decrease in tricuspid E/A ratio (1.61±0.3 vs. 1.45±0.2, p=0.038) and tricuspid annulus E'/A' ratio (1.52±0.5 vs. 1.23±0.4, p=0.002) at the sixth month. Our study revealed that right ventricular diastolic function was altered while the systolic function was preserved in healthy subjects who migrated from the sea level to a moderate altitude.

  8. Design implementation and migration of security systems as an extreme project.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharmer, Carol

    2010-10-01

    Decision Trees, algorithms, software code, risk management, reports, plans, drawings, change control, presentations, and analysis - all useful tools and efforts but time consuming, resource intensive, and potentially costly for projects that have absolute schedule and budget constraints. What are necessary and prudent efforts when a customer calls with a major security problem that needs to be fixed with a proven, off-the-approval-list, multi-layered integrated system with high visibility and limited funding and expires at the end of the Fiscal Year? Whether driven by budget cycles, safety, or by management decree, many such projects begin with generic scopes and funding allocated based on a rapid management 'guestimate.' Then a Project Manager (PM) is assigned a project with a predefined and potentially limited scope, compressed schedule, and potentially insufficient funding. The PM is tasked to rapidly and cost effectively coordinate a requirements-based design, implementation, test, and turnover of a fully operational system to the customer, all while the customer is operating and maintaining an existing security system. Many project management manuals call this an impossible project that should not be attempted. However, security is serious business and the reality is that rapid deployment of proven systems via an 'Extreme Project' is sometimes necessary. Extreme Projects can be wildly successful but require a dedicated team of security professionals lead by an experienced project manager using a highly-tailored and agile project management process with management support at all levels, all combined with significant interface with the customer. This paper does not advocate such projects or condone eliminating the valuable analysis and project management techniques. Indeed, having worked on a well-planned project provides the basis for experienced team members to complete Extreme Projects. This paper does, however, provide insight into what it takes for projects

  9. Design, implementation and migration of security systems as an extreme project.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharmer, Carol; Trujillo, David

    2010-08-01

    Decision Trees, algorithms, software code, risk management, reports, plans, drawings, change control, presentations, and analysis - all useful tools and efforts but time consuming, resource intensive, and potentially costly for projects that have absolute schedule and budget constraints. What are necessary and prudent efforts when a customer calls with a major security problem that needs to be fixed with a proven, off-the-approval-list, multi-layered integrated system with high visibility and limited funding and expires at the end of the Fiscal Year? Whether driven by budget cycles, safety, or by management decree, many such projects begin with generic scopes and funding allocated based on a rapid management 'guestimate.' Then a Project Manager (PM) is assigned a project with a predefined and potentially limited scope, compressed schedule, and potentially insufficient funding. The PM is tasked to rapidly and cost effectively coordinate a requirements-based design, implementation, test, and turnover of a fully operational system to the customer, all while the customer is operating and maintaining an existing security system. Many project management manuals call this an impossible project that should not be attempted. However, security is serious business and the reality is that rapid deployment of proven systems via an 'Extreme Project' is sometimes necessary. Extreme Projects can be wildly successful but require a dedicated team of security professionals lead by an experienced project manager using a highly-tailored and agile project management process with management support at all levels, all combined with significant interface with the customer. This paper does not advocate such projects or condone eliminating the valuable analysis and project management techniques. Indeed, having worked on a well-planned project provides the basis for experienced team members to complete Extreme Projects. This paper does, however, provide insight into what it takes for projects

  10. [The European Union and the migrations of populations. Government logic and human rights].

    PubMed

    Marie C-v

    1996-01-01

    "The first part of this article consists of a summary of the major [immigration] reforms undertaken by the EU [European Union] states over the past decade. The second chapter discusses the ways in which these reforms were drafted, and, in particular, the influence of intergovernmental negotiations on national policy. The third part, relative to the regulation of job markets, underscores the contrast between the tough restrictions on permanent employment of foreigners and flexibility...for administering seasonal immigration or entry visas granted within the context of temporary work contracts. The fourth part, which analyzes the impact of these legislative changes on individual rights, logically leads to a discussion of the foundation of the procedure followed by the wealthy countries, and points out the shortcoming of a strictly punitive or even military solution to what is chiefly a problem of development and democracy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  11. Is the Bush Doctrine the Right American National Security Strategy for the Beginning of the 21st Century?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    full support from Congress, the media, and the American people.5 In the infancy of the 21st century, multiple dreadful historical events occurred such...Praeger Publishers, 2003. Dueck, Colin. “Ideas and Alternatives in American Grand Strategy, 2000-2004.” Review of International Studies 30 (October...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT IS THE BUSH DOCTRINE THE RIGHT AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY? by

  12. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  13. Education in Responsibility in Order to Secure Human Rights in Times of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrigan, Michaël

    2014-01-01

    Education in and awareness about human rights is generally seen as one of the less contentious elements of citizenship education. However, it would seem that, for the concept of human rights to have a real impact in today's world, theoretical knowledge of human rights standards should be complemented by an understanding of the ethical concept of…

  14. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  15. Early Arrival or Trespassing? Leadership, School Security, and the Right to the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Thomas, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    School leaders are under constant pressure to ensure that schools are safe and to demonstrate that student safety and discipline are priorities. In many districts, schools rely on local law enforcement, school police, or security personnel to assist with promoting and maintaining safe schools. To encourage school leaders to think critically about…

  16. Early Arrival or Trespassing? Leadership, School Security, and the Right to the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Thomas, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    School leaders are under constant pressure to ensure that schools are safe and to demonstrate that student safety and discipline are priorities. In many districts, schools rely on local law enforcement, school police, or security personnel to assist with promoting and maintaining safe schools. To encourage school leaders to think critically about…

  17. Systems and Methods for Secure Transaction Management and Electronic Rights Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER IATAC 3190 Fairview Park Drive Falls...Infohighway, INSITE, (undated), pp. 23-25. Steve H. Weingart, Physical Security for the ABYSS Sytem , (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown...Consumer Information on the Internet, Document from the Internet, White Paper, (PowerAgent Inc., Menlo Park , CA) Jun. 1997, 9 pages. What the Experts

  18. Preventing violence and reinforcing human security: a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action.

    PubMed

    Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.

  19. How do you select the right security features for your company's products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Gordon E.

    1998-04-01

    If your company manufacturers, supplies, or distributes products of almost any type, style, shape, or for any usage, they may become the objective of fraudulent activities from one or more sources. Therefore, someone at your company should be concerned about how these activities may affect the company's future. This paper/presentation will provide information about where these 'threats' may come from, what products have been compromised in the past, and what steps might be taken to deter these threats. During product security conferences, conversations, and other sources of information, you'll hear about many different types of security features that can be incorporated into monetary and identification documents, packaging, labeling, and other products/systems to help protect against counterfeiting, unauthorized tampering, or to identify 'genuine' products. Many of these features have been around for some time (which means that they may have lost at least some of their effectiveness) while others, or improved versions of some of the more mature features, have been or are being developed. This area is a 'moving target' and re-examination of the threats and counterthreats needs to be an ongoing activity. The 'value' and the capabilities of these features can sometimes be overstated, i.e. that a feature/system can solve all of the security-related problems that you may (or may not) have with your products. A couple of things to always keep in mind is that no feature(s) is universally effective and none of the features, or even combinations of features, is totally 'tamperproof' or counterfeitproof, irrespective of what may be said or claimed. So how do you go about determining if you have a product security problem and what, if any, security features might be used to reduce the threat(s) to your products? This paper will attempt to provide information to help you separate the 'wheat from the chaff' in these considerations. Specifically, information to be discussed in

  20. The European Court of Human Rights: Implications for United States National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    to the Geneva Convention) to climate change ( Kyoto Protocols ) to arms control (Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty), including those related to...instruments that it perceives will encroach on its sovereignty. There are a wide variety of such treaties, from human rights (Additional Protocols I & II...Rights.” 5 In 1998, with the adoption of Protocol No. 11, individuals were allowed to petition the court directly, but only after exhausting their

  1. A false sense of security: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) surrogate health care decision-making rights.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the timely and ethically problematic issue of surrogate decision-making rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients and their families in the American health care system. Despite multiple pro-LGBT recommendations that have been released in recent years by the Obama administration, the Institute of Medicine, and the US Department of Health and Human Services, such initiatives, while laudable, also have unfortunately occasioned a "false sense of security" for many LGBT patients, their families, and their caregivers. In particular, new regulations on surrogate decision making merely invoke a sense of universal patient rights rather than actually generating them. Therefore, it is imperative that primary care physicians urge all LGBT patients to take proactive steps to protect themselves and their loved ones by naming proxy decision makers well before the crises that would necessitate such decisions.

  2. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  3. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  4. Mixed-Initiative Cyber Security: Putting humans in the right loop

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2009-05-11

    In recent years, organizations and their computer infrastructures have grown intertwined in complex relationships through mergers, acquisitions, reorganizations, and cooperative service delivery. Defensive actions and policy changes by one organization may have far-reaching negative consequences on its partner organizations. Human-only or machine-only approaches are insufficient. The former are slow but highly adaptable, while the latter are fast but highly specialized. In either case, humans retain the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their automated systems. Deploying automated defenses does not absolve humans of their inherent responsibility. We believe the solution lies in mixed-initiative defense unifying the complementary qualities of both human- and machine-based approaches. We describe the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID), a new cyber-defense paradigm employing complex-adaptive swarm intelligence, logical rational agents, and human insight to enable collaborative cyber defense among cooperating organizations in an infrastructure setting. CID takes a mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem, sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. CID will help create security policy via dialogue between humans and agents, foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, and increase human situational awareness and influence through visualization and shared control. CID will provide a foundation for building trust between humans and agents within and between organizations.

  5. Biometrics security by dynamics of left and right sole pressure while walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takahiro; Kuramoto, Kei; Kobashi, Syoji; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a biometric personal authentication method based on fuzzy logic using dynamics of sole pressure distribution while walking. The method employs a pair of right and left sole pressure data. These data are acquired by a mat type load distribution sensor. The proposed method has two processes. First, we calculate a fuzzy degree of each sole pressure data. In this process, we extract several gait features based on weight shift and shape of footprint. Fuzzy ifthen rules for each registered person are introduced. In it, their parameters are statistically optimized in learning process. Second, we combine fuzzy degrees of right and left sole. In this process, we employ five operators. The method authenticates walking person with the combined fuzzy degree. We calculate the fuzzy degree of an interest person for all registered persons, and identify the interest person as the registered person with the highest fuzzy degree. While, we verify the interest person as the target person if the fuzzy degree of the interest person calculated for a target person is higher than a threshold. In an experiment on 50 volunteers, we obtained low false rejection and false acceptance rates.

  6. Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sharmila L

    2012-12-15

    Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence.

  7. 31 CFR 363.22 - Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transactions in book-entry securities? 363.22 Section 363.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT General Provisions Governing Securities... securities? (a) Individual—(1) Single owner form of registration. A single owner can conduct transactions...

  8. Resolution on the recognition and effectiveness of the right to social security health assistance for children in foster care, 16 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Resolution provides that children placed in foster care in Spain by associations and foundations recognized for such purposes have the right to receive social security health assistance benefits in conformity with Article 2 of Decree 2766/1967 of 16 November 1967. full text

  9. A Child's Right: A Safe and Secure World. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Educating for Peace Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Dorothy; And Others

    This document is a curriculum that serves as an introduction to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Designed for the upper elementary and middle grades 5-10, the curriculum has students "adopt" an infant from another region of the world, taking personal responsibility for their new brother or sister. This…

  10. Evolution of the Rodgers Creek–Maacama right-lateral fault system and associated basins east of the northward-migrating Mendocino Triple Junction, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wagner, David L.; Fleck, Robert J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, Robert C.; Clahan, Kevin; Allen, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Rodgers Creek–Maacama fault system in the northern California Coast Ranges (United States) takes up substantial right-lateral motion within the wide transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, over a slab window that has opened northward beneath the Coast Ranges. The fault system evolved in several right steps and splays preceded and accompanied by extension, volcanism, and strike-slip basin development. Fault and basin geometries have changed with time, in places with younger basins and faults overprinting older structures. Along-strike and successional changes in fault and basin geometry at the southern end of the fault system probably are adjustments to frequent fault zone reorganizations in response to Mendocino Triple Junction migration and northward transit of a major releasing bend in the northern San Andreas fault. The earliest Rodgers Creek fault zone displacement is interpreted to have occurred ca. 7 Ma along extensional basin-forming faults that splayed northwest from a west-northwest proto-Hayward fault zone, opening a transtensional basin west of Santa Rosa. After ca. 5 Ma, the early transtensional basin was compressed and extensional faults were reactivated as thrusts that uplifted the northeast side of the basin. After ca. 2.78 Ma, the Rodgers Creek fault zone again splayed from the earlier extensional and thrust faults to steeper dipping faults with more north-northwest orientations. In conjunction with the changes in orientation and slip mode, the Rodgers Creek fault zone dextral slip rate increased from ∼2–4 mm/yr 7–3 Ma, to 5–8 mm/yr after 3 Ma. The Maacama fault zone is shown from several data sets to have initiated ca. 3.2 Ma and has slipped right-laterally at ∼5–8 mm/yr since its initiation. The initial Maacama fault zone splayed northeastward from the south end of the Rodgers Creek fault zone, accompanied by the opening of several strike-slip basins, some of which were later uplifted and compressed

  11. What community-level strategies are needed to secure women's property rights in Western Kenya? Laying the groundwork for a future structural HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women's HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women's land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24-30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women's HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women's access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women's property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention.

  12. What community-level strategies are needed to secure women’s property rights in Western Kenya? Laying the groundwork for a future structural HIV prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Shari L.; Lu, Tiffany; Grabe, Shelly; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized need for structural-level HIV prevention interventions that focus on economic empowerment to reduce women’s HIV risks, few science-based programs have focused on securing women’s land ownership as a primary or secondary HIV risk reduction strategy. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights model that was implemented in two rural areas of western Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (24–30%) and property rights violations were common. The program was designed to reduce women’s HIV risk at the community level by protecting and enhancing women’s access to and ownership of land. Through in-depth interviews with 50 program leaders and implementers of this program we sought to identify the strategies that were used to prevent, mediate, and resolve property rights violations. Results included four strategies: (1) rights-based education of both women and men individually and at the community level, (2) funeral committees that intervene to prevent property grabbing and disinheritance, (3) paralegal training of traditional leaders and community members and local adjudication of cases of property rights violations, and (4) referring property rights violations to the formal justice system when these are not resolved at the community level. Study participants underscored that local mediation of cases resulted in a higher success rate than women experienced in the formal court system, underscoring the importance of community-level solutions to property rights violations. The current study assists researchers in understanding the steps needed to prevent and resolve women’s property rights violations so as to bolster the literature on potential structural HIV prevention interventions. Future research should rigorously test property rights programs as a structural HIV prevention intervention. PMID:24116828

  13. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  14. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  15. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  16. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  17. Specific interoperability problems of security infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Communication and co-operation in healthcare and welfare require a well-defined set of security services based on a standards-based interoperable security infrastructure and provided by a Trusted Third Party. Generally, the services describe status and relation of communicating principals, corresponding keys and attributes, and the access rights to both applications and data. Legal, social, behavioral and ethical requirements demand securely stored patient information and well-established access tools and tokens. Electronic signatures as means for securing integrity of messages and files, certified time stamps and time signatures are important for accessing and storing data in Electronic Health Record Systems. The key for all these services is a secure and reliable procedure for authentication (identification and verification). While mentioning technical problems (e.g. lifetime of the storage devices, migration of retrieval and presentation software), this paper aims at identifying harmonization and interoperability requirements of securing data items, files, messages, sets of archived items or documents, and life-long Electronic Health Records based on a secure certificate-based identification. It's commonly known that just relying on existing and emerging security standards does not necessarily guarantee interoperability of different security infrastructure approaches. So certificate separation can be a key to modern interoperable security infrastructure services.

  18. The tension between cross-border cooperation in the European Area of Freedom, Security and Justice and the fundamental rights of mentally ill offenders in detention.

    PubMed

    Meysman, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    In two recent judgements, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has given an alarming signal regarding the placement, care and treatment of mentally disordered offenders in Belgium. This article analyses these judgements and the Court's assessment that Belgium faces a structural problem regarding the detention of people with a mental illness in prison. By exploring other recent ECtHR decisions across the EU and combining this with an analysis of international norms and standards, it contends that there is something amiss regarding the post-trial approach towards mentally disordered offenders in an EU-wide context. The potential hazards of this situation, from both an individual and an EU perspective are then presented by analysing the EU Framework Decision on the transfer of prisoners (which aims to facilitate offender rehabilitation) and the EU Court of Justice's interpretation of the relationship between instruments like the Framework Decision that are based on mutual recognition and fundamental rights. Lastly, the EU's initiative for enhancing procedural rights in criminal proceedings through the Roadmap trajectory, and the subsequent Commission Recommendation of 27 November 2013, are scrutinized. Based on this research, the article pinpoints the flaws and vacuums that currently exist for mentally disordered offenders, and the negative outcome this may have on the legitimacy and effectiveness of the European Area of Freedom, Security and Justice.

  19. A qualitative case study of child protection issues in the Indian construction industry: investigating the security, health, and interrelated rights of migrant families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of India’s estimated 40 million migrant workers in the construction industry migrate with their children. Though India is undergoing rapid economic growth, numerous child protection issues remain. Migrant workers and their children face serious threats to their health, safety, and well-being. We examined risk and protective factors influencing the basic rights and protections of children and families living and working at a construction site outside Delhi. Methods Using case study methods and a rights-based model of child protection, the SAFE model, we triangulated data from in-depth interviews with stakeholders on and near the site (including employees, middlemen, and managers); 14 participants, interviews with child protection and corporate policy experts in greater Delhi (8 participants), and focus group discussions (FGD) with workers (4 FGDs, 25 members) and their children (2 FGDs, 9 members). Results Analyses illuminated complex and interrelated stressors characterizing the health and well-being of migrant workers and their children in urban settings. These included limited access to healthcare, few educational opportunities, piecemeal wages, and unsafe or unsanitary living and working conditions. Analyses also identified both protective and potentially dangerous survival strategies, such as child labor, undertaken by migrant families in the face of these challenges. Conclusions By exploring the risks faced by migrant workers and their children in the urban construction industry in India, we illustrate the alarming implications for their health, safety, livelihoods, and development. Our findings, illuminated through the SAFE model, call attention to the need for enhanced systems of corporate and government accountability as well as the implementation of holistic child-focused and child-friendly policies and programs in order to ensure the rights and protection of this hyper-mobile, and often invisible, population. PMID:24044788

  20. A qualitative case study of child protection issues in the Indian construction industry: investigating the security, health, and interrelated rights of migrant families.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Shaahinfar, Ashkon; Kellner, Sarah E; Dhavan, Nayana; Williams, Timothy P

    2013-09-17

    Many of India's estimated 40 million migrant workers in the construction industry migrate with their children. Though India is undergoing rapid economic growth, numerous child protection issues remain. Migrant workers and their children face serious threats to their health, safety, and well-being. We examined risk and protective factors influencing the basic rights and protections of children and families living and working at a construction site outside Delhi. Using case study methods and a rights-based model of child protection, the SAFE model, we triangulated data from in-depth interviews with stakeholders on and near the site (including employees, middlemen, and managers); 14 participants, interviews with child protection and corporate policy experts in greater Delhi (8 participants), and focus group discussions (FGD) with workers (4 FGDs, 25 members) and their children (2 FGDs, 9 members). Analyses illuminated complex and interrelated stressors characterizing the health and well-being of migrant workers and their children in urban settings. These included limited access to healthcare, few educational opportunities, piecemeal wages, and unsafe or unsanitary living and working conditions. Analyses also identified both protective and potentially dangerous survival strategies, such as child labor, undertaken by migrant families in the face of these challenges. By exploring the risks faced by migrant workers and their children in the urban construction industry in India, we illustrate the alarming implications for their health, safety, livelihoods, and development. Our findings, illuminated through the SAFE model, call attention to the need for enhanced systems of corporate and government accountability as well as the implementation of holistic child-focused and child-friendly policies and programs in order to ensure the rights and protection of this hyper-mobile, and often invisible, population.

  1. Physician Migration to and from Canada: The Challenge of Finding the Ethical and Political Balance between the Individual's Right to Mobility and Recruitment to Underserved Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinee, W. Dale

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration to and from countries results from many local causes and international influences. These factors operate in the context of an increasingly globalized economy. From an ethical point of view, selective and targeted "raiding" of developing countries' medical workforce by wealthier countries is not acceptable. However,…

  2. 17 CFR 239.800 - Form CB, report of sales of securities in connection with an exchange offer or a rights offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form CB, report of sales of... Forms Pertaining to Exemptions § 239.800 Form CB, report of sales of securities in connection with an.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form CB, see the List of CFR Sections...

  3. Supplemental Security Income. Part 1: A Bridge to Work [and] Part 2: So You Have Decided To Apply [and] Part 3: Your Right To Appeal. Parent Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Marge; Moses, Judith

    This document includes a three-part set of Parent Briefs that focus on supplemental security income. The first Brief (published in March 2003)provides basic information on Supplemental Security Income (SSI), the federal income support program for people who have disabilities and limited income and resources. It identifies myths about SSI…

  4. The resilience of migrant workers in Shanghai China: the roles of migration stress and meaning of migration.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Song, He Xue

    2008-03-01

    In China, more than 10 million rural migrants move to cities every year. Because of the Household Registration System, migrant workers are not entitled to subsidised housing, education, social security or medical benefits. Using a resilience perspective, this study attempted to explore not only the migration stress that is experienced by migrant workers, but also the protective function of meaning of migration in helping migrant workers withstand the stress of migration. A survey design with multistage cluster sampling was used and 475 migrant workers were recruited. The questionnaire contained demographic data, the Brief Symptom Inventory, a migration stress scale and meaning of migration scale. Financial and employment difficulties stood out as the most stressful issues for migrant workers. More financial and material gains and personal aspirations and achievement were the most common reasons for living in Shanghai. Regression analyses revealed that financial and employment difficulties and interpersonal tensions and conflicts significantly predicted the mental health of both male and female migrant workers. In addition, while marital status significantly predicted the mental health of male migrant workers, the subscale 'more financial and material gains' in the meaning of migration scale predicted the mental health of female migrant workers. Finally, there was a moderating effect of meaning of migration on the mental health of female migrant workers. There is a need to consolidate and develop policies to protect the rights of migrant workers in China. Mental health counselling for migrant workers who are experiencing difficulties living in Shanghai should be introduced.

  5. How the need for money and the need for security influence migration and economic diversification in the Papua New Guinea highlands.

    PubMed

    Rambo, K F

    1995-01-01

    The author began studying migration between rural areas of the Papua New Guinea highlands under the premise that commitment to the cash economy and to capitalist investment could be investigated by concentrating largely upon people's coffee-growing activities. Coffee, as a small-holder cash crop, is the most evident and, in some areas, the only significant means by which money is earned. His cases concerned migration from a high-altitude homeland, where land for growing coffee was scarce, to lower resettlement areas in locations ideal for coffee growing. During an earlier period of fieldwork, both migrants and non-migrants insisted that the motivation to move was based upon a desire to grow more coffee and earn more cash. Changes in the local division of labor in the Simbu and Western Highlands Provinces are discussed, with the work strategies undertaken by the migrants in the study illustrated by brief case studies presented after a general description of the research.

  6. Renal vein stenting via the right internal jugular approach with a provocative Valsalva maneuver to reduce the risk of stent migration.

    PubMed

    Syed, Mubin I; Yu, Benjamin; Akhter, Talal; Shaikh, Azim

    2011-12-01

    An adult male with nutcracker syndrome was treated successfully by placement of a self-expanding stent in the left renal vein via a right internal jugular vein approach with a provocative Valsalva maneuver. Previous case reports have described renal vein stenting for this condition via common femoral vein approach. However, this study proposes the right internal jugular vein approach as a safer method for the treatment of nutcracker syndrome since the stent can be easily captured along the guidewire if undersized. This technique is based on the realization that the left renal vein diameter may increase by 50% to 58% during the Valsalva maneuver.

  7. Monitoring of Student Right To Know and Campus Security Act of 1990. Report To Accompany H. Res. 470. House of Representatives, 104th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

    This report to accompany House Resolution 470 expresses the sense of Congress that the Department of Education should play a more active role in the monitoring of and enforcing compliance with the Higher Education Act of 1965 related to campus crime. The report makes reference to the Campus Crime and Security Awareness Act, enacted as part of the…

  8. 5 CFR 9701.511 - Management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....511 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.511 Management rights. (a) Subject...

  9. Image Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    popularity, contemplates the cru- cial needs for protecting intellectual property rights on multimedia content like images, video, audio , and oth- ers...protection for still images, audio , video, and multimedia products.’ The networking environment of the future will require tools that provide m secure and fast...technique known as steganography ? Steganography , or “covered writing,” George Voyatzis and Ioannis Pitas University of Thessaloniki has a long

  10. Les questions de migrations internationales (Questions of International Migrations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-01-01

    Education about international migration should (1) utilize a framework of historical evolution; (2) stress the growing interdependence of nations; (3) emphasize universal moral values and the role of the individual in human rights; and (4) consider the complementary or competing portraits of international migration presented by the media. (DMM)

  11. Les questions de migrations internationales (Questions of International Migrations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-01-01

    Education about international migration should (1) utilize a framework of historical evolution; (2) stress the growing interdependence of nations; (3) emphasize universal moral values and the role of the individual in human rights; and (4) consider the complementary or competing portraits of international migration presented by the media. (DMM)

  12. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  13. The Migration Experience of Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights, concludes that in many ways northern cities seem to be characterized not so much by excessive migration of blacks from the south, but by inadequate migration from one northern metropolitan area to another. (Author/JM)

  14. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  15. Reducing PICC migrations and improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elen Hughes, Meinir

    Inadvertent migration of central venous catheters can lead to several issues including delayed therapy and clinical morbidities such as thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are particularly at risk of movement. An innovative new device which allows anchorage of the catheter has proved very successful in the minimisation of catheter migration. The SecurAcath device incorporates a small blunt anchor which lies beneath the skin in order to secure the catheter in place and prevent inadvertent movement. An evaluation of 31 patients with a SecurAcath device in situ to secure a PICC found only one case of insignificant catheter migration. Some initial problems with infection and pain were encountered and interventions were put in place to minimise their incidence. SecurAcath removal proved to be the most significant challenge but this can be overcome with suitable guidance and training.

  16. Homeland Security

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  17. Security: Vandalism, Campus Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Police use a middle school at Lauderdale Lakes, Florida, as a nighttime headquarters. At several colleges and universities students are supplementing professional campus security departments. (Author/MLF)

  18. [Internal migration].

    PubMed

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  19. Security Threats in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Power Conflict • Rise of China • Rise of India • Return of Russia • EU-Europe and NATO • Japan’s dilemma • Changing alliances? Threat 2 Climate Change...tomorrow. Anon. Security Threats 1. Return of great power conflict 2. Climate change 3. Uneven development 4. Overpopulation , migration, pandemics...Threat 4 Overpopulation , Migration, Pandemics • Climate change means overpopulation • Mass migrations are unstoppable • Migrations mean conflict and

  20. Migration Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurélien

    2015-08-01

    The great variety of the architectures of the extra-solar planetary systems has revealed the fundamental role played by planetary migration: the interactions between the planets and the gaseous disk in which they form leads to a modification of their orbits. Here, I will review the basic processes and the most recent results in this area.Planets up to ~50 Earth masses are prone to so-called type I migration.I will describe the processes at play, namely the Lindblad and corotation torques, and explain how the total torque depends on the planet mass and the local disk structure. Application to realistic disks shows one or two sweet spot(s) for outward migration of planets roughly between 5 and 30 Earth masses around the snowline ; this is confirmed by dedicated 3D numerical simulations. This has strong consequences on the formation of hot Super-Earths or mini-Neptunes.For smaller mass planets, it has been recently proposed that the heating of the neighboring gas by the luminous planet can lead to a positive torque, hence promoting outward migration. On the other hand, if the planet is not a heat source, a cold finger appears, whose resulting torque is negative. Applications of these two recent results should be discussed.Giant planets open gaps in the proto-planetary disk, and then are supposedly subject to type II migration, following the viscous accretion of the disk. This standard picture has been questioned recently, as gas appears to drift through the gap. Although the gap opening process is well understood in 2D for a planet on a fixed orbit, recent results on 3D simulations or migrating planets make the picture more accurate.Our ever better understanding of planet-disk interactions is of crucial importance as the statistics on extra solar systems keep growing and the results of these interactions are now imaged.

  1. secureBLAST.

    PubMed

    Wiezer, Arnim; Merkl, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    secureBLAST supplements NCBI wwwblast with features necessary to control in an easy manageable way usage of BLAST data sets and their update. The concept we implemented allows to offer on a single BLAST server several data sets with individually configurable access rights. Security is provided by user authentication and encryption of the http traffic via SSL. By using secureBLAST, the administration of users and databases can be done via a web interface. Therefore, secureBLAST is valuable for institutions that have to restrict access to their datasets or just want to administer BLAST servers via a web interface.

  2. Migrating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Hansen, B.; Holman, M.; Tremaine, S.

    1998-01-01

    A planet orbiting in a disk of planetesimals can experience an instability in which it migrates to smaller orbital radii. Resonant interactions between the planet and planetesimals remove angular momentum from the planetesimals, increasing their eccentricities. Subsequently, the planetesimals either collide with or are ejected by the planet, reducing the semimajor axis of the planet. If the surface density of planetesimals exceeds a critical value, corresponding to 0.03 solar masses of gas inside the orbit of Jupiter, the planet will migrate inward a large distance. This instability may explain the presence of Jupiter-mass objects in small orbits around nearby stars.

  3. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  4. Dateline Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  5. Monarch Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  6. Monarch Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  7. [Migration and health].

    PubMed

    Litvinjenko, S

    1997-01-01

    is usually composed of women, children and old persons. One of the largest migrations took place over the period from 1991 to 1995, when about 1,500,000 people left the war areas of the former Yugoslavia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Of that number, about 700.000 refugees came to Yugoslavia. In August 1995 during an unprecedented exile from the Kninska krajina region (Croatia) over 200,000 people left their homes. During the arrival of refugees and expelled persons health teams offered first aid to these unlucky persons at reception points: drinking water, food, emergency care and indispensable clothing. The next step in their task was to move refugees into families i.e. into collective camps and centres. As in similar situations, this migration had also its negative effects on health of the refugees. At this time, however, the situation was aggravated by international economic sanctions imposed to Yugoslavia although Yugoslavia has accepted and received more refugees than all European countries together. In 1992 a special refugees Law was promulgated in Yugoslavia. In this Law, among other things, it was stated that "the organized reception, temporary lodging, nutrition, appropriate health care, material and other sort of help" will be secured to refugees. The increased infant mortality rate in Yugoslavia may be ascribed to migrations. After several years of decrease it was in constant rise over the period from 1991 to 1995 (Table 1). Disturbed mental balance, loosing of ethic norms, feeling of hopelessness and despair, and underestimation of the risk of infections among refugees, contributed to the rise of promiscuity and increase in sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, the number of registered cases of symphills in the period 1991-1995 was six times greater than in previous years. The number of gonorrhea cases was twice greater in this period than before that time. At the same time, it should be emphasized that the number of recorded cases was smaller than it w

  8. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  9. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Joyceen S.

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  10. Transportation Security Leadership: The Right Stuff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    focusing on human needs are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs , and Herzberg’s Two Factory Theory. Both of these theories place responsibility on the leader...Covey addressed the need for character in the workplace with his theory of Principle Centered Leadership. Covey’s theory asserts that there is a...evolving threat of terrorism? Goldsmith and Eggers bring insight to the debate by identifying “the need to reconcile traditional top-down hierarchy

  11. 33 CFR 101.420 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to appeal. 101.420 Section 101.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Control Measures for Security § 101.420 Right to appeal. (a) Any person directly...

  12. Population commission discusses international migration.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age.

  13. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  14. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  15. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  16. Grain-boundary migration in KCl bicrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbon, C. F.

    1968-01-01

    Boundary migration in melt-grown bicrystals of KCl containing pure twist boundaries was investigated. The experiments involve the use of bicrystal specimens in the shape of right-triangular prisms with the boundary parallel to one side.

  17. Delayed Migration of Fractured K-wire Causing Vertebral Artery Invagination After Anterior Atlantoaxial Fixation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Tarik F; Raj, Rahul; Antinheimo, Jussi; Siironen, Jari; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2016-04-01

    Most of the physician's attention during spinal surgery, when using wires and screws, is toward the avoidance of injuries of critical structures (nerves and vessels). When such wires are broken during surgery, the most important point is to take them out safely or, if it is impossible, to leaf them in secure place and follow the patient closely. Migrations of broken Kirschner wire (K-wire) are well known in literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, migration of a fractured K-wire during anterior atlantoaxial fixation of cervical spine has not been reported in the literature. We report a case in which a fractured K-wire was imbedded in the lateral mass of C1 for 3 years and then migrated to endanger the dominant right vertebral artery. By using posterior approach and drilling right part of posterior arch of C1, we manage to secure the vertebral artery. The broken K-wire was extracted successfully. In our case, with optimal follow-up, the burred wire inside hard bone was moved in delayed fashion to come out of the bone, grooving the dominant vertebral artery. Our recommendation is to inspect the K-wire before using it and to try retrieve as much as possible when removing it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  19. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  20. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    PubMed

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  1. 5 CFR 9701.511 - Management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management rights. 9701.511 Section 9701.511 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.511 - Management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management rights. 9701.511 Section 9701.511 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.511 - Management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management rights. 9701.511 Section 9701.511 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.511 - Management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management rights. 9701.511 Section 9701.511 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.507 - Employee rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee rights. 9701.507 Section 9701.507 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.507 - Employee rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....507 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.507 Employee rights. Each employee has...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.507 - Employee rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....507 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.507 Employee rights. Each employee has...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.507 - Employee rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....507 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.507 Employee rights. Each employee has...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.507 - Employee rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....507 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.507 Employee rights. Each employee has...

  10. Comparative migration issues.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, B A

    1995-01-01

    "This article reviews migration issues in Canada, the United States, and Mexico in the context of a general interpretation that NAFTA's [North American Free Trade Agreement] migration provisions are insufficient to deal with the larger continental migration problems." excerpt

  11. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  12. Migration of the Nellix endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    England, Andrew; Torella, Francesco; Fisher, Robert K; McWilliams, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the incidence and sequelae of migration of the Nellix (Endologix Inc, Irvine, Calif) endoprosthesis after endovascular aneurysm sealing. A review was performed of the follow-up imaging of all endovascular aneurysm sealing patients in a university hospital endovascular program who had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The first postoperative and latest follow-up computed tomography scans were used to measure the distances between the proximal and distal borders of the stent grafts relative to reference vessels using a previously validated technique. Device migration was based on previously established criteria and defined as any stent graft movement of ≥4 mm related to a predefined reference vessel. Device movement in a caudal direction was given a positive value, and movement in a cranial direction was denoted by a negative value. Eighteen patients (35 stent grafts) were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective review. The mean preoperative abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter was 57 mm (standard deviation [SD], 5; range, 50-67 mm) and aortic neck length was 30 mm (SD, 16; range, 6-62 mm). Proximal migration, according to study definitions, was identified in six stent grafts (17%), all in a caudal direction. At 1 year the mean proximal migration distance was +6.6 mm (SD, 1.6; range, +4.7-+9.2 mm). Migration occurred in a single stent graft in four patients and bilaterally in one. No distal migration occurred. Proximal migration of the Nellix endoprosthesis does occur and was without any sequelae in our series. Further investigations into the long-term positional stability of the Nellix device, together with a more thorough understanding of the etiology and consequences of migration, are required. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of limiting long term illness on internal migration in England and Wales: New evidence from census microdata.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Sam; Martin, David; Moon, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that poor health is associated with reduced migration; this knowledge stems from models based on past censuses, or longitudinal studies which imply that the factors influencing migration are the same between those in good and poor health. This paper addresses these issues by utilising health-stratified analyses on the 2011 Census Individual Secure Sample for England and Wales. Multilevel models predict the odds of moving for working age adults, controlling for key predictors of migration, estimating the effect of health status on the odds of moving and the destination-specific variance in migration. We find that those in poor health are less likely to move, after controlling for individual level characteristics. In contrast with expectations, economic inactivity, marriage and being in African, Caribbean, Black, Other or Mixed ethnic groups were not significant predictors of migration among the unhealthy sample, but were for the healthy sample. We conclude that migration is health-selective and propose implications for understanding area level concentrations of poor health in England and Wales. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Korean nursing students' intention to migrate abroad.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Moon, Mikyung

    2013-12-01

    Migration of Korean nurses has continued with changing patterns and reasons. However, detailed studies of migration among Korean nursing students are limited. This study examined the intention, reasons, and preferences of migration among Korean nursing students. This study also identified priorities and barriers to the decision of nursing students to migrate and work abroad. A descriptive study using a questionnaire was used for this study. A total of 717 nursing students from four BSN programs and three diploma programs at nursing schools in D city and K province of South Korea were included in the analysis. According to the results, 69.8% of respondents intended to migrate abroad, if possible, or absolutely in the future. The score for females who answered "yes, if possible" regarding the intention to migrate was significantly higher, compared to males. More than 64% of respondents eventually want to return to Korea after migration. The two most common reasons for migration were economic reason (salary) (29.7%) and "professional development (28.2%)". Half of all respondents preferred the US as the destination country of migration (50.5%). "Working condition" was the most prevalent reason for the decision regarding the destination and the place to work. More than 71% of respondents selected "the lack of language proficiency" as a barrier to migration. Economic reason was not as strong as in the past to explain migration of Korean nursing students. Most Korean nursing students want to return back with professional development and higher degree. Even permanent migration and return migration of nurses are an inevitable part of globalization, positive and negative aspects of migration between donor as well as destination countries should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy.

  16. Civil Rights

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Civil Rights Program enforces federal civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination against members of the public by recipients of EPA funds, and protects employees and applicants for employment from discrimination.

  17. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  18. Human rights

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J Enoch

    1977-01-01

    What are human rights? In this article Enoch Powell, MP (a former Conservative Minister of Health), approaches this question through a critical discussion of Article 25 (I) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Professor R S Downie in his accompanying commentary analyses Mr Powell's statements and takes up in particular Mr Powell's argument that claiming rights for one person entails compulsion on another person. In Professor Downie's view there is nothing in Article 25 (I) that cannot embody acceptable moral rights, the commonly accepted interpretation of that Article of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights which many people think is wholly acceptable. PMID:604483

  19. Transgender Rights as Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tia; Shapiro, Sophia; Stein, Ed

    2016-11-01

    Arguments to support transgender rights often rely on "born that way" arguments, which assert that gender identity is innate, immutable, and unassociated with choice. These arguments are vulnerable to attack on several grounds, including on the basis of emerging scientific data. Stronger support for transgender rights arises from human rights arguments.

  20. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  1. Migration in far west Nepal: intergenerational linkages between internal and international migration of rural-to-urban migrants.

    PubMed

    Poertner, Ephraim; Junginger, Mathias; Müller-Böker, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    In Nepal, international labor migration to India and overseas, as well as internal migration to the rural Nepalese lowlands, is of high socioeconomic significance. Scholarly debates about migration in Nepal have gradually shifted from an economic to a more holistic perspective, also incorporating social dimensions. However, little evidence has been generated about internal migration to urban destinations and the potential linkages between international and internal migration. This article draws on Bourdieu's “Theory of Practice” and sees migration as a social practice. Accordingly, migration practice is regarded as a strategy social agents apply to increase or transfer capitals and ultimately secure or improve their social position. Evidence for this argument is based on a qualitative case study of rural to urban migrants in Far West Nepal conducted in July and August 2009. The study at hand addresses linkages between internal and international migration practices and provides insight about a social stratum that is often neglected in migration research: the middle class and, more precisely, government employees. The authors show that social relations are crucial for channeling internal migration to a specific destination. Furthermore, they unveil how internal migration is connected to the international labor migration of former generations. Finally, the authors examine how migration strategies adopted over generations create multi-local social networks rooted in the family's place of origin.

  2. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  3. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  4. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

  6. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. Information Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    NOTES 2002 Command & Control Research & Technology Symposium 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...information security including this list of definitions. Definitions: * Confidentiality . Unintended recipients can’t read our traffic. Confidentiality ...attacks. * Traffic analysis. Ability to derive intelligence from the addresses of messages, even if the contents are confidentiality -protected

  8. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  9. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  10. Patient Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a patient bill of rights. An important patient right is informed consent. This means that if you need a treatment, your health care provider must give you the information you need to make a decision. Many hospitals have patient advocates who can help you if you have ...

  11. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    PubMed

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  12. [Contemporary international migrations and migration policy].

    PubMed

    Latuch, M

    1995-01-01

    With a focus on Poland, the author examines the following aspects and questions regarding international migration: "The intensification of spatial mobility in Poland as well as in other countries; the necessity for modernisation of migratory policy; socio-economic implications of out-migration and migratory policy; Poland--a country of transit, political asylum or immigration?; the phenomenon of transit migration in Poland; stability or flexibility of migratory policy? [and] migration as a focus of world population conferences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) excerpt

  13. 33 CFR 106.145 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Right to appeal. 106.145 Section 106.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.145 Right to appeal. Any...

  14. 33 CFR 106.145 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Right to appeal. 106.145 Section 106.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.145 Right to appeal. Any...

  15. 33 CFR 106.145 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Right to appeal. 106.145 Section 106.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.145 Right to appeal. Any...

  16. 33 CFR 104.150 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to appeal. 104.150 Section 104.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.150 Right to appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision or...

  17. 33 CFR 106.145 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to appeal. 106.145 Section 106.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.145 Right to appeal. Any person...

  18. 33 CFR 105.150 - Right to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to appeal. 105.150 Section 105.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.150 Right to appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision...

  19. Australia: Abortion and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Belton, Suzanne

    2017-06-01

    This article adopts a human rights lens to consider Australian law and practice regarding elective abortion. As such, it considers Australian laws within the context of the right to equality, right to privacy, right to health, and right to life. After setting out the human rights framework and noting the connected nature of many of the rights (and their corresponding violations), the article shifts its focus to analyzing Australian law and practice within the framework of these rights. It considers the importance of decriminalizing abortion and regulating it as a standard medical procedure. It discusses the need to remove legal and practical restrictions on access to abortion, including financial obstacles and anti-abortion protestors. Further, it comments on the importance of facilitating access; for example, by keeping accurate health data, securing continuity of health care, increasing the availability of medical abortion, and ensuring appropriate care is provided to the most marginalized and vulnerable women.

  20. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  1. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  2. Austrian Security Strategy: Need For Reformulation Due To Security Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-14

    migration from Africa and the Middle East, and reality has overtaken the security strategy. The terrorist attacks in Paris and the sexual assaults on women ...On New Year’s Eve in Cologne, several groups of young men carried out numerous sexual assaults on women . In many cases, these sexual and property...offenses including aggravated assault against the women ´s male companions. Although to a lesser extent than in Cologne, similar sexual assaults were

  3. Women's Rights Are Human Rights!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaam, Kalamu Ya

    1979-01-01

    This article emphasizes that the women's rights movement must be viewed as a vital part of the human rights struggle. It is argued that both men and women should speak out against sexism and support the struggles of women to defend and develop themselves. (Author/EB)

  4. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  5. Bodily rights and property rights

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, B; Hansson, S O

    2006-01-01

    Whereas previous discussions on ownership of biological material have been much informed by the natural rights tradition, insufficient attention has been paid to the strand in liberal political theory represented by Felix Cohen, Tony Honoré, and others, which treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights. In accordance with that tradition, we propose that the primary normative issue is what combination of rights a person should have to a particular item of biological material. Whether that bundle qualifies to be called “property” or “ownership” is a secondary, terminological issue. We suggest five principles of bodily rights and show how they can be applied to the construction of ethically appropriate bundles of rights to biological material. PMID:16574874

  6. Bodily rights and property rights.

    PubMed

    Björkman, B; Hansson, S O

    2006-04-01

    Whereas previous discussions on ownership of biological material have been much informed by the natural rights tradition, insufficient attention has been paid to the strand in liberal political theory represented by Felix Cohen, Tony Honoré, and others, which treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights. In accordance with that tradition, we propose that the primary normative issue is what combination of rights a person should have to a particular item of biological material. Whether that bundle qualifies to be called "property" or "ownership" is a secondary, terminological issue. We suggest five principles of bodily rights and show how they can be applied to the construction of ethically appropriate bundles of rights to biological material.

  7. [Human rights of the physician].

    PubMed

    García-Romero, H

    1995-01-01

    The physician rights may be classified in those related with his quality as a person, and those derived from his relationship with his patients and the institution to which he belongs. Among the first, liberty of expression, legal security, right of free association, the right of a dignified social position and neutral attitude towards the commitment of giving medical attention to whomever the patient may be. He has the right to receive a full and up-to-date training oriented to serve the community, supported by health institutions, and to have the means of utmost quality to give medical attention of the highest standard.

  8. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Nieh

    2009-10-30

    software environments, (4) network checkpoint-restart and migration of distributed and parallel applications, (5) a utility computing infrastructure for mobile desktop cloud computing based on process checkpoint-restart and migration functionality, (6) a process migration security architecture for protecting applications and infrastructure from denial-of-service attacks, and (7) a checkpoint-restart mobile computing system using portable storage devices.

  9. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  10. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  11. Diagnosis security.

    PubMed

    Crumbley, James R

    2005-01-01

    How one hospital (designed with multiple entrances intended to ease traffic flow, rather than prevent unauthorized entry) assessed and improved its physical security and loss prevention programs while it upgraded its supply chain controls.

  12. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  13. CDYL Deficiency Disrupts Neuronal Migration and Increases Susceptibility to Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rui; Cao, Shuai; Lyu, Tianjie; Qi, Cai; Zhang, Weiguang; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-10

    During brain development, the correct migration of newborn neurons is one of the determinants of circuit formation, and neuronal migration defects may lead to neurological and psychiatric disorders. The molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal migration and related disorders are poorly understood. Here, we report that Chromodomain Y-like (CDYL) is critical for neuronal migration in mice. Knocking down CDYL caused neuronal migration defects and disrupted both mobility and multipolar-to-bipolar transition of migrating neurons. We find that CDYL regulates neuronal migration by transcriptionally repressing RhoA. In addition, CDYL deficiency increased the excitability of cortical pyramidal neurons and the susceptibility of mice to convulsant-induced seizures. These results demonstrate that CDYL is a regulator of neuronal migration and shed light on the pathogenesis of seizure-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Population, migration and urbanization.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  15. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  16. [Circular migration in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Mantra, I B

    1979-12-01

    The author examines circular migration in Indonesia, with primary focus on the 1970s. It is found that circular, or repeated return migration, generally occurs over short distances and for short periods and is more frequent than lifetime migration. The relationships between improvements in the national transport system, access to labor force opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and circular migration are discussed.

  17. Morphological constraints on changing avian migration phenology.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2017-04-07

    Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 Eurasian migratory bird species. Species with large aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, somehow hinders phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. [The questions of international migration].

    PubMed

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified)

  19. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  20. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  1. Legal Rights of the Fine Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millinger, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the current status and changing patterns of copyrights, resale royalty rights, and moral rights that have the potential of according the fine artist greater protection and economic security. Discusses an existing California law as a model for protection of the fine artists' moral rights. (JMF)

  2. More Myths of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail

    1986-01-01

    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  3. Human rights of persons with mental disabilities. The European Convention of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2000-01-01

    It is not necessary to recount the numerous charters and declarations ... to understand human rights.... All persons are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Everyone ... is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the international human rights instruments without discrimination, such as the rights to life, liberty, security of the person, privacy, health, education, work, social security, and to marry and found a family. Yet, violations of human rights are a reality to be found in every corner of the globe.

  4. Student Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.

    This paper reviews both the literature and the court litigation concerning student rights in elementary and high school. The purpose of the paper is to outline the legal aspects of the relationship of students to their teachers and administrators. Topics covered include the freedoms of speech and press, due process, "in loco parentis,"…

  5. [The theory of migration].

    PubMed

    Delbruck, C; Raffelhuschen, B

    1993-09-01

    "The present and expected migration flows in Europe require a detailed analysis of determinants and elements of migration decisions. This survey encompasses a view on classical--labor market and demand side oriented--theories, the more recent human capital approach as well as on migration under asymmetric information. Since these theories so far yield an unsatisfactory basis for description and forecasting of multilateral migration flows, a closer look at empirical methods of migration research is taken. Consequently, a description of possible policy oriented applications of the gravity model and the random utility approach, with their descriptive and normative characteristics, is given." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Population distribution and internal migration.

    PubMed

    1994-07-01

    In China, population density is about 3 times higher than the world average. Currently, 94% of the population inhabit the developed eastern and southeastern parts of the country, which account for only 46% of China's territory. In contrast, the western and northwestern parts of China contain only 6% of the total population. From 1949 to 1990, the urban population grew from almost 57.7 million to 301.9 million. The strategy of urbanization is to strictly limit the size of large cities and to develop medium-sized and small cities in line with the level of economic development. From 1980 to 1990 the number of cities increased from 223 to 461 and the number of towns from 2874 to 55,000. The overwhelming majority of China's population still live in the countryside. According to the 1990 national population census, during the period from July 1, 1985, to July 1, 1990, the total number of migrants in China reached 34.13 million, of whom 18.83 million were male and 15.30 million were female. There were 23.02 million intra-provincial migrants and 11.07 million inter-provincial migrants. Among the causes of migration: 1) 14.67 million people migrated for job transfers, business, and recruitment, 2) 11.68 million migrated to live with relatives and for marriage, 3) 4.14 million migrated to study and for training. In addition, 3.64 million migrated because of retirement or for other reasons. The number of migrants nationwide topped 100 million in 1992, which is attributed to the large rural surplus labor force flowing into urban areas. Moreover, imbalanced regional economic development and the booming tourist industry have also added to population mobility. More than 40 million rural migrants are outside their official place of residence. The large size of the migrant population has brought about serious problems in increased city traffic and public security. The government is committed to controlling the surplus rural laborers by enabling this segment to migrate to those

  7. Analyzing bat migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Diehl, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    T HE MIGRATORY MOVEIvl.ENTS OF BATS have proven ex­ tremely difficult to determine. Despite extensive efforts during the past century to track the movements of bats across landscapes, efficient methods of following small- to medium-size volant animals <240 gl for extended periods (>8 weeks) over long distances (>100 km) have not been developed. Important questions about bat migration remain unanswered: Which bats migrate? Where do they go? How far do they move? How high and fast do they fly? What are their habitat needs during migration? How do bats orient and navigate during migration? Addressing these apparently simple questions will be a considerable challenge to anyone interested in advancing the study of bat migration. In this chapter, we present direct and indirect methods used to study bat migration as well as techniques that have worked for studying bird migration that could feasibly be adapted to the study of bats.

  8. Remote Sensing and Mass Migration Policy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Amazon River floodplain, enabling them to predict droughts and floods that may result from global climate change. 41 A European Space Agency...mapped existing water resources and vegetation in the Kafue River Basin and identified potential dam sites. A Science Daily press release noted that...National Security Strategy. An examination of the causes of mass migration and its effects, using the examples of water resources, agricultural

  9. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  10. Climate Change and National Security

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

  11. State policies and internal migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Oberai, A S

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to identify policies and programs in Asia that are explicitly or implicitly designed to influence migration, to investigate why they were adopted and how far they have actually been implemented, and to assess their direct and indirect consequences. For study purposes, policies and programs are classified according to whether they prohibit or reverse migration, redirect or channel migration to specific rural or urban locations, reduce the total volume of migration, or encourage or discourage urban in-migration. Discussion of each type of policy is accompanied by a description of its rationale and implementation mechanism, examples of countries in Asia that have recourse to it, and its intended or actual effect on migration. Several countries in Asia have taken direct measures to reverse the flow of migration and to stop or discourage migration to urban areas. These measures have included administrative and legal controls, police registration, and direct "rustication" programs to remove urban inhabitants to the countryside. The availability of public land has prompted many Asian countries to adopt schemes that have been labeled resettlement, transmigration, colonization, or land development. These schemes have been designed to realize 1 or more of the following objectives: to provide land and income to the landless; increase agricultural production; correct spatial imbalances in the distribution of population; or exploit frontier lands for reasons of national security. 1 of the basic goals of decentralized industrialization and regional development policies has been the reduction of interregional disparities and the redirection of migrations from large metropolitan areas to smaller and medium sized towns. To encourage industry to move to small urban locations initial infrastructure investments, tax benefits, and other incentives have been offered. Policies to reduce the overall volume of migration have frequently included rural

  12. Juridical structures: refugees and migration.

    PubMed

    Veiter, T

    1988-01-01

    The juridical problems in regard to the concepts of refugee, expulsion, and migration are complicated. If one speaks about migration in Europe, one must 1st distinguish between Eastern and Western Europe. In the communist states of Eastern Europe the refugee problem does not exist officially, with the only existing refugee problem in Yugoslavia, which has signed and ratified the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951. In the other East European states the right to asylum exists, but refugees are granted asylum only if they are persecuted in their country of origin for their communist ideas and activities. In speaking of migration, one must distinguish between migration, forced migration, mass migration, emigration, immigration, the shift of populations, and refugees. In the communist countries of Eastern Europe the right to emigration is not respected, although certain exceptions, as in Poland or Yugoslavia do exist. Generally, in the communist states emigration is not allowed and illegal emigration is punished as "Flight from the Republic." With a few exceptions, political and other persecutions are no longer so typical within Europe. In the last decades, the refugee problem has changed to other continents: Afghanistan/Pakistan, Iran, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan, Tchad, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Angola. The refugee problem in Europe consists mainly in the large afflux of refugees coming from places with other cultural (and religious) attributes. The Islamic immigrants declare themselves regularly as political refugees and hope to be acknowledged as such by the receiving state. The fear of the governments and populations of the receiving countries is that it would not be possible to assimilate such aliens who do not belong to the Christian culture of Europe. Formerly, refugees came mostly from the Christian countries of Eastern Europe with the same race identity and the same religion. For years now, more and more foreign workers are a kind of migrant

  13. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  14. The measurement of international migration in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Poulain, M

    1987-01-01

    This article examines legislation affecting international migration in Belgium from the perspective of 2 questions: 1) What types of migrants are definable by legislation? and 2) What kinds of documents may be utilized to compile statistics on international migration? The following are some of the article's main points. 1) Since January 1, 1847 each communal administration in Belgium has maintained a national population register that details births, deaths, marriages and household structures, and all movements within 1 commune, from 1 commune to another, and movements between states. 2) When a Belgian citizen leaves for a foreign destination with the intention of settling there, his name is struck from the registers. 3) To enter Belgian territory, the alien must possess the documents required under bilateral agreements between Belgium and each of the states concerned. Generally, the alien must obtain a visa to his passport from 1 of the diplomatic or consular offices of Benelux before entering Belgium. The alien must have sufficient means of subsistence to avoid being considered in need. He must not be listed as an undesirable alien in Belgium, he must not have been convicted of a crime, and he must not constitute a danger to public order or national security, The alien also should not have been expelled from Belgium less than 10 years earlier. 4) Absence from Belgium and the right to return is granted to aliens holding a valid certificate of enrollment or a settlement card. 5) Any individual who has reason to fear persecution can obtain refugee status; his stay is protected until his application is declared to be unfounded by the High Commission. 6) The National Statistical Institute issues various types of data from which international population movements can be identified. The 2 main sources of these statistics are the population censuses held every 10 years and the annual demographic statistics. 7) In 1967, the Belgian Council of Ministers authorized the

  15. Collective cell migration of primary zebrafish keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Rapanan, Jose L; Cooper, Kimbal E; Leyva, Kathryn J; Hull, Elizabeth E

    2014-08-01

    Fish keratocytes are an established model in single cell motility but little is known about their collective migration. Initially, sheets migrate from the scale at ~145 μm/h but over the course of 24h the rate of leading edge advance decreases to ~23 μm/h. During this period, leader cells retain their ability to migrate rapidly when released from the sheet and follower cell area increases. After the addition of RGD peptide, leader cell lamellae are lost, altering migratory forces within the sheet, resulting in rapid retraction. Leader and follower cell states interconvert within minutes with changes in cell-cell adhesions. Leader cells migrate as single cells when they detach from the leading edge and single cells appear to become leader cells if they rejoin the sheet. Follower cells rapidly establish leader cell morphology during closing of holes formed during sheet expansion and revert to follower cell morphology after hole-closure. Inhibition of Rho associated kinase releases leader cells and halts advancement of the leading edge suggesting an important role for the intercellular actomyosin cable at the leading edge. In addition, the presence of the stationary scale orients direction of sheet migration which is characterized by a more uniform advance of the leading edge than in some cell line systems. These data establish fish keratocyte explant cultures as a collective cell migration system and suggest that cell-cell interactions determine the role of keratocytes within the migrating sheet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 17 CFR 300.503 - Voidable securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to... right of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, in a direct payment procedure under section...

  17. 17 CFR 300.503 - Voidable securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to... right of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, in a direct payment procedure under section...

  18. 17 CFR 300.503 - Voidable securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to... right of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, in a direct payment procedure under section...

  19. 17 CFR 300.503 - Voidable securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to... right of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, in a direct payment procedure under section...

  20. 17 CFR 300.503 - Voidable securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to... right of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, in a direct payment procedure under section...

  1. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Taking Aim at Moving Targets in Computational Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Masuzzo, Paola; Van Troys, Marleen; Ampe, Christophe; Martens, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    Cell migration is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Fundamental understanding of cell migration can, for example, direct novel therapeutic strategies to control invasive tumor cells. However, the study of cell migration yields an overabundance of experimental data that require demanding processing and analysis for results extraction. Computational methods and tools have therefore become essential in the quantification and modeling of cell migration data. We review computational approaches for the key tasks in the quantification of in vitro cell migration: image pre-processing, motion estimation and feature extraction. Moreover, we summarize the current state-of-the-art for in silico modeling of cell migration. Finally, we provide a list of available software tools for cell migration to assist researchers in choosing the most appropriate solution for their needs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Caribbean Regional Security: The Challenges to creating Formal Military Relationships in the English-Speaking Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    incomes. Ramon Grosfoguel adds that in the United States and in Europe, there is a perception that foreign immigrants are taking jobs away from the...2Ramon Grosfoguel , “The Geopolitics of Caribbean Migration,” 201. 3Lilian Bobea, “Migration and Regional Security: Besieged Borders and Caribbean... Grosfoguel , Ramon. “The Geopolitics of Caribbean Migration.” In Security, Problems and Policies in the Post-Cold War Caribbean, 201-224. New York

  4. Women's rights are human rights.

    PubMed

    Shalala, D E

    1998-09-01

    The US Secretary of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala, challenged the world to live up to the affirmation made in Cairo: that women's rights are human rights. The US has responded to this affirmation with vigor by recognizing that when given knowledge, education, opportunity, and power, women can be heroines; they can move mountains to help themselves and the others whom they are destined to nurture. The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has implemented numerous programs that will support these heroic acts. These programs include the Girl Power campaign (designed to help girls through the critical period of pre-adolescence), the National Strategy to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (promotes education to encourage abstinence), the National Plan on Breast Cancer, the Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program (protects the health of low-income women), the Women's Health Initiative at the National Institutes of Health (designed to increase our knowledge about hormone replacement therapy, dietary patterns, and exercise), and a national 24-hour toll-free Violence Against Women hotline (1-800-799-SAFE). Although DHHS has done much in 5 years, the US has a long way to go in dealing with the interconnecting issues of the human rights of women everywhere.

  5. Theory of Primary Rights for Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreuth, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Argues for an organized scheme that considers the human rights of people with mental illness in a way that focuses attention on primary rights. The theory of primary rights emphasizes: life, liberty, and security of persons; the right to an adequate standard of living; all human beings being free and equal in dignity and rights; and conditional…

  6. Migration and its risks.

    PubMed

    O'brien, P

    1996-01-01

    "This essay applies the theories of Ulrich Beck...to the politics of migration in Germany. In particular, the essay focuses on Beck's notion of the waning influence, indeed even relevancy, of science and scientists regarding postmodern risk phenomena. The essay argues that migration to Germany can be understood as a Beckian risk phenomenon, helping to explain the decreasing influence of social scientists over the politics of migration in the Federal Republic."

  7. Food security vs. nutrition security.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K R

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector.

  8. Axillary migration of Nexplanon®: Case report.

    PubMed

    Diego, Daniela; Tappy, Erryn; Carugno, Jose

    2017-02-01

    A 19-year-old patient presented to the clinic, and we inserted a single rod subdermal etonogestrel implant (Nexplanon ®), which subsequently migrated to the ipsilateral axilla. Distant Nexplanon® migration is a rare serious complication that should be considered when a device is nonpalpable. Management options are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thoracic empyema due to migrated gallstones.

    PubMed

    Flores-Franco, René Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Hepatobiliary conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right pleural effusion. Here we present the illustrative images of thoracic empyema due to migrated gallstones in a woman who was treated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy one year before. The gallstones were obtained unexpectedly during a thoracentesis with aid of an Abrams needle. This rare complication is discussed under current literature review.

  10. Exploring the factors influencing the cloud computing adoption: a systematic study on cloud migration.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rashmi; Sahoo, Gadadhar; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2015-01-01

    Today, most of the organizations trust on their age old legacy applications, to support their business-critical systems. However, there are several critical concerns, as maintainability and scalability issues, associated with the legacy system. In this background, cloud services offer a more agile and cost effective platform, to support business applications and IT infrastructure. As the adoption of cloud services has been increasing recently and so has been the academic research in cloud migration. However, there is a genuine need of secondary study to further strengthen this research. The primary objective of this paper is to scientifically and systematically identify, categorize and compare the existing research work in the area of legacy to cloud migration. The paper has also endeavored to consolidate the research on Security issues, which is prime factor hindering the adoption of cloud through classifying the studies on secure cloud migration. SLR (Systematic Literature Review) of thirty selected papers, published from 2009 to 2014 was conducted to properly understand the nuances of the security framework. To categorize the selected studies, authors have proposed a conceptual model for cloud migration which has resulted in a resource base of existing solutions for cloud migration. This study concludes that cloud migration research is in seminal stage but simultaneously it is also evolving and maturing, with increasing participation from academics and industry alike. The paper also identifies the need for a secure migration model, which can fortify organization's trust into cloud migration and facilitate necessary tool support to automate the migration process.

  11. The mixed effects of migration: community-level migration and birthweight in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Erin R; Choi, Kate H

    2015-05-01

    Research on the relationship between migration and infant health in Mexico finds that migration has mixed impacts on the risk of low birthweight (LBW). Whereas the departure and absence of household and community members are harmful, remittances are beneficial. We extend this work by considering a different measure of infant health in addition to LBW: macrosomia (i.e., heavy birthweight), which is associated with infant, child, and maternal morbidities but has a different social risk profile from LBW. We link the 2008 and 2009 Mexican birth certificates with community data from the 2000 Mexican census to analyze the association between various dimensions of community-level migration (i.e., rates of out-migration, receipt of remittances, and return migration) and the risk of LBW and macrosomia. We examine this association using two sets of models which differ in the extent to which they account for endogeneity. We find that the health impacts of migration differ depending not only on the dimension of migration, but also on the measure of health, and that they are robust to potential sources of endogeneity. Whereas community remittances and return migration are associated with lower risk of LBW, they are associated with increased risk of macrosomia. By contrast, out-migration is associated with increased risk of LBW and lower risk of macrosomia. Our analysis of endogeneity suggests that bias resulting from unmeasured differences between communities with different levels of migration may result in an underestimate of the impacts of community migration on birthweight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  13. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  14. Metropolitan migration and labor market changes by industry.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, M M

    1984-07-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze gross [U.S.] metropolitan migration of persons employed in selected...industries. An empirically testable model was developed for migration, employment change, and earnings change and implemented using data from the Social Security Administration's ten percent Continuous Work History Sample. The results showed that a significant percentage of the migration flows can be explained by the variables in the model.... Differences in cyclic and structural economic variables are noted in terms of their importance across the specified industries. The public policy implications of these results are identified."

  15. Securing America’s Future through Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    eradication and training/advising missions. Today, the Columbians continue to pursue a consolidation plan with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias ...de Colombia (FARC) and Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN).30 Conditions within Colombia have improved and the country is on the right path 18...counterdrug assistance was effective.31 Robert Ramsey attributes success of security cooperation efforts in Colombia to three key factors: (1

  16. 5 CFR 9701.515 - Representation rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....515 Section 9701.515 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.515 Representation rights...

  17. Intracardiac migration and knotting of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Frahm-Jensen, Gert; Newton, Peter R; Drummond, Katharine J; Wagner, Tim P; Mees, Barend M E

    2015-04-01

    We report a patient with delayed migration of the distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter from the peritoneum to the right atrium with associated knotting of the catheter complicating removal. We also review the literature on this topic.

  18. Privacy and security in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Future of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book comprises papers delivered at a conference of National Experts on Migration. The principle objective of the conference was twofold: to examine significant trends that will affect the future of migration in countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), and to identify the relevant issues that will have to…

  20. College Student Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, R. H.; And Others

    This study examines the background characteristics of two large national samples of first-time enrolled freshmen who (a) attended college within their state of residence but away from their home community, (b) migrated to a college in an adjacent state, (c) migrated to a college in a distant state, and (d) attended college in their home community.…

  1. The Great Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the migration of African Americans in the United States and the reasons why African Americans migrated from the south. Focuses on issues, such as the effect of World War I, the opportunities offered in the north, and the emergence of a black industrial working class. (CMK)

  2. Cell migration, freshly squeezed.

    PubMed

    Welch, Matthew D

    2015-02-12

    Migrating cells exhibit distinct motility modes and can switch between modes based on chemical or physical cues. Liu et al. and Ruprecht et al. now describe how confinement and contractility influence motility mode plasticity and instigate a mode termed stable bleb migration in embryonic and tumor cells.

  3. Proliferating cells in suborbital tissue drive eye migration in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Bao, Baolong; Ke, Zhonghe; Xing, Jubin; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang; Xie, Caixia; Xu, Bing; Gai, Junwei; Gong, Xiaoling; Yang, Guimei; Jiang, Yan; Tang, Wenqiao; Ren, Daming

    2011-03-01

    The left/right asymmetry of adult flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) is remarkable given the external body symmetry of the larval fish. The best-known change is the migration of their eyes: one eye migrates from one side to the other. Two extinct primitive pleuronectiformes with incomplete orbital migration have again attracted public attention to the mechanism of eye migration, a subject of speculation and research for over a century. Cranial asymmetry is currently believed to be responsible for eye migration. Contrary to that hypothesis, we show here that the initial migration of the eye is caused by cell proliferation in the suborbital tissue of the blind side and that the twist of frontal bone is dependent on eye migration. The inhibition of cell proliferation in the suborbital area of the blind side by microinjected colchicine was able to prevent eye migration and, thereafter, cranial asymmetry in juvenile Solea senegalensis (right sideness, Soleidae), Cynoglossus semilaevis (left sideness, Cynoglossidae), and Paralichthys olivaceus (left sideness, Paralichthyidae) with a bottom-dwelling lifestyle. Our results correct the current misunderstanding that eye migration is driven by the cranial asymmetry and simplify the explanation for broken left/right eye-symmetry. Our findings should help to focus the search on eye migration-related genes associated with cell proliferation. Finally, a novel model is proposed in this research which provides a reasonable explanation for differences in the migrating eye between, and sometimes within, different species of flatfish and which should aid in our overall understanding of eye migration in the ontogenesis and evolution of Pleuronectiformes.

  4. Migration: a concept analysis from a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michelle; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Fisher, Anita; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a concept analysis of nurse migration.   International migration is increasing and nurse migrants are active participants in this movement. Migration is a complex term and can be examined from a range of perspectives. Analysis of nurse migration is needed to guide policy, practice and research.   A literature search was undertaken using electronic literature indexes, specific journals and websites, internet search engines and hand searches. No timeframe was placed on the search. Most literature found was published between 2001 and 2009. A sample of 80 documents met the inclusion criteria.   Walker and Avant's approach guided the analysis.   Nurse migration can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of individuals; external barriers and facilitators; freedom of choice to migrate; freedom to migrate as a human right, and dynamic movement. Antecedents of migration include the political, social, economic, legal, historical and educational forces that comprise the push and pull framework. The consequences of migration are positive or negative depending on the viewpoint and its affect on the individual and other stakeholders such as the source country, destination country, healthcare systems and the nursing profession.   This concept analysis clarified the complexities surrounding nurse migration. A nursing-specific middle-range theory was proposed to guide the understanding and study of nurse migration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Security in Full-Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

  6. Migration of Sri Lankan medical specialists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The migration of health-care workers contributes to the shortage of health-care workers in many developing countries. This paper aims to describe the migration of medical specialists from Sri Lanka and to discuss the successes and failures of strategies to retain them. Methods This paper presents data on all trainees who have left Sri Lanka for postgraduate training through the Post Graduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, from April 1980 to June 2009. In addition, confidential interviews were conducted with 30 specialists who returned following foreign training within the last 5 years and 5 specialists who opted to migrate to foreign countries. Results From a total of 1,915 specialists who left Sri Lanka for training, 215 (11%) have not returned or have left the country without completing the specified bond period. The majority (53%) migrated to Australia. Of the specialists who left before completion of the bond period, 148 (68.8%) have settled or have started settling the bond. All participants identified foreign training as beneficial for their career. The top reasons for staying in Sri Lanka were: job security, income from private practice, proximity to family and a culturally appropriate environment. The top reasons for migration were: better quality of life, having to work in rural parts of Sri Lanka, career development and social security. Conclusions This paper attempts to discuss the reasons for the low rates of emigration of specialists from Sri Lanka. Determining the reasons for retaining these specialists may be useful in designing health systems and postgraduate programs in developing countries with high rates of emigration of specialists. PMID:23693092

  7. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  8. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  9. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  10. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  11. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  12. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation to civil liberties and...homeland security is extraordinarily complex with immigration policy, criminal law, privacy, First Amendment , and separation of powers dimensions

  13. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.24 Employee's rights. An employee is entitled to: (a) Obtain a copy...

  14. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.24 Employee's rights. An employee is entitled to: (a) Obtain a copy...

  15. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.24 Employee's rights. An employee is entitled to: (a) Obtain a copy...

  16. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.24 Employee's rights. An employee is entitled to: (a) Obtain a copy...

  17. 28 CFR 105.24 - Employee's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee's rights. 105.24 Section 105.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS Private Security Officer Employment § 105.24 Employee's rights. An employee is entitled to: (a) Obtain a copy...

  18. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  19. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  20. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States or to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States. (b) The... subversive acts, accidents, or other causes of a similar nature: (1) Vessels, (2) Harbors, (3) Ports, and (4...

  1. Random migration processes between two stochastic epidemic centers.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Igor; Kelbert, Mark; Gravenor, Michael B

    2016-04-01

    We consider the epidemic dynamics in stochastic interacting population centers coupled by random migration. Both the epidemic and the migration processes are modeled by Markov chains. We derive explicit formulae for the probability distribution of the migration process, and explore the dependence of outbreak patterns on initial parameters, population sizes and coupling parameters, using analytical and numerical methods. We show the importance of considering the movement of resident and visitor individuals separately. The mean field approximation for a general migration process is derived and an approximate method that allows the computation of statistical moments for networks with highly populated centers is proposed and tested numerically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority.

  3. Integrating Meteorology into Research on Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E. Emiel

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. PMID:20811515

  4. New trends in neuronal migration disorders.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Spalice, Alberto; Ursitti, Fabiana; Papetti, Laura; Mariani, Rosanna; Castronovo, Antonella; Mastrangelo, Mario; Iannetti, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal migration disorders are an heterogeneous group of disorders of nervous system development and they are considered to be one of the most significant causes of neurological and developmental disabilities and epileptic seizures in childhood. In the last ten years, molecular biologic and genetic investigations have widely increased our knowledge about the regulation of neuronal migration during development. One of the most frequent disorders is lissencephaly. It is characterized by a paucity of normal gyri and sulci resulting in a "smooth brain". There are two pathologic subtypes: classical and cobblestone. Classical lissencephaly is caused by an arrest of neuronal migration whereas cobblestone lissencephaly caused by overmigration. Heterotopia is another important neuronal migration disorder. It is characterized by a cluster of disorganized neurons in abnormal locations and it is divided into three main groups: periventricular nodular heterotopia, subcortical heterotopia and marginal glioneural heterotopia. Polymicrogyria develops at the final stages of neuronal migration, in the earliest phases of cortical organization; bilateral frontoparietal form is characterized by bilateral, symmetric polymicrogyria in the frontoparietal regions. Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria causes a clinical syndrome which manifests itself in the form of mild mental retardation, epilepsy and pseudobulbar palsy. Schizencephaly is another important neuronal migration disorder whose clinical characteristics are extremely variable. This review reports the main clinical and pathophysiological aspects of these disorders paying particular attention to the recent advances in molecular genetics. Copyright 2009 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Labor migration and child mortality in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura

    2012-12-01

    Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  7. Setting norms in the United Nations system: the draft convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families in relation to ILO in standards on migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Hasenau, M

    1990-06-01

    The author reviews the U.N.'s draft proposal concerning the rights of migrant workers and their families. "This article examines the nature and scope of obligations under the United Nations Convention and contrasts them with existing international standards. In the light of the elaboration of the U.N. Convention, the conditions of future normative activities to limit negative consequences of a proliferation of instruments and supervisory mechanisms are outlined." Consideration is given to human and trade union rights, employment, social security, living and working conditions, workers' families, expulsion, and conditions of international migration. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  8. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  9. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of... Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights and... comprehensive security across the European continent. This occasion also spurred courageous human...

  10. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses. ...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.515 - Representation rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.515 Representation rights and... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation rights and duties. 9701.515 Section 9701.515 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  12. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Administration of Patent Rights Clauses. 3027.305 Section 3027.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government...

  13. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of Patent Rights Clauses. 3027.305 Section 3027.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1922 - Your appeal rights in SSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Your appeal rights in SSA. 416.1922 Section 416.1922 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Interim Assistance Provisions Appeals § 416.1922 Your appeal rights in SSA. If you...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1922 - Your appeal rights in SSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Your appeal rights in SSA. 416.1922 Section 416.1922 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Interim Assistance Provisions Appeals § 416.1922 Your appeal rights in SSA. If you...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1922 - Your appeal rights in SSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your appeal rights in SSA. 416.1922 Section 416.1922 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Interim Assistance Provisions Appeals § 416.1922 Your appeal rights in SSA. If you...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1922 - Your appeal rights in SSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Your appeal rights in SSA. 416.1922 Section 416.1922 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Interim Assistance Provisions Appeals § 416.1922 Your appeal rights in SSA. If you...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1922 - Your appeal rights in SSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Your appeal rights in SSA. 416.1922 Section 416.1922 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Interim Assistance Provisions Appeals § 416.1922 Your appeal rights in SSA. If you...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.515 - Representation rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representation rights and duties. 9701.515 Section 9701.515 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.515 Representation rights...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.515 - Representation rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representation rights and duties. 9701.515 Section 9701.515 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.515 Representation rights...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.515 - Representation rights and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representation rights and duties. 9701.515 Section 9701.515 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.515 Representation rights...

  2. Neuronal migration illuminated

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Niraj

    2011-01-01

    During vertebrate brain development, migration of neurons from the germinal zones to their final laminar positions is essential to establish functional neural circuits.1–3 Whereas key insights into neuronal migration initially came from landmark studies identifying the genes mutated in human cortical malformations,4 cell biology has recently greatly advanced our understanding of how cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors drive the morphogenic cell movements that build the developing brain. This Commentary & View reviews recent studies examining the role of the molecular motors during neuronal migration and critically examines current models of acto-myosin function in the two-step neuronal migration cycle. Given the apparent emerging diversity of neuronal sub-type cytoskeletal organizations, we propose that two approaches must be taken to resolve differences between the current migration models: the mechanisms of radial and tangential migration must be compared, and the loci of tension generation, migration substrates and sites of adhesion dynamics must be precisely examined in an integrated manner. PMID:20935494

  3. Migration without migraines

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, L.; Burton, A.; Lu, H.X.

    1994-12-31

    Accurate velocity models are a necessity for reliable migration results. Velocity analysis generally involves the use of methods such as normal moveout analysis (NMO), seismic traveltime tomography, or iterative prestack migration. These techniques can be effective, and each has its own advantage or disadvantage. Conventional NMO methods are relatively inexpensive but basically require simplifying assumptions about geology. Tomography is a more general method but requires traveltime interpretation of prestack data. Iterative prestack depth migration is very general but is computationally expensive. In some cases, there is the opportunity to estimate vertical velocities by use of well information. The well information can be used to optimize poststack migrations, thereby eliminating some of the time and expense of iterative prestack migration. The optimized poststack migration procedure defined here computes the velocity model which minimizes the depth differences between seismic images and formation depths at the well by using a least squares inversion method. The optimization methods described in this paper will hopefully produce ``migrations without migraines.``

  4. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  5. National security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the views presented on October 31, 1991, at a GAO-sponsored conference on worldwide threats to U.S. national security. The conference was designed to provide insight into potential military threats to U.S. security interests and necessary modifications to current and planned U.S. forces to meet those threats. Conference participants, including defense analysts and retired military officers, discussed and analyzed the possibility of U.S. and allied involvement in various regional contingencies in Europe and the Soviet Union, Eat Asia and the Pacific, and the Near East and South Asia. Topics ranged from the possibility of nuclear war to a general discussion of low-intensity conflict. To serve as a starting point for discussion, we asked several of the participants to provide papers representing a wide range of views. The participants agreed that for many years the Soviet/Warsaw Pact threat to Europe shaped U.S. force planning but that the Soviet union no longer posed a conventional threat. Nuclear weapons held by the former Soviet republics and other nations, however, remain a concern. There was no agreement of the methodology for sizing U.S. forces. Some argued for sizing based on specific threats; other argued for flexibility to meet any and all contingencies and cited the Gulf War as a example.

  6. Glossary: migration and health.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Gagnon, Anita J

    2011-05-01

    The literature on migration and health is quite heterogeneous in how migrants are labelled and how the relation between migration and health is conceptualised. A narrative review has been carried out. This glossary presents the most commonly used terms in the field of migration and health, along with synonyms and related concepts, and discusses the suitability of their use in epidemiological studies. The terminology used in migrant health is ambiguous in many cases. Studies on migrant health should avoid layman terms and strive to use internationally defined concepts.

  7. Using Maslows Hierarchy of Needs to Identify Indicators of Potential Mass Migration Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-23

    of life, improve security, and result in more efficient resource usage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mass Migration, Migration, Refugee , Analysis, Statistical...of US Immigration ............................................... 27 Figure 23: Refugee Outflow Numbers vs Per Capita GDP...37 Figure 24: Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index vs Refugee Outflow Numbers

  8. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Cariola Sanz, L

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  9. Health and Social Security Needs of Rickshaw Pullers in Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita

    2016-07-01

    A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior.

  10. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  11. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kate; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-04-22

    The potential link between climate change, migration, and conflict has been widely discussed and is increasingly viewed by policy makers as a security issue. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the role that climate variability and change play among the many drivers of migration and conflict. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the potential pathways linking climate change, migration and increased risk of conflict. We review the existing literature surrounding this issue and break the problem into two components: the links between climate change and migration, and those between migration and conflict. We found a large range of views regarding the importance of climate change as a driver for increasing rates of migration and subsequently of conflict. We argue that future research should focus not only on the climate-migration-conflict pathway but also work to understand the other pathways by which climate variability and change might exacerbate conflict. We conclude by proposing five questions to help guide future research on the link between climate change, migration, and conflict.

  12. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Kate; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    The potential link between climate change, migration, and conflict has been widely discussed and is increasingly viewed by policy makers as a security issue. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the role that climate variability and change play among the many drivers of migration and conflict. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the potential pathways linking climate change, migration and increased risk of conflict. We review the existing literature surrounding this issue and break the problem into two components: the links between climate change and migration, and those between migration and conflict. We found a large range of views regarding the importance of climate change as a driver for increasing rates of migration and subsequently of conflict. We argue that future research should focus not only on the climate-migration-conflict pathway but also work to understand the other pathways by which climate variability and change might exacerbate conflict. We conclude by proposing five questions to help guide future research on the link between climate change, migration, and conflict. PMID:27110806

  13. Indonesia's migration transition.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  14. Astrocytes in Migration.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiang Shan; Gao, Kai; Chai, Rui Chao; Jia, Xi Hua; Luo, Dao Peng; Ge, Guo; Jiang, Yu Wu; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Li, Lina; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury. Under most known pathological conditions in the brain, spinal cord and retina, astrocytes are activated and become hypertrophic, hyperplastic, and up-regulating GFAP based on the grades of severity. These three observations are the hallmark in glia scar formation-astrogliosis. The reactivation process is initiated with structural changes involving cell process migration and ended with cell migration. Detailed mechanisms in astrocyte migration have not been studied extensively and remain largely unknown. Here, we therefore attempt to review the mechanisms in migration of astrocytes.

  15. The Impact of the World Bank and IMF on Education Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2006-01-01

    Education is a fundamental human right. As such it is clearly the responsibility of the state and a core element of any development policy committed to social justice. Securing the right to education is key to enabling people to secure other human rights, yet, according to this author, the right to education is violated by governments around the…

  16. The Impact of the World Bank and IMF on Education Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2006-01-01

    Education is a fundamental human right. As such it is clearly the responsibility of the state and a core element of any development policy committed to social justice. Securing the right to education is key to enabling people to secure other human rights, yet, according to this author, the right to education is violated by governments around the…

  17. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    PubMed

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health.

  18. 38 CFR 36.4327 - Release of security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of security. 36... security. (a)(1) Except upon full payment of the indebtedness, or except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of... right in or to real property held as security for a guaranteed or insured loan, or grant a fee or...

  19. NFPA 99 Chapter 13 and healthcare security management.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The new NFPA 99 Security Management Standard for healthcare facilities requires a Security Vulnerability Analysis be conducted annually, the author reports. This will usually uncover little change from year to year, he says, but by using the right model the analysis can be used to win back security additions that had previously been rejected by the C-Suite.

  20. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  1. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  5. [International migration in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1995-12-01

    Trends in international migration in Latin America are reviewed using data from published sources. Aspects considered include historical views; migration according to occupational status and educational level; migration to the United States; migration characteristics in different regions of Latin America; and the crisis of the 1980s and its impact on population distribution.

  6. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO…

  7. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  8. Inferior vena cava filter migration: updated review and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Muhammad; Omran, Fatema M; Kastoon, Tony; Alshami, Mahmood; Abbas, Amr E

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of inferior vena cava filter migration to the right ventricle resulting in ventricular tachycardia and elevated troponin. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory and under fluoroscopy the filter was found to be in the right ventricle. Later in the day the filter was removed surgically with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. This case, as well as the other 27 reported cases of filter migration, were reviewed. It was noticed that newer retrievable filters made of nitinol, phynox and elgioly have a significantly higher percentage of filter migration into the right ventricle as compared to the old stainless steel and titanium-based Greenfield filters. Similarly, there were also higher percentages of complications and mortality associated with the newer retrievable filters migrating to the right ventricle. Filter migration to the right ventricle as opposed to the right atrium increased over the past 10 years, which has resulted in more serious symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, deaths and higher rates of surgical removal.

  9. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  10. Improving the redistribution of the security lessons in healthcare: An evaluation of the Generic Security Template.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Johnson, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The recurrence of past security breaches in healthcare showed that lessons had not been effectively learned across different healthcare organisations. Recent studies have identified the need to improve learning from incidents and to share security knowledge to prevent future attacks. Generic Security Templates (GSTs) have been proposed to facilitate this knowledge transfer. The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether potential users in healthcare organisations can exploit the GST technique to share lessons learned from security incidents. We conducted a series of case studies to evaluate GSTs. In particular, we used a GST for a security incident in the US Veterans' Affairs Administration to explore whether security lessons could be applied in a very different Chinese healthcare organisation. The results showed that Chinese security professional accepted the use of GSTs and that cyber security lessons could be transferred to a Chinese healthcare organisation using this approach. The users also identified the weaknesses and strengths of GSTs, providing suggestions for future improvements. Generic Security Templates can be used to redistribute lessons learned from security incidents. Sharing cyber security lessons helps organisations consider their own practices and assess whether applicable security standards address concerns raised in previous breaches in other countries. The experience gained from this study provides the basis for future work in conducting similar studies in other healthcare organisations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 17 CFR 300.304 - Retained rights of brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retained rights of brokers or dealers. 300.304 Section 300.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout...

  12. 17 CFR 300.304 - Retained rights of brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retained rights of brokers or dealers. 300.304 Section 300.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout...

  13. 17 CFR 300.304 - Retained rights of brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retained rights of brokers or dealers. 300.304 Section 300.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout...

  14. 17 CFR 300.304 - Retained rights of brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retained rights of brokers or dealers. 300.304 Section 300.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout...

  15. 17 CFR 300.304 - Retained rights of brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retained rights of brokers or dealers. 300.304 Section 300.304 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout...

  16. Opportunity and Challenges for Migrating Big Data Analytics in Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitkumar Manekar, S.; Pradeepini, G., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Big Data Analytics is a big word now days. As per demanding and more scalable process data generation capabilities, data acquisition and storage become a crucial issue. Cloud storage is a majorly usable platform; the technology will become crucial to executives handling data powered by analytics. Now a day’s trend towards “big data-as-a-service” is talked everywhere. On one hand, cloud-based big data analytics exactly tackle in progress issues of scale, speed, and cost. But researchers working to solve security and other real-time problem of big data migration on cloud based platform. This article specially focused on finding possible ways to migrate big data to cloud. Technology which support coherent data migration and possibility of doing big data analytics on cloud platform is demanding in natute for new era of growth. This article also gives information about available technology and techniques for migration of big data in cloud.

  17. 4. VIEW OF SECURITY GATE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SECURITY GATE LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 8970 (CREW READINESS BUILDING) SHOWING BUILDING 8965 (SECURITY POLICE ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING) IN RIGHT MIDDLE GROUND AND BUILDING 8966 (ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING) IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. Overcoming Challenges to the Proliferation Security Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right of passage laws appear non-binding.124 122 Friedman, “The Proliferation Security...are clearly determined to be intended for terrorists, the right of passage provisions in the LOS Convention gives opponents of the PSI powerful legal

  19. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2012-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men’s labor migration affects their non-migrating wives’ perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men’s migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and those married to non-migrants while also distinguishing between economically successful and unsuccessful migration. The analysis finds that the economic success of men’s migration, rather than migration itself, significantly predicts women’s worries about getting infected by their husbands or their own extramarital partners, and their husbands’ stance on condom use. These findings are situated within a broader context of socio-economic, gender, and marital dynamics and vulnerabilities produced or amplified by male labor migration in sub-Saharan and similar developing settings. PMID:22500057

  20. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  1. A pilgrim's progress: Seeking meaning in primordial germ cell migration.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Andrea V; Laird, Diana J

    2017-07-18

    Comparative studies of primordial germ cell (PGC) development across organisms in many phyla reveal surprising diversity in the route of migration, timing and underlying molecular mechanisms, suggesting that the process of migration itself is conserved. However, beyond the perfunctory transport of cellular precursors to their later arising home of the gonads, does PGC migration serve a function? Here we propose that the process of migration plays an additional role in quality control, by eliminating PGCs incapable of completing migration as well as through mechanisms that favor PGCs capable of responding appropriately to migration cues. Focusing on PGCs in mice, we explore evidence for a selective capacity of migration, considering the tandem regulation of proliferation and migration, cell-intrinsic and extrinsic control, the potential for tumors derived from failed PGC migrants, the potential mechanisms by which migratory PGCs vary in their cellular behaviors, and corresponding effects on development. We discuss the implications of a selective role of PGC migration for in vitro gametogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Migration and pension.

    PubMed

    Razin, A; Sadka, E

    1998-11-01

    "Migration has important implications for the financial soundness of the pension system.... While it is common sense to expect that young migrants, even if low-skilled, can help society pay the benefits to the currently elderly, it may nevertheless be reasonable to argue that these migrants would adversely affect current young since, after all, the migrants are net beneficiaries of the welfare state. In contrast to the adverse effects of low skilled migration in a static model, [the authors] show that in a Samuelsonian overlapping generations model...migration is a Pareto-improving measure. All the existing income (low and high) and age (young and old) groups living at the time of the migrant's arrival would be better off."

  3. Detecting interstellar migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Pazmino, John

    1997-01-01

    Interstellar migrations may occur when a civilization's star enters the red giant phase, thereby dooming the life-bearing planet. Ecologically self-contained 'world ships', massing billions of kilograms and propelled by hyperthin, space manufactured solar sails thousands of kilometers in diameter unfurled near the home star are possible vehicles to transfer a threatened civilization to a neighboring star. Consideration of the nearest red giants reveals that Pollux is the nearest formerly solar-type red giant. Known stellar neighbors of Pollux are surveyed to determine likely directions for an interstellar migration departing Pollux. Such migrations might consist of many world ships launched over millennia on voyages of about 1000 terrestrial-year duration; discovery of such events will be serendipitous. The difficulties of observing solar-sail star ships near Pollux are considered. A facility dedicated to imaging extrasolar planets within 10 parsecs might be capable of detecting these large spacecraft.

  4. Migration from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenaer, B. De

    Various chemical compounds can be present in foodstuffs which may induce health problems in humans. The origin of these compounds can be very diverse. Mathematical modeling can sometimes be used to predict the concentration of these chemicals in the food. Particularly for compounds which are produced in the food during, e.g., processing and for compounds which migrate from a food contact material this technique can be very fruitful. For the former type of compounds, classical chemical kinetics can be applied. In this contribution, the modeling of the migration from polymeric food contact materials is considered. This migration phenomenon can be modeled mathematically since the physical processes which govern this process are very well studied and understood. Therefore, initially some of these fundamentals will be discussed in more detail.

  5. More myths of migration.

    PubMed

    Basch, L; Lerner, G

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.

  6. Neural crest delamination and migration: from epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition to collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Theveneau, Eric; Mayor, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    After induction and specification in the ectoderm, at the border of the neural plate, the neural crest (NC) population leaves its original territory through a delamination process. Soon afterwards, the NC cells migrate throughout the embryo and colonize a myriad of tissues and organs where they settle and differentiate. The delamination involves a partial or complete epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) regulated by a complex network of transcription factors including several proto-oncogenes. Studying the relationship between these genes at the time of emigration, and their individual or collective impact on cell behavior, provides valuable information about their role in EMT in other contexts such as cancer metastasis. During migration, NC cells are exposed to large number of positive and negative regulators that control where they go by generating permissive and restricted areas and by modulating their motility and directionality. In addition, as most NC cells migrate collectively, cell-cell interactions play a crucial role in polarizing the cells and interpreting external cues. Cell cooperation eventually generates an overall polarity to the population, leading to directional collective cell migration. This review will summarize our current knowledge on delamination, EMT and migration of NC cells using key examples from chicken, Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse embryos. Given the similarities between neural crest migration and cancer invasion, these cells may represent a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Redefining security.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J T

    1989-01-01

    The concept of US national security was redefined in the 1970s to include international economics, and lately environmental degradation has also become a factor, as pollution transcends boundaries. By 2100 another 5-6 billion people may be added to the world's population requiring dramatic production and technology transformation with the resultant expanded energy use, emissions, and waste impacting the ecosystem. Climate change through global warming is in the offing. The exponential growth of the population in the developing world poses a crucial challenge for food production, housing, and employment. At a 1% growth rate population doubles in 72 years, while at 3% it doubles in 24 years. Africa's growth rate is almost 3%, it is close to 2% in Latin America, and it is somewhat less in Asia. Renewable resources such as overfished fishing grounds can become nonrenewable, and vanished species can never be resurrected. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, damage to water resources through floods and silting of irrigation networks, and accelerated loss of species. 20% of species could disappear by 2000 thereby losing genetic resources for chemicals, drugs, and food sources. Overcultivation has caused major erosion and decline of agricultural productivity in Haiti, Guatemala, Turkey, and India. Lopsided land ownership in Latin America requires land reform for sustainable agricultural production in the face of the majority of people cultivating plots for bare subsistence. Human practices that have caused environmental damage include concessions granted to logging companies in the Philippines, mismanagement of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa, the ozone hole, and the greenhouse effect with potential climate changes. Solutions include family planning, efficient energy use, sustainable agroforestry techniques, and environmental accounting of goods and services.

  8. Improving Nigerian Border Security -- A Comprehensive Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Homeland Defense, Joint Publication (JP) 3- 27 (Washington, D.C.: CJCS, 12 July 2007), viii. 2. Rafiu A. Akindele and Bola ...http://www.voiceofnigeria.org/Bordersecub.htm 6. Bola A. Akinterinwa and Bassey E. Ate, eds., Cross Border Armed Banditry in the Northeast: Issues in...Border Security, Cooperation and Integration, 69. 22. Adeola and Fayomi, Implications of Cross Border Migration, 6-7. 23. Ibid., 7. 24. Aluko Ola

  9. A Case Study in Security Sector Reform: Learning from Security Sector Reform/Building in Afghanistan (October 2002-September 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    the broader picture of reforming the other traditional security elements. For the purposes of this paper, I will use the the four major elements of...manage and oversee the security sector,”8 (3) creating an environment that protects human rights, (4) nurturing a civil society that has the...Create an environment that protects human rights Ensure the civil society can observe, press for change, and give advice about the security sector

  10. Analysing immune cell migration.

    PubMed

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  11. [Migration, climate and health].

    PubMed

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel; Calballo, Manuel

    2009-10-26

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them.

  12. What's driving migration?

    PubMed

    Kane, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  13. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  14. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  15. Kirschner wire migration from subcapital humeral fracture site, causing hydropneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Balaji; Puthezhath, Kishor; Varghees, Ibin

    2016-10-01

    Migration of wires or pins around the shoulder is a known complication, though their migration within the chest is uncommon. We report an unusual case of hydropneumothorax due to migration of a bent Kirschner wire from the right proximal humerus in a 63 year-old man. We reviewed his clinical history, physical examination, imaging findings, surgical method and outcome. We also reviewed the literature on orthopaedic wire migration and latest technique in removal of the wires. Chest radiographs and chest computerized tomography are useful in detection and diagnosis of this disorder. Regular radiographic follow-up is needed for patients with internal fixation devices; any fractured or migrated pins or wires must be removed immediately to prevent dangerous complications. It is always important to remove the wires at the end of the treatment. Early removal of fixation wires and regular follow-up if wires are retained are essential to prevent serious complications.

  16. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Veland, Iben R; Schwab, Albrecht; Cammer, Michael; Satir, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Early studies of migrating fibroblasts showed that primary cilia orient in front of the nucleus and point toward the leading edge. Recent work has shown that primary cilia coordinate a series of signaling pathways critical to fibroblast cell migration during development and in wound healing. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration but also more generally in delineating response pathways in cells with primary cilia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do downy woodpeckers migrate?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal movement and migration of Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) are indicated in several sources in the literature. Analyses of 3784 recoveries of banded birds, with other data, indicate that the species is resident, and that movements of a few individuals may indicate dispersal.

  18. [Internal migration in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Banyikwa, W F

    1982-01-01

    A general survey of population distribution in Tanzania is first presented using data from censuses taken between 1948 and 1979. Variations in distribution patterns are identified and discussed. The author then considers both spontaneous and planned internal migration trends and the factors affecting them. The effects of the official policy to resettle the rural population in larger villages are considered. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  19. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  20. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  1. Unix Security Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, S. C.

    This document has been written to help Site Managers secure their Unix hosts from being compromised by hackers. I have given brief introductions to the security tools along with downloading, configuring and running information. I have also included a section on my recommendations for installing these security tools starting from an absolute minimum security requirement.

  2. Building Security into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq

    2000-01-01

    Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus…

  3. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  4. School Security Roundtable, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.; Anderson, Larry, Ed.

    A roundtable discussion is presented revealing what experts say about school security problems and how they are being addressed. Also included are trend data from the School Security 2000 survey revealing top security concerns, strategies, and security equipment preferences; how site surveys can be used to keep schools safe; and how creating a…

  5. Post-migration employment changes and health: A dyadic spousal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie; Goldberg, Rachel E

    2017-10-01

    Prospective studies have found unemployment and job loss to be associated with negative psychological and physical health outcomes. For immigrants, the health implications of employment change cannot be considered apart from pre-migration experiences. While immigrants demonstrate relative success in securing employment in the United States, their work is often not commensurate with their education or expertise. Previous research has linked downward employment with adverse health outcomes among immigrants, but with gender differences. We extended this literature by considering a wider range of employment states and accounting for the interdependence of husbands' and wives' employment trajectories. We examined the relationships between personal and spousal post-migration employment changes and self-rated health and depressive symptoms using dyadic data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) (n = 5682 individuals/2841 spousal pairs). We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to model cross-partner effects and account for spousal interdependence. In general, men's downward employment trajectories were associated with poorer health for themselves. Women's employment trajectories had fewer statistically significant associations with their own or their husbands' health, underscoring the generally more peripheral nature of women's work in the household. However, women's current unemployment in particular was associated with poorer health outcomes for themselves and their husbands, suggesting that unmet need for women's work can produce health risks within immigrant households. Our findings suggest that employment change should be considered a household event that can impact the wellbeing of linked individuals within. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social networks in the migration process: empirical evidence on chain migration in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, B

    1983-01-01

    This study, based on interviews with 1615 migrant heads of household in Delhi, was concerned with interactions between labor migrants and their urban-based contacts. 86% of the rural migrants reported having relatives and/or covillagers living in Delhi at the time of their arrival, and virtually all received some form of assistance from their contacts. A preference for assistance from relatives rather than covillagers was noted, suggesting that migrants regarded kinship bonds as stronger than village and caste ties. However, covillagers tended to be contacted if relatives failed to secure a job for the new migrants within a reasonable time. The moves of only 17% of the sample could be classified under delayed family migration (relocation of family members in lagged stages). The tendency for traditional norms to be relaxed in an urban setting is reflected in the finding that the places of origin of migrants and their urban-based relatives differed in about half the cases that involved assistance from relatives. In addition, 13% of migrants violated traditional norms by seeking assistance from female agnates and kin affinally linked through these women. The most common pattern of assistance provided by both relatives and covillagers included room, food, and job search; however, new migrants tended to prefer to obtain board and lodging from relatives. Migrants helped by primary male agnates were twice as likely to receive money as those helped by other relatives. A consequence of chain migration is the concentration of persons from the same village or kinship network in particular occupations. 36% of the wage employees in the sample had relatives and/or covillagers working for the same employer. This suggests that migration induced by urban-based contacts (accounting for 42% of the migration in this sample) will be low if the sectors in which job opportunities are expanding are dominated by nonmigrants. Given the prevalence of chain migration, the contribution of

  7. Military Education Workshop Addresses Threats to Stability and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    operations and in support of partner countries to address such destabilizing issues as competition for scare resources, forced migration, food security...for an upcoming National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), the National Inteligence Council (NIC) has reached out to a broad group of U.S. government...OFFICIAL BUSINESS resource competition and conflict; water and food security; health and disease, and the stability of governments. The Army should be

  8. Migrated Essure permanent birth control device: sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Khati, Nadia Juliet; Gorodenker, Joseph; Brindle, Kathleen Ann

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a migrated Essure permanent birth control device. The correct diagnosis was made on conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional pelvic sonography 7 years after placement of the device when the patient presented with persistent right-sided pain. The 3-month post placement hysterosalpingogram had shown an appropriately occluded right fallopian tube but had overlooked the abnormal position of the right Essure device, which was too proximal and extending slightly in the uterine cavity.

  9. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of security in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program are: (1) to ensure the protection of information which, if related, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation; and (2) to safeguard the plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors in order that research and production programs will not be interrupted. To achieve these objectives, security responsibilities have been divided into three interdependent categories: personnel security, physical security, and security education and quality audits. This guide presents instructions for implementing a security program at a contractor/subcontractor site.

  10. The effects on earnings of interregional and interindustry migration.

    PubMed

    Nakosteen, R A; Zimmer, M A

    1982-08-01

    "The purpose of this study is to examine a model of the decision to migrate between regions and/or industries and its effect on earnings. The study is based on a large set of individual microdata taken from the [U.S.] Social Security Administration's One Percent Continuous Work History Sample." The data are for 1971 and 1973. "Results of estimation provide strong support for the hypothesis of self-selection among region and industry migrants. Additional empirical evidence supports the notion of comparative advantage in migrant earnings, implying that earnings distributions of individuals who made a particular combination of migration decisions may differ from those of the population as a whole."

  11. Texting "boosts" felt security.

    PubMed

    Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research.

  12. On mobile media rights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong H.

    2004-10-01

    Over the last three years, mobile handsets have evolved from voice based services to multimedia terminals that is gradually leading towards a new era of consumer entertainment fostered by mobile communications and consumer networks. The need for Mobile Digital Rights Management (MDRM) solutions is thus intensified in order to safeguard mobile media content. Various types of content protection solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we investigate current status, the standardization effort, and the challenges in the development of MDRM technologies. Sample state-of-the-art media security technologies for MDRM are also discussed.

  13. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company, including...

  14. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company, including...

  15. 46 CFR 167.10-50 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of appeal. 167.10-50 Section 167.10-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Enforcement and Right of Appeal § 167.10-50 Right of appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision or...

  16. SDN-1/Syndecan Acts in Parallel to the Transmembrane Molecule MIG-13 to Promote Anterior Neuroblast Migration

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Norris, Megan L.; Lundquist, Erik A.

    2015-01-01

    The Q neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans display left-right asymmetry in their migration, with QR and descendants on the right migrating anteriorly, and QL and descendants on the left migrating posteriorly. Initial QR and QL migration is controlled by the transmembrane receptors UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and the Fat-like cadherin CDH-4. After initial migration, QL responds to an EGL-20/Wnt signal that drives continued posterior migration by activating MAB-5/Hox activity in QL but not QR. QR expresses the transmembrane protein MIG-13, which is repressed by MAB-5 in QL and which drives anterior migration of QR descendants. A screen for new Q descendant AQR and PQR migration mutations identified mig-13 as well as hse-5, the gene encoding the glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme, which catalyzes epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Of five C. elegans HSPGs, we found that only SDN-1/Syndecan affected Q migrations. sdn-1 mutants showed QR descendant AQR anterior migration defects, and weaker QL descendant PQR migration defects. hse-5 affected initial Q migration, whereas sdn-1 did not. sdn-1 and hse-5 acted redundantly in AQR and PQR migration, but not initial Q migration, suggesting the involvement of other HSPGs in Q migration. Cell-specific expression studies indicated that SDN-1 can act in QR to promote anterior migration. Genetic interactions between sdn-1, mig-13, and mab-5 suggest that MIG-13 and SDN-1 act in parallel to promote anterior AQR migration and that SDN-1 also controls posterior migration. Together, our results indicate previously unappreciated complexity in the role of multiple signaling pathways and inherent left-right asymmetry in the control of Q neuroblast descendant migration. PMID:26022293

  17. SDN-1/Syndecan Acts in Parallel to the Transmembrane Molecule MIG-13 to Promote Anterior Neuroblast Migration.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Norris, Megan L; Lundquist, Erik A

    2015-05-28

    The Q neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans display left-right asymmetry in their migration, with QR and descendants on the right migrating anteriorly, and QL and descendants on the left migrating posteriorly. Initial QR and QL migration is controlled by the transmembrane receptors UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and the Fat-like cadherin CDH-4. After initial migration, QL responds to an EGL-20/Wnt signal that drives continued posterior migration by activating MAB-5/Hox activity in QL but not QR. QR expresses the transmembrane protein MIG-13, which is repressed by MAB-5 in QL and which drives anterior migration of QR descendants. A screen for new Q descendant AQR and PQR migration mutations identified mig-13 as well as hse-5, the gene encoding the glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme, which catalyzes epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Of five C. elegans HSPGs, we found that only SDN-1/Syndecan affected Q migrations. sdn-1 mutants showed QR descendant AQR anterior migration defects, and weaker QL descendant PQR migration defects. hse-5 affected initial Q migration, whereas sdn-1 did not. sdn-1 and hse-5 acted redundantly in AQR and PQR migration, but not initial Q migration, suggesting the involvement of other HSPGs in Q migration. Cell-specific expression studies indicated that SDN-1 can act in QR to promote anterior migration. Genetic interactions between sdn-1, mig-13, and mab-5 suggest that MIG-13 and SDN-1 act in parallel to promote anterior AQR migration and that SDN-1 also controls posterior migration. Together, our results indicate previously unappreciated complexity in the role of multiple signaling pathways and inherent left-right asymmetry in the control of Q neuroblast descendant migration. Copyright © 2015 Sundararajan et al.

  18. Human Rights in Sino-American Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    unidentified injections, the insertion of pepper , chili powder, or other substances into the nose, mouth, or genitals, and the insertion of horse hairs or...and the Empty Fortress: China’s Search For Security, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997), p. 186. 3 “Opposed to Any Hegemonic Activities on the...internal human rights conditions, as well as to play a more active role in the international human rights movement. However, in spite of China’s

  19. Women and migration: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Carballo, M; Grocutt, M; Hadzihasanovic, A

    1996-01-01

    The need to migrate is usually a function of the complex interaction of economic, social, familial and political factors. Among the most important, however, are the denial of access to education, employment, goods and services and the lack of respect for basic human rights. Because in many societies women are marginalized from these rights, migration to more economically and educationally open societies can often help improve their personal situation and their professional opportunities. On the other hand, because the status of women is usually linked to their role and status within the family and is defined in relationship to their male partners, migration can place women in situations where they experience stress and anxiety due to the loss of their traditional social entourage and environment. Their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and occupational experience. The higher vulnerability of women to sexual abuse and violence also places them at risk of STDs, including HIV, and a range of post-traumatic stress disorders associated with sexual violence. Their reproductive health needs often go unnoticed and unprotected even in well organized refugee and migrant situations, and the insensitivity of health staff to the needs of women is often more pronounced in refugee and migrant contexts than it is in general. Health monitoring of women in all migration-related situations has to be given greater priority. Similarly, much more attention at a health policy level is called for if the rights of women refugees and migrants are to be protected, and their contribution to health and social development is to be acknowledged and promoted.

  20. Protecting human security: proposals for the G7 Ise-Shima Summit in Japan.

    PubMed

    2016-05-21

    In today's highly globalised world, protecting human security is a core challenge for political leaders who are simultaneously dealing with terrorism, refugee and migration crises, disease epidemics, and climate change. Promoting universal health coverage (UHC) will help prevent another disease outbreak similar to the recent Ebola outbreak in west Africa, and create robust health systems, capable of withstanding future shocks. Robust health systems, in turn, are the prerequisites for achieving UHC. We propose three areas for global health action by the G7 countries at their meeting in Japan in May, 2016, to protect human security around the world: restructuring of the global health architecture so that it enables preparedness and responses to health emergencies; development of platforms to share best practices and harness shared learning about the resilience and sustainability of health systems; and strengthening of coordination and financing for research and development and system innovations for global health security. Rather than creating new funding or organisations, global leaders should reorganise current financing structures and institutions so that they work more effectively and efficiently. By making smart investments, countries will improve their capacity to monitor, track, review, and assess health system performance and accountability, and thereby be better prepared for future global health shocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 39184 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Records System of... Privacy Act of 1974 for the Department of Homeland Security/ALL--029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.... Background The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) civil rights and civil liberties staff, including...

  2. Global climate change and international security.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  3. Homeland Security Intelligence: To What End

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    things right then the judgment of a mind lacking those qualities. Walter Laqueur (1999, p. 308) 21 An adaptive threat orientation is a threat ontology...Homeland Security The decisive test for any intelligence agency is to warn…of trouble before it occurs. Walter Laqueur (1985, p. 21) Perhaps the...security theorist Thomas Quiggin (2007, p. 42), “With only ten different dots to connect, there would be a total of forty-five different dot

  4. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  5. Radioactive seed migration following parotid gland interstitial brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Huang, Ming-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of pulmonary seed migration after parotid brachytherapy using a novel migrated seed detection technique. Patients diagnosed with parotid cancer who underwent permanent parotid brachytherapy from January 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Head and neck CT scans and chest X-rays were evaluated during routine follow-up. Mimics software and Geomagic Studio software were used for seed reconstruction and migrated seed detection from the original implanted region, respectively. Postimplant dosimetry analysis was performed after seeds migration if the seeds were still in their emitting count. Adverse clinical sequelae from seed embolization to the lung were documented. The radioactive seed implants were identified on chest X-rays in 6 patients. The incidence rate of seed migration in 321 parotid brachytherapy patients was 1.87% (6/321) and that of individual seed migration was 0.04% (6/15218 seeds). All migrated seeds were originally from the retromandibular region. No adverse dosimetric consequences were found in the target region. Pulmonary symptoms were not reported by any patient in this study. In our patient set, migration of radioactive seeds with an initial radioactivity of 0.6-0.7 mCi to the chest following parotid brachytherapy was rare. Late migration of a single seed from the central target region did not affect the dosimetry significantly, and patients did not have severe short-term complications. This study proposed a novel technique to localize the anatomical origin of the migrated seeds during brachytherapy. Our evidence suggested that placement of seeds adjacent to blood vessels was associated with an increased likelihood of seed migration to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 17 CFR 239.37 - Form F-7, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exercise of rights granted to existing securityholders. 239.37 Section 239.37 Commodity and Securities... certain Canadian issuers offered for cash upon the exercise of rights granted to existing securityholders...”) of the registrant's securities offered for cash upon the exercise of rights to purchase or subscribe...

  7. Collective Security vs. U.S. Defense Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    in the maintenance of law and order, protecting the delivery of humanitarian assistance, denying airspace, and guaranteeing rights of passage . The...forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage , necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. 2. Such...the nature of facilities and assistance, including rights of passage , to be made available to the Security Council on its call for the purpose of

  8. 17 CFR 230.801 - Exemption in connection with a rights offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Equal treatment. The issuer permits U.S. holders to participate in the rights offering on terms at least... with the rights offering, the issuer must furnish that informational document, including any amendments... rights offering. 230.801 Section 230.801 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  9. Erythropoietin, Stem Cell Factor, and Cancer Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mellado, Maria J; Monjaras-Embriz, Victor; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration of normal cells is tightly regulated. However, tumor cells are exposed to a modified microenvironment that promotes cell migration. Invasive migration of tumor cells is stimulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is regulated by growth factors. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and is also known to be a potent chemotactic agent that induces cell migration by binding to its receptor (EpoR). Expression of EpoR has been documented in tumor cells, and the potential of Epo to induce cell migration has been explored. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a cytokine that synergizes the effects of Epo during erythropoiesis. SCF is the ligand of c-Kit, a member of the RTKs family. Molecular activity of RTKs is a primary stimulus of cell motility. Thus, expression of the SCF/c-Kit axis is associated with cell migration. In this chapter, we summarize data describing the potential effect of Epo/EpoR and SCF/c-Kit as promoters of cancer cell migration. We also integrate recent findings on molecular mechanisms of Epo/EpoR- and SCF/c-Kit-mediated migration described in various cancer models. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Migration in the Caribbean Basin].

    PubMed

    Pastor, R A

    1982-06-01

    A review of recent migration trends in the Caribbean region is presented. The region is defined as those countries and territories in or surrounding the Caribbean. Consideration is also given to migration from the region to the United States. The characteristics and consequences of these migration trends are discussed.

  11. The winds of change: commitment secures transmission rights

    SciTech Connect

    Rueger, Jane; Attanasio, Donna

    2009-07-15

    While FERC indicated it still has concerns about affiliate abuse - particularly if the anchor customer is affiliated with the merchant transmission developer - its willingness to consider the anchor customer concept outside of a very narrow context is a major policy advance. (author)

  12. Protecting States' Rights to Promote American Energy Security Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Flores, Bill [R-TX-17

    2013-07-18

    Senate - 12/09/2013 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 255. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Human Rights and Internal Security in Malaysia: Rhetoric and Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Sarawak occupy the northeast part of the island of Borneo. The total Malaysian population, based on 2002 statistics , is approximately 24 million.45...1999,” (Budget Speech, House of Representatives, Kuala Lumpur, 21 October 1998). 45 Malaysia Department of Statistics , Malaysia: Monthly Statistical

  14. Making U.S. Security and Privacy Rights Compatible

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    phone-records-verizon-court-order. 48 Ginger Gibson, Amash, Conyers introduce NSA bill, June 18, 2013, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.ctm?uuid...2013, http://www.politico.com/story/2013/06/nsa-leak- keith-alexander-92971.html, 1. Gibson, Ginger . 2013. Amash, Conyers introduce NSA bill

  15. Protecting States' Rights to Promote American Energy Security Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Flores, Bill [R-TX-17

    2013-07-18

    12/09/2013 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 255. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    PubMed

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security.

  17. Intractable seizures associated with proximal migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Case report.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoya; Shimizu, Satoru; Sagiuchi, Takao; Iwasaki, Toshiyuki; Utsuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Sachio; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2005-11-01

    A 6-year-old girl, who had received a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt using the Codman-Hakim programmable valve system at age 3 months, presented with intractable seizures. Neuroimaging studies showed migration of the proximal part of the system, including the prechamber, into the cranium through the right frontal burr hole. Electroencephalography showed spike-and-wave complexes in the right hemisphere including the site of the migration. The ictus was resolved following revision surgery. The clinical findings suggested the seizures were due to irritation of the brain parenchyma by the migrated system. Proximal migration of a VP shunt may cause both shunt failure and additional focal symptoms.

  18. Integration by migration?

    PubMed

    Shafik, N

    1994-01-01

    "In terms of trade and capital flows, the Middle East is one of the least economically integrated regions of the world. The major exception is labor mobility, where intraregional migration flows are extensive. The explanation for this pattern lies in the extreme differences in factor endowments across the region and development policies adopted by both labor-importing and exporting countries. Because the obstacles to trade in goods have been greater than the obstacles to migration, labor mobility and its associated capital flows have been the most important mechanism through which the benefits of the oil windfall have been spread to the poorer states of the region. There is evidence that incomes across the Middle East have become more equal."

  19. Erosion, Contamination, and Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. D.

    2010-05-20

    This paper will summarize studies of carbon impurity sources, contamination, and migration developed through JET methane gas injection experiments. These studies were analyzed using the 2D SOL code EDGE2D/NIMBUS. The code is capable of repeating the JET analysis using the ITER geometry and SOL plasma. This allows assessment of whether the physical processes occurring in JET might also occur in ITER, and thus whether the JET results transfer, in any sense, to the ITER plasmas. Certainly, the ITER choice of wall materials (W and Be) is different than for the present JET C studies. So the present status of these studies is to relate JET carbon behavior to carbon in ITER.JET carbon sources were studied spectroscopically and analyzed with atomic physics models in EDGE2D. The carbon sources are dominated by chemical sputtering at rates which are within a factor-of-two of the published literature. The JET carbon contamination is dominated by main chamber sources which are ionized in the main chamber SOL about 1-2 cm from the separatrix. Contamination occurs from carbon ions which diffuse across the field lines and reach the separatrix before they can parallel transport to the divertor. JET carbon migration was studied by injecting methane composed of {sup 13}C on the last run day before an opening and then analyzing removed tiles to identify migration to those locations. Modeling was accomplished by the same EDGE2D models that were used to describe the carbon sources and contamination. The entire migration process is complicated.

  20. Erosion, Contamination, and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    This paper will summarize studies of carbon impurity sources, contamination, and migration developed through JET methane gas injection experiments. These studies were analyzed using the 2D SOL code EDGE2D/NIMBUS. The code is capable of repeating the JET analysis using the ITER geometry and SOL plasma. This allows assessment of whether the physical processes occurring in JET might also occur in ITER, and thus whether the JET results transfer, in any sense, to the ITER plasmas. Certainly, the ITER choice of wall materials (W and Be) is different than for the present JET C studies. So the present status of these studies is to relate JET carbon behavior to carbon in ITER. JET carbon sources were studied spectroscopically and analyzed with atomic physics models in EDGE2D. The carbon sources are dominated by chemical sputtering at rates which are within a factor-of-two of the published literature. The JET carbon contamination is dominated by main chamber sources which are ionized in the main chamber SOL about 1-2 cm from the separatrix. Contamination occurs from carbon ions which diffuse across the field lines and reach the separatrix before they can parallel transport to the divertor. JET carbon migration was studied by injecting methane composed of 13C on the last run day before an opening and then analyzing removed tiles to identify migration to those locations. Modeling was accomplished by the same EDGE2D models that were used to describe the carbon sources and contamination. The entire migration process is complicated.

  1. Migration and stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jasso, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    Migration and stratification are increasingly intertwined. One day soon it will be impossible to understand one without the other. Both focus on life chances. Stratification is about differential life chances - who gets what and why - and migration is about improving life chances - getting more of the good things of life. To examine the interconnections of migration and stratification, we address a mix of old and new questions, carrying out analyses newly enabled by a unique new data set on recent legal immigrants to the United States (the New Immigrant Survey). We look at immigrant processing and lost documents, depression due to the visa process, presentation of self, the race-ethnic composition of an immigrant cohort (made possible by the data for the first time since 1961), black immigration from Africa and the Americas, skin-color diversity among couples formed by U.S. citizen sponsors and immigrant spouses, and English fluency among children age 8–12 and their immigrant parents. We find, inter alia, that children of previously illegal parents are especially more likely to be fluent in English, that native-born U.S. citizen women tend to marry darker, that immigrant applicants who go through the visa process while already in the United States are more likely to have their documents lost and to suffer visa depression, and that immigration, by introducing accomplished black immigrants from Africa (notably via the visa lottery), threatens to overturn racial and skin color associations with skill. Our analyses show the mutual embeddedness of migration and stratification in the unfolding of the immigrants' and their children's life chances and the impacts on the stratification structure of the United States. PMID:26321771

  2. Retrograde gastrojejunostomy tube migration.

    PubMed

    Adesina, Adeleke; Rammohan, Guhan; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous enteral feeding tubes are placed about 250,000 times each year in the United States. Although they are relatively safe, their placement may be complicated by perforation, infection, bleeding, vomiting, dislodgment, and obstruction. There have been numerous reports of antegrade migration of gastrojejunostomy (G-J) tubes. We report a case of G-J tube regurgitation following protracted vomiting and discuss the management of this very rare entity.

  3. 48 CFR 3027.404 - Basic rights in data clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. 3027.404 Section 3027.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS...

  4. 48 CFR 3027.404 - Basic rights in data clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Basic rights in data clause. 3027.404 Section 3027.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS...

  5. 48 CFR 3027.404 - Basic rights in data clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. 3027.404 Section 3027.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS...

  6. 48 CFR 3027.404 - Basic rights in data clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. 3027.404 Section 3027.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS...

  7. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  8. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  9. Gender and migration from Albania.

    PubMed

    Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system-a product of the Communist era-while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women's migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women.

  10. Gender and Migration from Albania

    PubMed Central

    STECKLOV, GUY; CARLETTO, CALOGERO; AZZARRI, CARLO; DAVIS, BENJAMIN

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women’s access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system—a product of the Communist era—while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women’s migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women. PMID:21308565

  11. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  12. Detours in bird migration.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, T

    2001-04-07

    Bird migration routes often follow detours where passages across ecological barriers are reduced in extent. This occurs in spite of the fact that long barrier crossings are within the birds' potential flight range capacity. Long-distance flights are associated with extra energy costs for transport of the heavy fuel loads required. This paper explores how important the fuel transport costs, estimated on the basis of flight mechanics, may be to explain detours for birds migrating by flapping flight. Maximum detours in relation to expanse of the barrier are predicted for cases where birds travel along the detour by numerous short flights and small fuel reserves, divide the detour into a limited number of flight steps, and where a reduced barrier passage is included in the detour. The principles for determining the optimum route, often involving a shortcut across part of the barrier, are derived. Furthermore, the effects of differences in fuel deposition rates and in transport costs for the profitability of detours are briefly considered. An evaluation of a number of observed and potential detours in relation to the general predictions of maximum detours, indicates that reduction of fuel transport costs may well be a factor of widespread importance for the evolution of detours in bird migration at wide ecological barriers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles for several migrating cell types identifies cell migration regulators.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Kyung; Macabenta, Frank; Curtis, Heather Leigh; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2017-04-18

    previously impact cell migration. This study also suggests that modification of the extracellular milieu may be a fundamental requirement for cells that undergo cell streaming migratory behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, South of Launch Area Entrance Drive, near security fence, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  15. An ill wind? Climate change, migration, and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia; Barnett, Jon; McMichael, Anthony J

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is projected to cause substantial increases in population movement in coming decades. Previous research has considered the likely causal influences and magnitude of such movements and the risks to national and international security. There has been little research on the consequences of climate-related migration and the health of people who move. In this review, we explore the role that health impacts of climate change may play in population movements and then examine the health implications of three types of movements likely to be induced by climate change: forcible displacement by climate impacts, resettlement schemes, and migration as an adaptive response. This risk assessment draws on research into the health of refugees, migrants, and people in resettlement schemes as analogs of the likely health consequences of climate-related migration. Some account is taken of the possible modulation of those health risks by climate change. Climate-change-related migration is likely to result in adverse health outcomes, both for displaced and for host populations, particularly in situations of forced migration. However, where migration and other mobility are used as adaptive strategies, health risks are likely to be minimized, and in some cases there will be health gains. Purposeful and timely policy interventions can facilitate the mobility of people, enhance well-being, and maximize social and economic development in both places of origin and places of destination. Nevertheless, the anticipated occurrence of substantial relocation of groups and communities will underscore the fundamental seriousness of human-induced climate change.

  16. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  17. Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Migration and its sociological impact in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Dabla, B

    1986-12-01

    Demographic developments in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait since World War II are reviewed using data from governmental, international, and other published sources. Following an overview of trends in population size and distribution, attention is focused on internal and international migration and the associated social, economic, and political implications. The concentration of immigrants in cities, migrants' occupations, acculturation, and the security concern arising from the volume of immigration flows are briefly discussed.

  19. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ...section). This ranged from guarantees of grain, food and health care being provided for but in addition, with the migration restrictions in place also...University Press, 1987), 186. 42 job security, subsidized food grains and commodities, health care, pensions for retirement, primary and middle

  20. Protected areas as frontiers for human migration.

    PubMed

    Zommers, Zinta; MacDonald, David W

    2012-06-01

    Causes of human population growth near protected areas have been much debated. We conducted 821 interviews in 16 villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Masindi district, Uganda, to explore the causes of human migration to protected areas and to identify differences in forest use between migrant and nonmigrant communities. We asked subjects for information about birthplace, migration, household assets, household activities, and forest use. Interview subjects were categorized as nonmigrants (born in one of the interview villages), socioeconomic migrants (chose to emigrate for economic or social reasons) from within Masindi district (i.e., local migrants) and from outside the Masindi district (i.e., regional migrants), or forced migrants (i.e., refugees or internally displaced individuals who emigrated as a result of conflict, human rights abuses, or natural disaster). Only 198 respondents were born in interview villages, indicating high rates of migration between 1998 and 2008. Migrants were drawn to Budongo Forest because they thought land was available (268 individuals) or had family in the area (161 individuals). A greater number of regional migrants settled in villages near Lake Albert than did forced and local migrants. Migration category was also associated with differences in sources of livelihood. Of forced migrants 40.5% earned wages through labor, whereas 25.5% of local and 14.5% of regional migrants engaged in wage labor. Migrant groups appeared to have different effects on the environment. Of respondents that hunted, 72.7% were regional migrants. Principal component analyses indicated households of regional migrants were more likely to be associated with deforestation. Our results revealed gaps in current models of human population growth around protected areas. By highlighting the importance of social networks and livelihood choices, our results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of causes of migration and of the environmental effects of

  1. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  2. Gβ1 is required for neutrophil migration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wenfan; Ye, Ding; Mersch, Kacey; Xu, Hui; Chen, Songhai; Lin, Fang

    2017-08-01

    Signaling mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential for the migration of cells toward chemoattractants. The recruitment of neutrophils to injured tissues in zebrafish larvae is a useful model for studying neutrophil migration and trafficking in vivo. Indeed, the study of this process led to the discovery that PI3Kγ is required for the polarity and motility of neutrophils, features that are necessary for the directed migration of these cells to wounds. However, the mechanism by which PI3Kγ is activated remains to be determined. Here we show that signaling by specifically the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ1 is critical for neutrophil migration in response to wounding. In embryos treated with small-molecule inhibitors of Gβγ signaling, neutrophils failed to migrate to wound sites. Although both the Gβ1 and Gβ4 isoforms are expressed in migrating neutrophils, only deficiency for the former (morpholino-based knockdown) interfered with the directed migration of neutrophils towards wounds. The Gβ1 deficiency also impaired the ability of cells to change cell shape and reduced their general motility, defects that are similar to those in neutrophils deficient for PI3Kγ. Transplantation assays showed that the requirement for Gβ1 in neutrophil migration is cell autonomous. Finally, live imaging revealed that Gβ1 is required for polarized activation of PI3K, and for the actin dynamics that enable neutrophil migration. Collectively, our data indicate that Gβ1 signaling controls proper neutrophil migration by activating PI3K and modulating actin dynamics. Moreover, they illustrate a role for a specific Gβ isoform in chemotaxis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Department of Homeland Security

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Cybersecurity Awareness Month 1 October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month. HP - SCF 2017 Hurricanes HP - SCF ... theme is, “Inclusion Drives Innovation.” Oct 10 Blog Cyber Security Awareness Month Is Here You do not have ...

  4. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  5. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  6. Physical view on migration modes

    PubMed Central

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility. PMID:26192136

  7. Physical view on migration modes.

    PubMed

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility.

  8. Nurse migration from India: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Garner, Shelby L; Conroy, Shelley F; Bader, Susan Gerding

    2015-12-01

    review can be used to shape health policy and advocate for nursing reform in India. As India's healthcare infrastructure continues to evolve, effective programs to improve conditions for nurses and retain them in India are needed. Additionally, as the globalization of nurses increases, more research is needed to develop effective programs to aid in a smooth transition for nurses who migrate from India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Security solutions: strategy and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Myron W. L.

    2002-04-01

    Producers of banknotes, other documents of value and brand name goods are being presented constantly with new challenges due to the ever increasing sophistication of easily-accessible desktop publishing and color copying machines, which can be used for counterfeiting. Large crime syndicates have also shown that they have the means and the willingness to invest large sums of money to mimic security features. To ensure sufficient and appropriate protection, a coherent security strategy has to be put into place. The feature has to be appropriately geared to fight against the different types of attacks and attackers, and to have the right degree of sophistication or ease of authentication depending upon by whom or where a check is made. Furthermore, the degree of protection can be considerably increased by taking a multi-layered approach and using an open platform architecture. Features can be stratified to encompass overt, semi-covert, covert and forensic features.

  10. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  11. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  12. Secure Database Management Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    3.1.2 McCauleYls Security Atoms Additional concepts are introduced in (MCCAES) which enhance the security aspects of the attribute- bar id model...sLgnificance. Physical access remains as an overriding factor of system security. Without protection of the physeal operating environment (computer

  13. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  14. Security of Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    8 2. Message Confidentiality ........................................................................8 3. Message Integrity...SUMMARY Security in sensor networks is an active but wide-open research field. Past experiences with other wireless technologies have shown that...layer security because, like other wireless networking technologies , the threat of interception by an adversary is always present. The security

  15. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  16. Filling a Security Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A new type of public facility security system, utilizing a radio system and voice logging recorder, has effectively improved security at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The system monitors security operations, provides a reliable record in the case of conflicting claims, and accurately pinpoints the time of events. (DS)

  17. School Violence: Physical Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial…

  18. Structuring Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    20 AIRPORT SECURITY .............................................................................................. 20...using an existing command and control structure. Since September 11, 2001 airport security has been of heightened importance to the American public...In order to use Reserves to provide airport security the airports themselves should be made federal property. This would allow greater flexibility for

  19. Lemnos interoperable security project.

    SciTech Connect

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2010-03-01

    With the Lemnos framework, interoperability of control security equipment is straightforward. To obtain interoperability between proprietary security appliance units, one or both vendors must now write cumbersome 'translation code.' If one party changes something, the translation code 'breaks.' The Lemnos project is developing and testing a framework that uses widely available security functions and protocols like IPsec - to form a secure communications channel - and Syslog, to exchange security log messages. Using this model, security appliances from two or more different vendors can clearly and securely exchange information, helping to better protect the total system. Simplify regulatory compliance in a complicated security environment by leveraging the Lemnos framework. As an electric utility, are you struggling to implement the NERC CIP standards and other regulations? Are you weighing the misery of multiple management interfaces against committing to a ubiquitous single-vendor solution? When vendors build their security appliances to interoperate using the Lemnos framework, it becomes practical to match best-of-breed offerings from an assortment of vendors to your specific control systems needs. The Lemnos project is developing and testing a framework that uses widely available open-source security functions and protocols like IPsec and Syslog to create a secure communications channel between appliances in order to exchange security data.

  20. Introduction to Retail Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James E., Ed.

    This collection consists of 15 articles dealing with retail security. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Retail Security--an Introduction," by Andrew J. Thacker and Linda Cressman; "Systematic Planning and Retail Security," by Linda T. Thomas; "Identifying Potentially Dishonest Employees," by James E.…

  1. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  2. Migration of Asteroidal Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Bulirsh Stoer method of integration, we investigated the migration of dust particles under the gravitational influence of all planets, radiation pressure, Poynting Robertson drag and solar wind drag for equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of correspond to diameters equal to about 40, 9, 4, 2, and 1 microns, respectively [1]. The relative error per integration step was taken to be less than 10sup-8. Initial orbits of the particles were close to the orbits of the first numbered mainbelt asteroids.

  3. [Multiple sclerosis and migration].

    PubMed

    Materljan, E; Sepcić, J; Materljan, B

    1996-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, original primary demyelination in the central nervous system, is a disease of as yet unknown cause. Epidemiologic research may contribute to the clarification of this problem. Migration studies have proven that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is associated with ethnic origin and environment, and that the critical age for the disease development is till 15 years. In Croatia, emigrating inhabitants of Gorski Kotar, a region with high exposure to this disease, carry the risk of multiple sclerosis development, provided that have emigrated after adolescence.

  4. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  5. Migration of Asteroidal Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Bulirsh Stoer method of integration, we investigated the migration of dust particles under the gravitational influence of all planets, radiation pressure, Poynting Robertson drag and solar wind drag for equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of correspond to diameters equal to about 40, 9, 4, 2, and 1 microns, respectively [1]. The relative error per integration step was taken to be less than 10sup-8. Initial orbits of the particles were close to the orbits of the first numbered mainbelt asteroids.

  6. Threats to financial system security

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The financial system in the United States is slowly migrating from the bricks and mortar of banks on the city square to branch banks, ATM`s, and now direct linkage through computers to the home. Much work has been devoted to the security problems inherent in protecting property and people. The impact of attacks on the information aspects of the financial system has, however, received less attention. Awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milken or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These events, although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. Most of the losses can be traced to the contribution of many small attacks perpetrated against a variety of vulnerable components and systems. This paper explores the magnitude of these financial system losses and identifies new areas for security to be applied to high consequence events.

  7. The Right Place, The Right Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, William G.; Irish, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Superintendents are in the right place at the right time to take advantage of a golden opportunity to reverse a trend that threatens the nation's schools and communities. They are now uniquely positioned to stop the retreat of good-hearted, well-intentioned citizens from public life. In this article, the authors present perpetual traps that…

  8. The Right Place, The Right Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, William G.; Irish, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Superintendents are in the right place at the right time to take advantage of a golden opportunity to reverse a trend that threatens the nation's schools and communities. They are now uniquely positioned to stop the retreat of good-hearted, well-intentioned citizens from public life. In this article, the authors present perpetual traps that…

  9. Validation of the "Security Needs Assessment Profile" for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Siu, B W M; Au-Yeung, C C Y; Chan, A W L; Chan, L S Y; Yuen, K K; Leung, H W; Yan, C K; Ng, K K; Lai, A C H; Davies, S; Collins, M

    2017-05-17

    Mapping forensic psychiatric services with the security needs of patients is a salient step in service planning, audit and review. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients was not yet available. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. The Security Needs Assessment Profile by Davis was translated into Chinese. Its face validity, content validity, construct validity and internal consistency reliability were assessed by measuring the security needs of 98 Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Principal factor analysis for construct validity provided a six-factor security needs model explaining 68.7% of the variance. Based on the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the internal consistency reliability was rated as acceptable for procedural security (0.73), and fair for both physical security (0.62) and relational security (0.58). A significant sex difference (p=0.002) in total security score was found. The Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    PubMed

    Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  11. Modes of migration and multilevel selection in evolutionary multiplayer games.

    PubMed

    Pichugin, Yuriy; Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Garcia, Julián; Traulsen, Arne; Rainey, Paul B

    2015-12-21

    The evolution of cooperation in group-structured populations has received much attention, but little is known about the effects of different modes of migration of individuals between groups. Here, we have incorporated four different modes of migration that differ in the degree of coordination among the individuals. For each mode of migration, we identify the set of multiplayer games in which the cooperative strategy has higher fixation probability than defection. The comparison shows that the set of games under which cooperation may evolve generally expands depending upon the degree of coordination among the migrating individuals. Weak altruism can evolve under all modes of individual migration, provided that the benefit to cost ratio is high enough. Strong altruism, however, evolves only if the mode of migration involves coordination of individual actions. Depending upon the migration frequency and degree of coordination among individuals, conditions that allow selection to work at the level of groups can be established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of fairness on graphs with migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2015-09-07

    Individual migration plays a crucial role in evolutionary dynamics of population on networks. In this paper, we generalize the networked ultimatum game by diluting population structures as well as endowing individuals with migration ability, and investigate evolutionary dynamics of fairness on graphs with migration in the ultimatum game. We first revisit the impact of node degree on the evolution of fairness. Interestingly, numerical simulations reveal that there exists an optimal value of node degree resulting in the maximal offer level of populations. Then we explore the effects of dilution and migration on the evolution of fairness, and find that both the dilution of population structures and the endowment of migration ability to individuals would lead to the drop of offer level, while the rise of acceptance level of populations. Notably, natural selection even favors the evolution of self-incompatible strategies, when either vacancy rate or migration rate exceeds a critical threshold. To confirm our simulation results, we also propose an analytical method to study the evolutionary dynamics of fairness on graphs with migration. This method can be applied to explore any games governed by pairwise interactions in finite populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomedical surveillance: rights conflict with rights.

    PubMed

    Atherley, G; Johnston, N; Tennassee, M

    1986-10-01

    Medical screening and biomedical monitoring violate individual rights. Such conflicts of right with right are acted upon synergistically by uncertainty which, in some important respects, increases rather than decreases as a result of research. Issues of rightness and wrongness, ethical issues, arise because the human beings who are subjects of medical screening and biological monitoring often have little or no option whether to be subjected to them. We identify issues of rightness and wrongness of biomedical surveillance for various purposes of occupational health and safety. We distinguish between social validity and scientific validity. We observe that principles are well established for scientific validity, but not for social validity. We support guidelines as a way forward.

  14. Incidence and prediction of seed migration to the chest after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junqing; Yang, Weizhu; Jiang, Na; Zheng, Qubin; Huang, Jingyao; Huang, Ning; Li, Ang; Jiang, Han

    2017-08-08

    The aims were to determine the incidence of seed migration to the chest and to analyze the predictive factors after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Three hundred ninety-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent iodine-125 seed brachytherapy. After seed implantation, chest X-ray radiograph or computerized tomography were undertaken to assess the occurrence and location of seed migration at 3 months after brachytherapy. The incidence of seed migration to the lung and heart was calculated. A statistical analysis of the influences of seed loss to the chest was performed between patients with and without seed migration. A total of 13,977 seeds were implanted in 399 patients. One hundred fifty of the 13,977 (1.07%) seeds migrated to the chest in 81 of the 399 (20.30%) patients. Of all the migrated seeds, 112 (74.67%) migrated to the lungs in 59 (67.82%) patients, and 38 (25.33%) seeds migrated to the heart in 28 (47.46%) patients. No case exhibited clinical symptoms related to the migrated seeds. The number of seeds implanted and the number of seed implantations were significantly associated with seed migration. The occurrence of seed migration to the lungs and heart was evaluated. Furthermore, the number of seeds implanted and the number of seed implantation procedures are significant predictors of seed migration. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Intrathoracic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, Yanire; Domínguez-Báez, Jaime; Lazo-Fernández, Eglis; Pérez Del Rosario, Pedro Antonio; Zanabria-Ortiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The intrathoracic complications from ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement are very rare. However, they are potentially serious if not treated. We report the case of thoracic migration of a peritoneal catheter after ventriculoperitoneal shunt and we also review the literature references with discussion of the different mechanisms of shunt-tip migration described. No case of previous sternotomy as in our patient has been found published. All reports recommend early catheter repositioning into the peritoneal cavity after diagnosing the migration described, to prevent worse complications. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that intrathoracic migration can happen and it is necessary to palpate the catheter continuously during passage through subcutaneous tunnelling to prevent it. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensory basis of lepidopteran migration: focus on the monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    In response to seasonal habitats, migratory lepidopterans, exemplified by the monarch butterfly, have evolved migration to deal with dynamic conditions. During migration, monarchs use orientation mechanisms, exploiting a time-compensated sun compass and a light-sensitive inclination magnetic compass to facilitate fall migration south. The sun compass is bidirectional with overwintering coldness triggering the change in orientation direction for remigration northward in the spring. The timing of the remigration and milkweed emergence in the southern US have co-evolved for propagation of the migration. Current research is uncovering the anatomical and molecular substrates that underlie migratory-relevant sensory mechanisms with the antennae being critical components. Orientation mechanisms may be detrimentally affected by environmental factors such as climate change and sensory interference from human-generated sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms for fast cell migration in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo; Barbier, Lucie; Sáez, Pablo José; Piel, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments. Lastly, we will describe the properties that facilitate the rapid migration of leukocyte in complex tissue geometries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid architecture for building secure sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Ken R., Jr.; Watkins, Steve E.

    2012-04-01

    Sensor networks have various communication and security architectural concerns. Three approaches are defined to address these concerns for sensor networks. The first area is the utilization of new computing architectures that leverage embedded virtualization software on the sensor. Deploying a small, embedded virtualization operating system on the sensor nodes that is designed to communicate to low-cost cloud computing infrastructure in the network is the foundation to delivering low-cost, secure sensor networks. The second area focuses on securing the sensor. Sensor security components include developing an identification scheme, and leveraging authentication algorithms and protocols that address security assurance within the physical, communication network, and application layers. This function will primarily be accomplished through encrypting the communication channel and integrating sensor network firewall and intrusion detection/prevention components to the sensor network architecture. Hence, sensor networks will be able to maintain high levels of security. The third area addresses the real-time and high priority nature of the data that sensor networks collect. This function requires that a quality-of-service (QoS) definition and algorithm be developed for delivering the right data at the right time. A hybrid architecture is proposed that combines software and hardware features to handle network traffic with diverse QoS requirements.

  19. Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    call for appropriate policies, cooperation, protection of human rights, an end to discrimination toward women, the normalization of family life among documented migrants, the promotion of good community relations between migrants and the rest of society, the guarantee of equal economic and social rights to longterm foreign residents and facilitation of their naturalization, the provision of legal information to potential migrants, the provision of equal educational and training opportunities to the children of migrants, and the institution of sanctions against the organizers of illegal migration. The next 7 recommendations urge that the causes of forced migration be addressed, that refugees receive assistance and protection, that the responsibility for refugees be shared equitably, that the right to asylum be protected, that appropriate repatriation programs be supported, that long-standing refugee populations be helped to achieve self-sufficiency, and that the specific needs of refugee women be addressed. The final 7 recommendations cover data and research needs regarding population distribution and migration and urge support for research on population distribution, the collection of national statistics, a review of existing standard definitions and classifications of rural and urban populations and of international migration, cooperation in the registration and monitoring of refugee populations, and the promotion of an exchange of information on trends and policies of international migration.

  20. Collective cell migration in development

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, tissues undergo major rearrangements that lead to germ layer positioning, patterning, and organ morphogenesis. Often these morphogenetic movements are accomplished by the coordinated and cooperative migration of the constituent cells, referred to as collective cell migration. The molecular and biomechanical mechanisms underlying collective migration of developing tissues have been investigated in a variety of models, including border cell migration, tracheal branching, blood vessel sprouting, and the migration of the lateral line primordium, neural crest cells, or head mesendoderm. Here we review recent advances in understanding collective migration in these developmental models, focusing on the interaction between cells and guidance cues presented by the microenvironment and on the role of cell–cell adhesion in mechanical and behavioral coupling of cells within the collective. PMID:26783298

  1. Cell migration in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Marín, Oscar; Rubenstein, John L R

    2003-01-01

    The forebrain comprises an intricate set of structures that are required for some of the most complex and evolved functions of the mammalian brain. As a reflection of its complexity, cell migration in the forebrain is extremely elaborated, with widespread dispersion of cells across multiple functionally distinct areas. Two general modes of migration are distinguished in the forebrain: radial migration, which establishes the general cytoarchitectonical framework of the different forebrain subdivisions; and tangential migration, which increases the cellular complexity of forebrain circuits by allowing the dispersion of multiple neuronal types. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying each of these types of migrations and discuss how emerging concepts in neuronal migration are reshaping our understanding of forebrain development in normal and pathological situations.

  2. Information Security Management (ISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šalgovičová, Jarmila; Prajová, Vanessa

    2012-12-01

    Currently, all organizations have to tackle the issue of information security. The paper deals with various aspects of Information Security Management (ISM), including procedures, processes, organizational structures, policies and control processes. Introduction of Information Security Management should be a strategic decision. The concept and implementation of Information Security Management in an organization are determined by the corporate needs and objectives, security requirements, the processes deployed as well as the size and structure of the organization. The implementation of ISM should be carried out to the extent consistent with the needs of the organization.

  3. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  4. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  5. Limited World, Limited Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Garrett

    The currently popular issue of natural rights is more complicated than many of its proponents realize. Natural rights, be they of an individual or a nation, do not exist within a social vacuum. When a person or nation asserts a natural right to something, the implication is that someone else is obligated to furnish it. Thus one person's right is a…

  6. A right to reproduce?

    PubMed

    Quigley, Muireann

    2010-10-01

    How should we conceive of a right to reproduce? And, morally speaking, what might be said to justify such a right? These are just two questions of interest that are raised by the technologies of assisted reproduction. This paper analyses the possible legitimate grounds for a right to reproduce within the two main theories of rights; interest theory and choice theory.

  7. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  8. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  9. Limited World, Limited Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Garrett

    The currently popular issue of natural rights is more complicated than many of its proponents realize. Natural rights, be they of an individual or a nation, do not exist within a social vacuum. When a person or nation asserts a natural right to something, the implication is that someone else is obligated to furnish it. Thus one person's right is a…

  10. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  11. Medical database security evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G J

    1993-01-01

    Users of medical information systems need confidence in the security of the system they are using. They also need a method to evaluate and compare its security capabilities. Every system has its own requirements for maintaining confidentiality, integrity and availability. In order to meet these requirements a number of security functions must be specified covering areas such as access control, auditing, error recovery, etc. Appropriate confidence in these functions is also required. The 'trust' in trusted computer systems rests on their ability to prove that their secure mechanisms work as advertised and cannot be disabled or diverted. The general framework and requirements for medical database security and a number of parameters of the evaluation problem are presented and discussed. The problem of database security evaluation is then discussed, and a number of specific proposals are presented, based on a number of existing medical database security systems.

  12. 17 CFR 245.103 - Issuer right of recovery; right of action by equity security owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)) provides that any profit realized by a director or executive officer from any purchase, sale or other... U.S.C. 7244(a)(1)) will inure to and be recoverable by the issuer, regardless of any intention on... transaction that involves a purchase, sale or other acquisition or transfer (other than a grant,...

  13. The Right Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohns, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discusses school locker characteristics and evaluation steps to consider before purchasing them. Locker door features are highlighted and the importance of knowing the degree of personal storage, strength, and security needs is addressed. (GR)

  14. Migration and fertility in Ticino.

    PubMed

    van de Walle, F

    1975-11-01

    Summary Migration in the Swiss canton of Ticino is one example of the wide variety of demographic systems that existed in pre-industrial Europe. The continuous movement of men was a consequence of economic, social and geographic conditions which restricted the demand for labour. Seasonal migration and overseas migration were both sex and age selective. They resulted in an imbalance of the sex ratio and a remarkably low female nuptiality. They also reduced fertility within marriage by separating husbands and wives during their childbearing years. The effect of long, medium and short-term migration on fertility can be isolated from census and vital registration sources.

  15. Process migration in UNIX environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1988-01-01

    To support process migration in UNIX environments, the main problem is how to encapsulate the location dependent features of the system in such a way that a host independent virtual environment is maintained by the migration handlers on the behalf of each migrated process. An object-oriented approach is used to describe the interaction between a process and its environment. More specifically, environmental objects were introduced in UNIX systems to carry out the user-environment interaction. The implementation of the migration handlers is based on both the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion.

  16. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  17. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-05-23

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  18. Asymmetry of Radial and Symmetry of Tangential Neuronal Migration Pathways in Developing Human Fetal Brains.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Song, Jae W; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    The radial and tangential neural migration pathways are two major neuronal migration streams in humans that are critical during corticogenesis. Corticogenesis is a complex process of neuronal proliferation that is followed by neuronal migration and the formation of axonal connections. Existing histological assessments of these two neuronal migration pathways have limitations inherent to microscopic studies and are confined to small anatomic regions of interest (ROIs). Thus, little evidence is available about their three-dimensional (3-D) fiber pathways and development throughout the entire brain. In this study, we imaged and analyzed radial and tangential migration pathways in the whole human brain using high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography. We imaged ten fixed, postmortem fetal (17 gestational weeks (GW), 18 GW, 19 GW, three 20 GW, three 21 GW and 22 GW) and eight in vivo newborn (two 30 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW and four 40 GW) brains with no neurological/pathological conditions. We statistically compared the volume of the left and right radial and tangential migration pathways, and the volume of the radial migration pathways of the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. In specimens 22 GW or younger, the volume of radial migration pathways of the left hemisphere was significantly larger than that of the right hemisphere. The volume of posterior radial migration pathways was also larger when compared to the anterior pathways in specimens 22 GW or younger. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the radial migration pathways of brains older than 22 GW. Moreover, our study did not identify any significant differences in volumetric laterality in the tangential migration pathways. These results suggest that these two neuronal migration pathways develop and regress differently, and radial neuronal migration varies regionally based on hemispheric and anterior-posterior laterality, potentially explaining regional differences in

  19. Wireless security in mobile health.

    PubMed

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats.

  20. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.512 - Conferring on procedures for the exercise of management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of management rights. 9701.512 Section 9701.512 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.512...

  2. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  3. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  4. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  5. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.512 - Conferring on procedures for the exercise of management rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of management rights. 9701.512 Section 9701.512 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations §...

  7. The Meta-Pragmatic Discourses of Australian High School Students on Language, Migration and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Donna; Willoughby, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a backlash against multiculturalism in many Western countries and increasing calls to restrict migration and citizenship rights to those who can pass language tests. This paper explores the sentiment of high school students who were born and raised in Australia towards issues of language and migration, including the need for…

  8. The Meta-Pragmatic Discourses of Australian High School Students on Language, Migration and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Donna; Willoughby, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a backlash against multiculturalism in many Western countries and increasing calls to restrict migration and citizenship rights to those who can pass language tests. This paper explores the sentiment of high school students who were born and raised in Australia towards issues of language and migration, including the need for…

  9. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  10. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  11. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  12. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  13. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his Social...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4327 - Release of security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of security. 36.4327 Section 36.4327 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... right in or to real property held as security for a guaranteed or insured loan, or grant a fee or...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4327 - Release of security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of security. 36.4327 Section 36.4327 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... right in or to real property held as security for a guaranteed or insured loan, or grant a fee or...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4327 - Release of security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of security. 36.4327 Section 36.4327 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... right in or to real property held as security for a guaranteed or insured loan, or grant a fee or...

  17. 38 CFR 36.4327 - Release of security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of security. 36.4327 Section 36.4327 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... right in or to real property held as security for a guaranteed or insured loan, or grant a fee or...

  18. Digitizing and Securing Archived Laboratory Notebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporizzo, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    The Information Group at Millipore has been successfully using a digital rights management tool to secure the email distribution of archived laboratory notebooks. Millipore is a life science leader providing cutting-edge technologies, tools, and services for bioscience research and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Consisting of four full-time…

  19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Security Studies Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    CNBC’s “Strategy Session” and “The Wall Street Journal Report.” His most recent book, co-authored with Gregory T. Huang, Guanxi (The Art of...World War II: Was Spykman Right?” Security Studies, December 2005. Robert Buderi/Gregory T. Huang, Guanxi (The Art of Relationships): Microsoft, China

  20. Digitizing and Securing Archived Laboratory Notebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporizzo, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    The Information Group at Millipore has been successfully using a digital rights management tool to secure the email distribution of archived laboratory notebooks. Millipore is a life science leader providing cutting-edge technologies, tools, and services for bioscience research and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Consisting of four full-time…