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Sample records for rio molinos valle

  1. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  2. Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image extends from latitude 0 degrees to 20 degrees S. and from longitude 45 degrees to 102.5 degrees. The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin, which contains the site of the Viking 1 Lander and the future site of the Mars Pathfinder Lander.

  3. Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Cnudde, Veerle; Cnudde, Jean Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos Cardenes1, V., Cnudde1, V., Cnudde1, J.P. 1 Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. The world's major roofing slate outcrops are found in the NW of Spain, in the Ordovician terrains of the domain of the Truchas Syncline. In this remote area, slate was quarried since ancient times for the use of the inhabitants of the region. Half of a century ago, an industrialization process took place in this area, which began to produce high quality roofing slate for many buildings from Japan to the USA, and especially in Europe. Since then, Spanish slate roofing has been widely used for new buildings and also for restoration of historical buildings. This work revises the occurrence and characteristics of the two most representative grey slate varieties from the Truchas Syncline, Mormeau, a fine-grained slate, and Los Molinos, also a grey slate with a slightly coarser grain. Both slates have a very similar aspect, but Mormeau slate have some iron sulphides on its composition that sometimes forms oxidation spots. Mormeau beds are found at the Middle-Upper Ordovician age Casaio Formation, while Los Molinos beds are located at the Rozadais Formation, of age Upper Ordovician, defined as formation just for the Truchas Syncline domain. Both slates have a high degree of homogeneity on their constructive characteristics, with a typical composition of quartz, mica and chlorites, and a metamorphic degree corresponding to the green schists facies. This work revises the history and characteristics of both slates, that can be considered as lithotypes that can be used as a reference during the prospection of new slate outcrops worldwide. The presented varieties of slate are proposed for their inclusion as Global Heritage Stones.

  4. Auqakuh Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 7 June 2002) The Science This ancient sinuous river channel, located near 30o N, 299o W (61o E), was likely carved by water early in Mars history. Auqakuh Valles cuts through a remarkable series of rock layers that were deposited and then subsequently eroded. This change from conditions favoring deposition to those favoring erosion indicates that the environment of this region has changed significantly over time. In addition, the different rock layers seen in this image vary in hardness, with some being relatively soft and easily eroded, whereas others are harder and resistant. These differences imply that these layers vary in their composition, physical properties, and/or degree of cementation, and again suggest that major changes have occurred during the history of this region. Similar differences occur throughout the southwest U.S., where hard rock layers, such as the limestones and sandstones in the Grand Canyon, form resistant cliffs, whereas softer mudstones are easily eroded to form broad slopes. The Martian layers, such as the smooth, dark-toned mesas visible in numerous places to the right (east) of the channel, were once continuous across the region. As these layers have eroded, they have produced a wide array of textures, from smooth surfaces, to knobby terrains, to the unusual lobate patterns seen in the upper right of the image. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples by the wind. These ripples, spaced approximately 75 m apart, form perpendicular to the wind direction, and can be seen following the pattern of the channel floor as it curves through this region. This pattern shows that even this relatively small channel, which varies in width from about 500 to 750 m throughout this image, acts to funnel the wind down the channel. The Story Auqakuh Vallis, an ancient river channel that winds its way down the center of this image, is the 'fossil' remains of an earlier, probably more watery time in

  5. Auqakuh Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 7 June 2002) The Science This ancient sinuous river channel, located near 30o N, 299o W (61o E), was likely carved by water early in Mars history. Auqakuh Valles cuts through a remarkable series of rock layers that were deposited and then subsequently eroded. This change from conditions favoring deposition to those favoring erosion indicates that the environment of this region has changed significantly over time. In addition, the different rock layers seen in this image vary in hardness, with some being relatively soft and easily eroded, whereas others are harder and resistant. These differences imply that these layers vary in their composition, physical properties, and/or degree of cementation, and again suggest that major changes have occurred during the history of this region. Similar differences occur throughout the southwest U.S., where hard rock layers, such as the limestones and sandstones in the Grand Canyon, form resistant cliffs, whereas softer mudstones are easily eroded to form broad slopes. The Martian layers, such as the smooth, dark-toned mesas visible in numerous places to the right (east) of the channel, were once continuous across the region. As these layers have eroded, they have produced a wide array of textures, from smooth surfaces, to knobby terrains, to the unusual lobate patterns seen in the upper right of the image. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples by the wind. These ripples, spaced approximately 75 m apart, form perpendicular to the wind direction, and can be seen following the pattern of the channel floor as it curves through this region. This pattern shows that even this relatively small channel, which varies in width from about 500 to 750 m throughout this image, acts to funnel the wind down the channel. The Story Auqakuh Vallis, an ancient river channel that winds its way down the center of this image, is the 'fossil' remains of an earlier, probably more watery time in

  6. Valles Galdera research opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    Potential opportunities for research will be available after the completion this summer of a 650-m, 7.6-cm-diameter scientific core taken from the southern ring-fracture zone of Valles Caldera, New Mexico. (See Figure 1.)The Valles Caldera coring effort stems from three primary objectives: to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow; to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations under the southern ring-fracture zone; and to obtain continuous core (6.25 cm) samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito obsidian (approximately 0.1 to 0.05 million years).

  7. Valles Marineris Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mosaic composed of 102 Viking Orbiter images of Mars, covering nearly a full hemisphere of the planet (approximate latitude -55 to 60 degrees, longitude 30 to 130 degrees). The mosaic is in a point-perspective projection with a scale of about 1 km/pixel. The color variations have been enhanced by a factor of about two, and the large-scale brightness variations (mostly due to sun-angle variations) have been normalized by large-scale filtering. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and up to 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. Bright white layers of material in the eastern canyons may consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and from north-central canyons and run north. Many of the channels flowed into a basin called Acidalia Planitia, which is the dark area in the extreme north of this picture. The Viking 1 landing site (Mutch Memorial Station) is located in Chryse Planitia, south of Acidalia Planitia. The three Tharsis volcanoes (dark red spots), each about 25 km high, are visible to the west. The large crater with two prominent rings located at the bottom of this image is named Lowell, after the Flagstaff astronomer. The images were acquired by Viking Orbiter 1 in 1980 during early northern summer on Mars (Ls = 70 degrees); the atmosphere was relatively dust-free. A variety of clouds appear as bright blue streaks and hazes, and probably consist of water ice. Long, linear clouds north of central Valles Marineris appear to emanate from impact craters.

  8. Landslide in Kasei Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) continues in 2003 to return excellent, high resolution images of the red planet's surface. This nearly 1.5 meters (5 ft.) per pixel view of a landslide on a 200 meter-high (219 yards-high) slope in Kasei Valles was specifically targeted for scientific investigation by rotating the MGS spacecraft about 7.8o off-nadir in January 2003. The scar left by the landslide reveals layers in the bedrock at the top the slope and shows a plethora of dark-toned, house-sized boulders that rolled down the slope and collected at the base of the landslide scar. A few meteor impact craters have formed on the landslide deposit and within the scar, indicating that this landslide occurred a very long time ago. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/lower left; the landslide is located near 28.3oN, 71.9oW.

  9. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2009-01-01

    We are approaching the end of the third year of mapping the Athabasca Valles region of Mars. The linework has been adjusted in response to new CTX images and we are on schedule to submit the 4 MTM quads (05202, 05207, 10202, 10207) and ac-companying paper by the end of this fiscal year.

  10. Continental Scientific Drilling Program: Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program attempts to develop a better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic mechanisms within the continental crust, under the auspices of an interagency group comprising the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Ten years of research and drilling in the Valles caldera of northern New Mexico has provided a new understanding of volcanism and geothermal systems within a large caldera. Situated at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and the Jemez volcanic lineament, the Valles caldera and Toledo calderas were formed during two massive eruptions 1.1 and 1.5 M a that vented approximately 300 to 400 km{sup 3} of high-silica rhyolitic tephra. The research at the Valles/Toledo caldera has provided more than 3000 m of corehole samples, which are stored in a repository in Grand Junction, Colorado, and are accessible to the public. This research has also helped support theories of mineral deposition within hydrothermal systems-hot water circulating through breccias, leaching elements from the rocks, and later depositing veins of economically valuable materials.

  11. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2008-01-01

    Two factors drive us to map the Athabasca Valles area in unusual detail: (1) the extremely well-preserved and exposed surface morphologies and (2) the extensive high resolution imaging. In particular, the near-complete CTX coverage of Athabasca Valles proper and the extensive coverage of its surroundings have been invaluable. The mapping has been done exclusively in ArcGIS, using individual CTX, THEMIS VIS, and MOC frames overlying the THEMIS IR daytime basemap. MOLA shot points and gridded DTMs are also included. It was found that CTX images processed through ISIS are almost always within 300 m of the MOLA derived locations, and usually within tens of meters, with no adjustments to camera pointing. THEMIS VIS images appear to be systematically shifted to the southwest of their correct positions and MOC images are often kilometers off. The good SNR and minimal artifacts make the CTX images vastly more useful than the THEMIS VIS or MOC images. The bulk of the mapping was done at 1:50,000 scale on CTX images. In more complex areas, mapping at 1:24,000 proved necessary. The CTX images were usually simultaneously viewed on a second monitor using the ISIS3 qview program to display the full dynamic range of the CTX data. Where CTX data was not available, mapping was often done at 1:100,000 and most contacts are mapped as approximate.

  12. Valles Marineris and Chryse Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon and the south Chryse basin-Valles Marineris outflow channels of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east and related outflow canyons that drain toward the Chryse basin. Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north) are two canyons connected to Valles Marineris. Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southeast part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image roughly extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 102.5 degrees.

    The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes, eolian deposits, or volcanic materials. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a

  13. Valles Caldera geothermal systems, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Grigsby, Charles O.

    1982-03-01

    Valles Caldera is part of a Quaternary silicic volcano in northern New Mexico that possesses enormous geothermal potential. The caldera has formed at the intersection of the volcanically active Jemez lineament and the tectonically active Rio Grande rift. Volcanic rocks of the Jemez Mountains overlie Paleozoic—Mesozoic sediments, and Precambrian granitic basement. Although the regional heat flow along the Rio Grande rift is ~2.7 HFU , convective heat flow within the caldera exceeds 10 HFU. A moderately saline hotwater geothermal system ( T > 260° C, Cl ⋍ 3000 mg/ l) has been tapped in fractured caldera-fill ignimbrites at depths of 1800 m. Surface geothermal phenomena include central fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs surrounded by dilute thermal meteoric hot springs. Derivative hot springs from the deep geothermal reservoir issue along the Jemez fault zone, 10 km southwest of the caldera. Present geothermal projects are: (1) proposed construction of an initial 50-MW el power plant utilizing the known geothermal reservoir; (2) research and development of the prototype hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system that circulates surface water through deep Precambrian basement (˜5MW th); (3) exploration for deep hot fluids in adjacent basin-fill sediments of the Rio Grande rift; and (4) shallow exploration drilling for hot fluids along the Jemez fault zone. 1 HFU (heat flow unit) = 1 μcal. s -2 cm -2 = 41.67 mW m -2.

  14. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  15. Stratigraphy of the Kasei Valles region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Mark S.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1987-01-01

    The thicknesses and geomorphology of the two principal stratigraphic units exposed in Kasei Valles to aid in interpreting the nature of crustal materials and the history of the channeling events in the area are identified and described. Previous studies of Kasei Valles have related the channel landforms to glacial flow, catastrophic flooding, and large-scale eolian erosion. The two units (an upper and a lower unit) form thick sheets, each having distinct geomorphologic features. Thicknesses of the unit were determined through preliminary stereogrammetric profiles taken across many sections of western Kasei Valles and shadow measurements taken of scarp heights from calibrated Viking images having sun angles less than 25 degrees; DN values were examined to confirm that true shadows were observed.

  16. Detections of carbonates in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultel, B.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Flahaut, J.; Andréani, M.; Lozac'h, L.

    2015-10-01

    Valles Marineris is a unique place on Mars where deep crust is exposed at its original place [1]. The primitive crust is observed at the base of Coprates Chasma as well as in the eastern parts of Valles Marineris [1].Else where on Mars, several authors [2and references therein] reported key observation of the martian primitive crust being altered thanks to CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data. Coprates Chasma is a proposed landing site for Mars 2020 mission and is so intensely covered by CRISM data. It allows us to investigate the alteration signs of the primitive crust. We describe here the study of 3 CRISM FRT observations on the wall of Valles Marineris in Coprates Chasma and on a remnant horst in middle of the canyon seeking for alteration minerals.

  17. Mars Airplane Valles Marineris Terrain Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a computer simulation showing a proposed configuration of the Langley Mars Airplane on a flyover of the Valles Marineris system on the planet Mars. The actual flight is scheduled for Dec. 17, 2003, timed to mark the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers' historic powered flight at Kitty Hawk, N.C.

  18. Ares Valles: Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  19. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  20. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  1. Lithologic descriptions and temperature profiles of five wells in the southwestern Valles caldera region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Miles, D.; Waibel, A.; Swanberg, C.

    1988-01-01

    The subsurface stratigraphy and temperature profiles of the southern and western Valles caldera region have been well constrained with the use of data from the VC-1, AET-4, WC 23-4, PC-1 and PC-2 wells. Data from these wells indicate that thermal gradients west of the caldera margin are between 110 and 140)degrees)C/km, with a maximum gradient occurring in the bottom of PC-1 equal to 240)degrees)C/km as a result of thermal fluid flow. Gradients within the caldera reach a maximum of 350)degrees)C/km, while the maximum thermal gradient measured southwest of the caldera in the thermal outflow plume is 140)degrees)C/km. The five wells exhibit high thermal gradients (>60)deghrees)C/km) resulting from high conductive heat flow associated with the Rio Grande rift and volcanism in the Valles caldera, as well as high convective heat flow associated with circulating geothermal fluids. Gamma logs run in four of the five wells appear to be of limited use for stratigraphic correlations in the caldera region. However, stratigraphic and temperature data from the five wells provide information about the structure and thermal regime of the southern and western Valles caldera region. 29 refs., 9 figs. 2 tabs.

  2. Subsurface structure of Valles Caldera; a resurgent cauldron in northern New Mexico. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.

    1983-03-01

    Valles Caldera is a 1.1 My old silicic cauldron lying at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and northeast-trending Jemez Lineament. Geothermal exploration in the caldera region during the last 10 years provides subsurface data which refine our knowledge of deep caldera structure, but raise some questions concerning current models of resurgent cauldrons. For example, a detailed gravity investigation using 730 stations (Segar, 1974) shows a circular negative gravity anomaly centered over the caldera (as expected) but also indicates a strong northeast-trending grain of fault blocks in pre-caldera rocks, that are generally down-faulted to the southeast toward the Rift. Gravity data do not define a diapir structure beneath the resurgent dome attributable to tumescent magma; instead of a northeast-trending horst underlies the Redondo Peak segment of the dome. Interpretation of stratigraphy from many geothermal wells suggests that the caldera and resurgent dome are floored by untilted fault blocks (Hulen and Nielson, 1982). In addition, drilling to Precambrian basement and depths of 3.2 km has not encountered a large intrusive rhyolite that might logically produce tumescence of the dome. The new data indicate that the subsurface structural configuration of Valles Caldera is controlled by pre-caldera tectonics and that a more complicated mechanism is required to explain the resurgent dome standing high inside the caldera. A refined mechanism of resurgence might be one result of CSDP drilling at Valles Caldera.

  3. Third hole planned at Valles Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jamie

    Valles caldera, N. Mex., is the culmination of more than 13 million years of volcanism in the Jemez volcanic field and is an excellent model for resurgent calderas and for the high-temperature geothermal systems found with them. This month one of the biggest diamond drills in the world will start the third research core hole in the caldera. Valles Caldera 2B will be the tenth core hole in the Department of Energy's Continental Scientific Drilling Program.CSDP drilling in the 1.1-million-year-old caldera began in 1984 in the southwest moat zone when the research hole Valles Caldera 1 was continuously cored to 856 m. VC-1 intersected a hydrothermal outflow plume from the deep geothermal system. Data indicate multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity in the volcanic field's history, as well as multiple episodes of rhyolite magma generation during evolution of the caldera. The June 10, 1988 (vol. 63), issue of Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets carried a special section on results from VC-1.

  4. Interrupting the Discourse: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Reid and Valle (in this issue) illustrate how discourse within the field of learning disabilities (LD) determines what can and cannot be said and shapes what counts as knowledge or truth. Because basic assumptions about disability often remain unquestioned, Reid and Valle ask us to focus on the epistemological foundations of the field of LD. They…

  5. Using Terrestrial Sulfate Efflorescences as an Analogue of Hydrated Sulfate Formation in Valles Marineris on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. C.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals provide conclusive evidence that a hydrologic cycle was once active on the surface of Mars. Two classes of hydrated sulfate minerals have been detected by robotic instruments on Mars: monohydrated sulfate minerals comprised of kieserite and gypsum, and various polyhydrated sulfates with Fe-Ca-Na-Mg-rich compositions. These minerals are found in various locations on Mars, including large surface exposures in valley settings of Valles Marineris. However, the sulfate sources and formation mechanisms of these minerals are not yet well understood.Recently, it has been suggested that the sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris might have formed in a manner similar to sulfate efflorescences found in dry environments on Earth. In this study, we use sulfate effloresences from the Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico as a terrestrial analogue to assess major factors that might have led to deposition of sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris. In different seasons indicative of dry and wet conditions, we collected field photographs and sediment samples for chemical and stable isotopic analyses (sulfur content, δ34S) to determine major sources of sulfate ions for efflorescences and to assess how the seasonal changes in surface/groundwater activity affect their formation. Preliminary sulfur isotope results suggest that oxidation of bedrock sulfides (0.01-0.05 wt. S %) is a major source of sulfate ion for efflorescences formation because their δ34S varied in negative range (-28 to -20‰) similar to sulfides (average -32‰). Using field photographs collected in Oct 2006, Feb and Nov 2012, May 2013, Mar and Oct 2014, we infer that the highest surface accumulation of sulfate efflorescences in the studied analog site was observed after summer monsoon seasons when more water was available for surface and subsurface transport of solutes from chemical weathering. Conversely, spring snow melt led to enhanced dissolution of sulfate efflorescences.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  7. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  8. Year 3 Geologic Mapping in Central Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Gullickson, A. L.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Platz, T.; Kumar, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In year 3 we mapped the west side of central Valles Marineris, Mars. We split landslide orientations into typical terrestrial categories including flows, slides, spreads, and falls. We continued work on the ILD using bedding orientations and CRISM.

  9. Reconstruction of the most recent volcanic eruptions from the Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Brunstad, K. A.; Gardner, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    Products of the latest eruptions from the Valles caldera, New Mexico, consist of the El Cajete Pyroclastic Beds and Battleship Rock Ignimbrite, a sequence of pyroclastic fall and density current deposits erupted at ~ 55 ka, capped by the later Banco Bonito Flow erupted at ~ 40 ka, and collectively named the East Fork Member of the Valles Rhyolite. The stratigraphy of the East Fork Member has been the subject of conflicting interpretations in the past; a long-running investigation of short-lived exposures over a period of many years enables us to present a more complete event stratigraphy for these eruptions than has hitherto been possible. The volume of rhyolitic magma erupted during the 55 ka event may have been more than 10 km 3, and for the 40 ka event can be estimated with rather more confidence at 4 km 3. During the earlier event, plinian eruptions dispersed fallout pumice over much of the Valles caldera, the southern Jemez Mountains, and the Rio Grande rift. We infer a fallout thickness of several decimeters at the site of the city of Santa Fe, and significant ash fall in eastern New Mexico. In contrast, pyroclastic density currents were channeled within the caldera moat and southwestward into the head of Cañon de San Diego, the principal drainage from the caldera. Simultaneous (or rapidly alternating) pyroclastic fallout and density current activity characterized the ~ 55 ka event, with density currents becoming more frequent as the eruption progressed through two distinct stages separated by a brief hiatus. One early pyroclastic surge razed a forest in the southern caldera moat, in a similar manner to the initial blast of the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Ignimbrite outflow from the caldera through the drainage notch may have been restricted in runout distance due to steep, rugged topography in this vicinity promoting mixing between flows and air, and the formation of phoenix clouds. Lavas erupted during both the ~ 55 and ~ 40 ka events were

  10. Water and ice on Mars: Evidence from Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    An important contribution to the volatile history of Mars comes from a detailed study of Valles Marineris, where excellent stereoimages and a three-dimensional view of the upper Martian crust permit unusual insights. The evidence that ground water and ice existed until relatively recently or still exist in the equatorial area comes from observations of landslides, wall rock, and dark volcanic vents. Valles Marineris landslides are different in efficiency from large catastrophic landslides on Earth. One explanation for the difference might be that the Martian slides are lubricated by water. A comparison of landslide speeds also suggests that the Martian slides contain water. That Valles Marineris wall rock contained water or ice is further suggested by its difference from the interior layered deposits. Faults and fault zones in Valles Marineris also shed light on the problem of water content in the walls. Because the main evidence for water and ice in the wall rock comes from landslides, their time of emplacement is important. The landslides in Valles Marineris date from the time of late eruptions of the Tharsis volcanoes and thus were emplaced after the major activity of Martian outflow channels. None of the observations conclusively demonstrate that water or ice existed in the wall rock of Valles Marineris, but altogether the evidence is highly suggestive.

  11. Water and ice on Mars: Evidence from Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    An important contribution to the volatile history of Mars comes from a study of Valles Marineris, where stereoimages and a 3-D view of the upper Martian crust permit unusual insights. The evidence that ground water and ice existed until relatively recently or still exist in the equatorial area comes from observations of landslides, wall rock, and dark volcanic vents. Valles Marineris landslides are different in efficiency from large catastrophic landslides on Earth. One explanation for the difference might be that the Martian slides are lubricated by water. A comparison of landslide speeds also suggests that the Martian slides contain water. That Valles Marineris wall rock contained water or ice is further suggested by its difference from the interior layered deposits. Faults and fault zones in Valles Marineris also shed light on the problem of water content in the walls. Because the main evidence for water and ice in the wall rock comes from slides, their time of emplacement is important. The slides in Valles Marineris date from the time of late eruptions of the Tharsis volcanoes and thus were emplaced after the major activity of Martian outflow channels.

  12. Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W L; Keszthelyi, L P; McEwen, A S; Dundas, C M; Russell, P S

    2007-09-21

    Athabasca Valles is a young outflow channel system on Mars that may have been carved by catastrophic water floods. However, images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft reveal that Athabasca Valles is now entirely draped by a thin layer of solidified lava-the remnant of a once-swollen river of molten rock. The lava erupted from a fissure, inundated the channels, and drained downstream in geologically recent times. Purported ice features in Athabasca Valles and its distal basin, Cerberus Palus, are actually composed of this lava. Similar volcanic processes may have operated in other ostensibly fluvial channels, which could explain in part why the landers sent to investigate sites of ancient flooding on Mars have predominantly found lava at the surface instead.

  13. Melas Chasma: A Mars Pathfinder view of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Murchie, Scott

    1994-01-01

    A Mars Pathfinder landing site in Melas Chasma (Valles Marineris) would yield significant science return, but is outside present mission constraints. In Melas Chasma, Mars Pathfinder could investigate minimally altered basaltic material, sedimentary deposits, chemical weathering, tectonic features, the highland crust, equatorial weather, and Valles mists. Critical issues include the following: (1) nature and the origin of the Valles interior layered deposits, important for understanding water as a sedimentary and chemical agent, and for the past existence of of environments favorable for life; (2) compositions of little-altered basaltic sands, important for understanding magma genesis and weathering on Mars, and the martian meteorites; and (3) structure and composition of the highland crust, important for understanding Mars' early history .

  14. Light-toned Layered Outcrops in Valles Marineris Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Valles Marineris a system of troughs, chasms, and pit chains that stretches more than 4,000 km (2,500 miles) across the martian western hemisphere. Outcrops of layered material found in mounds and mesas within the chasms of the Valles Marineris were known from the pictures taken by Mariner 9 in 1972 and the Viking orbiters of 1976-1980. One example of the those known previously is the mesa labeled 'Candor Mensa' in the context image (above); another example is the mound in the center of Ganges Chasma. For several decades, it has been widely speculated among Mars scientists that the light- and dark-toned layered materials in the Valles Marineris might have formed in lakes that had once filled the chasms during the most recent epoch of martian history; others thought they might result from volcanic ash deposited in the chasms. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have confirmed the presence of light- and dark-toned layered sedimentary rock outcrops in the Valles Marineris, but they have also revealed many more than were previously known and they have shown several good examples that these materials are coming out of the walls of the Valles Marineris chasms. The fact that these materials come out of the chasm walls means that the layers do not represent lakes (or volcanic debris) that formed in the Valles Marineris. Instead, they represent materials deposited and buried long before there ever was a Valles Marineris. They are seen now because of the faulting and erosion that opened up and widened the Valles Marineris troughs. The context image is a mosaic of Viking 1 orbiter images taken in 1976 showing a portion of the wall that separates western Ophir Chasma from western Candor Chasma in the Valles Marineris. This area is located around 5oS, 74oW. The white box labeled 'M17-00467' shows the location of a subframe of MOC image M17-00467 that was acquired in July 2000 to allow scientists to

  15. Workshop on recent research in the Valles caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.

    1985-02-01

    Over the last 5 years, there has been increased interest in the geology of the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico. Of special interest is the Toledo-Valles caldera complex, which is targeted for research coring as part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The general topics covered in this workshop were (1) hydrothermal systems and rock-water interactions, (2) volcanology and structural framework of the Jemez volcanic field, (3) determining the presence or absence of melt below the Valles caldera, and (4) deep coring and drilling technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for each presentation.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer site is located in the 1200 km2 Jemez River basin in north-central New Mexico. Common to elevations ranging from 3040 to 2740 m in the region, the mixed conifer stand, within the entirety of the tower footprint in all directions, provides an excellent setting for studying the seasonal interaction between snow and vegetation.

  17. History of the youngest members of the Valles Rhyolite, Valles caldera, New Mexico using ESR dating method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogoh, K; Toyoda, S; Ikeda, S; Ikeya, M; Goff, F

    1991-01-01

    The cooling history of the Valles caldera was studied by the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating method using Al and Ti centers in quartz grains which were separated from the youngest units of the Valles Rhyolite. The ESR apparent ages are much younger than fission track ages and {sup 39}Ar- {sup 40}Ar ages. Three possibilities are suggested, the first is that the ESR ages are real, the second is that ESR method did not work for these samples, and the third is that about 10--40 ka, the signal intensity was partially reduced by a thermal event such as proposed by Harrison et al. (1986). Research on the first and second possibilities is continuing. The third possibility might explain the difference between ESR ages and those by other methods (fission track and {sup 39}Ar- {sup 40}Ar). ESR dating has produced new insights regarding the history of the Valles caldera.

  18. Valles Marineris dune sediment provenance and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Burr, Devon M.; Moersch, Jeffrey E.; Wray, James J.

    2014-04-01

    Although low-albedo sand is a prevalent component of the martian surface, sources and pathways of the sands are uncertain. As one of the principal present-day martian sediment sinks, the Valles Marineris (VM) rift system hosts a diversity of dune field populations associated with a variety of landforms that serve as potential sediment sources, including spur-and-gully walls, interior layered deposits (ILDs), and landslides. Here, we test the hypothesis that VM dune fields are largely derived from a variety of local and regional (intra-rift) sediment sources. Results show several dune fields are superposed on ancient wall massifs and ILDs that are topographically isolated from extra-rift sand sources. Spectral analysis of dune sand reveals compositional heterogeneity at the basinal-, dune field-, and dune-scales, arguing for discrete, relatively unmixed sediment sources. In Coprates and Melas chasmata, mapping is consistent with the principle sand source for dunes being Noachian-aged upper and lower wall materials composed of primary (igneous) minerals and glasses, some of which show evidence for alteration. In contrast, dune fields in Capri, Juventae, and Ganges chasmata show evidence for partial sediment derivation from adjacent Early Hesperian-aged hydrated sulfate-bearing ILD units. This finding indicates that these ILDs act as secondary sand sources. Dunes containing “soft” secondary minerals (e.g., monohydrated sulfate) are unlikely to have been derived from distant sources due to the physical weathering of sand grains during transport. Isolated extra-rift dune fields, sand sheets, and sand patches are located on the plateaus surrounding VM and the adjoining areas, but do not form interconnected networks of sand pathways into the rift. If past wind regimes (with respect to directionality and seasonality) were consistent with more recent regimes inferred from morphological analysis (i.e., dune slip faces, wind streaks), and were sufficient in strength and

  19. Automated detection of Martian water ice clouds: the Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogohara, Kazunori; Munetomo, Takafumi; Hatanaka, Yuji; Okumura, Susumu

    2016-10-01

    We need to extract water ice clouds from the large number of Mars images in order to reveal spatial and temporal variations of water ice cloud occurrence and to meteorologically understand climatology of water ice clouds. However, visible images observed by Mars orbiters for several years are too many to visually inspect each of them even though the inspection was limited to one region. Therefore, an automated detection algorithm of Martian water ice clouds is necessary for collecting ice cloud images efficiently. In addition, it may visualize new aspects of spatial and temporal variations of water ice clouds that we have never been aware. We present a method for automatically evaluating the presence of Martian water ice clouds using difference images and cross-correlation distributions calculated from blue band images of the Valles Marineris obtained by the Mars Orbiter Camera onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS/MOC). We derived one subtracted image and one cross-correlation distribution from two reflectance images. The difference between the maximum and the average, variance, kurtosis, and skewness of the subtracted image were calculated. Those of the cross-correlation distribution were also calculated. These eight statistics were used as feature vectors for training Support Vector Machine, and its generalization ability was tested using 10-fold cross-validation. F-measure and accuracy tended to be approximately 0.8 if the maximum in the normalized reflectance and the difference of the maximum and the average in the cross-correlation were chosen as features. In the process of the development of the detection algorithm, we found many cases where the Valles Marineris became clearly brighter than adjacent areas in the blue band. It is at present unclear whether the bright Valles Marineris means the occurrence of water ice clouds inside the Valles Marineris or not. Therefore, subtracted images showing the bright Valles Marineris were excluded from the detection of

  20. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  1. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history.

    The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that.

    The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths

  2. Noctis Labyrinthus/Valles Marineris transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 27 May 2002) The Science The transition zone between maze-like troughs of Noctis Labyrinthus and the main Valles Marineris canyon system are shown in this THEMIS visible camera image. This huge system of troughs near the equator of Mars was most likely created by tectonic forces which pulled apart the crust. In the top third of the image, on the western side of the northernmost trough, a buildup of relatively bright material on the plateau has led to an overflow into the trough. Most of the bottom of this trough is covered by sediment deposited from the plateau above. On the right-hand side of this same trough, on the southern wall, there is a thin streak of darker material that also seems to originate from the plateau above. This is most likely a gully formation. This feature could also be a dust avalanche, but because no other similar features are seen, this is unlikely. Other dark material deposited by some unknown process can also be seen all around the easternmost ridge in the trough. Near the bottom of the canyon, layers from the center ridges and the canyon wall can be matched, indicating that the ridges are made of the same material as the wall. Near the bottom of the image, there is yet another depression. This trough is filled with sediment deposited from erosion of the trough wall and possibly from the plateau above. All around the walls of this trough a layer of rocky material can be also be seen. It appears that the areas directly below the rocky ledges are 'shielded' from landslide material from above. Finally, in the northwestern wall of this trough, there is an irregular pattern of very bright material not seen anywhere else in the image. Identifying similar formations in other THEMIS visible camera images could provide some context for its occurrence and help us understand how it was formed. The Story Tectonic forces wrenched apart the crust on Mars long ago, forming deep troughs at the Martian equator like the ones seen here. They occur

  3. Bioethics and Climate Change: A Response to Macpherson and Valles.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2016-10-01

    Two articles published in Bioethics recently have explored the ways that bioethics can contribute to the climate change debate. Cheryl Cox Macpherson argues that bioethicists can play an important role in the climate change debate by helping the public to better understand the values at stake and the trade-offs that must be made in individual and social choices, and Sean Valles claims that bioethicists can contribute to the debate by framing the issues in terms of the public health impacts of climate change. While Macpherson and Valles make valid points concerning a potential role for bioethics in the climate change debate, it is important to recognize that much more than ethical analysis and reflection will be needed to significantly impact public attitudes and government policies.

  4. Core log: Valles caldera No. 2A, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Starguist, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific core hole VC-2A was drilled into the western ring-fracture zone at Sulphur Springs in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. VC-2A, the second scientific core hole in the caldera, was cored through a faulted and brecciated sequence of intracauldron tuffs and volcaniclastic rocks to a depth of 528 m. As of November 1, 1986, the unequilibrated bottom-hole temperature was 212/degree/C. The rocks penetrated are intensely altered and host sub-ore grade stockwork molybdenite mineralization between 25 and 125 m. This report contains a detailed core log to aid researchers in their studies of the Valles caldera magma hydrothermal system. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Formation of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Thick sequences of layered deposits are found in the Valles Marineris, which exhibit fine, nearly horizontal layering, and are present as isolated plateaus of what were once more extensive deposits. It was argued that the morphology of the deposits is most consistent with origin in standing bodies of water. The conditions necessary for the existence of ice-covered Martian paleolakes are examined in detail and mechanisms for sediment deposition in them are considered. It was concluded that there are several geologically feasible mechanisms that could have led to the formation of thick deposits in ice-covered paleolakes in the Valles Marineris. Present data are insufficient to choose conclusively among the various possibilities. Several types of data from the Mars Observer mission will be useful in further characterizing the deposits and clarifying the process of their origin. The deposits should be considered important targets for a future Mars sample return mission.

  6. Interrupting the discourse: a response to Reid and Valle.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Beth A

    2004-01-01

    Reid and Valle (in this issue) illustrate how discourse within the field of learning disabilities (LD) determines what can and cannot be said and shapes what counts as knowledge or truth. Because basic assumptions about disability often remain unquestioned, Reid and Valle ask us to focus on the epistemological foundations of the field of LD. They demonstrate how discourse, far from being simply an academic or abstract theoretical pursuit, has direct material consequences for people labeled as having LD. In this response, I highlight some of the ways that the discourse in the LD field is getting in the way of truly transforming education for all learners and impeding our ability to ask the hard questions about our own complicity in issues such as the overrepresentation of students of color and the inaccessibility of general education learning environments.

  7. Land- and resource-use issues at the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Intemann, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Valles Caldera possesses a wealth of resources from which various private parties as well as the public at large can benefit. Among the most significant of these are the geothermal energy resource and the natural resource. Wildlife, scenic, and recreational resources can be considered components of the natural resource. In addition, Native Americans in the area value the Valles Caldera as part of their religion. The use of land in the caldera to achieve the full benefits of one resource may adversely affect the value of other resources. Measures can be taken to minimize adverse affects and to maximize the benefits of all the varied resources within the caldera as equitably as possible. An understanding of present and potential land and resource uses in the Caldera, and who will benefit from these uses, can lead to the formulation of such measures.

  8. Young volcanic deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the interior deposits of the central Valles Marineris has led to the discovery of a sequence of deposits that cover the chasma floors and range in thickness from that of thin dust to several kilometers. The emplacement of the deposits was the last major event in the history of the Valles Marineris, following deposition of older layered interior beds, warping, faulting, erosion, and landslide emplacement. The young deposits are of three major types: (1) dark patches typically occurring along faults; (2) light-colored deposits locally associated with craters; and (3) rugged, mottled deposits with, in places, light-colored lobate fronts. These young materials may be of volcanic origin, as suggested by the low albedo and spectrally gray colors of some, their association with faults and possible volcanic craters and calderas, and their embayment relations and lobate margins. No other mechanism explains all the observed features and relations as well as volcanism. If these deposits are volcanic, implications are that (1) volcanism was associated with rifting in the Valles Marineris, (2) the volcanism was explosive in places, and (3) the volcanism may be as young as the late Tharsis volcanism and, locally, may well be recent. ?? 1990.

  9. A GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL STUDY OF THE BACA GEOTHERMAL FIELD, VALLES CALDERA, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-03-01

    The Baca location {number_sign}1 geothermal field is located in north-central New Mexico within the western half of the Plio-Pleistocene valles Caldera. Steam and hot water are produced primarily from the northeast-trending Redondo Creek graben, where downhole temperatures exceed 500 F. Stratigraphically the reservoir region can be described as a five-layer sequence that includes (1) caldera fill and the upper units of the Bandelier ash flow tuff, (2) the lower members of this tuff, which comprise the main reservoir rock at Baca, (3) the Pliocene Paliza Canyon volcanics, (4) Tertiary sands and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and (5) Precambrian granitic basement. Production is controlled by fractures and faults that are ultimately related to activity in the Rio Grande Rift system. Geophysically, the caldera is characterized by a gravity minimum and a resistivity low. A 40-mgal gravity minimum over the caldera is due mostly to the relatively low-density volcanics and sediments that fill the caldera and probably bears no relation to deep-seated magmatic sources. Two-dimensional gravity modeling indicates that the depth to Precambrian basement in Redondo Canyon is probably at least 3 km and may exceed 5 km in eastern parts of the caldera. Telluric and magnetotelluric surveys have shown that the reservoir region is associated with low resistivity and that a deep low-resistivity zone correlates well with the depth of the primary reservoir inferred from well data.

  10. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  11. Shed Some Light on the Subject: Teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's "Luces de bohemia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jason Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This essay seeks to provide parallel and interchangeable approaches to teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's challenging play "Luces de bohemia". A greater understanding of the cultural and mental frameworks of the early twentieth-century Spanish spectator will permit students to penetrate the dense intertextuality that characterizes Valle's…

  12. Interpretation of a Magnetic Map of the Valles Marineris Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purucker, M. E.; Langlais, B.; Mandea, M.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic map of Valles Marineris is interpreted in terms of left-lateral faulting, the first evidence for substantial strike-slip faulting here. Surface exposures of highly magnetic material may exist in the walls of Valles Marineris. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Are there carbonate deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    The precipitation of 30 mbar of Martian atmosphere CO2 as carbonates in lakes is suggested to be the source of thick sequences of layered deposits found in the Valles Marineris. Support is adduced for this scenario from processes occurring in the perennially frozen dry valley lakes of Antarctica, where the lake water is supersaturated with atmospheric gases. Atmospheric CO2 would have accumulated in such Martian lakes as temperature fell, and the presence of an insulating ice cover would have allowed liquid water to exist.

  14. Stratigraphy of the layered terrain in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, G.; Strom, Roger G.

    1991-01-01

    The layered terrain in Valles Marineris provides information about its origin and the geologic history of this canyon system. Whether the terrain is sedimentary material deposited in a dry or lacustrine environment, or volcanic material related to the tectonics of the canyon is still controversial. However, recent studies of Gangis Layered Terrain suggests a cyclic sequence of deposition and erosion under episodic lacustrine conditions. The stratigraphic studies are extended to four other occurrences of layered terrains in Valles Marineris in an attempt to correlate and distinguish between depositional environments. The Juvantae Chasma, Hebes Chasma, Ophir and Candor Chasmata, Melas Chasma, and Gangis Layered Terrain were examined. Although there are broad similarities among the layered terrains, no two deposits are exactly alike. This suggests that there was no synchronized regional depositional processes to form all the layered deposits. However, the similar erosional style of the lower massive weakly bedded unit in Hebes, Gangis, and Ophir-Candor suggests it may have been deposited under similar circumstances.

  15. Is the Valles caldera entering a new cycle of activity?

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, J.A.; Gardner, J.N.

    1995-05-01

    The Valles caldera formed during two major rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptive episodes (the Bandelier Tuff) at 1.61 and 1.22 Ma, after some 12 m.y. of activity in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico. Several subsequent eruptions between 1.22 and 0.52 Ma produced dominantly high-silica rhyolite lava domes and tephras within the caldera. These were followed by a dormancy of 0.46 m.y. prior to the most recent intracaldera activity, the longest hiatus since the inception of the Bandelier magma system at approximately 1.8 Ma. The youngest volcanic activity at approximately 60 ka produced the SW moat rhyolites, a series of lavas and tuffs that display abundant petrologic evidence of being newly generated melts. Petrographic textures conform closely to published predictions for silicic magmas generated by intrusion of basaltic magma into continental crust. The Valles caldera may currently be the site of renewed silicic magma generation, induced by intrusion of mafic magma at depth. Recent seismic investigations revealed the presence of a large low-velocity anomaly in the lower crust beneath the caldera. The generally aseismic character of the caldera, despite abundant regional seismicity, may be attributed to a heated crustal column, the local effect of 13 m.y. of magmatism and emplacement of mid-crustal plutons. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Small valleys and hydrologic history of the lower Mangala Valles region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.; Tanaka, K. L.

    Three diverse types of small valleys in the lower Mangala Valles region of Mars indicate a complex hydrologic history involving two main episodes of valley and channel formation: degraded valleys west of Mangala Valles; theater-headed valleys on either side of Mangala; and ribbon valleys, that cut across older plateau materials and into theater-headed valleys. This paper investigates the precise ages of the small valleys, relative to regional climatic, volcanic, and outflow-channel activity, together with the origins of the small valleys and the hydrologic history of the lower Mangala Valles region.

  17. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  18. Ice Caves in Hebrus Valles: A Target Location for the First Human Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davila, A.; Fairen, A. G.; Rodriguez, A. P.; Rask, J.; Zavaleta, J.

    2016-09-01

    Caves at Hebrus Valles are an ideal exploration target on Mars as they provide shelter, water ice, more benign temperatures, and are interesting sites for astrobiology, ensuring critical resources for the establishment of a long-term human base.

  19. Mobility of large rock avalanches: evidence from Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of H/L (height of drop/length of runout) vs. volume for landslides in Valles Marineris on Mars show a trend of decreasing H/L with increasing volume. This trend, which is linear on a log-log plot, is parallel to but lies above the trend for terrestrial dry rock avalanches. This result and estimates of 104 to 105 Pa yield strength suggest that the landslides were not water saturated, as suggested by previous workers. The offset between the H/L vs. volume trends shows that a typical Martian avalanche must be nearly two orders of magnitude more voluminous than a typical terrestrial avalance in order to achieve the same mobility. This offset might be explained by the effects of gravity on flows with high yield strengths. These results should prove useful to future efforts to resolve the controversy over the mechanics of long-runout avalanches. -Author

  20. A tectonic geomorphological classification of the walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Viking 1 imagery of the Coprates NW quadrangle was used in an attempt to develop a geomorphic classification scheme for the canyon walls of Valles Marineris analogous to that devised to evaluate the relative tectonic activity of terrestrial mountain fronts. The four classes of walls established are described and mapped. Regions where a class cannot be assigned owing to the presence of intra canyon sediments, landslides, or landslide debris; and apparent fault scarps that occur on the canyon floor rather than at the wall base are also shown. The most striking feature is the concentration of active tectonic features within lus Chasma, and to a lesser extent in Tithonium Chasma, as well as along the north walls of Coprates and East Candor.

  1. Impact craters and landslide volume distribution in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Blasio, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The landslides in the wide gorge system of Valles Marineris (Mars) exhibit volumes of the or-der of several hundred 1,000 km3 and runouts often in the excess of 80 km. Most landslides have occurred at the borders of the valleys, where the unbalanced weight of the 5-8 km high headwalls has been evidently sufficient to cause instability. Previous analysis has shown that the mechanical conditions of instability would not have been reached without external triggering fac-tors, if the wallslope consisted of intact rock. Among the factors that have likely promoted instability, we are currently analyzing: i) the possibility of rock weakening due to weathering; ii) the alternation of weak layers within more massive rock; weak layers might for example due to evaporites, the possible presence of ice table at some depth, or water; iii) weakening due to impact damage prior to the formation of Valles Marineris; studies of impact craters on Earth show that the volumes of damaged rock extends much deeper than the crater itself; iv) direct triggering of a landslide due to the seismic waves generated by a large meteoroid impact in the vicinity, and v) direct triggering of a landslide con-sequent to impact at the headwall, with impulsive release of momentum and short but intense increase of the triggering force. We gathered a large database for about 3000 Martian landslides that allow us to infer some of their statistical properties supporting our analyses, and especially to discriminate among some of the above listed predisposing and triggering factors. In particular, we analyse in this contribution the frequency distribution of landslide volumes starting from the assumption that these events are controlled by the extent of the shock damage zones. Relative position of the impact point and damage zones with respect to the Valles Marineris slopes could in fact control the released volumes. We perform 3D slope stability analy-sis under different geometrical constraints (e.g. crater

  2. Hydrated mineral stratigraphy of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, L.H.; Mustard, J.F.; Swayze, G.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Lichtenberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    New high-resolution spectral and morphologic imaging of deposits on walls and floor of Ius Chasma extend previous geomorphic mapping, and permit a new interpretation of aqueous processes that occurred during the development of Valles Marineris. We identify hydrated mineralogy based on visible-near infrared (VNIR) absorptions. We map the extents of these units with CRISM spectral data as well as morphologies in CTX and HiRISE imagery. Three cross-sections across Ius Chasma illustrate the interpreted mineral stratigraphy. Multiple episodes formed and transported hydrated minerals within Ius Chasma. Polyhydrated sulfate and kieserite are found within a closed basin at the lowest elevations in the chasma. They may have been precipitates in a closed basin or diagenetically altered after deposition. Fluvial or aeolian processes then deposited layered Fe/Mg smectite and hydrated silicate on the chasma floor, postdating the sulfates. The smectite apparently was weathered out of Noachian-age wallrock and transported to the depositional sites. The overlying hydrated silicate is interpreted to be an acid-leached phyllosilicate transformed from the underlying smectite unit, or a smectite/jarosite mixture. The finely layered smectite and massive hydrated silicate units have an erosional unconformity between them, that marks a change in surface water chemistry. Landslides transported large blocks of wallrock, some altered to contain Fe/Mg smectite, to the chasma floor. After the last episode of normal faulting and subsequent landslides, opal was transported short distances into the chasma from a few m-thick light-toned layer near the top of the wallrock, by sapping channels in Louros Valles. Alternatively, the material was transported into the chasma and then altered to opal. The superposition of different types of hydrated minerals and the different fluvial morphologies of the units containing them indicate sequential, distinct aqueous environments, characterized by alkaline

  3. The El Cajete Series, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Kircher, D. E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1988-06-01

    Three rhyolite eruptive units totaling 3 km3 dense rock equivalent volume are the youngest products from the Valles caldera, New Mexico. These pyroclastic and effusive units, herein called the El Cajete Series, were erupted over an appreciable time period with Plinian and ignimbrite-forming activity preceding an effusive phase by a lengthy but indeterminable interval. New U-Th disequilibrium and published fission track dates support an age for the event between 170 and 130 ka. The explosive phases formed the El Cajete Plinian deposit (about 1.3 km3), minor dry pyroclastic surges, and the Battleship Rock tuff (about 1.0 km3), a valley-confined welded ignimbrite. The Plinian eruption column is estimated to have been 28 km high during deposition of the most widely dispersed pumice fall unit. Slow effusion of the Banco Bonito obsidian lava flow (<1.0 km3) onto a dissected surface cut into the El Cajete and Battleship Rock pyroclastic deposits, accompanied by minor explosive activity, terminated the event. Twenty-four bulk-rock samples from all three eruptive stages exhibit little significant compositional variation, and the three units are petrographically identical apart from differences arising from contrasting eruption styles. Very few phenocrysts appear to have been in equilibrium with their enclosing high-silica rhyolitic liquid. Plagioclase grains are typically strongly resorbed, while biotite and hornblende frequently occur in aggregate grains in which textures characteristic of plutonic rocks can be discerned. These features result from partial melting of preexisting crustal igneous rock, probably of dioritic to granodioritic composition, and subsequent eruption of the resulting liquid plus restite crystals. Rapid generation and eruption of rhyolitic magma during this most recent phase of activity in the Jemez Mountains may imply that the Valles magma system is presently in a state where small magma bodies are transient phenomena.

  4. Fault Networks in the Northwestern Albuquerque Basin and Their Potential Role in Controlling Mantle CO2 Degassing and Fluid Migration from the Valles Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Fischer, T. P.; Lee, H.; McGibbon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande rift (RGR) has Quaternary and active volcanism and faulting that provide a field laboratory for examining links between mantle degassing and faults as fluid conduits. Diffuse and spring CO2 flux measurements were taken at 6 sites in the northwestern Albuquerque Basin (NWAB) and Valles caldera geothermal system. All sites progress to the southwest from the 1.25 Ma Valles caldera, down the rift-related Jemez fault network, to intersect with the Nacimiento fault system. Mantle CO2 and He degassing are well documented at 5 of 6 sites, with decreasing 3He/4He ratios away from the caldera. The instrument used to measure CO2 flux was an EGM-4 CO2 gas analyzer (PP systems) with an accumulation chamber. Carbonic springs at Penasco Springs (PS) and San Ysidro (SY), and the carbonate-cemented Sand Hill Fault (SHF) were targeted, all near the western border of the RGR. The SHF has no spring activity, had the smallest maximum flux of all the sites (8 g/m2d), but carbonate along the fault zone (<2 m wide) attest to past CO2 flux. The other two sites are equal distance (30-40 km) between the SHF site and Valles caldera sites. These sites have active carbonic springs that precipitate travertine mounds. Our work suggests these sites reflect intersections of the Nacimiento fault with NE trending faults that connect to the Jemez fault network. The maximum diffuse flux recorded at SY (297 g/m2d) and PS (25 g/m2d) are high, especially along the fault and near springs. At SY and PS the instruments capacity was exceeded (2,400 g/m2d) at 6 of 9 springs. Interpretations indicate a direct CO2 flux through a fault-related artesian aquifer system that is connected to magmatic gases from the caldera. Maximum diffuse flux measurements of Alamo Canyon (20,906 g/m2d), Sulphur Springs (2,400 g/m2d) and Soda Dam (1,882 g/m2d) at Valles caldera geothermal sites are comparable to Yellowstone geothermal systems. We use geospatial analysis and local geologic mapping to examine

  5. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  6. Landslide on Valles Marineris: morphology and flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Baratoux, D.; Pinet, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Valles Marineris is known as a place of numerous and well preserved landslides on Mars. In comparison with terrestrial landslides, martian landslides are distinctive in their size and morphology. As a consequence of the topography of the canyon, the averaged drop height of these landslides is about 6.5 km and the averaged volume is about 102~4 km3[1], which is 2~3 orders of magnitude larger than terrestrial ones, at the exception of marine landslides[2]. As for the morphology, clear levees with longitudinal lineations are typical features of martian landslides, whereas surfaces of the terrestrial mass movements are dominated by a rather chaotic topography with, in some cases, the occurrence of transverse ridges. The characteristics of the deposits should reflect the dynamics of the emplacement and the subsurface material properties. In particular, there is a longstanding debate about the relation between the long run-out length and the existence of subsurface volatiles (water ice, clathrates, ground water) [1,3,4,5,6,7]. The motivation of our research is the fact that material properties are expected to be deduced from the morphology of the deposits and the knowledge of the flow dynamics. Then, the characteristics of subsurface materials partially collapsed as mass movements could be documented as a function of time, considering the age of each landslide. In this study, we focus on the longitudinal grooves which are found on the surface of landslide deposits at Valles Marineris (Fig.1). This pattern is a typical feature in the martian landslides[3], and extremely rarely observed in the terrestrial mass movements. The origin is not well clarified, but it seems strong relation with the flow style or physical property of transported materials. With the objective to determine the condition of formation of the lineations, the geometric characteristics (volume, surface, thickness, run-out length) of lineated and non-lineated landslides are compared. Then

  7. Variation of Fracturing Pressures with Depth Near the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Zora; Murphy, Hugh

    1983-12-15

    Hydraulic Fracturing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal site near the Valles Caldera has yielded fracturing pressures from 14 to 81 MPa (2030 to 11,750 psi) at depths ranging from 0.7 to 4.4 km (2250 to 14,400 ft). This data can be fit to a fracture gradient of 19 MPa/km (0.84 psi/ft), except for an anomalous region between 2.6 to 3.2 km where fracturing pressures are about 20 MPa lower than estiamted using the above gradient. This anomaly coincides with a biotite granodiorite intrusive emplaced into a heterogeneous jointed metamorphic complex comprised of gneisses, schists and metavolcanic rocks. Microseismic events detected with sensitive downhole geophones suggest that shear failure is an important process during hydraulic fracturing of such jointed rock. Consequently the usual relation between minimum earth stress and fracture opening pressure, based upon classic tensile failure, cannot be used apriori; fracture opening pressure is instead a complex function of joint orientation and all three components of principal earth stress.

  8. Voluminous volcanism on early mars revealed in valles marineris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Malin, M.C.; Carr, M.H.; Hartmann, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The relative rates and importance of impact cratering, volcanism, erosion, and the deposition of sediments to the early geological history of Mars are poorly known. That history is recorded in the upper crust of the planet, which is best exposed along the 4,000km-long canyon system called Valles Marineris. Previous studies of the stratigraphy of this region have assumed that it consists of megabreccia and fractured bedrock resulting from impacts, overlain by or interbedded with relatively thin layers of lava, and with the layering restricted to the uppermost level of the crust. Here we report new high-resolution images that reveal ubiquitous horizontal layering to depths of at least 8 km in the canyons. Megabreccia should be only coarsely layered and fractured bedrock should be unlayered, so these observations indicate that volcanic or sedimentary processes were much more important in early martian history than previously believed. Morphological and compositional data suggest that the layers were formed mainly by volcanic flood lavas. Mars was therefore probably very volcanically active during at least the first billion years and after the period when the heaviest impact bombardment had ended.

  9. Valles Marineris, Mars: Wet debris flows and ground ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed study of the Valles Marineris equatorial troughs suggests that the landslides in that area contained water and probably were gigantic wet debris flows: one landslide complex generated a channel that has several bends and extends for 250 km. Further support for water or ice in debris masses includes rounded flow lobes and transport of some slide masses in the direction of the local topographic slope. Differences in speed and emplacement efficiency between Martian and terrestrial landslides can be attributed to the entrainment of volatiles on Mars, but they can also be explained by other mechanisms. Support that the wall rock contained water comes from the following observations: (1) the water within the landslide debris must have been derived from wall rock; (2) debris appears to have been transported through tributary canyons; (3) locally, channels emerged from the canyons; (4) the wall rock apprarently disintegrated and flowed easily; and (5) fault zones within the troughs are unusually resistant to erosion. The study further suggests that, in the equatorial region of Mars, material below depths of 400-800 m was not desiccated during the time of landslide activity (within the last billion years of Martian history). Therefore the Martian ground-water or groundice reservoir, if not a relic from ancient times, must have been replenished. ?? 1987.

  10. Variable features in the Valles Marineris region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, Paul E.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Transient phenomena on Mars have long been recognized in Mariner and Viking images as well as in decades of Earth based telescopic observations. These events are of interest because of the information they present on currently active meteorological and geological processes. Changes in surface albedo patterns and atmospheric conditions can also affect the analysis and interpretation of data based on spectral or morphological properties of geologic units on the surface. The mechanism responsible for albedo pattern change is currently under investigation. Generation and subsequent transportation and deposition of dark sands has been interpreted in the Valles. However, the removal of a bright dust layer is more consistent with the rapid time period of the change (about two months) and with preliminary multispectral mapping results which suggest that the dark streak south of Eos and Coprates Chasmata is spectrally distinguishable from the dark saltating materials found elsewhere in the canyon system. If a layer of bright dust was removed to affect the albedo change, questions concerning how such micron-sized particles are mobilized by the winds during a normally quiescent season (Southern Hemisphere Autumn) should be addressed.

  11. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  12. Basaltic Ring Structures as an Analog for Ring Features in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, W. L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Baker, V. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Miyamoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Basaltic ring structures (BRSs) are enigmatic, quasi-circular landforms in eastern Washington State that were first recognized in 1965. They remained a subject of geologic scrutiny through the 1970 s and subsequently faded from the spotlight, but recent Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showing morphologically similar structures in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have sparked renewed interest in BRSs. The only known BRSs occur in the Channeled Scabland, a region where catastrophic Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula eroded into the Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The geologic setting of the martian ring structures (MRSs) is similar; Athabasca Valles is a young channel system that formed when catastrophic aqueous floods carved into a volcanic substrate. This study investigates the formation of terrestrial BRSs and examines the extent to which they are appropriate analogs for the MRSs in Athabasca Valles.

  13. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  14. Sedimentation, volcanism, and ancestral lakes in the Valles Marineris: Clues from topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Isbell, N. K.; Howington-Kraus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Compilation of a simplified geologic/geomorphic map onto a digital terrain model of Valles Marineris has permitted quantitative evaluations of topographic parameters. The study showed that, if their interior layered deposits are lacustrine, the ancestral Valles Marineris must have consisted of isolated basins. If, on the other hand, the troughs were interconnected as they are today, the deposits are most likely to volcanic origin, and the mesas in the peripheral troughs may be table mountains. The material eroded from the trough walls was probably not sufficient to form all of the interior layered deposits, but it may have contributed significantly to their formation.

  15. Volcanism inside Valles Marineris? A field of small pitted cones in Coprates Chasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, P.; Hauber, E.; Rossi, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    We present observations of a field of more than 100 pitted cones and mounds situated insight Coprates Chasma (part of Valles Marineris; Fig. 1), which bear many morphological and morphometrical similarities to terrestrial and martian scoria cones. If these cones are indeed volcanic in origin, they will significantly expand our knowledge about the morphometry of pyroclastic cones on Mars. A magmatic origin, which would necessarily post-date the opening of the main troughs, would contribute to our understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of Valles Marineris.

  16. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  17. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  18. Hydrology in the Durius Valles Region: Evaluation of Possible Correlation with Volcanism and Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Natalie A.; Marinangeli, Lucia; Grin, Edmond A.

    2000-01-01

    We envision the contribution of subglacial flows, hydrothermalism and sapping in the Durius Valles system and the consequences in term of climate on Mars in recent geological times. We evaluate the possible correlation of the hydrology with volcanism and magnetic anomalies.

  19. Confounding the Needs and Confronting the Norms: An Extension of Reid and Valle's Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantlinger, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article expands the ideas presented in Reid and Valle's essay by further exploring the construct of normality and its implications for children in schools. It examines the reasons for the nature of current school policy and practice by explicating who benefits and who loses from typical school structures and recent national legislation.…

  20. Learning Disabilities and the New Reductionism: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Paul; Hoskyn, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to respond to Reid and Valle's article "The Discursive Practice of LD: Implications for Instruction and Parent?School Relations" in this issue. Our response to the discursive analysis is organized around two major themes: (a) the issue of balance in the scholarship on learning disabilities (LD) and (b) the centrality…

  1. Teaching in French in the Primary Schools of the Valle D'Aosta, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    Recent activation of a 1940 Italian law allowing equal amounts of elementary school subject area instruction in French and Italian in the Valle D'Aosta (Italy) are described. The plan uses paired bilingual teachers who alternate both languages and grades during the school day. Extension of the program to higher grades is discussed. (six…

  2. The first report of the aphids of the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report 50 species, belonging to 26 genera of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), collected within and near the boundary of the Valles Caldera National Preserve in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, USA. Of these, 35 (70%) represent new distribution records for New Mexico. Plant genera/species...

  3. The Interior Layered Deposits of Valles Marineris: Layering, Erosional Processes, and Age Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Parker, T.; Anderson, F. S.; Grant, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We have used Viking and Mars Global Surveyor data to study the interior layered deposits in detail. We have identified features which may support fluvial activity within Valles Marineris. Stratigraphic relationships indicate the deposits are younger than the wallrock. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Comment on "Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system".

    PubMed

    Page, David P

    2008-06-20

    Jaeger et al. (Reports, 21 September 2007, p. 1709) presented images of the Athabasca Valles channel system on Mars and asserted that the observed deposits are composed of thin, fluid lavas. However, all the features they described are secondary and postdate the surface by many millions of years, as documented by structural relationships with small, young impact craters.

  5. MEVTV study: Early tectonic evolution of Mars: Crustal dichotomy to Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; Schultz, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Several fundamental problems were addressed in the early impact, tectonic, and volcanic evolution of the martian lithosphere: (1) origin and evolution of the fundamental crustal dichotomy, including development of the highland/lowland transition zone; (2) growth and evolution of the Valles Marineris; and (3) nature and role of major resurfacing events in early martian history. The results in these areas are briefly summarized.

  6. Evidence of a Paleolake in the central Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Valles Marineris (VM) canyon system of Mars is closely related to large flooding channels, some of which emerge full born from chaotic terrain in canyon floors. Coprates Chasma, one of the largest VM canyons, is connected at its eastern end to chaotic terrain Capri Chasma. Despite the likely large volumes of groundwater that discharged from Capri Chasma [1], no evidence of related fluvial activity in Coprates Chasma has thus far been reported. We present an analysis of the regional topography which, together with photogeologic interpretation of available imagery, suggests that ponding due to late-stage discharge of water from Capri Chasma chaotic terrain produced a shallow lake spanning parts of Melas, Coprates, Capri and Eos Chasmata (MCCE). Overflow of this lake at its eastern end resulted in delivery of water to downstream chaos regions and outflow channels. Our ponding hypothesis is motivated primarily by the identification of scarp and terrace features which, despite a lateral spread of about 1500 km, have similar elevations. Furthermore, these elevations correspond to the maximum ponding elevation of the region (-3562 m). Mean lake depth is 842 m. Simulated ponding in the MCCE system yields an overflow point at its eastern extremity, in Eos Chasma. The neighborhood of this overflow point contains clear indicators of fluvial erosion in a consistent east-west orientation (Figure 4). Specifically, scour marks suggest an eastward convergence of flow lines. Downstream of the overflow point, the direction set by the scour marks is paved by a smooth deposit leading directly to a scoured channel entering the next major region of chaotic terrain, Aurorae Chaos. The smooth deposit is likely made up of remnants of the interior deposit breached by the MCCE paleolake overflow. The next region of chaotic terrain downstream of Aurorae Chasma is Hydraotes Chaos, which lies in a relatively deep depression and would be the next significant ponding location for flow

  7. Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dengue fever outbreak has plagued Rio de Janeiro since January 2002. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease. The elimination of standing water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes, is a primary defense against mosquito-borne diseases like dengue. Removing such water remains a difficult problem in many urban regions. The International Space Station astronauts took this image (ISS001-ESC-5418) of Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Hydrogeochemical data for thermal and nonthermal waters and gases of the Valles Caldera- southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Vuataz, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, W.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents field, chemical, gas, and isotopic data for thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, north of San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near-surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters at Sulphur Springs (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters in the ring fracture zone (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal waters of the Baca geothermal field and derivative waters in the Soda Dam and Jemez Springs area (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. Data in this report will help in interpreting the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and will provide background for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  9. Francisco Vallés and the Renaissance reinterpretation of Aristotle's Meteorologica IV as a medical text.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I describe the context and goals of Francisco Vallés In IV librum Meteorologicorum commentaria (1558). Vallés' work stands as a landmark because it interprets a work of Aristotle's natural philosophy specifically for medical doctors and medical theory. Vallés' commentary is representative of new understandings of Galenic-Hippocratic medicine that emerged as a result of expanding textual knowledge. These approaches are evident in a number of sixteenth-century commentaries on Meteorologica IV; in particular the works of Pietro Pomponazzi, Lodovico Boccadiferro, Jacob Schegk, and Francesco Vimercati. Vallés' conviction that Meteorologica IV is relevant to medical knowledge depends on his understanding of Aristotle's theory of homeomerous substances and their relation to composite substances. The application of Meteorologica IV to medical topics became commonplace in the following years, and this Aristotelian book became widely known as a bridge between natural philosophy and medicine.

  10. Geothermal data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the Valles Caldera - southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1982-05-01

    Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico are presented. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, near San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal and derivative waters (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. The object of the data is to help interpret geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and to provide background data for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  11. Tectonic rotations within the Rio Grande rift - Evidence from paleomagnetic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. L.; Golombek, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies on Miocene Pliocene volcanic rocks from the Espanola basin of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, reveal directions discordant form the expected mean direction for North America. The Paliza Canyon Formation, Tschicoma Formation, and Lobato Basalt, all sampled in the Jemez Mountains west of the Pajarito fault zone, have mean declinations east of the expected mean. The Cerros del Rio volcanics, lying east of the Pajarito fault zone, have a westerly declination. Combined with published data on the Santa Fe Group sediments east of the fault zone, and the Valles Rhyolite, west of the fault zone, distinct rotations of the two areas are evident. The western block has rotated clockwise 12 deg, while the eastern block shows 16 deg of conter-clockwise motion. Differential rotations of 25-30 deg are calculated between the two blocks; 4 deg/m.y. is the minimum differential rotation for the past 5 m.y. Geologic explanations for these rotations include the opening of the Rio Grande rift in response to clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau and significant left slip along the Rio Grande rift.

  12. Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.

    2012-12-01

    Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood dynamics but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved topography, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived topography. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated

  13. The Rio Chagres, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Russell S.

    This book calls the attention of the scientific community, government organizations and non-government agencies, and the general public to arguably one of the most important and complex of the world's tropical rainforest regions -- the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The Rio Chagres basin is the primary source for water to operate the Panama Canal, and also supplies water for electricity generation and potable water for municipal use, but this important national resource is largely unstudied from a scientific point of view.

  14. Clustered streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles, Mars: Evidence for sediment deposition during floodwater ponding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.

    2005-01-01

    A unique clustering of layered streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles is hypothesized to reflect a significant hydraulic event. The forms, interpreted as sedimentary, are attributed to extensive sediment deposition during ponding and then streamlining of this sediment behind flow obstacles during ponded water outflow. These streamlined forms are analogous to those found in depositional basins and other loci of ponding in terrestrial catastrophic flood landscapes. These terrestrial streamlined forms can provide the best opportunity for reconstructing the history of the terrestrial flooding. Likewise, the streamlined forms in Athabasca Valles may provide the best opportunity to reconstruct the recent geologic history of this young Martian outflow channel. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the Source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghatan, Gil J.; Head, James W.; Wilson, L.; Leask, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mangala Valles, an approx. 900 km long north-south trending outflow channel located southwest of the Tharsis rise, extends northward from one of the Memnonia Fossae graben across the southern highlands, terminating at the dichotomy boundary. Previous Viking-based analyses suggest that the water that carved the channel was expelled from the graben, possibly during two distinct flood events, one in the Late Hesperian and one in the Latest Hesperian/Early Amazonian. The mechanism by which the water was transported to the graben, and ultimately to the surface remained ambiguous, although two general scenarios were proposed: melting of near surface ground ice via nearby Tharsis lava flows, and tapping of a near surface aquifer via faulting associated with the graben. Here we use MOLA altimetric data and MOC and THEMIS images to reexamine Mangala Valles and the surrounding region. Further, we develop a new model for the production and transport of the floodwater.

  16. Dark materials in Valles Marineris - Indications of the style of volcanism and magmatism on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, Paul E.; Singer, Robert B.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    1990-01-01

    Computer mapping of spectral reflectance in Viking Orbiter I multispectral images is combined with photogeological interpretation and used to examine the geological significance of the dark materials in Valles Marineris, a canyon system that provides a unique view of the interior of the Martian crust. Special consideration is given to the relation of the dark materials to the past episodes of tectonism, volcanic activity, and igneous intrusion. Spectral mapping suggests that the dark floor-covering materials in the lower canyon are derived from a thick deposit composed of mafic glass, possibly an ancient Martian analogue of the lunar terra mantling deposits. Application of computer mapping techniques to probable young volcanic materials in the central troughs yields an inferred distribution of volcanic activity consistent with the interpretation of extrusion along faults near the margins of the canyon floors. The results support the hypothesis that Valles Marineris originated through tectonic extension.

  17. Layering in the wall rock of Valles Marineris: intrusive and extrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Manning, Craig E.

    2003-06-01

    High-resolution images of the walls exposed in Valles Marineris reveal variations in appearance and degree of layering indicating various lithologies comprise the Tharsis plateau. The layered wall rock has been proposed to result from effusive flood basalt volcanism or interbedded sediments and volcanics. We present observations of unlayered rock that indicate layering extends to a greater depth in the western half of Valles Marineris and is confined to the Tharsis plateau, a region of thickened, uplifted crust resulting from prolonged intrusive activity. Consistent with this view, we propose that the observed layering may be a manifestation of intrusive rocks resulting from crystal fractionation of intruded basaltic magmas. Terrestrial layered plutons provide analogs for comparison such as those of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) a large igneous province associated with crustal rifting and exposures of thick sequences of layered flood basalts and intruded layered cumulates.

  18. Valles caldera region, New Mexico, and the emerging continental scientific drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.

    1988-06-10

    Valles caldera is best known in recent years as an excellent example of a resurgent caldera and as the site of a high-temperature geothermal system. However, Valles caldera and the surrounding Jemez Mountains volcanic field possess a rich history of geologic research that dates back to the late 1880s. Through the years, the research focus has changed as different economic and scientific factors have exerted their influence. Early work emphasized mining activity, while modern work has stressed volcanology and, later, geothermal development. Only in the last 5 years has it been possible to view the region as a dynamic, integrated magma-hydrothermal system having a complex evolution lasting more than 13 m.y.

  19. New insights on the runout of large landslides in the Valles-Marineris canyons, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, E.; Quantin, C.; Allemand, P.; Delacourt, C.

    2006-02-01

    Analogy with lab-scale dry granular flow experiments demonstrates that runouts and deposits heights of Valles-Marineris (VM) landslides can be scaled on a curve varying primarily with the initial aspect ratio of the mobilized rock mass (before slope failure). This results suggests both that any interstitial fluid played a negligible part in the VM landslides dynamics and that mobility is not an appropriate tool to characterize their dynamics.

  20. Hydrothermal outflow plume of Valles caldera, New Mexico, and a comparison with other outflow plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Gardner, J.N.; Vuataz, F.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1988-06-10

    Stratigraphic, temperature gradient, hydrogeochemical, and hydrologic data have been integrated with geologic data from previous studies to show the structural configuration of the Valles caldera hydrothermal outflow plume. Hydrologic data suggest that 25--50% of the discharge of the Valles outflow is confined to the Jemez fault zone, which predates caldera formation. Thermal gradient data from bores penetrating the plume show that shallow gradients are highest in the vicinity of the Jemez fault zone (up to 190 /sup 0/C/km). Shallow heat flow above the hydrothermal plume is as high as 500 mW m/sup -2/ near core hole VC-1 (Jemez fault zone) to 200 mW m/sup -2/ at Fenton Hill (Jemez Plateau). Chemical and isotopic data indicate that two source reservoirs within the caldera (Redondo Creek and Sulphur Springs reservoirs) are parents to mixed fluids flowing in the hydrothermal plume. However, isotopic data, borehole data, basic geology, and inverse relations between temperature and chloride content at major hot springs indicate that no single reservoir fluid and no single diluting fluid are involved in mixing. The Valles caldera hydrothermal plume is structurally dominated by lateral flow through a belt of vertical conduits (Jemez fault zone) that strike away from the source reservoir. Stratigraphically confined flow is present but dispersed over a wide area in relatively impermeable rocks. The Valles configuration is contrasted with the configuration of the hydrothermal plume at Roosevelt Hot Springs, which is dominated by lateral flow through a near-surface, widespread, permeable aquifer. Data from 12 other representative geothermal systems show that outflow plumes occur in a variety of magmatic and tectonic settings, have varying reservoir compositions, and have different flow characteristics.

  1. Evidence for ponding and catastrophic floods in central Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Chapman, Mary G.

    2008-12-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system of Mars is closely related to large flood channels, some of which emerge full born from chaotic terrain in canyon floors. Coprates Chasma, one of the largest Valles Marineris canyons, is connected at its west end to Melas Chasma and on its east end to chaotic terrain-filled Capri and Eos Chasmata. The area from central Melas to Eos Chasmata contains a 1500 km long and about 1 km deep depression in its floor. Despite the large volumes of groundwater that likely discharged from chaotic terrain in this depression, no evidence of related fluvial activity has thus far been reported. We present an analysis of the regional topography which, together with photogeologic interpretation of available imagery, suggests that ponding due to late Hesperian discharge of water possibly produced a lake (mean depth 842 m) spanning parts of the Valles Marineris depression (VMD). Overflow of this lake at its eastern end resulted in delivery of water to downstream chaos regions and outflow channels. Our ponding hypothesis is motivated primarily by the identification of scarp and terrace features which, despite a lateral spread of about 1500 km, have similar elevations. Furthermore, these elevations correspond to the maximum ponding elevation of the region (-3560 m). Simulated ponding in the VMD yields an overflow point at its eastern extremity, in Eos Chasma. The neighborhood of this overflow point contains clear indicators of fluvial erosion in a consistent east-west orientation.

  2. Evidence for ponding and catastrophic floods in central Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, K.P.; Chapman, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system of Mars is closely related to large flood channels, some of which emerge full born from chaotic terrain in canyon floors. Coprates Chasma, one of the largest Valles Marineris canyons, is connected at its west end to Melas Chasma and on its east end to chaotic terrain-filled Capri and Eos Chasmata. The area from central Melas to Eos Chasmata contains a 1500 km long and about 1 km deep depression in its floor. Despite the large volumes of groundwater that likely discharged from chaotic terrain in this depression, no evidence of related fluvial activity has thus far been reported. We present an analysis of the regional topography which, together with photogeologic interpretation of available imagery, suggests that ponding due to late Hesperian discharge of water possibly produced a lake (mean depth 842 m) spanning parts of the Valles Marineris depression (VMD). Overflow of this lake at its eastern end resulted in delivery of water to downstream chaos regions and outflow channels. Our ponding hypothesis is motivated primarily by the identification of scarp and terrace features which, despite a lateral spread of about 1500 km, have similar elevations. Furthermore, these elevations correspond to the maximum ponding elevation of the region (-3560 m). Simulated ponding in the VMD yields an overflow point at its eastern extremity, in Eos Chasma. The neighborhood of this overflow point contains clear indicators of fluvial erosion in a consistent east-west orientation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  3. New evidence for a magmatic influence on the origin of Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Williams, J.-P.; Anderson, R.C.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Komatsu, G.; Davila, A.F.; Ferris, J.C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Fairen, A.G.; Hare, T.M.; Miyamoto, H.; Tanaka, K.L.; Wheelock, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the complex geological evolution of Valles Marineris, Mars, has been highly influenced by the manifestation of magmatism (e.g., possible plume activity). This is based on a diversity of evidence, reported here, for the central part, Melas Chasma, and nearby regions, including uplift, loss of huge volumes of material, flexure, volcanism, and possible hydrothermal and endogenic-induced outflow channel activity. Observations include: (1) the identification of a new > 50??km-diameter caldera/vent-like feature on the southwest flank of Melas, which is spatially associated with a previously identified center of tectonic activity using Viking data; (2) a prominent topographic rise at the central part of Valles Marineris, which includes Melas Chasma, interpreted to mark an uplift, consistent with faults that are radial and concentric about it; (3) HiRISE-identified landforms along the floor of the southeast part of Melas Chasma that are interpreted to reveal a volcanic field; (4) CRISM identification of sulfate-rich outcrops, which could be indicative of hydrothermal deposits; (5) GRS K/Th signature interpreted as water-magma interactions and/or variations in rock composition; and (6) geophysical evidence that may indicate partial compensation of the canyon and/or higher density intrusives beneath it. Long-term magma, tectonic, and water interactions (Late Noachian into the Amazonian), albeit intermittent, point to an elevated life potential, and thus Valles Marineris is considered a prime target for future life detection missions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fog as a Potential Indicator of a Local Water Source in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2016-10-01

    Images from Mars Express suggest that water ice fog may be present in Valles Marineris while absent from the surrounding plateau. Using a regional atmospheric model, we investigate planetary boundary layer processes and discuss the implications of these potential water ice fog. Results from our simulations show that the temperature inside Valles Marineris appears warmer relative to the plateaus outside at all times of day. From the modeled temperatures, we calculate saturation vapor pressures and saturation mixing to determine the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere for cloud formation. For a well-mixed atmosphere, saturated conditions in the canyon imply supersaturated conditions outside the canyon where it is colder. Consequently, low clouds should be everywhere. This is generally not the case. Based on potential fog observations inside the canyon, if we assume the plateau is just sub-saturated, and the canyon bottom is just saturated, the resulting difference in mixing ratios represents the minimum amount of vapor required for the atmosphere to be saturated, and for potential fog to form. Under these conditions, we determined that the air inside the canyon would require a 4-7 times enrichment in water vapor at saturation compared to outside the canyon. This suggests a local source of water vapor is required to explain water ice fog appearing within the confines of Valles Marineris on Mars.

  5. Formation of Valles Marineris and Associated Outlfow Channels by Catastrophic Dewatering of Evaporite Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Gillespie, A.

    2004-12-01

    Geological mapping based on topographic analysis of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, together with photointerpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images, and thermodynamic and heat-flow considerations lead to a new hypothesis for the formation of Valles Marineris and the associated outflow channels through catastrophic dewatering of ancient evaporite deposits. MOLA transects across Valles Marineris reveal that the valley is located at the crest of a 2-km-high topographic bulge on the flank of the much larger Tharsis Rise. The Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) within Valles Marineris unconformably underlie, and therefore would have been heated by, Hesperian age lava flows, as well as from below by insulation by the Hesperian flows and an increased geothermal gradient due to development of the Tharis Rise. The ILDs are now thought on the basis of spectroscopic data to contain hydrous sulfate salts. The estimated range of increased temperatures predicts the potential to dehydrate >km-thick sections of gypsum or epsomite in reactions that would trigger volumetric expansion sufficient to account for the topographic bulge and catastrophically release tremendous amounts of over-pressured water.

  6. Morphologic contrasts between Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles, Mars: Evidence of different crustal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Winchell, Philip J.

    Photoclinometric measurements were made of sidewall slopes in Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles and these results were interpreted in terms of the geologic setting and a simple geomorphic model to provide insights into the physical properties of crustal materials in these areas. Nirgal was interpreted to be a runoff channel and Auqakuh to be a fretted channel. Geomorphologic arguments for the sapping origin of Nirgal and Auqakuh Valles were presented. The morphologies of the channels, however, differ greatly: the tributaries of Nirgal end abruptly in theater-headed canyons, whereas the heads of tributaries of Auqakuh shallow gradually. The plateau surface surrounding both channels appears to be covered by smooth materials, presumably lava flows; they are continuous and uneroded in the Nirgal area, but at Auqakuh they are largely eroded and several layers are exposed that total about 200 m in thickness. For Nirgal Valles, the measurements show that sidewalls in the ralatively shallow upper reaches of the channel have average slopes near 30 degrees and, in the lower reaches, sidewall slopes exceed 50 degrees. Auqakuh, on the other hand, has maximum sidewall slopes of 14 degrees and an approximate maximum depth of 1000 m. Faint, horizontal layering in portions of the lower reaches of Nirgal may indicate inhomogeneity in either composition or topography.

  7. Slope stability analysis for Valles Marineris, Mars: a numerical analysis of controlling conditions and failure types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G.; Castellanza, R.; De Blasio, F.; Utili, S.

    2012-04-01

    Valles Marineris (VM hereafter) in the equatorial area of Mars exhibits several gravitative failures often involving the whole 6-8 km thickness of the valley walls. The failures have resulted in a series of long-runout landslides up to several hundred cubic kilometres in volume (Quantin et al., 2004), and the formation of sub-circular alcoves perched on the top. Several questions arise as to forces at play in the stability of the walls of VM, the geometrical shape of the alcoves and the shape and long-runout of the landslides (see for example Lucas et al., 2011). In this work, we concentrate on the stability analysis of the walls of VM with two precise questions in mind starting from past studies (Bigot-Cormier and Montgomery, 2006; Neuffer and Schultz, 2006, Schultz, 2002). The first concerns the properties of the materials that give origin to instability. We performed several finite element and discrete element calculations tailored to slope stability analysis based on the genuine shape of the walls of VM taken from the MOLA topographic data. We considered stratified and differently altered/degraded materials to define the range of physical mechanical properties required for failure to occur and to explain the discrete distribution of failures along the VM valley flanks. A second question addressed in this work is the geometrical shape of the sub-circular alcoves. Normally, these shapes are commonplace for slopes made of uniform and isotropic properties, and are also observed in subaqueous environment. We performed calculations taking into consideration the progressive failure in the slope showing the final results in terms of surface failure geometry. Bigot-Cormier, F., Montgomery, D.R. (2007) Valles Marineris landslides: Evidence for a strength limit to Martian relief? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 260, 1-2, 15, 179-186 Lucas, A., Mangeney, A., Mège, D., and Bouchut, F., 2011. Influence of the scar geometry on landslide dynamics and deposits

  8. Mesoscale Modeling of Water Vapor and Dust in Valles Marineris: Atmospheric Influences on Recurring Slope Lineae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, C. W. S.; Rafkin, S. C.; McEwen, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extensive recurring slope lineae (RSL) activity has been detected in Valles Marineris on Mars and coincides with regions where water ice fogs appear [1]. The origin of the water driving RSL flow is not well understood, but observational evidence suggests atmospheric processes play a crucial role [2]. Provided the atmospheric vapor concentration is high enough, water ice fogs can form overnight if the surface temperature cools below the condensation temperature. Correlations between dust storms and flow rates suggest that atmospheric dust opacity, and its influence on air temperature, also has a significant effect on RSL activity. We investigate planetary boundary layer processes that govern the hydrological cycle and dust cycle on Mars using a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the distribution of water and dust with respect to regional atmospheric circulations. Our simulations in Valles Marineris show a curious temperature structure, where the inside of the canyon appears warmer relative to the plateaus immediately outside. For a well-mixed atmosphere, this temperature structure indicates that when the atmosphere inside the canyon is saturated and fog is present within Valles Marineris, fog and low-lying clouds should also be present on the cooler surrounding plateaus as well. However, images taken with the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) show instances where water ice fog appeared exclusively inside the canyon. These results have important implications for the origin and concentration of water vapor in Valles Marineris, with possible connections to RSL. The potential temperatures from our simulations show a high level of stability inside the canyon produced dynamically by sinking air. However, afternoon updrafts along the canyon walls indicate that over time, water vapor within the chasm would escape along the sides of the canyon. Again, this suggests a local source or mechanism to concentrate water vapor is needed to explain the fog

  9. Population post-Rio.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1993-01-01

    The June 1993 Rio Earth Summit barely recognized population growth as an issue, despite the evidence that rapid population growth is harming both the environment and development efforts. One reason given for brushing the population issue to the sidelines was that the UN had a major population conference scheduled for 1994. This overlooked the fact that in the interim between the two conferences, the population problem would be compounded by an additional 200 million people. Any delay now will increase the number of potential parents in the future and create an ever-increasing problem. The male participants at Rio who were willing to procrastinate on population issues were joined by feminists who claimed that men should leave this issue to women. These women ignore the fact that men need to be more, not less, involved in family planning. Women need support in increasing their status and in improving educational opportunities for girls. Providing girls with as much education as boys receive in low-income nations would cost less than a quarter of a percent of the collective gross national product of these nations, and this education would provide a solid boast to their economies and to their family planning campaigns. Procrastinators on population issues must stop acting as though a spare planet is available when we overload the earth.

  10. Elastomechanical methods in the exploration of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Final report, June 8, 1981-October 8, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The Valles caldera in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico is a case of an active caldera that is an object for a comprehensive ground tilt field program to map both elastic and rheic discontinuities. Based on a rather comprehensive theoretical development that is outlined in five separate Essays, estimates of the amplitudes of some of the possible ground tilt signals were obtained. Based on the results, the strongest signals of the order of 100 to 200 nanoradians would appear to result from the purely elastic response of the caldera fill to a barometric forcing. Moreover, assuming a magmatic underplate below the Valles, barometric forcing may lead to a flexure of the upper crust that could generate tilt signals of a similar magnitude. Present data material is insufficient to allow a useful estimate to be made of the possible tilt signals due to the rheic properties of a Valles pluton that may be in the state of partial fusion.

  11. Valle Agricola lentil, an unknown lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) seed from Southern Italy as a novel antioxidant and prebiotic source.

    PubMed

    Landi, Nicola; Pacifico, Severina; Piccolella, Simona; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Mezzacapo, Maria C; Ragucci, Sara; Iannuzzi, Federica; Zarrelli, Armando; Di Maro, Antimo

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote 'Valle Agricola' lentil, an autochthonous lentil of the Campania Region, a thorough investigation of its biochemical and nutritional properties has been carried out. The macronutrient content (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), free and total amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. The antioxidant capability of raw 'Valle Agricola' lentils, as well as of boiled ones, was estimated in terms of their total phenol content (TPC), ORAC value, and free radical scavenging capacities using DPPH and ABTS assays. The data obtained evidenced that the boiling process slightly decreased Valle Agricola lentil's antioxidant power. Furthermore, when trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities were measured, a large decrease of the levels of anti-nutritional factors was estimated. In order to have a phytochemical overview of this autochthonous lentil seed, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was applied to raw and boiled lentil extracts. Flavonol glycosides and free flavanols, as well as typical seed prebiotic saccharides, were the most representative constituents.

  12. Crust and upper mantle P wave velocity structure beneath Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from the Jemez teleseismic tomography experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, Lee K.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Fehler, Michael C.; Lutter, William J.; Roberts, Peter M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Stafford, Darrik G.; Sessions, Robert

    1998-10-01

    New results are presented from the teleseismic component of the Jemez Tomography Experiment conducted across Valles caldera in northern New Mexico. We invert 4872 relative P wave arrival times recorded on 50 portable stations to determine velocity structure to depths of 40 km. The three principle features of our model for Valles caldera are: (1) near-surface low velocities of -17% beneath the Toledo embayment and the Valle Grande, (2) midcrustal low velocities of -23% in an ellipsoidal volume underneath the northwest quadrant of the caldera, and (3) a broad zone of low velocities (-15%) in the lower crust or upper mantle. Crust shallower than 20 km is generally fast to the northwest of the caldera and slow to the southeast. Near-surface low velocities are interpreted as thick deposits of Bandelier tuff and postcaldera volcaniclastic rocks. Lateral variation in the thickness of these deposits supports increased caldera collapse to the southeast, beneath the Valle Grande. We interpret the midcrustal low-velocity zone to contain a minimum melt fraction of 10%. While we cannot rule out the possibility that this zone is the remnant 1.2 Ma Bandelier magma chamber, the eruption history and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks erupted in Valles caldera following the Bandelier tuff make it more likely that magma results from a new pulse of intrusion, indicating that melt flux into the upper crust beneath Valles caldera continues. The low-velocity zone near the crust-mantle boundary is consistent with either partial melt in the lower crust or mafic rocks without partial melt in the upper mantle. In either case, this low-velocity anomaly indicates that underplating by mantle-derived melts has occurred.

  13. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  14. Crust and upper mantle P wave velocity structure beneath Valles caldera, New Mexico: Results from the Jemez teleseismic tomography experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, Lee K.; Fehler, Michael C.; Roberts, Peter M.; Baldridge, W. Scott; Stafford, Darrik G.; Lutter, William J.; Sessions, Robert

    1998-10-01

    New results are presented from the teleseismic component of the Jemez Tomography Experiment conducted across Valles caldera in northern New Mexico. We invert 4872 relative {ital P} wave arrival times recorded on 50 portable stations to determine velocity structure to depths of 40 km. The three principle features of our model for Valles caldera are: (1) near-surface low velocities of {minus}17{percent} beneath the Toledo embayment and the Valle Grande, (2) midcrustal low velocities of {minus}23{percent} in an ellipsoidal volume underneath the northwest quadrant of the caldera, and (3) a broad zone of low velocities ({minus}15{percent}) in the lower crust or upper mantle. Crust shallower than 20 km is generally fast to the northwest of the caldera and slow to the southeast. Near-surface low velocities are interpreted as thick deposits of Bandelier tuff and postcaldera volcaniclastic rocks. Lateral variation in the thickness of these deposits supports increased caldera collapse to the southeast, beneath the Valle Grande. We interpret the midcrustal low-velocity zone to contain a minimum melt fraction of 10{percent}. While we cannot rule out the possibility that this zone is the remnant 1.2 Ma Bandelier magma chamber, the eruption history and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks erupted in Valles caldera following the Bandelier tuff make it more likely that magma results from a new pulse of intrusion, indicating that melt flux into the upper crust beneath Valles caldera continues. The low-velocity zone near the crust-mantle boundary is consistent with either partial melt in the lower crust or mafic rocks without partial melt in the upper mantle. In either case, this low-velocity anomaly indicates that underplating by mantle-derived melts has occurred. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  15. Limited role for thermal erosion by turbulent lava in proximal Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cataldo, Vincenzo; Williams, David A.; Dundas, Colin M.; Kestay, Laszlo P.

    2015-01-01

    The Athabasca Valles flood lava is among the most recent (<50 Ma) and best preserved effusive lava flows on Mars and was probably emplaced turbulently. The Williams et al. (2005) model of thermal erosion by lava has been applied to what we term “proximal Athabasca,” the 75 km long upstream portion of Athabasca Valles. For emplacement volumes of 5000 and 7500 km3and average flow thicknesses of 20 and 30 m, the duration of the eruption varies between ~11 and ~37 days. The erosion of the lava flow substrate is investigated for three eruption temperatures (1270°C, 1260°C, and 1250°C), and volatile contents equivalent to 0–65 vol % bubbles. The largest erosion depths of ~3.8–7.5 m are at the lava source, for 20 m thick and bubble-free flows that erupted at their liquidus temperature (1270°C). A substrate containing 25 vol % ice leads to maximum erosion. A lava temperature 20°C below liquidus reduces erosion depths by a factor of ~2.2. If flow viscosity increases with increasing bubble content in the lava, the presence of 30–50 vol % bubbles leads to erosion depths lower than those relative to bubble-free lava by a factor of ~2.4. The presence of 25 vol % ice in the substrate increases erosion depths by a factor of 1.3. Nevertheless, modeled erosion depths, consistent with the emplacement volume and flow duration constraints, are far less than the depth of the channel (~35–100 m). We conclude that thermal erosion does not appear to have had a major role in excavating Athabasca Valles.

  16. Thin-skinned deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Joannah; Grotzinger, John; Okubo, Chris; Milliken, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Deformation of sedimentary rocks is widespread within Valles Marineris, characterized by both plastic and brittle deformation identified in Candor, Melas, and Ius Chasmata. We identified four deformation styles using HiRISE and CTX images: kilometer-scale convolute folds, detached slabs, folded strata, and pull-apart structures. Convolute folds are detached rounded slabs of material with alternating dark- and light-toned strata and a fold wavelength of about 1 km. The detached slabs are isolated rounded blocks of material, but they exhibit only highly localized evidence of stratification. Folded strata are composed of continuously folded layers that are not detached. Pull-apart structures are composed of stratified rock that has broken off into small irregularly shaped pieces showing evidence of brittle deformation. Some areas exhibit multiple styles of deformation and grade from one type of deformation into another. The deformed rocks are observed over thousands of kilometers, are limited to discrete stratigraphic intervals, and occur over a wide range in elevations. All deformation styles appear to be of likely thin-skinned origin. CRISM reflectance spectra show that some of the deformed sediments contain a component of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates. Several mechanisms could be responsible for the deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris, such as subaerial or subaqueous gravitational slumping or sliding and soft sediment deformation, where the latter could include impact-induced or seismically induced liquefaction. These mechanisms are evaluated based on their expected pattern, scale, and areal extent of deformation. Deformation produced from slow subaerial or subaqueous landsliding and liquefaction is consistent with the deformation observed in Valles Marineris.

  17. Spatial and Temporal influence of Redondo Peak headwaters in the East Fork Jemez River using Principal Component Analysis approach, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rodrigo; Meixner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Valles Caldera is a volcanic collapse feature located in the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico, southwestern United States. This region is characterized by a bimodal precipitation pattern, i.e. spring snowmelt and summer monsoon rains. Two main streams flow through the Valles Caldera: San Antonio and East Fork Jemez. The junction of these two rivers form the Jemez River which is an important contributor to the Rio Grande that supplies water to cities located in southwestern U.S. Redondo Peak is located in the center of the Valles Caldera that has several springs that drain around all sides of the peak with different hydrologic responses. The main catchments (headwaters) identified in Redondo Peak are: La Jara, Upper Jaramillo, History Grove and Upper Redondo. The main questions that are going to be answered in this research are: Do these head waters affect the chemistry in East Fork Jemez river? and if so, how does this influence vary in space and time? A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed using analyzed water samples for water isotopes and major anions and cations. These samples were collected from the flumes located at each catchment in Redondo Peak, and at different locations along the East Fork Jemez. Samples from the most consistent analytes from 2011 to 2013 were used in this present work. A first PCA was performed to assess how different the La Jara catchment is from Upper Redondo, Upper Jaramillo and History Grove based on the geochemistry of each basin. Prior the analysis the data needs to be normalized in order to avoid biasing towards extreme values. Since La Jara is the reference site for this analysis, its mean and standard deviation were used to normalized the data set of the other catchments. In order to simplify this analysis the two first principal components for each catchment were used to do the projections regardless how much of the variability can be explained. However future analyses are going to be performed with those

  18. A Field of Small Pitted Cones on the Floor of Coprates Chasma: Volcanism inside Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Broz, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Michael, G.

    2015-10-01

    We present observations of a field of >100 pitted cones and mounds situated on the floor of Coprates Chasma (part of Valles Marineris (VM); Fig. 1), which display similarities to terrestrial and martian scoria cones. If these cones are indeed volcanic in origin, they will significantly expand our knowledge about the morphometry of pyroclastic cones on Mars. Moreover, a magmatic origin, which would necessarily post-date the opening of the main VM troughs, would contribute to our understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of VM.

  19. Hydrological sulfur cycling in the volcanic complex of Valles Caldera - geochemical and astrobiological implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkiewicz, A.; Borrok, D. M.; Vaniman, D. T.; Goff, F.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfate minerals on the Martian surface provide compelling evidence of past fluid movement, chemistry, and potential habitability. However, we are uncertain about the relative influence of concurrent volcanic sulfur emissions, aqueous sulfide weathering, and climate conditions on the sulfur cycle, and we poorly understand the hydrological cycle of sulfur transport on Mars. Therefore, the goal of our research is to describe and quantify the active and historical hydrological sulfur cycle in the Valles Caldera, a ≤ 1.25 Myr giant, circular, volcanic complex located in northern New Mexico, and to compare this to available data for the sulfur cycle on Mars. The rocks of Valles Caldera (e.g., rhyolite lavas and pyroclastic deposits, intracaldera sediments and breccias, pre-caldera dacite and andesite, etc.) show wide variations in S content from 0.003 up to 3.41 wt% in fresh to hydrothermally altered units, respectively (Goff et al. 2007). Additionally, an acid-sulfate hot spring system issues from the western flank of the resurgent dome inside Valles Caldera and significantly increases the sulfate concentrations in local springs (up to 3,000 mg/L; Szynkiewicz et al. 2012). Using historical USGS stream flow measurements and sulfate concentrations (1958 to 1990), we calculated that in average ~16.4 tons of dissolved sulfate is annually removed from this volcanic system via the hydrological cycle. Initial S isotope mass balance calculations indicate that ~70 % of the dissolved sulfate (~11.5 tons/year) is likely contributed by the acid-sulfate hot springs and ~30 % (~4.9 tons/year) comes from dissolution/oxidation of S-enriched bedrock and atmospheric wet deposition. Although the acid-sulfate hot spring system is an ideal habitat for microbial S metabolism, the preservation of S isotope biosignatures is poor in geological samples because of prevailing contributions of S species from magmatic sources. In the next step of our research, we will 1) quantify the present

  20. Evidence for precipitation on Mars from dendritic valleys in the Valles Marineris area.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Nicolas; Quantin, Cathy; Ansan, Véronique; Delacourt, Christophe; Allemand, Pascal

    2004-07-02

    Dendritic valleys on the plateau and canyons of the Valles Marineris region were identified from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images taken by Mars Odyssey. The geomorphic characteristics of these valleys, especially their high degree of branching, favor formation by atmospheric precipitation. The presence of inner channels and the maturity of the branched networks indicate sustained fluid flows over geologically long periods of time. These fluvial landforms occur within the Late Hesperian units (about 2.9 to 3.4 billion years old), when Mars was thought to have been cold. Our results suggest a period of warmer conditions conducive to hydrological activity.

  1. New hydrated mineral detections in the ILDs of Valles Marineris: Insights into their aqueous history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flahaut, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Fueten, F.; Quantin, C.; Thollot, P.; van Westrenen, W.; Davies, G. R.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of the mineralogical diversity of the Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) of Valles Marineris (VM) and Margaritifer Terra (MT) as determined with the highresolution hyperspectral imager CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) onboard MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). A particular emphasis is made on localized detections of new hydrated phases within the dominantly sulfate-rich deposits. These detections are compared with other recent detections of unindentified minerals across the entire region [e.g. 10-19]. Characterizing the entire mineral assemblages at these sites is designed to provide more information on the chemistry of those complex aqueous deposits and their potential formation mechanism(s).

  2. Reservoir processes and fluid origins in the Baca geothermal system, Valles Caldera, New Mexico ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    At the Baca geothermal field in the Valles caldera, New Mexico, 19 deep wells were drilled in an attempt to develop a 50-MW (megawatts electric) power plant. The chemical and isotopic compositions of steam and water samples have been used to indicate uniquely the origin of reservoir fluids and natural reservoir processes. Two distinct reservoir fluids exist at Baca. These fluids originate from the same deep, high-temperature (335oC), saline (2500 mg/kg Cl) parent water but have had different histories during upflow which are described.-after Authors

  3. Mössbauer study of archaeological ceramics from Valle del Alto Sinu (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Useche, L. A.; Gaviria, S.; Alabart, J. R.; Fontcuberta, J.

    1990-07-01

    A physico-chemical characterization of ceramic samples from the arachaeological sites of El Cabrero, El Gallo, and El Frasquillo (Valle del Alto Sinú) is presented. Extensive use of Mössbauer spectroscopy data reveals that the currently used typological classification scheme of Dolmatoff is related to the production technology of the different artifacts. In addition, a model for firing conditions for “Rojo Sencillo”, “Tierra Impresa”, “Tierra Incisa”, and “Blanco” types of ceramics is proposed.

  4. Constraints on the rate of discharge and duration of the Mangala Valles flood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Interest in Mangala Valles remains high within the planetary science community. This is justified because the survey mission images provide us with nearly complete coverage of the system at high resolution. Upcoming high resolution topography from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter will enable the application of flood discharge models with an unprecedented level of detail. Previous work on the Mangala Valles problem has relied on the available low resolution topography. This has limited the ability of workers to constrain discharge calculations to only within several-order-of-magnitude estimates. Local determinations of channel depths via shadow length measurements and photoclinometric profiling are much more accurate, but can only be applied to steep slopes (and/or low sun elevations) in the case of shadow measurements, or across relatively short distances (to avoid changes in albedo along asymmetric photoclinometric profiles). We are taking stereo parallax measurements from medium resolution Viking Orbiter images, which provide a valuable intermediate check of the topography between those measurements made thus far and the upcoming Mars Observer data. The images used are from orbits 034A and 637A, and cover Mangala Valles from the source graben in Memnonia Fossae to the beginning of the bifurcated reach (at 9.5 deg lat., 151.5 deg lon.). These images are about 300 m/pixel and 250 m/pixel, respectively. Both sets of images were orthographically projected to 250 m/pixel. The separation angle between left-right pairs is approximately 52 degrees. This results in a vertical accuracy on the order of plus or minus 260 m. Though this is still somewhat coarse, the channel relief is clearly resolved. Preliminary profiles across Mangala Valles and the large topographic ridge to the east are shown on the following page. An east-west regional tilt that resulted from slight scaling differences in the digital data has been 'removed' by visually estimating a regional datum on the

  5. New evidence for the age of the youngest eruption in the Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Gardner, J.N.; Forman, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    New geochronologic data provide evidence for an age of about 50 to 60 ka for the youngest volcanic eruptions within the Valles caldera, New Mexico - an age that is significantly younger than most previous age determinations. Thermoluminescence age estimates for buried soils beneath the El Cajete pumice, a key stratigraphic marker in the region, range from 48 to 61 ka and {sup 14}C analyses of burnt logs within volcanic surge beds near the El Cajete vent yield similar ages of 50 to >58 ka. These data conflict with fissontrack, {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, and K-Ar ages of 130 to >200 ka, but are supported by recent analyses by electron spin resonance. The results of this study reinforce the need to apply a variety of dating methods when evaluating the age of young volcanic events and support the hypothesis that the El Cajete eruptions were part of a new cycle of volcanic activity in the Valles caldera after an exceptionally long period of quiescence of nearly 460 ka. The new age constraints also suggest a previously unrecognized link between cycles of volcanism and pulses of hydrothermal activity in the caldera, such that hydrothermal outflow appears to decrease significantly following completion of eruptive cycles. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Part 2: Sedimentary geology of the Valles, Marineris, Mars and Antarctic dry valley lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed mapping of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars from high-resolution Viking orbiter images revealed that they from plateaus of rhythmically layered material whose bases are in the lowest elevations of the canyon floors, and whose tops are within a few hundred meters in elevation of the surrounding plateaus. Four hypotheses for the origin of the layered deposits were considered: that they are eolian deposits; that they are remnants of the same material as the canyon walls; that they are explosive volcanic deposits; or that they were deposited in standing bodies of water. There are serious morphologic objections to each of the first three. The deposition of the layered deposits in standing bodies of water best explains their lateral continuity, horizontality, great thickness, rhythmic nature, and stratigraphic relationships with other units within the canyons. The Martian climatic history indicated that any ancient lakes were ice covered. Two methods for transporting sediment through a cover of ice on a martian lake appear to be feasible. Based on the presently available data, along with the theoretical calculations presented, it appears most likely that the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris were laid down in standing bodies of water.

  7. Young (late Amazonian), near-surface, ground ice features near the equator, Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Emery, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of four feature types in a ???20 km2 area near 10?? N, 204?? W in Athabasca Valles is interpreted to have resulted from near-surface ground ice. These features include mounds, conical forms with rimmed summit depressions, flatter irregularly-shaped forms with raised rims, and polygonal terrain. Based on morphology, size, and analogy to terrestrial ground ice forms, these Athabascan features are interpreted as pingos, collapsing pingos, pingo scars, and thermal contraction polygons, respectively. Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (THEMIS) data and geological features in the area are consistent with a sedimentary substrate underlying these features. These observations lead us to favor a ground ice interpretation, although we do not rule out volcanic and especially glaciofluvial hypotheses. The hypothesized ground ice that formed the mounds and rimmed features may have been emplaced via the deposition of saturated sediment during flooding; an alternative scenario invokes magmatically cycled groundwater. The ground ice implicit in the hypothesized thermal contraction polygons may have derived either from this flooding/ground water, or from atmospheric water vapor. The lack of obvious flood modification of the mounds and rimmed features indicates that they formed after the most recent flood inundated the area. Analogy with terrestrial pingos suggests that ground ice may be still extant within the positive relief mounds. As the water that flooded down Athabasca Valles emerged via a volcanotectonic fissure from a deep aquifer, any extant pingo ice may contain evidence of a deep subsurface biosphere. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Valles Marineris, Mars: Are pit chains formed by erosion and troughs by tectonism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Balser, R. A.; Bertolini, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the Valles Marineris remains controversial. Erosional, tectonic, and hybrid processes have been proposed. To clarify these contradictions, the widths and depths of pit chains and troughs were compared and it was found that the features do not form a continuum. Rather, results are consistent with the hypothesis that pit chains formed by surficial collapse and troughs by deeper seated and coherent failure. All pit chains and linear depressions in the Valles Marineris region were classified by inspection into six morphologic categories: pit chains (linear arrays of small pits); floored chains (arrays of pit chains having flat or hummocky floors); scalloped troughs (wider linear depressions with scalloped wall segments); narrow troughs (depressions of intermediate width with straight wall segments); wide troughs (broad, linear depressions); and chaotic troughs (more irregular depressions displaying some channel morphologies). Topographic profiles were drawn across the classified depressions and the erosional width was determined between plateau margins along with the depth from the surrounding plateau level to the deepest part.

  9. Fossil apes from the Vallès-Penedès Basin.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M

    2012-11-01

    Currently restricted to Southeast Asia and Africa, extant hominoids are the remnants of a group that was much more diverse during the Miocene. Apes initially diversified in Africa during the early Miocene, but by the middle Miocene they extended their geographical range into Eurasia, where they experienced an impressive evolutionary radiation. Understanding the role of Eurasian hominoids in the origin and evolution of the great-ape-and-human clade (Hominidae) is partly hampered by phylogenetic uncertainties, the scarcity and incompleteness of fossil remains, the current restricted diversity of the group, and pervasive homoplasy. Nevertheless, scientific knowledge of the Eurasian hominoid radiation has significantly improved during the last decade. In the case of Western Europe, this has been due to the discovery of new remains from the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, Spain). Here, I review the fossil record of Vallès-Penedès apes and consider its implications. Although significant disagreements persist among scholars, some important lessons can be learned regarding the evolutionary history of the closest living relatives of humans.

  10. History and results of VC-1, the first CSDP corehole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Pisto, L.; Polk, G.

    1985-01-01

    Valles Caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) corehole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian, 0.13 Ma). VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of pre-caldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones and shales, with over 95% core recovery. Hydrothermal alterations are concentrated in sheared, brecciated and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alterations consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite has been identified as high as 518 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at various intervals from about 510 m on down. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Isotope geochemistry of thermal and nonthermal waters in the Valles caldera, Jemez Mountains, northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vuataz, F.D.; Goff, F.

    1986-02-10

    Over 100 stable isotope and 45 tritium analyses from thermal and nonthermal waters of the Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico, have been used to define the hydrodynamics of the Valles caldera (Baca) geothermal system and related geothermal fluids of the region. Evaluation of 36 cold meteoric waters yields an equation for the Jemez Mountains meteoric water line of deltaD = 8delta/sup 18/O+12, while further evaluation of nine cold meteoric waters yields an equation relating recharge elevation to deuterium content of E(meters) = -44.9 (deltaD)-1154. Based on the deuterium content of five Baca well waters (223/sup 0/--294/sup 0/C), the average recharge elevation of the Valles geothermal system ranges from 2530 to 2890 m. This range of elevations falls between the elevations of the lowest point of the caldera floor (2400 m) and the summit of the resurgent dome inside the caldera (3430 m). Thus stable isotopes indicate that the caldera depression probably serves as a recharge basin for the deep geothermal system. Although cold spring waters of the Jemez Mountains region consist of meteoric water, tritium analyses show that most of them contain water between 20 and 75 years old.

  12. Modeling of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Implications for Initiation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Meaza; Ruiz, Javier; del Río, Ian A.; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system in Mars shows large landslides across its walls, which can be 40 km wide and up to 60 km long, with fall scarps height as high as 7 km. These landslides were produced through a large mass movement at high speed by gravity across the trough floor. Although the triggering factors are unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed as, among others, large amounts of subsurface water, quake produced through normal faulting close to the canyon walls, and meteoritic impacts. In this work we examine the limit equilibrium slope stability of three landslides (placed respectively at Ius, Candor, and Melas Chasmata), which can be considered representative, with the aims of constraining their formation conditions. Our results suggest that external factors (as high pore fluid pressure, seismic loading or rock mass disturbance) do not seem necessary for the failure of slopes if they are composed of unconsolidated materials, while high pore water pressure or ground acceleration are needed to trigger slides in slopes composed of strong basaltic-like materials. Moreover, the presence of sub-surface ice would contribute to slope stability. As a whole, our findings point to ground shaking due to meteorite impacts as the main triggering force for most landslides in the Valles Marineris.

  13. Rio San Jose Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the II residential properties that compose the Rio San Jose Radiation Site located in Laguna, Mesita, Paraje, and Seama, Pueblo of Laguna located in Cibola County, New Mexico.

  14. Impact of the Social Construction of LD on Culturally Diverse Families: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya; Harry, Beth

    2004-01-01

    This response focuses on the effects of the current construction of learning disabilities (LD) on families of children from devalued racial/ethnic groups. Agreeing with the arguments of Reid and Valle, we add that parents from such groups are further disenfranchised because they are not participants in the critical discourse surrounding LD and…

  15. Studying Disability and Disability Studies: Shifting Paradigms of LD -- A Synthesis of Responses to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the 11 diverse responses to Reid and Valle's work on the discursive practice of learning disabilities (LD), implications for instruction, and parent-school relations. I highlight key ideas from each article and then focus on three common areas of interest shared by most respondents: the unacceptable status quo of…

  16. Conductive heat flux in VC-1 and the thermal regime of Valles caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Morgan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Over 5% of heat in the western USA is lost through Quaternary silicic volcanic centers, including the Valles caldera in N central New Mexico. These centers are the sites of major hydrothermal activity and upper crustal metamorphism, metasomatism, and mineralization, producing associated geothermal resources. Presents new heat flow data from Valles caldera core hole 1 (VC-1), drilled in the SW margin of the Valles caldera. Thermal conductivities were measured on 55 segments of core from VC-1, waxed and wrapped to preserve fluids. These values were combined with temperature gradient data to calculate heat flow. Above 335 m, which is probably unsaturated, heat flow is 247 + or - 16 mW m-2. Inteprets the shallow thermal gradient data and the thermal regime at VC-1 to indicate a long-lived hydrothermal (and magmatic) system in the southwestern Valles caldera that has been maintained through the generation of shallow magma bodies during the long postcollapse history of the caldera. High heat flow at the VC-1 site is interpreted to result from hot water circulating below the base of the core hole, and we attribute the lower heat flow in the unsaturated zone is attributed to hydrologic recharge. -from Authors

  17. A Re-examination of Shallow Paleomagnetic Inclinations From the Cretaceous Valle Group Sedimentary Rocks, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Kodama, K. P.; Smith, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    A paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and sedimentological study was conducted in order to determine whether depositional/compactional processes have caused the shallow inclinations observed in the Valle Group sedimentary rocks. A total of 126 samples (14 sites) were collected from the middle Cenomanian section of the Valle along the northern coast of the Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California, approximately 20 km east of Punta Eugenia at Campito. Samples were subjected to detailed thermal and alternating field (af) demagnetization, typically in 14 steps to 610° C for thermal demagnetization and ~24 steps to 130 mT for af demagnetization. NRMs were strong for marine sedimentary rocks, typically 10 mA/m. The mean of the site means for the demagnetized data was Inc=54.2° , Dec=306° , α 95=4.8° , N=12, in geographic coordinates, and Inc=20.5° , Dec=341.3° , α 95=4° , N=12 in stratigraphic coordinates. AMS fabrics have minimum axes clustered nearly perpendicular to bedding, typical of primary depositional/compactional fabrics. Some sites exhibited minimum axes clustering about 10° from the vertical and maximum axes clustered about 10° from the horizontal suggesting that currents and/or initial bedding dip affected the magnetization of these samples at deposition. Since the stratigraphy of the Valle Group dips consistently to the NE at approximately 50° , we sampled a tight slump fold at one site in order to constrain the age of magnetization. Both the AMS fabric and the characteristic remanence (ChRM) fail the fold test at the 95% confidence level. At another site, we sampled adjacent beds each approximately 5 cm thick composed of coarse, medium, or fine-grained sandstone. The directions of these beds are within 2° of each other. These results can be interpreted to indicate either a late remagnetization of the Valle group or an acquisition of the Valle's detrital remanence after slumping, but early in the rock's post-depositional history. Smith and Busby's (1993

  18. Juventae Chasma and Maja Valles, Mars: Further Evidence for Multiple Flooding Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, C.; Wendt, L.; Dumke, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: In this study we investigate the age relationship of Juventae Chasma to the adjacent Maja Valles in order to gain a feasible explanation for the formation and evolution of rhythmic light-toned layered deposits (LLD). In this first step, we use impact crater size-frequency distributions for dating the planetary surface in the regions of interest. Juventae Chasma is located at the northern side of the Valles Marineris and stretches for approximately 150 km east-west and 250 km north-south. The basin floor shows a depth of 5 km and more below the surrounding surface. To the north lies the adjacent Maja Valles, a 50 km to 150 km wide channel extending for 1600 km northward and discharging into the Chryse Planitia plains. Various investigations of several authors have been carried out on this subject in the past, but the formation of the LLD in Juventae Chasma is still poorly understood. The formation theories range from a volcanic origin [1], lake deposits, delta deposits [2] to spring deposits [3]. A very different hypothesis for the formation of the sulfates is deposition from airfall. This could happen as dry deposition from the atmosphere or in co-precipitation with icy materials such as snow crystals or dust particles. This phenomenon is observed at the poles of Mars, where rhythmic layerings occur showing high similarities to the sulfate deposits in Juventae Chasma. The light-toned materials in the chasma show a spectral signature indicative of kieserite in the outcrops A, C and D and in the lower part of B, whereas the upper part of B was described as gypsum [4]. Wendt et al. [5] identified different mineral assemblages in the cap rock of mount B, using the CRISM instrument and the Multiple-Endmember Linear Spectral Unmixing Model (MELSUM). HRSC DTM: The Digital Terrain Model (DTM ) mosaic (see Fig. 1) was derived from 11 HRSC orbits at approximately -7° S to 8° N and 295° to 301° E with a ground resolution of 100 m per pixel and an ortho

  19. Spatiotemporal Effects of Climate Variability and Urban Growth on the "Valle de Toluca" Aquifer (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Esteller, M. V.; Gomez-Albores, M. A.; Becerril, R.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Toluca city is located in the "Valle de Toluca" at the upper course of the Lerma river basin, is an important economic center which contributes with 1.2% of Gross National Product (GNP) since it is an industrial city, The city has grown due to the economic development sustained by the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer which provides water for human consumption, industrial facilities and crop irrigation. Recent studies have shown that in the last 50 years the annual precipitation rate in Toluca has increased 122 mm, whereas the daily minimum temperature has increased 1.1 °C and the daily maximum temperature has also increased 0.8 °C. These results show a general overview of the change in the climate conditions of the city; however they do not show the spatial distribution of the change. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the spatiotemporal change of precipitation rates and urban growth in order to determine their effects over the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer. In order to detect the urban growth, a supervised classification technique has been used taking into account Landsat TM satellite images between 1973, 1986, 2000 and 2005. A yearly spatiotemporal raster set of rainfall rates from 1980 to 2010 were obtained interpolating data from 812 climatologic stations. To evaluate the effect in annual precipitation rates and urban growth over the aquifer, we interpolate data from 38 piezometers from 1980 to 2010 to obtain a spatiotemporal raster set. The piezometric values correspond to the aquifer's upper level. The spatiotemporal raster sets were analyzed with the non-parametric Theil-Sen test to determine trends in piezometric levels and precipitation rates. Finally the urban growth, spatial-temporal trends of precipitation rates and piezometric levels were displayed in a GIS and then subjectively analyzed to figure out coincidences. An increase in annual precipitation rates (+87 mm) over Toluca's Valley during the last three decades was observed specially

  20. Episodes of floods in Mangala Valles, Mars, from the analysis of HRSC, MOC and THEMIS images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Neukum, G.; Werner, S.C.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kneissl, T.; Zuschneid, W.; Rommel, D.; Wendt, L.; Chapman, M.; Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Mangala Valles is a 900-km long outflow channel system in the highlands adjacent to the south-eastern flank of the Tharsis bulge. This work was intended to answer the following two questions unresolved in previous studies: (1) Was there only one source of water (Mangala Fossa at the valley head which is one of the Medusae Fossae troughs or graben) or were other sources also involved in the valley-carving water supply, and (2) Was there only one episode of flooding (maybe with phases) or were there several episodes significantly separated in time. The geologic analysis of HRSC image 0286 and mapping supported by analysis of MOC and THEMIS images show that Mangala Valles was carved by water released from several sources. The major source was Mangala Fossa, which probably formed in response to magmatic dike intrusion. The graben cracked the cryosphere and permitted the release of groundwater held under hydrostatic pressure. This major source was augmented by a few smaller-scale sources at localities in (1) two mapped heads of magmatic dikes, (2) heads of two clusters of sinuous channels, and (3) probably several large knob terrain locals. The analysis of results of crater counts at more than 60 localities showed that the first episode of formation of Mangala Valles occurred ???3.5 Ga ago and was followed by three more episodes, one occurred ???1 Ga ago, another one ???0.5 Ga ago, and the last one ???0.2 Ga ago. East of the mapped area there are extended and thick lava flows whose source may be the eastern continuation of the Mangala source graben. Crater counts in 10 localities on these lava flows correlate with those taken on the Mangala valley elements supporting the idea that the valley head graben was caused by dike intrusions. Our observations suggest that the waning stage of the latest flooding episode (???0.2 Ga ago) led to the formation at the valley head of meander-like features sharing some characteristics with meanders of terrestrial rivers. If this

  1. Initial insights from 2.5D hydraulic modeling of floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.P.; Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Burr, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first application of a 2.5D hydraulic model to catastrophic floods on Mars. This model simulates flow over complex topography and incorporates flood dynamics that could not be modeled in the earlier 1D models. We apply this model to Athabasca Valles, the youngest outflow channel on Mars, investigating previous bank-full discharge estimates and utilizing the interpolated Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter elevation map as input. We confirm that the bank-full assumption does not fit the observed landforms. Instead, the channel appears more deeply incised near the source. Flow modeling also identifies several areas of special interest, including a dry cataract that coincides with a region of predicted high erosion. However, artifacts in the elevation data strongly impacted estimated stages and velocities in other areas. More extensive connection between the flood hydraulics and observed landforms awaits improved topographic data.

  2. Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Andrew J; Christensen, Philip R

    2012-04-27

    Athabasca Valles is a near-equatorial martian outflow channel that contains many well-preserved features whose formation and composition have been a point of contention. Large plates of terrain that have clearly fractured and drifted may have once been ice rafts or the rocky solidification crust of a large lava flow. We have identified 269 spiral coils ranging from 5 to 30 meters wide on the polygonally patterned interplate terrain that are morphologically consistent with terrestrial lava coils that form in zones of flow shear. This patterned terrain also exhibits signs of fracture and drift, indicating that it is platelike as well. The coils in the Athabasca region are inconsistent with ice rheology, and the plates, spirals, and polygons are interpreted to be of volcanic origin.

  3. Robust extraction of channel parameters from HRSC data of Warrego Valles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, R.; Lindenbergh, R. C.

    2011-10-01

    Detailed and regional studies of Martian hydrolandforms and modelling of the process responsible for those landforms have been performed in the last decades, but a global understanding of the evolution of water systematics of Mars requires a global and systematic analysis and integration of the tell-tale signs of water at the surface. In the coming years HRSC will obtain high-resolution stereo-imagery with near-global coverage of Mars. This will result in an unprecedented detailed look of the morphology of the Martian surface. In anticipation of this we have developed an algorithm to systematically and quantitatively extract the relevant morphological parameters to identify the formative process classes of Martian hydro-landforms from these data. At this conference we will present our first results through a case study of the Warrego Valles system.

  4. Magnetic Properties in Volcanoclastic Deposits in the Valle de Santiago, Guanajuato, in Central Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe-Cifuentes, R.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2005-05-01

    Valle de Santiago is a volcanic province, part of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field. The area is characterized by volcanic maars. These structures show a very well defined NW-SE direction. In this study, three sequences are described and analysed in order to determinate their magnetic properties, specially, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and determinate different types of signatures in relation to nature of deposits. The sequences of maars contain a high percentage of reworked material (approximately 65-75) from previous rocks. This arrangement is directly related with a high kinetic energy during the eruption. All the deposits are unwelded, and principally are fine grained pyroclastic deposits of hydromagmatic origin. Volcanic and magnetic data suggest an alternation of fall and turbulent transportation and traction deposition of particles. The preliminary results indicate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) could be related with grain size, chemical composition, and type of deposit.

  5. Stratigraphic evidence of past fluvial activity in southern Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Joel; Grindrod, Peter

    2014-05-01

    During the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods, listric faulting led to the development of a series of hanging depressions throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system [1]. One such depression, situated on the southern wall of Melas Chasma, forms an enclosed basin which has since undergone modification from the late Hesperian to Amazonian. There is a multitude of evidence suggesting that the basin (hereon in referred to as the Southern Melas Chasma Basin; SMCB) was once host to active fluvial processes, that at minimum lasted for several hundred years [2,3]. Central to this is what appears to be the remains of a palaeolake, which is approximately 80 by 40 kilometres in area. The palaeolake contains a complex sequence of sedimentary stratigraphy, which includes several structures that resemble deltas and/or submarine fans on both the east and west side of the basin [4], and appear to originate from a network of channels and valleys that terminate in the basin. Previous studies have shown that the western valley network has drainage densities similar to terrestrial values and a dendritic nature that is indicative of precipitation and surface runoff [3]. Higher resolution mapping of the SMCB is important to further understand the stratigraphic succession and geomorphology, and to quantify how long liquid water may have been present within the basin. For this study, new digital elevation models (DEMs) have been produced in SOCET SET using stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), both aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The DEMs have been produced at ~6 and ~1 m/pixel vertical resolution for CTX and HiRISE respectively. There is approximately 150-200 m of sediment within the stratigraphic succession; some individual strata are less than 10 m thick. The delta/fan structures appear to occur at different stratigraphic positions low down within the sequence. Clinoform-like and cross-bedded structures

  6. Correlations Between Textures and Infrared Spectra of the Martian Surface in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, S. J.; Wray, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    RALSTON, S. J., School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, sralston3@gatech.edu, WRAY, James, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, jwray@eas.gatech.edu In the past few decades, a wealth of information has become available on the appearance and composition of the Martian surface. While some previous research has examined possible correlations between certain surface features and mineralogy (such as the hypothesized connection between Recurring Slope Lineae and perchlorate salts), little has yet been done to determine possible correlations between mineralogy and texture in less extraordinary circumstances. In this project, one hundred images taken from across the Valles Marineris region were examined both in infrared (obtained from the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) and in visible-light images from the HiRISE camera. Spectra were obtained from regions of interest, focusing mainly on the identification of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates. Other materials were included in the imaging, including phyllosilicate clays, gypsum, and jarosite, although those materials proved less abundant than the sulfates. The areas from which the spectra were taken were then examined in visible-light wavelengths using HiRISE images to determine textural qualities. The focus of this research was on two particular textures, a 'reticulated' texture and a 'stepped texture,' hypothesized to correlate to monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates, respectively. Results showed that over 55% of areas containing monohydrated sulfates also contained reticulate texture, whereas areas that contained other materials, such as polyhydrated sulfates and clays, had only a 2-8% correlation with reticulate texture. The stepped texture was shown to have no significant correlation to any one material, although other texture/mineral pairs did

  7. Emplacement and erosive effects of the south Kasei Valles lava on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Although it has generally been accepted that the Martian outflow channels were carved by floods of water, observations of large channels on Venus and Mercury demonstrate that lava flows can cause substantial erosion. Recent observations of large lava flows within outflow channels on Mars have revived discussion of the hypothesis that the Martian channels are also produced by lava. An excellent example is found in south Kasei Valles (SKV), where the most recent major event was emplacement of a large lava flow. Calculations using high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) demonstrate that this flow was locally turbulent, similar to a previously described flood lava flow in Athabasca Valles. The modeled peak local flux of approximately 106 m3 s−1 was approximately an order of magnitude lower than that in Athabasca, which may be due to distance from the vent. Fluxes close to 107 m3 s−1 are estimated in some reaches but these values are probably records of local surges caused by a dam-breach event within the flow. The SKV lava was locally erosive and likely caused significant (kilometer-scale) headwall retreat at several cataracts with tens to hundreds of meters of relief. However, in other places the net effect of the flow was unambiguously aggradational, and these are more representative of most of the flow. The larger outflow channels have lengths of thousands of kilometers and incision of a kilometer or more. Therefore, lava flows comparable to the SKV flow did not carve the major Martian outflow channels, although the SKV flow was among the largest and highest-flux lava flows known in the Solar System.

  8. Mechanical conditions and modes of paraglacial deep-seated gravitational spreading in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowska, Magdalena; Mège, Daniel; Gueydan, Frédéric; Chéry, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Deep-seated gravitational spreading (DSGS) affects the slopes of formerly glaciated mountain ridges. On Mars, DSGS has played a key role in shaping the landforms of the giant Valles Marineris troughs. Though less spectacular, DSGS is common in terrestrial orogens, where understanding its mechanics is critical in the light of the ongoing climate change because it is a potential source of catastrophic landslides in deglaciated valleys. We conducted parametric numerical studies in order to identify important factors responsible for DSGS initiation. DSGS models are computed using an elastoviscoplastic finite element code. Using ADELI's software, we reproduce topographic ridge spreading under the effect of valley unloading. Two types of spreading topographic ridges are investigated, homogeneous or with horizontal rheological layering. We find that gravitational instabilities are enhanced by high slopes, which increase gravitational stress, and low friction and cohesion, which decrease yield stress. In the unlayered ridge, instability is triggered by glacial unloading with plastic strain concentration inside the ridge and at the base of the high slopes. Vertical fractures develop in the upper part of the slope, potentially leading to fault scarps. Ridge homogeneity promotes a deformation mode controlled by uphill-facing normal faulting and basal bulging. In the second case, the ridge encompasses horizontal geological discontinuities that induce rock mass anisotropy. Discontinuity located at the base of the slope accumulates plastic strain, leading to the formation of a sliding plane evolving into a landslide. The presence of a weak layer at ridge base therefore promotes another slope deformation mode ending up with catastrophic failure. Mechanical conditions and slope height being equal, these conclusions can probably be extrapolated to Earth. Compared with Mars, DSGS on Earth is inhibited because terrestrial topographic gradients are lower than in Valles Marineris, an

  9. Mass transfer constraints on the chemical evolution of an active hydrothermal system, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Chuma, N.J.; Goff, F.

    1992-01-01

    Partial equilibrium conditions occur between fluids and secondary minerals in the Valles hydrothermal system, contained principally in the Tertiary rhyolitic Bandelier Tuff. The mass transfer processes are governed by reactive phase compositions, surface areas, water-rock ratios, reaction rates, and fluid residence times. Experimental dissolution of the vitric phase of the tuff was congruent with respect to Cl in the solid and produced reaction rates which obeyed a general Arrhenius release rate between 250 and 300??C. The 18O differences between reacted and unreacted rock and fluids, and mass balances calculations involving Cl in the glass phase, produced comparable water-rock ratios of unity, confirming the importance of irreversible reaction of the vitric tuff. A fluid residence time of approximately 2 ?? 103 years, determined from fluid reservoir volume and discharge rates, is less than 0.2% of the total age of the hydrothermal system and denotes a geochemically and isotopically open system. Mass transfer calculations generally replicated observed reservoir pH, Pco2, and PO2 conditions, cation concentrations, and the secondary mineral assemblage between 250 and 300??C. The only extraneous component required to maintain observed calcite saturation and high Pco2 pressures was carbon presumably derived from underlying Paleozoic limestones. Phase rule constraints indicate that Cl was the only incompatible aqueous component not controlled by mineral equilibrium. Concentrations of Cl in the reservoir directly reflect mass transport rates as evidenced by correlations between anomalously high Cl concentrations in the fluids and tuff in the Valles caldera relative to other hydrothermal systems in rhyolitic rocks. ?? 1992.

  10. Two middle Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles from the Valle Grande, Jemez Mountains, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, Peter J.; Heikoop, Jeff; Goff, Fraser; Anderson, R. Scott; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Geissman, John William; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Johnson, Catrina M.; Smith, Susan J.; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna

    2006-01-01

    A long-lived middle Pleistocene lake formed in the Valle Grande, a large moat valley of the Valles caldera in northern New Mexico, when a post-caldera eruption (South Mountain rhyolite) dammed the drainage out of the caldera. The deposits of this lake were cored in May 2004 (GLAD5 project, hole VC-3) and 81 m of mostly lacustrine silty mud were recovered. A tentative chronology has been established for VC-3 with a basal tephra Ar-Ar date of 552 +/- 3 ka, a correlation of major climatic changes in the core with other long Pleistocene records (deep sea oxygen isotope records and long Antarctic ice core records), and the recognition of two geomagnetic field polarity events in the core which can be correlated with globally recognized events. This record spans a critical interval of the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 (552 ka) to MIS 10 (~360 ka), at which time the lacustrine sediments filled the available accommodation space in the caldera moat. Multiple analyses, including core sedimentology and stratigraphy, sediment density and rock magnetic properties, organic carbon content and carbon isotope ratios, C/N ratios, and pollen content reveal two glacial/interglacial cycles in the core (MIS 14 to MIS 10). This record includes glacial terminations V and VI and complete sections spanning interglacials MIS 13 and MIS 11. In the VC-3 record, both of these interglacials are relatively long compared with the intervening glacials (MIS 14 and MIS 12), and interglacial MIS 13 is significantly muted in amplitude compared with MIS 11. These features are similar to several other mid-Pleistocene records. The glacial terminations are quite abrupt in this record with notable changes in sedimentation, organic carbon content, C/N ratios and watershed vegetation type. Termination V is the largest climate change evident in this part of the middle Pleistocene. The glacial inceptions tend to be more gradual, on the order of a few thousand years.

  11. Middle Pleistocene molluscan fauna from the Valle Giumentina (Abruzzo, Central Italy): Palaeoenvironmental, biostratigraphical and biogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sébastien; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Aureli, Daniele; Nicoud, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions through the Middle Pleistocene sequence in the Valle Giumentina, located in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy, are discussed. The sampled sequence is 16 m thick and includes nine levels with Lower Palaeolithic industries. The lithostratigraphy shows fluvio-glacial sediments with interbedded colluvial deposits and volcanic tephras. Fine sediments are composed of calcareous sands and silts, most of them yielding well-preserved mollusc shells. Forty-five samples, at 10 cm resolution, yielded 45 taxa, which could be assigned to four biozones. The oldest (biozone VGM1) indicate an open environment, which becomes a closed forest landscape developing under temperate conditions (VGM2). After a decline of thermophilous species (VGM3), mollusc assemblages indicate a dry open environment typical of a glacial period (VGM4). All prehistoric occupation horizons occur during stable environmental episodes but under both temperate and cold climatic conditions. The molluscan succession is allocated to the Middle Pleistocene on the basis of the occurrence of Jaminia malatestae, a well-known Italian species, now extinct, as well as the similarity of the molluscan record to that of Case Picconetto, a well-dated site nearby. This attribution is supported by three tephra layers dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 556 ± 6, 531 ± 5 and 456 ± 2 ka. The sequence is correlated with marine isotopic stages 14, 13 and 12. Four species of land snail (Azeca goodalli, Ruthenica filograna, Pagodulina pagodula, Nesovitrea hammonis) occur beyond their modern range and are therefore of biogeographical interest. These snails are western and central European in origin and their presence within the Valle Giumentina deposits highlight a north-south gradient of colonization during Pleistocene interglacial periods.

  12. Seven new species of Loneura Navás (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2017-02-06

    Seven species of Loneura from natural areas of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are described and illustrated. The female of L. andina is described for the first time. Two additional species, known only from the National Natural Park Gorgona (Cauca), are also recorded in Valle del Cauca. The new species are assigned to the infrageneric groups known in the genus. An identification key to males of Loneura is included.

  13. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  14. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  15. Descriptions and records of Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-11-28

    The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families.

  16. Paradigm of Professional Integration for Disabled People in Fundació Integralia Vallès: Key Success Factors.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ma Emilia; De Oña, Javier; Picola, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    Fundació Integralia Vallès is a pioneer contact center in Europe that has involved the creation of a healthcare reference center managed exclusively by people with disabilities and degenerative diseases to enable their professional development and ultimately integration into the labour market. The environment created under this project enables effective training and building of skills, capacity and work experience as well as promoting social responsibility among a population group that is at risk of exclusion. The major differentiating factor in Fundació Integralia Vallés is the quality of service provided by its staff, who are particularly sensitive to the issues of health, and who provide professional and human dimension in every attention.

  17. Measureaments of CO2 levels in a transect from Cerdanyola del Vallès to Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Nuria; Guerola, Fran

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of CO2 levels in a transect from Barcelona to Cerdanyola del Vallès Science activity developed along the 2008-2009 school term within the Carboschools+ project, in collaboration whit The Climate Research group of Barcelona Park Science (LRC- PCB) The students take CO2 concentration measures from Barcelona to Cerdanyola del Vallès, two cities separated by a mountain in order to find out how is the atmosphere CO2 concentration distributed in the territory. They interchanged their data, worked out their own conclusions and prepared their own presentations. The students finally communicate their own results to the other schools involved in the project in the first Workshop Carboschools+ Catalunya hosted by the LRC-PCB at the Faculty of Biology from the University of Barcelona.

  18. Shallow geothermal investigations into the existence of the Valles Caldera outflow plume near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, north-central, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaz, Robert Ezekiel

    shallow meteoric waters within the Jemez Mountains. The geochemical complexity of the data point towards separate systems with distinct geochemical characteristics, i.e. confined aquifers, but the complexity and sparseness of data make further interpretations difficult. No evidence of geothermal mixing was observed in any of the samples. Temperature data taken from shallow water wells that penetrate Tertiary Zia Sandstone and Triassic Chinle Group sediments (less than 200 m) show higher than expected geothermal gradients, up to 93 °C/km. Transient temperature models of an aquifer with warm water flowing laterally may explain how an expected background temperature gradient in the Rio Grande rift of 30 °C/km could be heated to 80 °C/km. The aquifer is the Madera Limestone, with a projected depth of 900 meters, which lies below the Abo Formation and the Chinle Group aquitards. The models point toward a period of advective heat transport of a deep stratigraphically-bound, laterally flowing geothermal aquifer and subsequent conductive heating of the strata above the aquifer. Travertine data show elevated delta13C values from 1.31‰ -- 5.18‰ PDB, indicating a possible magmatic source. delta18O paleotemperature results indicate spring temperatures of approximately 33 °C. U-series dates yield an age for one travertine mound, ~150 meters above the active stream channel, of approximately 450 ka +/-17 ka. These data are also consistent with published data from Soda Dam. Although the data show mixed indications of a potential geothermal resource at depth, it is evident that there is no leakage of this resource into the shallow groundwater within the study area. However, higher-than-normal geothermal gradients may indicate a thermal source at depth. Travertine data are sparse, but support the existence of thermal activity related to geothermal events from the Valles caldera in the past. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. A MIS 15-MIS 12 record of environmental changes and Lower Palaeolithic occupation from Valle Giumentina, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Chaussé, Christine; Nomade, Sébastien; Giaccio, Biagio; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Fusco, Fabio; Regattieri, Eleonora; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Vincent; Kuzucuoglu, Catherine; Boschian, Giovanni; Agostini, Silvano; Aureli, Daniele; Pagli, Marina; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Nicoud, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    An integrated geological study, including sedimentology, stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C), geochemistry, micromorphology, biomarker analysis, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and tephrochronology, was undertaken on the Quaternary infill of the Valle Giumentina basin in Central Italy, which also includes an outstanding archaeological succession, composed of nine human occupation levels ascribed to the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and other palaeoenvironmental and tephrochronological data, constrain the sedimentary history of the whole succession to the MIS 15-MIS 12 interval, between 618 ± 13 ka and 456 ± 2 ka. Palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest that over this time interval of about 150 ka, sedimentary and pedogenic processes were mainly influenced by climatic changes, in particular by the pulsing of local mountain glaciers of the Majella massif. Specifically, the Valle Giumentina succession records glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation during the colder glacial periods and pedogenesis and/or alluvial sedimentation during the warmer interglacial and/or interstadial periods. During this interval, tectonics played a negligible role as a driving factor of local morphogenesis and sedimentation, whereas the general regional uplift experienced in the Middle Pleistocene led to capture of the basin and its definitive extinction after MIS 12. These data substantially improve previous knowledge of the chronology and sedimentary evolution of the succession, providing for the first time, a well constrained chronological and palaeoenvironmental framework for the archaeological and human palaeoecological record of Valle Giumentina.

  20. Diagenetic Layers in the Upper Walls of Valles Marineris, Mars: Evidence for Drastic Climate Change Since the Mid-Hesperian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Fuks, Kelly H.; Murchie, Scott

    1995-01-01

    A packet of relatively resistant layers, totaling approx. 400 m thickness, is present at the tops of the chasma walls throughout Valles Marineris. The packet consists of an upper dark layer (approx. 50 m thick), a central bright layer (approx. 250 m thick), and a lower dark layer (approx. 100 m thick). The packet appears continuous and of nearly constant thickness and depth below ground surface over the whole Valles system (4000 km E-W, 800 km N-S), independent of elevation (3-10 km) and age of plateau surface (Noachian through upper Hesperian). The packet continues undisturbed beneath the boundary between surface units of Noachian and Hesperian ages, and continues undisturbed beneath impact craters transected by chasma walls. These attributes are not consistent with layer formation by volcanic or sedimentary deposition, and are consistent with layer formation in situ, i.e., by diagenesis, during or after upper Hesperian time. Diagenesis seems to require the action of aqueous solutions in the near subsurface, which are not now stable in the Valles Marineris area. To permit the stability of aqueous solutions, Mars must have had a fairly dense atmosphere, greater than or equal to 1 bar CO2, when the layers formed. Obliquity variations appear to be incapable of producing such a massive atmosphere so late in Mars' history.

  1. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily)

    PubMed Central

    Interdonato, Monica; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

  2. Rio Grande Wetbacks: Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norquest, Carrol

    Farmers in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas saw a rise of wetback labor in the 1930s and 40s. The wetback laborers were Mexicans who had crossed the Rio Grande and were in the United States illegally to work. Carrol Norquest, a farmer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, employed wetbacks regularly. In this book, Mr. Norquest writes about the…

  3. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  4. The andean ophiolitic megastructures on the Buga-Buenaventura transverse (Western Cordillera—Valle Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgois, Jacques; Calle, Bernardo; Tournon, Jean; Toussaint, Jean-François

    1982-02-01

    A structural study of the Buga-Buenaventura transverse in the central part of the Western Cordillera of Colombia, has shown the presence of three structural units which, from bottom to top and from west to east, are: the Rio Dagua unit, the Rio Calima unit, and the Loboguerrero window unit. All three units comprise strata between 120 and 80 m.y. old overlying a basement of green rocks showing the characteristics of submarine flows. The Bolivar ultrabasic and basic massif is geographically linked to the Rio Calima unit, in which green rocks predominate, and is separated from it by a tectonic contact. The upper part of the massif, on the other hand, shows high-temperature metamorphic rocks formed during its emplacement. The Rio Dagua unit shows two tectonic phases with isoclinal folding and development of schistosity. The first phase is contemporaneous with low-grade metamorphism equivalent to lower greenschist facies conditions. The Loboguerrero window unit shows a large recumbent fold oriented towards the southeast. Deformation in the Rio Calima unit is weaker and appears to correspond to a higher structural level than in the two other units. As the attitudes of the S1, schistosity in the Rio Dagua unit and of the shear zones located at the green rocks-sediments contact in this same unit are similar to that of the overthrust at the base of the Rio Calima unit, we are led to postulate that the overthrust belongs to the first phase of deformation, as also does the recumbent fold in the Loboguerrero window unit. We are thus led to propose a southeastward direction of emplacement for the nappes in the Western Cordillera of Colombia. In conclusion, the authors extend their observations and propose a new structural interpretation of the "Occidente Colombiano".

  5. Geologic map of the Valle 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino County, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Felger, Tracey J.; Priest, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic map of the Valle 30' x 60' quadrangle is the result of a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service to provide geologic information for regional resource management and visitor information services for Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 1,960 sq.mi. within Coconino County, northern Arizona and is bounded by long 112 deg to 113 deg W. and lat 35 deg 30 min to 36 deg N. and lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The map area is locally subdivided into four physiographic parts; (1) the Grand Canyon (Cataract Canyon and extreme northeast corner of the map area), (2) the Coconino Plateau, (3) the Mount Floyd Volcanic Field, and (4) the San Francisco Volcanic Field as defined by Billingsley and others, 1997. Elevations range from 7,460 ft (2,274 m) on the Coconino Plateau along State Highway 64 northeast corner of the map area, to about 4,200 ft (1,280 m) at the bottom of Cataract Canyon. Settlements within the map area include Tusayan and Valle, Arizona. State Highway 64 and U.S. Highway 180 provide access to the Tusayan and Valle areas. Indian Route 18 is a paved highway in the northwest corner of the map area that is maintained by the Hualapai and Havasupai Indian Tribes and leads from State Route 66 about 7 mi (11 km) east of Peach Springs, Arizona to Hualapai Hilltop, a parking lot just north of the map area at the rim of Cataract Canyon where visitors begin an 8 mi (13 km) hike into Havasupai, Arizona. Other remote parts of the map are accessed by two dirt roads, which are maintained by Coconino County, and by several unmaintained local ranch roads. Weather conditions restrict travel within the area and visitors must obtain permission to access a few local ranch lands in the south-central edge of the map area. Extra water and food are highly recommended when traveling in this remote region. Access into Cataract Canyon is

  6. On the Morphology and Transition of Valles Marineris Landforms: Rock Glaciers/Protalus Lobes vs. Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, S.; Hauber, E.; Dumke, A.; Schreiner, B.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system exhibits a variety of different landforms associated with landslide mechanisms, ranging from several tens of meters to kilometers in length. They usually cover a surface of 1000 km2 and have an average volume of up to 5000 km3 [1-2]. It is assumed that they have been emplaced under wet as well as dry conditions from destabilized wall-rock and from surrounding sapping valleys [e.g., 1-3]. Absolute age determinations have furthermore shown that landslides in Valles Marineris span much of Martian history with ages as young as 50 Myr up to 3.5 Gyr [1]. Notwithstanding their individual ages and timespan during which they have been emplaced, landslides seem to have formed repetitively producing comparable morphologies and do not show substantial modifications throughout the last 3.5 Gy [1]. We here put our focus on a set of complex tongue-shaped landforms situated in the central parts of Valles Marineris at 283 °E, 8 °S which were previously identified as a single feature and for which a possible rock-glacier origin had been proposed [5]. This assumption implies environmental conditions which are not met today at such latitudes near the equator and which would contradict all observations related to the distribution of periglacial landforms on Mars, such as thermal contraction polygons, thermokarst features, and -- especially — lobate debris aprons [e.g., 6-11] which are considered to be Martian analogues for terrestrial rock glaciers. On the basis of our observations we come to the conclusion that the landforms discussed herein form a complex set of landslides derived from wall-rock sliding and/or from surrounding valleys. Consequently, different sources areas are reflected by the complexity of the landslides with several overlapping lobes and individual tongue-shaped features. Although the tongue-shaped morphology is characteristic of rock-glacier landforms, the assembly of furrows and ridges strongly suggests an origin caused by

  7. Geothermal hydrology of Valles Caldera and the southwestern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, Frank W.; Rogers, Robert J.; Sorey, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico are volcanic in origin and have a large central caldera known as Valles Caldera. The mountains contain the Valles geothermal system, which was investigated during 1970-82 as a source of geothermal energy. This report describes the geothermal hydrology of the Jemez Mountains and presents results of an earlier 1972-75 U.S. Geological Survey study of the area in light of more recent information. Several distinct types of thermal and nonthermal ground water are recognized in the Jemez Mountains. Two types of near-surface thermal water are in the caldera: thermal meteoric water and acid sulfate water. The principal reservoir of geothermal fluids is at depth under the central and western parts of the caldera. Nonthermal ground water in Valles Caldera occurs in diverse perched aquifers and deeper valley-fill aquifers. The geothermal reservoir is recharged by meteorically derived water that moves downward from the aquifers in the caldera fill to depths of 6,500 feet or more and at temperatures reaching about 330 degrees Celsius. The heated geothermal water rises convectively to depths of 2,000 feet or less and mixes with other ground water as it flows away from the geothermal reservoir. A vapor zone containing steam, carbon dioxide, and other gases exists above parts of the liquid-dominated geothermal zone. Two subsystems are generally recognized within the larger geothermal system: the Redondo Creek subsystem and the Sulphur Creek subsystem. The permeability in the Redondo Creek subsystem is controlled by stratigraphy and fault-related structures. Most of the permeability is in the high-angle, normal faults and associated fractures that form the Redondo Creek Graben. Faults and related fractures control the flow of thermal fluids in the subsystem, which is bounded by high-angle faults. The Redondo Creek subsystem has been more extensively studied than other parts of the system. The Sulphur Springs subsystem is not as well

  8. Fogs and Clouds are a Potential Indicator of a Local Water Source in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Stillman, David E.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2016-04-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow, low-albedo seasonal flow features on present-day Mars that extend incrementally down warm, steep slopes, fade when inactive, and reappear annually over multiple Mars years [1,2]. Hypothesis for the sources of volatile by which RSL are recharged include seeping water, melting shallow ice, aquifers, and vapor from the atmosphere [1-5]. About 50% of the 250+ candidate and confirmed RSL sites appear in and around Valles Marineris [3], and coincide with regions where putative morning water ice fogs may appear as imaged by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express [6]. The presence of fog may provide clues to the water cycle within the canyon, and could elucidate the processes related to the evolution of RSL. Using a regional atmospheric model, we investigate the atmospheric dynamics in and around Valles Marineris. Our simulation results show a curious temperature structure, where the inside of the canyon appears warmer relative to the plateaus immediately outside at all times of day. Formation of fogs requires the atmosphere to be saturated. This can happen with the appropriate combination of cooling or addition of water vapor. The modeled temperature structure suggests that if water is well mixed and fog is present within the warmer canyon bottom, fog should be present on the cooler surrounding plateaus as well. This is generally not the case. Therefore, the only way to produce fog inside the canyon is to have a local water source. RSL may contribute to this atmospheric water through evaporation, or RSL may simply be a surface marker of a larger near-surface reservoir of water that can act as a source. From the modeled temperatures, we calculated the corresponding saturation vapor pressures and saturation mixing ratios to determine the amount of water vapor in the air at saturation. The observed Martian atmospheric column abundance is ~10 precipitable microns on average [7] and presents a major challenge for an

  9. Gas geochemistry of the Valles caldera region, New Mexico and comparisons with gases at Yellowstone, Long Valley and other geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Noncondensible gases from hot springs, fumaroles, and deep wells within the Valles caldera geothermal system (210-300??C) consist of roughly 98.5 mo1% CO2, 0.5 mol% H2S, and 1 mol% other components. 3He/4He ratios indicate a deep magmatic source (R/Ra up to 6) whereas ??13C-CO2 values (-3 to -5???) do not discriminate between a mantle/magmatic source and a source from subjacent, hydrothermally altered Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Regional gases from sites within a 50-km radius beyond Valles caldera are relatively enriched in CO2 and He, but depleted in H2S compared to Valles gases. Regional gases have R/Ra values ???1.2 due to more interaction with the crust and/or less contribution from the mantle. Carbon sources for regional CO2 are varied. During 1982-1998, repeat analyses of gases from intracaldera sites at Sulphur Springs showed relatively constant CH4, H2, and H2S contents. The only exception was gas from Footbath Spring (1987-1993), which experienced increases in these three components during drilling and testing of scientific wells VC-2a and VC-2b. Present-day Valles gases contain substantially less N2 than fluid inclusion gases trapped in deep, early-stage, post-caldera vein minerals. This suggests that the long-lived Valles hydrothermal system (ca. 1 Myr) has depleted subsurface Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of nitrogen. When compared with gases from many other geothermal systems, Valles caldera gases are relatively enriched in He but depleted in CH4, N2 and Ar. In this respect, Valles gases resemble end-member hydrothermal and magmatic gases discharged at hot spots (Galapagos, Kilauea, and Yellowstone). Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Geomorphological characteristics of the interior layered deposits (ILDs) of Melas Chasma, central Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Samantha; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy

    2013-04-01

    Stretching almost 600 km in width, Melas Chasma is located in the central part of the Valles Marineris (VM) and is one of the lowest lying of the chasmata. Spectral mapping of this chasma, particularly using MEX's OMEGA instrument, has revealed a strong presence of water-altered minerals (roughly a quarter of all such detected minerals to date in the VM; Chojnacki & Hynek, 2008), in the form of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulphates. Most of the sulphate-bearing rocks in Melas are found in association with thinly layered deposits, occurring in outcrops on the chasma floor. So-called interior layered deposits (ILDs) throughout the Valles Marineris have been the subject of considerable recent research, particularly for their association with these water-altered minerals. Better understanding of the origin and evolution of these ILDs may help to shed more light on the past climatic conditions on Mars and the potentially complicated history of liquid water on the planet. Relatively little geomorphological study of the ILDs of Melas Chasma has been conducted to date with regard to the differing characteristics of the different sulphate-bearing rocks. For instance, areas corresponding to polyhydrated sulphates in the Melas ILDs show considerable different surface textures to those corresponding to monohydrated sulphates. Interestingly, the latter show some surface textures comparable to the wind eroded, yardang bearing surfaces of the Medusae Fossae Formation, located roughly 4000 km to the west on the opposite side of the Tharsis volcanic province. This aim of this work, conducted as part of the European Research Council supported eMars project, is to compile a thorough geomorphological survey of the Melas Chasma ILDs and, through this, construct workable hypotheses regarding their origin and evolution and the context of their water-altered mineral content. Furthermore, to contrast and compare the ILDs of Melas with other large-scale deposits, such as the Medusae

  11. Hydrothermal alteration in the Baca Geothermal System, Redondo Dome, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1986-02-01

    Thermal fluids circulating in the active hydrothermal system of the resurgent Redondo dome of the Valles caldera have interacted with their diverse host rocks to produce well-zoned alteration assemblages, which not only help locate permeable fluid channels but also provide insight into the system's thermal history. The alteration shows that fluid flow has been confined principally to steeply dipping normal faults and subsidiary fractures as well as thin stratigraphic aquifers. Permeability along many of these channels has been reduced or locally eliminated by hydrothermal self-sealing. Alteration from the surface through the base of the Miocene Paliza Canyon Formation is of three distinctive types: argillic, propylitic, and phyllic. Argillic alteration forms a blanket above the deep water table in formerly permeable nonwelded tuffs. Beneath the argillic zone, pervasive propylitic alteration is weakly developed in felsic host rocks but locally intense in deep intermediate composition volcanics. Strong phyllic alteration is commonly but not invariably associated with major active thermal fluid channels. Phyllic zones yielding no fluid were clearly once permeable but now are hydrothermally sealed. High-temperature alteration phases at Baca are presently found at much lower temperatures. We suggest either that isotherms have collapsed due to gradual cooling of the system, that they have retreated without overall heat loss due to uplift of the Redondo dome, that the system has shifted laterally, or that it has contracted due to a drop in the water table. The deepest Well (B-12, 3423 m) in the dome may have penetrated through the base of the active hydrothermal system. Below a depth of 2440 m in this well, hydrothermal veining largely disappears, and the rocks resemble those developed by isochemical thermal metamorphism. The transition is reflected by temperature logs, which show a conductive thermal gradient below 2440 m. This depth may mark the dome's neutral plane

  12. Landslides as Indicators of the Past Extent of Interior Layered Deposits in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Warner, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Mounds of layered deposits, often several kilometres in height, are common in the canyons of Valles Marineris [1,2] and impact craters such as Gale Crater [3]. These interior layered deposits (ILDs) are important because they not only potentially preserve long sequences of Mars' stratigraphic record, but also because the common presence of abundant hydrous mineral phases implies aqueous activity crucial to studies of habitability. Despite their importance, no consensus exists regarding how ILDs form. Here we use landslides in Valles Marineris to gain insight into the previous extent and state of two large-scale ILDs. Using visible wavelength images and stereo digital terrain models we have identified three major occurrences of landslide deposits in Ophir Chasma, which are indicative of diversion or obstruction by material that is no longer present. The landslides in this study differ from most other landslides by increasing in height towards their front edges, showing distinctive concave scarp faces that are up to 500 m above the base level, and up to 400 m higher than the preceding part of the landslide deposit. These scarps are 1 - 2 km from, and mimic the shape of, the current extent of the ILD outer boundaries. Although not continuous throughout Ophir Chasma, the scarps extend between 20 and 50 km in length at different landslides, suggesting a common boundary at the northern edge of Ophir/Baetis Mensae. The most likely explanation for the formation of these scarps is that the leading edge of a landslide has piled up in front of an obstacle that has since been removed. Given the short timescale between landslide formation and the removal of the ILD obstacle material [4], it is likely that erosion alone is incapable of removing the material unless unrealistically high rates are assumed. Instead ice sublimation processes are likely to have been the dominant removal method, which implies that a significant amount of ice was present in the ILDs during the Amazonian

  13. Mineralogy and Organic Geochemistry of Acid Sulfate Environments from Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Habitability, Weathering and Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. B.; Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Kubo, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the mineralogy, organic preservation potential and habitability of sulfate deposits in acid sulfate volcanic settings at Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Fumaroles and acidic springs are potential analogs for aqueous environments on Mars and may offer insights into habitability of sulfate deposits such as those at Meridiani Planum. Sulfates recently detected on Mars are posited to have formed from fluids derived from basaltic weathering and igneous volatile input, ultimately precipitating from acidic brines subjected to desiccation and freeze-thaw cycles (McClennan and Grotzinger, 2008). Key issues concerning martian sulfate deposits are their relationship to aqueous clay deposits, and whether or not specific sulfates deposits represent former habitable environments (see Soderblum and Bell, 2008; Tosca et al., 2008). Modern terrestrial volcanic fumaroles and hot springs precipitate various Ca-, Mg- and Fe- sulfates along with clays, and can help clarify whether certain acid sulfate mineral assemblages reflect habitable environments. Valles caldera is a resurgent caldera last active in the Pleistocene (1.4 - 1.0 Ma) that hosts several active fumaroles and over 40 geothermal exploration wells (see Goff, 2009). Fumaroles and associated mudpots and springs at Valles range from pH < 1 to 3, and affect argillic alteration upon rhylolitic tuffs and sedimentary deposits (Charles et al., 1986). We identified assemblages containing gypsum, quartz, Al-sulfates, elemental sulfur, clays and other minerals using XRD and SEM-EDS. Our previous research has shown that sulfates from different marine depositional environments display textural and morphological traits that are indicative of biological influence, or specific conditions in the depositional environments (Vogel et al., 2009). Gypsum crystals that develop in the presence of microbial biofilms in marine environments may have distorted crystal morphologies, biofilm - associated dissolution features, and accessory

  14. Late Tertiary northwestward-vergent thrusting in Valle del Cauca, Colombian Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, C.A.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr.; Cordoba, F.

    1989-03-01

    The Valle del Cauca is a topographic basin situated between the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Occidental in the Colombian Andes. The basement is Mesozoic mafic igneous rock of the Volcanic and Amaime Formations and clastic sediments and chert of the Espinal and Cisneros Formations. The basement was intruded by middle Cretaceous granodiorites (including the Batolito de Buga) and was deformed and metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The Mesozoic rocks originated in an oceanic setting and were accreted to northwestern South America during the Cretaceous or early Tertiary. Unconformably overlying the Mesozoic basement are the Eocene and Oligocene Vijes (marine limestone) and Guachinte and Cinta de Piedra (fluvial and deltaic sandstone and mudstone). In the Cordillera Central, the Cinta de Piedra is unconformably overlain by fanglomerate of the Miocene La Paila Formation. These clastics coarsen and thicken eastward. Geologic mapping and structural analyses show that the Mesozoic basement and its Tertiary cover are faulted and folded. Folds are asymmetric and overturned westward. Faults dip at shallow to moderate angles to the east and carry older sedimentary or basement rocks westward over younger rocks.

  15. Erosional development of bedrock spur and gully topography in the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    Gully networks separated by resistant bedrock spurs are a common erosional feature along the escarpments that border the Valles Marineris. The resistant spur topography is best developed where the base of the slope is truncated by linear scarps interpreted as fault scarps. Regional variations in slope morphology imply that spur and gully topography undergoes a systematic progressive degradation through time associated with the erosional destruction of the basal fault scarps. The comparative morphometry of the divide networks indicates that the density of the spur networks and the number of first-order unbranched spurs decreases as the basal slope break becomes more sinuous. Abstraction of the spurs occurs through regolith storage in adjacent gullies at the slope base and the most degraded slope forms are entirely buried in talus. The basal fault scarps apparently control regolith transport by allowing debris to drain from the slope. As these basal scarps decay the slope base becomes increasingly sinuous and the slopes become transport limited. Dry mass-wasting may be the most important process acting on these slopes where a continually lowered base level is required to maintain the spur topography. In contrast to the Martian slopes, range front fault escarpments in the western U.S. show no systematic trend in spur network geometry as they are eroded. These weathering limited slopes are controlled by the more efficient removal of regolith through fluvial processes which rapidly create quasi-equilibrium drainage networks.

  16. Geology of Hebrus Valles and Hephaestus Fossae, Mars: evidence for basement control of fluvial patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Hebrus Valles (HV) and Hephaestus Fossae (HF) are valley systems located SW of Elysium Mons in the low northern plains of Mars. HV share many of their characteristics with other martian outflow channels--widely interpreted as having formed by catastrophic flooding. The NW-trending HV system is 250 km long and begins in an elongate depression. Individual channels are less than 1 km wide; a braided reach is about 10 km wide. Streamlined islands are abundant in the middle reach. HV terminate as a series of narrow distributaries. No sedimentary deposits are obviously related to the development of the channel. HV cut across a broad expanse of older plains dotted by irregular mesas and smaller knobs. HF are a connected series of linear valley segments which branch and cross downslope but have high junction angles. Locally, the channel pattern is polygonal. HF are parallel to HV but are considerably deeper and longer (600 km). HF also originate in a depression, but to the NW they terminate near the gradational boundary between the knobby plains and polygonally fractured terrain of Utopia Planitia. The valley pattern has led some to suggest that HF are tectonic features. It is suggested that like HV, HF are also of fluvial origin. Downcutting to, or subsurface flow at this pre-existing surface red to a channel pattern that was strongly controlled by the polygonal troughs buried beneath the younger knobby plains materials.

  17. Quantifying Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution after Forest Fire using Thermal Analyses, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklewicz, K. B.; Rasmussen, C.

    2014-12-01

    The frequency and severity of wildfire in western conifer forests is expected to increase with continued climate change induced warming and drying. The effects of wildfire on carbon cycle processes, and particularly surface soil organic matter composition and post fire erosive redistribution is poorly understood. The recent Thompson Ridge wildfire event in 2013 in the Valles Caldera, part of the Jemez-Catalina Critical Zone Observatory, provides the opportunity to track post-fire changes in surface soil organic matter composition over time relative to pre-fire conditions. Here we applied thermal analyses to quantify changes in surface soil organic matter composition, with a focus on charred materials, across a range of hillslope and convergent landscape positions. It was hypothesized that the fraction of charred material would increase post-burn in all surface soils, with a subsequent decline in hillslope positions and a gain in convergent positions as surface material was eroded and deposited in water gathering portions of the landscape. Our results confirmed that charcoal increased directly after the fire in all samples, but a clear signal of erosive redistribution was not observed, suggesting that the movement of charcoal throughout a landscape is more complex than the simple hypothesis put forward here. Future work will expand the spatial distribution of samples in a systematic fashion that better captures variation in topography and erosive versus depositional areas of the landscape.

  18. Chromosomenindividualität or Entmischung? The debate between Paolo Della Valle and Edmund B. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Volpone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Italian cytologist Paolo Della Valle developed a theory of instable chromosomes (teoria dei cromosomi labili). He radically criticized the so-called Sutton-Boveri hypothesis (Martins and Martins, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 22:261-271, 1999), focusing on numerical constancy in the species and individuality. On the basis of bibliographical review and personal observations, he maintained that the chromosomes were neither stable bodies, nor permanent structures, but transitory cellular materials, resulting from the periodical rearrangement of the chromatin during the cell division. German and English-speaking biologists reacted. The paper shows some content of the argumentations used by Thomas H. Montgomery and especially Edmund B. Wilson. The discussion was characterized by the same data which is interpretedby different scholars in different ways. And the point is that no one of them had the decisive test to demonstrate his own point of view. Wilson simply invoked on his behalf a certain 'common sense', defending at least a 'high degree of constancy'. The debate waned along with the reception of Morgan's chromosome theory of heredity, but only the advent of molecular biology definitively stated the nature of chromosomes as permanent structures of the cell.

  19. Scientific proposals for a continuing scientific drilling program in the Valles-Toledo Caldera Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, Grant

    The Valles-Toledo caldera complex is famous as the site of early research on caldera formation and for its caldera-hosted, high-temperature geothermal system. Scientific drilling in the west half of the complex, sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Services of the Department of Energy (DOE), is part of a long-term program to answer basic questions about caldera formation processes, silicic volcanism, high-temperature hydrothermal systems, and volcanogenic ore bodies.A DOE workshop to evaluate the drilling was held October 18-20, 1989, in Los Alamos, N. Mex.; about 50 scientists came. The purpose was to review the progress of research and to consider the scientific merit of continuing corehole drilling as proposed in the original scientific management plan [Goff and Nielson, 1986]. At the end of the first day, a long discussion was held to determine if results so far justified the expense of continuing the program. The answer was unequivocal: Yes. The next question was, Where should the next corehole be located?

  20. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, consists of 45 high-quality soundings acquired in continuous-profiling mode and has been funded in support of CSDP drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter bipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 KW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. These current bipoles gave source fields over the receiver sites which were substantially independent in polarization and provided well-resolved tensor elements. The surroundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. At each receiver, two orthogonal electric and three orthogonal magnetic field components were acquired in accordance with tensor principles. Derivation of model resistivity cross sections from our data and their correlation with structure and geochemistry are principal components of the OBES award. However, Sulphur Springs also can serve as a natural testbed of traditional assumptions and methods of CSAMT with quantification through rigorous model analysis. Issues here include stability and accuracy of scalar versus tensor estimates, theoretical versus observed field patterns over the survey area, and controls on near-field effects using CSAMT and natural field data both inside and outside the caldera.

  1. Low H/L of initial and secondary landslides on Mars Valles Marineris floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, H.; Fukuoka, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyer (MGS) has investigated the almost whole Martian topography with high resolution and its products are reflected in the Google Earth's martian option. This digital service provide huge opportunities to public to view the preserved landslide topography as well as to measure the parameters for landslide mobility such as average coefficient of friction (H/L), and apparent friction angle. Among those views, the Valles Marineris is the most landslide prone area and a lot of long runout gigantic landslides can be extracted along the tectonic cliff. Authors encouraged undergraduate students to measure this parameter as an exercise of introductory course of planetary science, especially of the gigantic initial landslides to compare with those of secondary landslides which looks like induced by subsequent triggers such as earthquake or metor impact. Preliminary results show that (1) The H/L values of the gigantic initial landslides are dependent on landslide volume as reported by previous studies; (2) secondary landslides of much less volumes generally have wide and thin spread features but much smaller friction like debris flows. Those characters imply that those landslides might have been induced in the landslide deposits of higher moisture content and/or runout on valley floor of highly saturated or shallow ground water table.

  2. Afebrile pneumonia (whooping cough) syndrome in infants at Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, 2001-2007

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Dolly; Echandía-Villegas, Connie Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Afebrile pneumonia syndrome in infants, also called infant pneumonitis, pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens or whooping cough syndrome is a major cause of severe lower respiratory infection in young infants, both in developing countries and in developed countries. Objective: To describe children with afebrile pneumonia syndrome. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, we reviewed the medical records of children diagnosed with afebrile pneumonia treated at Hospital Universitario del Valle, a reference center in southwestern Colombia, between June 2001 and December 2007. We obtained data on maternal age and origin, prenatal care, the childs birth, breastfeeding, vaccination status, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and complications. Results: We evaluated 101 children with this entity, noting a stationary presentation: June-August and November- December. A total of 73% of the children were under 4 months of age; the most common symptoms were: cyanotic and spasmodic cough (100%), respiratory distress (70%), and unquantified fever (68%). The most common findings: rales (crackles) (50%), wheezing and expiratory stridor (37%); 66% were classified as mild and of the remaining 33%, half of them required attention in the intensive care unit. In all, there was clinical diagnosis of afebrile pneumonia syndrome in infants, but no etiologic diagnosis was made and despite this, 94% of the children received macrolides. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that most of these patients acquired the disease by airway, possibly caused by viral infection and did not require the indiscriminate use of macrolides. PMID:24893051

  3. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  4. Geologic map of the Puye Quadrangle, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, Sandoval, and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dethier, David P.

    2003-01-01

    The Puye quadrangle covers an area on the eastern flank of the Jemez Mountains, north of Los Alamos and west of Espanola, New Mexico. Most of the quadrangle consists of a dissected plateau that was formed on the resistant caprock of the Bandelier Tuff, which was erupted from the Valles caldera approximately 1 to 2 million years ago. Within the canyons of the east-flowing streams that eroded this volcanic tableland, Miocene and Pliocene fluvial deposits of the Puye Formation and Santa Fe Group are exposed beneath the Bandelier Tuff. These older units preserve sand and gravel that were deposited by streams and debris flows flowing from source areas located mostly north and northeast of the Puye quadrangle. The landscape of the southeastern part of the quadrangle is dominated by the valley of the modern Rio Grande, and by remnants of piedmont-slope and river-terrace deposits that formed during various stages of incision of the Rio Grande drainage on the landscape. Landslide deposits are common along the steep canyon walls where broad tracts of the massive caprock units have slumped toward the canyons on zones of weakness in underlying strata, particularly on silt/clay-rich lacustrine beds within the Puye Formation.

  5. Numerical slope stability simulations of chasma walls in Valles Marineris/Mars using a distinct element method (dem).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, B.

    2003-04-01

    NUMERICAL SLOPE STABILITY SIMULATIONS OF CHASMA WALLS IN VALLES MARINERIS/MARS USING A DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD (DEM). B. Imre (1) (1) German Aerospace Center, Berlin Adlershof, bernd.imre@gmx.net The 8- to 10-km depths of Valles Marineris (VM) offer excellent views into the upper Martian crust. Layering, fracturing, lithology, stratigraphy and the content of volatiles have influenced the evolution of the Valles Marineris wallslopes. But these parameters also reflect the development of VM and its wall slopes. The scope of this work is to gain understanding in these parameters by back-simulating the development of wall slopes. For that purpose, the two dimensional Particle Flow Code PFC2D has been chosen (ITASCA, version 2.00-103). PFC2D is a distinct element code for numerical modelling of movements and interactions of assemblies of arbitrarily sized circular particles. Particles may be bonded together to represent a solid material. Movements of particles are unlimited. That is of importance because results of open systems with numerous unknown variables are non-unique and therefore highly path dependent. This DEM allows the simulation of whole development paths of VM walls what makes confirmation of the model more complete (e.g. Oreskes et al., Science 263, 1994). To reduce the number of unknown variables a proper (that means as simple as possible) field-site had to be selected. The northern wall of eastern Candor Chasma has been chosen. This wall is up to 8-km high and represents a significant outcrop of the upper Martian crust. It is quite uncomplex, well-aligned and of simple morphology. Currently the work on the model is at the stage of performing the parameter study. Results will be presented via poster by the EGS-Meeting.

  6. BIO: an alternative to RIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuroglu, Bahri; Oktug, Sema

    2001-07-01

    RED (Random Early Detection) is the most popular active queue management algorithm, although it has some weaknesses. Recently, another active queue management algorithm, BLUE, was proposed and shown that it is more successful in controlling the queue length when high number of flows are active on ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) capable networks. In this paper, RED and BLUE algorithms are evaluated for different levels of RTTs, with/without ECN support. It is shown that BLUE on ECN incapable networks is not as successful as on ECN capable networks. Differentiated Services architecture suggests that RIO (Red with In and Out) style queue management algorithms are to be used on each AF (Assured Forwarding) queue to offer different levels of services for different priorities at each AF class. Inspired of BLUE's success over RED on ECN capable networks, we developed a simple alternative to RIO, BIO (BLUE with In and Out). BIO, which runs two different BLUE algorithms for in and out packets, was expected to achieve lower loss rates while maximizing link utilization for high number of active flows on AF queues. However, due to the self-configuring architecture of the algorithm, it is observed that BIO marks packets too aggressively and degrades utilization. In this paper, the properties of BIO are also explained and the results obtained are justified.

  7. Continental-Scale Salt Tectonics on Mars and the Origin of Valles Marineris and Associated Outflow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Som, S. M.; Schreiber, B. C.; Jackson, M. P.; Gillespie, A. R.; Adams, J. B.

    2007-12-01

    A synthesis of regional deformation patterns of the Thaumasia Plateau, Mars, leads to a new interpretation for regional deformation and the origin of Valles Marineris and associated outflow channels. The morphology of the Thaumasia Plateau is typical of thin-skinned deformation, akin to a "mega-slide," in which extensional deformation in Syria Planum and Noctis Labyrinthus connects via zones of lateral transtension - Claritas Fossae and Valles Marineris - to a broad zone of compressional uplift and shortening defined by truncated craters and thrust faults along the Coprates Rise and Thaumasia Highlands. However, the low regional slope (?1°) results in gravitational body forces that are too small to deform the basaltic lava flows conventionally thought to compose the flanks of the Tharsis volcanic province. Instead, we conclude that geothermal heating and topographic loading of extensive buried deposits of salts (or mixtures of salts, ice, and basaltic debris) would allow for weak detachments and large-scale gravity spreading. We propose that the generally linear chasmata of Valles Marineris reflect collapse and excavation along pre-existing extension fractures radial to Tharsis, reactivated as part of one lateral margin of the Thaumasia gravity spreading system. The other, dextral, lateral margin is a massive splay of extensional faults forming the Claritas Fossae, which resembles a trailing extensional imbricate fan. The compressional mountain belt defined by the Coprates Rise and Thaumasia Highlands forms the toe of the "mega-slide." Topographic observations and previous structural analyses reveal evidence for a failed volcanic plume below Syria Planum that could have provided both thermal energy and topographic potential for initiating regional deformation. Increased geothermal heating over time, or heating simply due to increasing depth in the crust due to continuing burial, would have contributed to flow of salt deposits, as well as formation of groundwater

  8. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Isotopic and trace element characteristics of rhyolites from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.; Sykes, M.L.; Wolff, J.A.; Skuba, C.E.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of work supported by DOE grant No. DE-FGO5-87ER13795 that was completed or is still in progress. The stated purpose of this grant was to collect geochemical information (trace element, radiogenic isotope and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope) on samples from core holes VC-I and VC-2a in the Valles caldera in order to establish a consistent detailed intracaldera stratigraphy and relate this to extracaldera volcanic rock units of the Jemez Mountains. Careful stratigraphic control of the intracaldera units is necessary to evaluate models of caldera formation, ignimbrite deposition, and resurgence. Combined stable and radiogenic isotope and trace element data will also provide major insights to petrogenesis of the Bandelier magma system. The composition of non-hydrothermally altered samples from outflow units of the Bandelier Tuff and related volcanics must be known to assess isotopic variations of intracaldera ignimbrite samples. On detailed examination of the VC-2a core samples, it became apparent that hydrothermal alteration is so extensive that no geochemical information useful for stratigraphic fingerprinting or petrogenesis could be obtained, and that correlation with other intracaldera units and extracaldera units must be made on the basis of stratigraphic position and gross lithologic characteristics. Accordingly, we emphasize geochemical data from the extracaldera Bandelier Tuffs and related units which will be useful for comparison with proposed drill hole VC-4 and for any future studies of the region. The stable isotope, radiogenic isotope and trace element data obtained from this project, combined with existing major and trace element data for volcanic rocks from this area, provide an extensive data base essential to future Continental Scientific Drilling Program projects in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico.

  10. Scientific core hole Valles caldera No. 2b (VC-2b), New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, J.N.; Hulen, J.B.; Lysne, P.; Jacobson, R.; Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.; Pisto, L.; Criswell, C.W.; Gribble, R.; Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT; Tonto Drilling Services, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT; Los Alamo

    1989-01-01

    Research core hole was continuously cored to 1.762 km on the western flank of the caldera's resurgent dome in 1988. Bottom hole temperature is about 295{degree}C within Precambrian (1.5 Ga) quartz monzonite, deep within the liquid-dominated portions of the Sulphur Springs hydrothermal system. VC-2b may be the deepest, hottest, continuously cored hole in North America. Core recovery was 99.2%. The only major drilling problems encountered were when temperatures at the bit exceeded 225{degree}C below depths of about 1000 m. The result of these conditions was loss of viscosity and/or lubricity in the mud, apparently caused by breakdown of the high temperature polymers. Lithologies in caldera-fill indicate the drill site may be proximal to ignimbrite vents and that an intracaldera lake with temperatures approaching boiling formed soon after the caldera itself. Structural correlations between VC-2b and the 528-m-deep companion hole VC-2a indicate the earlier Toledo caldera (1.45 Ma; Otowi Member tuffs) and even older Lower Tuffs caldera experienced no structural resurgence similar to the 1.12 million year old Valles caldera. The hydrothermal system penetrated by these bores, consists of a shallow vapor-rich cap, which has evolved from an earlier 200{degree}C liquid-dominated system, overlying stacked, liquid-dominated zones up to about 300{degree}C. Geochemistry of mud returns collected during drilling suggests chloride-rich geothermal fluids were entering the bore and mixing with the drilling fluids in the fractured lower Paleozoic and Precambrian sections. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Microbiological water quality in a large irrigation system: El Valle del Yaqui, Sonora México.

    PubMed

    Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Castro-Espinoza, L; Naranjo, Jaime E; Karpiscak, Martin M; Freitas, Robert J; Gerba, Charles P

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbial water quality of a large irrigation system and how this quality varies with respect to canal size, impact of near-by communities, and the travel distance from the source in the El Valle del Yaqui, Sonora, México. In this arid region, 220,000 hectares are irrigated with 80% of the irrigation water being supplied from an extensive irrigation system including three dams on the Yaqui River watershed. The stored water flows to the irrigated fields through two main canal systems (severing the upper and lower Yaqui Valley) and then through smaller lateral canals that deliver the water to the fields. A total of 146 irrigation water samples were collected from 52 sample sites during three sampling events. Not all sites could be accessed on each occasion. All of the samples contained coliform bacteria ranging from 1,140 to 68,670 MPN/100 mL with an arithmetic mean of 11,416. Ninety-eight percent of the samples contained less than 1,000 MPN/100 mL Escherichia coli, with an arithmetic mean of 291 MPN/100 mL. Coliphage were detected in less than 30% of the samples with an arithmetic average equal to 141 PFU/100 mL. Enteroviruses, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Giardia cysts were also detected in the canal systems. No significant difference was found in the water quality due to canal system (upper or lower Yaqui Valley), canal-size (main vs. lateral), distance from source, and the vicinity of human habitation (presence of various villages and towns along the length of the canals). There was a significant decrease in coliforms (p < 0.011) and E. coli (< 0.022) concentrations as travel distance increased from the City of Obregón.

  12. Constraints on tree seedling establishment in montane grasslands of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coop, Jonathan D; Givnish, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Montane and subalpine grasslands are prominent, but poorly understood, features of the Rocky Mountains. These communities frequently occur below reversed tree lines on valley floors, where nightly cold air accumulation is spatially coupled with fine soil texture. We used field experiments to assess the roles of minimum temperature, soil texture, grass competition, and ungulate browsing on the growth, photosynthetic performance, and survival of transplanted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings at 32 sites straddling such reversed tree lines in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico (USA). Seedling growth increased most strongly with increasing nighttime minimum temperatures away from the valley bottoms; seedlings experiencing the coldest temperatures on the caldera floor exhibited stunted needles and often no measurable height growth. Based on the chlorophyll fluorescence ratios PhiPSII and Fv/Fm, we found that low minimum temperatures, low soil moisture, and fine soil texture all contributed to photoinhibition. Neighboring herbs had only minor negative effects on seedlings. We found no effect of ungulates, but golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) caused substantial seedling mortality. Second-year seedling survival was highest on sandy soils, and third-year survival was highest at sites with higher minimum temperatures. We conclude that differential tree seedling establishment driven by low minimum temperatures in the valley bottoms is the primary factor maintaining montane grasslands of the VCNP, although this process probably operated historically in combination with frequent surface fire to set the position of the tree line ecotone. As at alpine tree lines, reversed tree lines bordering montane and subalpine grasslands can represent temperature-sensitive boundaries of the tree life form.

  13. A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Nieto, Julián A Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2012-01-01

    Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura.

  14. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  15. A GIS-based volcanic hazard and risk assessment of eruptions sourced within Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, Rebecca; Panter, Kurt S.; Gorsevski, Pece V.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the spatial extent of a possible future eruption using a GIS-based volcanic hazard tool designed to simulate pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) as well as lava flows and to assess the social and economic vulnerabilities of the area at risk. Simulated pyroclastic fallout deposits originating from the El Cajete crater within the Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico, are calibrated to isopach and lithic isopleth maps of the Lower and Upper El Cajete as constructed by Wolff et al. (2011). The change in the axial orientation of fallout deposits between the Lower and Upper El Cajete is best matched using seasonal variations in wind speed and direction based on modern atmospheric records. The calibration of PDCs is based on the distribution and run-out of the Battleship Rock Ignimbrite. Once calibrated, hazards are simulated at a second vent location determined from probability distributions of structural features. The resulting hazard simulation maps show the potential distribution of pyroclastic fallout, PDCs and lava flows, indicating areas to the S/SE of Valles Caldera to be at greatest risk.

  16. Alteration in the Madera Limestone and Sandia Formation from core hole VC-1, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Core hole VC-1 penetrated the southwestern ring fracture zone of the 1.1 Ma Valles caldera and at a depth of 333 m intersected the top of the Paleozoic section including the Abo Formation, Madera Limestone, and Sandia Formation, reaching a total depth of 856 m. The Paleozoic rocks, which consist of thin-bedded limestone, siltstone, mudstone, sandstone, and local conglomerate, are overlain by volcanic rocks of the caldera moat that are less than 0.6 Ma. Diagenetic and at least three hydrothermal alteration stages were identified in the Madera Limestone and Sandia Formation. Diagenetic clay alteration was pervasive throughout the sedimentary rocks. Volcanic activity at 16.5 Ma and continuing through the formation of the Valles caldera resulted in high thermal gradients, which caused recrystallization of diagenetic clay minerals. Interstratified smectite-illite is the most diagnostic clay mineral throughout the section; structurally, the illite component in the ordered interstratified illite-smectite changes gradationally from 70% at the top of the Madera Limestone to 95% at the base of the section in the Sandia Formation. Pyrite that occurs as small clots and lenses as well as finely disseminated is interpreted as being of diagenetic origin, especially in organic-rich beds. Low permeability of much of the paleozoic section precluded the deposition of hydrothermal minerals except in fractures and intergranular space in some of the more permeable sandstone and brecciated horizons. Three stages of hydrothermal mineral deposition are defined. -from Author

  17. The relation of catastrophic flooding of Mangala Valles, Mars, to faulting of memnonia fossae and Tharsis volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Chapman, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic relations indicate two coeval periods of catastrophic flooding and Tharsis-centered faulting (producing Memnonia Fossae) in the Mangala Valles region of Mars. Major sequences of lava flows of the Tharsis Montes Formation and local, lobate plains flows were erupted during and between these channeling and faulting episodes. First, Late Hesperian channel development overlapped in time the Tharsis-centered faulting that trends north 75?? to 90??E. Next, Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian flooding was coeval with faulting that trends north 55?? to 70??E. In some reaches, resistant lava flows filled the early channels, resulting in inverted channel topography after the later flooding swept through. Both floods likely originated from the same graben, which probably was activated during each episode of faulting. Faulting broke through groundwater barriers and tapped confined aquifers in higher regions west and east of the point of discharge. The minimum volume of water required to erode Mangala Valles (about 5 ?? 1012 m3) may have been released through two floods that drained a few percent pore volume from a relatively permeable aquifer. The peak discharges may have been produced by hydrothermal groundwater circulation induced by Tharsis magmatism, tectonic uplift centered at Tharsis Montes, and compaction of saturated crater ejecta due to loading by lava flows. -Authors

  18. Revisions to the stratigraphy and volcanology of the post-0.5 Ma units and the volcanic section of VC-1 core hole, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Wolff, J. A.; Spell, T. L.; Skuba, C. E.; Morrissey, M. M.

    1991-03-01

    Reexamination of the Continental Scientific Drilling Project VC-1 core, new field data, and new isotopic ages necessitate revision of the previously described geology of the youngest eruptive units from the Valles caldera. The Banco Bonito rhyolite lava flow and minor attendant pyroclastic, autoclastic, and reworked deposits about 0.9 km3 dense rock equivalent volume (DRE), are recognized as the product of the youngest eruption from the caldera. The best estimate of the age of this event is 170-240 ka (1σ). A slightly earlier eruption produced the El Cajete pumice fall deposit, followed by the Battleship Rock ignimbrite and the VC-1 Rhyolite, totalling about 1.8 km3 DRE. We suggest that the VC-1 Tuffs, ignimbrites recognized only in the VC-1 core hole, are not a separate unit as previously proposed but are, in fact, the Battleship Rock ignimbrite. A complex volcaniclastic breccia dating from about the time of the South Mountain Rhyolite lava flow (529 ka) is the lowermost volcanic unit in the VC-1 core. The young, post-500 ka eruption products from the SW part of the Valles caldera are all composed of very similar low-silica rhyolite and are thus distinct from earlier, postcaldera high-silica rhyolites included in the Valles Rhyolite Formation. This distinction marks a major change in the magmatic evolution of the Valles caldera. We propose that recognition of this change necessitates revisions to the stratigraphy of the upper part of the Tewa Group.

  19. Characteristics of the numerous and widespread recurring slope lineae (RSL) in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, David E.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Grimm, Robert E.

    2017-03-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5-5 m) dark features on Mars that incrementally lengthen down steep slopes, fade in colder seasons, and recur annually. These traits suggest that liquid water is flowing in the shallow subsurface of Mars today. Here we describe High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) observations of RSL within Valles Marineris (VM). We have identified 239 candidate and confirmed RSL sites within all the major canyons of VM, with the exception of Echus Chasma. About half of all the globally known RSL locations occur within VM and the areal density of RSL on Coprates Montes appears to be the greatest on the planet. VM RSL are heterogeneously distributed, as they are primarily clustered in certain areas while being conspicuously absent in other locations that appear otherwise favorable. RSL have been found on many of the interior layered deposits (ILDs) within VM. Such ILD RSL appear to traverse bedrock, instead of regolith like all other RSL. Forty-six of the VM RSL sites show incremental lengthening and exhibit similar behavior in most of the canyons of VM, but the RSL duration at one site in Juventae Chasma is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the lengthening seasonality depends solely on slope orientation, with typical VM RSL on a given slope lengthening for ∼42-74% of a Mars year. There are always RSL lengthening within VM, regardless of the season. If RSL are caused by water, such a long active season at hundreds of VM RSL sites suggests that an appreciable source of water must be recharging these RSL. Thermophysical modeling indicates that a melting temperature range of ∼246 - 264 K is needed to reproduce the seasonal phenomenology of the VM RSL, suggesting the involvement of a brine consisting of tens of wt% salt. The mechanism(s) by which RSL are recharged annually remain uncertain. Overall, gaining a better understanding of how RSL form and recur can benefit the search for extant life on Mars and could provide

  20. Sustainable groundwater development under climate change in the Valle de Azapa, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, P. A.; Balic, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Valle de Azapa is located at the northern border of the Atacama Desert, which is considered the driest place on earth. Agriculture is the main economic activity of the valley and it is possible due to the exploitation of groundwater pumped from the aquifer of the area, which is replenished by sporadic rainfall that occurred at the Andes. The high demand on the aquifer has generated a situation that is considered as fragile or unsustainable for the future. This situation could be worsened by the forecasted climate change impact on the region, which would result in reductions in precipitation of up to 40% in the next 100 years. This was the main motivation to study the potential impact of climate change on the sustainability of the aquifer under different water demand scenarios through numerical simulations. We model the impact of climate change by generating stochastic precipitation series that consider reductions between 0 and 40% during the next 100 years. We use the precipitation series to estimate recharge rates through a previously calibrated correlation. For each recharge series we consider three different scenarios: reduction, no change and increase in the water demand. We then use a groundwater model to analyze the evolution of the storage and natural discharge of the aquifer. The main conclusion is that even though the aquifer storage is reduced at the end of the analyzed period, it is still significant in comparison to the extracted groundwater. However, the extraction of groundwater significantly reduces and, in some cases, completely eliminates natural discharge such as springs that exist in the area. This indicates that the system reaches a long-term operation state during the simulated period and that discharges from wells are mainly covered by reductions of the natural discharge of the system. We relate this last finding to the concept of the "Water Budget Myth" proposed by Bredehoeft & Papadopulus (1982). We finish by commenting on possible

  1. Role of Clay Minerals in Long-Distance Transport of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-runout (> 50 km) subaerial landslides are rare on Earth, but are common features episodically shaping Mars' Valles Marineris (VM) trough system over the past 3.5 billion years. They display two end-member morphologies: a thick-skinned inner zone, characterized by fault-bounded, rotated blocks near their source region, and a thin-skinned, exceptionally long-runout outer zone, characterized by thin sheets spreading over 10s of km across the trough floor. Four decades of studies on the latter have resulted in two main competing hypotheses to explain their long-distance transport: (1) movement of landslides over layers of trapped air or soft materials containing ice or snow, enabling basal lubrication, and (2) fluidization of landslide materials with or without the presence of water and volatiles. To address this issue, we examine the mineralogic composition of landslides across VM using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) near-infrared spectral data analysis coupled with detailed geologic mapping and morphometric analysis of satellite images. Our survey reveals a general correlation between transport distance, significant lateral spreading, and the presence of hydrated silicates among VM landslides. Given that smectite clay absorbs water into its layered crystal structure and can reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of three v. that of dry rocks, these results suggest that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating long-runout landslide transport in VM. We propose that, concurrent with downslope failure and sliding of broken trough-wall rock, frontal landslide masses overrode and entrained hydrated-silicate-bearing trough-floor deposits, lubricating the basal sliding zones and permitting the landslide outer zones to spread laterally while moving forward over the low-friction surface. The key participation of hydrated silicates in episodic, sustained landslide activity throughout the canyon implies that clay minerals

  2. Properties and Formation of Erosional Pipe-Shaped Structures in Ignimbrites Around Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J.; Self, S.

    2011-12-01

    In three separate ignimbrite deposits of the Bandelier Tuff Formation around Valles Caldera (La Cueva, Otowi, and Tshirege Members, preferential weathering has exposed columnar or pipe-shaped structures. The features result from the compositional alteration of the ignimbrite creating a hardened resistance to erosion in elongated volumes of the non-welded deposits. These features are manifested with different widths and lengths, however, it is thought that their origins can be attributed to the similar alteration processes and conditions. This alteration was previously assumed to be vapor-phase alteration (Cas and Wright, 1988), but further analysis has shown the presence of zeolites suggesting the alteration was the result of saturation of the ignimbrite by meteoric water. The structures exist as groups (1 to 30 features) and here is a strong positive correlation between the diameter and spacing of pipes that could be representative of the capture area for water draining into the deposit. If the pipes started to form immediately after deposition of the ignimbrite, in a similar way to fumarolic pipes, they would likely be a more widespread phenomenon in the deposit. Rapidly occurring welding and vapor-phase alteration of the top of the ignimbrite may have stopped water reaching the interior of the deposit, except where valleys were rapidly incised. Each area where pipes occur must therefore experience localized conditions, which control formation at the time the valley is being formed. The suggestion is that landslides on oversteepened, friable valley walls exposed fresh, still hot, unaltered ignimbrite in which pipe structures could form if the material had cooled from its depositional temperature to within a suitable, specific range. An abundant supply of water from high rainfall and/or stream activity is also implied. The presence of the pipes gives an insight into the erosional evolution of ignimbrite-filled valleys over a period of almost 2 million years. One

  3. Constraining the Carbon Cycle through Tree Rings: A Case Study of the Valles Caldera, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. R.; Babst, F.; Moore, D. J.; Trouet, V.

    2013-12-01

    and the derived biomass increments illustrate that the forests at the Valles Caldera are considerably less productive during years of extreme drought and warmer than average temperatures. With future projections calling for consecutive years of extreme conditions in the American Southwest, this could have a substantial effect on the overall productivity of these forests.

  4. Caldera resurgence during magma replenishment and rejuvenation at Valles and Lake City calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ben; Wilcock, Jack; Stix, John

    2012-10-01

    A key question in volcanology is the driving mechanisms of resurgence at active, recently active, and ancient calderas. Valles caldera in New Mexico and Lake City caldera in Colorado are well-studied resurgent structures which provide three crucial clues for understanding the resurgence process. (1) Within the limits of 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques, resurgence and hydrothermal alteration at both calderas occurred very quickly after the caldera-forming eruptions (tens of thousands of years or less). (2) Immediately before and during resurgence, dacite magma was intruded and/or erupted into each system; this magma is chemically distinct from rhyolite magma which was resident in each system. (3) At least 1 km of structural uplift occurred along regional and subsidence faults which were closely associated with shallow intrusions or lava domes of dacite magma. These observations demonstrate that resurgence at these two volcanoes is temporally linked to caldera subsidence, with the upward migration of dacite magma as the driver of resurgence. Recharge of dacite magma occurs as a response to loss of lithostatic load during the caldera-forming eruption. Flow of dacite into the shallow magmatic system is facilitated by regional fault systems which provide pathways for magma ascent. Once the dacite enters the system, it is able to heat, remobilize, and mingle with residual crystal-rich rhyolite remaining in the shallow magma chamber. Dacite and remobilized rhyolite rise buoyantly to form laccoliths by lifting the chamber roof and producing surface resurgent uplift. The resurgent deformation caused by magma ascent fractures the chamber roof, increasing its structural permeability and allowing both rhyolite and dacite magmas to intrude and/or erupt together. This sequence of events also promotes the development of magmatic-hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Injection of dacite magma into the shallow rhyolite magma chamber provides a source of heat and magmatic volatiles

  5. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  6. Flood-formed dunes in Athabasca Valles, Mars: Morphology, modeling, and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Carling, P.A.; Beyer, R.A.; Lancaster, N.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of discharge for martian outflow channels have spanned orders of magnitude due in part to uncertainties in floodwater height. A methodology of estimating discharge based on bedforms would reduce some of this uncertainty. Such a methodology based on the morphology and granulometry of flood-formed ('diluvial') dunes has been developed by Carling (1996b, in: Branson, J., Brown, A.G., Gregory, K.J. (Eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology. Geological Society Special Publication No. 115, London, UK, 165-179) and applied to Pleistocene flood-formed dunes in Siberia. Transverse periodic dune-like bedforms in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have previously been classified both as flood-formed dunes and as antidunes. Either interpretation is important, as they both imply substantial quantities of water, but each has different hydraulic implications. We undertook photoclinometric measurements of these forms, and compared them with data from flood-formed dunes in Siberia. Our analysis of those data shows their morphology to be more consistent with dunes than antidunes, thus providing the first documentation of flood-formed dunes on Mars. Other reasoning based on context and likely hydraulics also supports the bedforms' classification as dunes. Evidence does not support the dunes being aeolian, although a conclusive determination cannot be made with present data. Given the preponderance of evidence that the features are flood-formed instead of aeolian, we applied Carling's (1996b, in: Branson, J., Brown, A.G., Gregory, K.J. (Eds.), Global Continental Changes: The Context of Palaeohydrology. Geological Society Special Publication No. 115, London, UK, 165-179) dune-flow model to derive the peak discharge of the flood flow that formed them. The resultant estimate is approximately 2??106 m3/s, similar to previous estimates. The size of the Athabascan dunes' in comparison with that of terrestrial dunes suggests that these martian dunes took at least 1

  7. Possible Juventae Chasma subice volcanic eruptions and Maja Valles ice outburst floods on Mars: Implications of Mars Global surveyor crater densities, geomorphology, and topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Gudmundsson, M.T.; Russell, A.J.; Hare, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses image, topographic, and spectral data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission that provide new information concerning the surface age, geomorphology, and topography of the Juventae Chasma/Maja Valles system. Our study utilizes data from two instruments on board MGS: images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Within Maja Valles we can now observe depositional bars with megaripples that unequivocally show catastrophic floods occurred in the channel. Viking impact crater densities indicated the chasma and channel floor areas were all one age (late Hesperian to Amazonian); however, MOC data indicate a marked difference in densities of small craters between Juventae Chasma, Maja Valles, and the channel debouchment area in Chryse Planitia basin. Although other processes may contribute to crater variability, young resurfacing events in the chasma and episodes of recent erosion at Maja Valles channel head may possibly account for the disparate crater densities along the chasma/channel system. Relatively young volcanic eruptions may have contributed to resurfacing; as in Juventae Chasma, a small possible volcanic cone of young dark material is observed. MOC data also indicate previously unknown interior layered deposit mounds in the chasma that indicate at least two periods of mound formation. Finally, MOLA topography shows that the entire floor of the chasma lies at the same elevation as the channel debouchment area in Chryse basin, resulting in a 3-km-high barrier to water flow out of the chasma. Blocked ponded water would rapidly freeze in the current (and likely past) climate of Mars. For catastrophic flow to occur in Maja Valles, some process is required to melt ice and induce floods out of the chasma. We suggest subice volcanic eruption and calculate estimates of water discharges and volumes that these eruptions might have produced.

  8. Solar astrometry with Rio Astrolabe & Heliometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.; Boscardin, S.; Andrei, A. H.; Reis-Neto, E.; Penna, J. L.; D'Ávila, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the micro-variations of the solar diameter helps to better understand local and secular trends of solar activity and Earth climate. The instant measurements with the Reflecting Heliometer of Observatório Nacional in Rio de Janeiro (RHRJ) have minimized optical and thermal distortion, statistically reducing air turbulence effects down to 0.01 arcsec. Contrarily to satellites RHRJ has unlimited lifetime, and it bridges and extends the measures made with drift-scan timings across altitude circles with 0.1 arcsec rms with Astrolabes. The Astrolabe in Rio (ARJ) operated from 1998 to 2009 to measure the solar diameter and the detected variations have statistical significance.

  9. Valles Marineris as a Cryokarstic Structure Formed by a Giant Dyke System: Support From New Analogue Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, M. S.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Acar, D.; Ülgen, S. C.; Onsel, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    Valles Marineris is the most significant near-linear depression on Mars. It is some 4000 km long, up to about 200 km wide and some 7 km deep. Although its margins look parallel at first sight, the entire structure has a long spindle shape with significant enlargement in its middle (Melas Chasma) caused by cuspate slope retreat mechanisms. Farther to its north is Hebes Chasma which is an entirely closed depression with a more pronounced spindle shape. Tithonium Chasma is a parallel, but much narrower depression to its northeast. All these chasmae have axes parallel with one another and such structures occur nowhere else on Mars. A scabland surface exists to the east of the Valles Marineris and the causative water mass seems to have issued from it. The great resemblance of these chasmae on mars to poljes in the karstic regions on earth have led us to assume that they owed their existence to dissolution of rock layers underlying them. We assumed that the dissolving layer consisted of water ice forming substantial layers, in fact entirely frozen seas of several km depth. We have simulated this geometry by using bentonite and flour layers (in different experiments) overlying layers of ice in which a resistant coil was used to simulate a dyke. We used different thicknesses of bentonite and flour overlying ice layers again of various thicknesses. The flour seems to simulate the Martian crust better because on Mars, g is only about 3/8ths of its value on Earth, so (for equal crustal density) the depth to which the cohesion term C remains important in the Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criterion is about 8/3 times greater. As examples we show two of those experiments in which both the rock analogue and ice layers were of 1.5 cm. thick. Perfect analogues of the Valles Marineris formed above the dyke analogue thermal source complete with the near-linear structure, overall flat spindle shape, cuspate margins, a central ridge, parallel side faults, parallel depressions resembling

  10. Recent volcanism in Ius and Tithonium Chasmata, Valles Marineris, Mars? First views from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Masson, P.; Kronberg, P.; Gwinner, K.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    The Valles Marineris in the western equatorial region of Mars are a system of ~4000 km long, up to several hundred km wide and up to 10,000 m deep linear E-W trending troughs. Two main processes have been proposed to explain their origin: Tectonism/rifting and erosion/collapse. Firm evidence of volcanic structures within the troughs would support a rifting contribution to their formation, since volcanism occurs frequently along terrestrial continental rifts. While several studies reported possible volcanic structures in the Valles Marineris (e.g., Lucchitta, 1987, 1990), no unambiguous identification has been possible yet. The first image of Valles Marineris taken through the HRSC camera on mars Express crosses Ius and Tithonium Chasmata at a longitude of about 280°E (resolution about 12 m/pixel). On the floor of Ius Chasma, several dark and circular structures with positive topographic relief can be distinguished. Some of them overlap each other. There are circular depressions on the summits of some of these cones. We tentatively interpret these features, which have not been reported before, as cinder cones. Such edifices are made up by more or less unconsolidated volcanic ash and glass particles. They can be eroded very easily, so their presence suggests a relatively recent origin. The cones are associated with a very bright material. This material is often aligned along possible faults which are strike parallel to the trend of the canyons. At least in one place it seems to be erosion-resistant. This material might be the product of (silicic) volcanism. Alternatives include, e.g., evaporitic products, since several sapping valleys debouch into the main trough very nearby. We also investigate a large mound in Tithonium Chasma. It is very bright and has a surface which is affected by eolian erosion. This mound has been suggested to be of volcanic origin before (Lucchitta, 1990). We could determine its area (270 km2), volume (200 km3), and slope angles in HRSC

  11. Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  12. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  13. The weathering of natural and artificial stones in the baroque church of S. Pietro in Valle (Fano-Italy).

    PubMed

    Maione, Michela; Mangani, Filippo; Amadori, Maria Letizia; Campagna, Michele

    2003-04-01

    The church of San Pietro in Valle in Fano is with good reason considered one of the outstanding examples of baroque art in Central Italy. Currently the church is in a serious degradation status. For this reason, and in order to devise a correct conservative restoration project, a scientific study has been carried out, aimed at characterizing mortars used for the application of marble decorations and the different degradation products occurring in the church (i.e. pulverizations, encrustations, salt efflorescences, and condensation water). In the following, results obtained analyzing the different sample typologies by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron scanning microscopy with energy-dispersion micro-analytical system, ion chromatography, and head-space solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry will be reported.

  14. Eruption of reverse-zoned upper Tshirege Member, Bandelier Tuff from centralized vents within Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Warren, R. G.; Goff, Cathy J.; Dunbar, Nelia

    2014-04-01

    Valles caldera (New Mexico, USA) is the type example of a resurgent caldera and source of the Tshirege Member, Bandelier Tuff, which has been long recognized as a normally zoned sequence of ignimbrites. In this paper, we present geologic, stratigraphic, chemical, and mineralogical data from upper flow units of the Tshirege Member obtained at multiple sites within and east of Valles caldera showing that the upper part of the Tshirege Member is reverse-zoned in chemistry and mineralogy. The key to deciphering these compositional changes in zoning is recognition of flow unit Qbt4u, which we informally name the high Ti-Ba unit or HTBU. The HTBU is widespread within the resurgent dome area of the caldera, but is only found in a small area outside and east of the caldera. The HTBU is the most “mafic” unit in the Tshirege Member and is identified by chemical maxima in Ti, Ba, Sr, P, V, and Th, and by unusually high contents of anorthoclase, plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, apatite and zircon with respect to other flow units. The HTBU also contains small (≤ 1 cm) enclaves of quenched andesitic magma consisting primarily of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, glass and vesicles. Later erupted Tshirege flow units Qbt5l and Qbt5u are chemically more evolved and contain less plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite, apatite and zircon than the HTBU, and they are more evolved than flow units erupted before the HTBU (approximately 90% of the Tshirege Member). The HTBU is the host ignimbrite of a complex vent breccia exposed for over 3 km along the NW faulted face of Redondo Peak, the Valles caldera resurgent dome. Breccia clasts consist of angular to subrounded fragments ≤ 1 m in diameter of Permian red beds, Miocene basin fill sediments, Miocene to Pliocene volcanics and Quaternary ignimbrite (Otowi Member, Bandelier Tuff) that underlie Valles caldera. Flow units Qbt5l and Qbt5u overlie the HTBU vent breccia but these later units do not contain unusual

  15. The Seasonal Behavior of Water Ice Clouds in the Tharsis and Valles Marineris Regions of Mars: Mars Orbiter Camera Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. L.; Bonev, B. P.; James, P. B.; Shan, K. J.; Cantor, B. A.; Caplinger, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) was used to obtain global maps of the Martian surface. The maps used were acquired between March 15, 1999 (LS = 110 ) and July 31, 2001 (L(sub s) = 110), corresponding to approximately one and a quarter martian years. In this work we focused on water ice clouds associated with the surface features of Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons, Alba Patera, and the Valles Marineris canyon system. Using these data, we have made three types of quantitative measurements to characterize the cloud activity: 1) cloud area and location, 2) cloud height, and 3) cloud optical depth. We have also searched for short period variations in the cloud areas.

  16. Geometric comparison of deep-seated gravitational spereading features on Mars (Coprates Chasma, Valles Marineris) and Earth (Ornak, Tatra Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromuszczyńska, O.; Mège, D.

    2014-04-01

    Uphill-facing normal faults scarps and crestal grabens, which are characteristic of deep-seated gravitational spreading (DSGS) of topographic ridges, are described in Coprates Chasma in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Ornak ridge and compared. The vertical offset of normal faults in the Martian instances varies from 40 to 1000 meters, with an average of 300 meters. The terrestrial faults offset is between few teens of centimeters up to 34 meters with an average of 10 meters. The values of horizontal displacement in Coprates Chasma vary from 10 to 680 meters, and at Ornak are in a range between 1 and 20 meters. Such difference corresponds with the difference of ridges scale and is due to the topographic gradient which is one order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth.

  17. State of stress and relationship of mechanical properties to hydrothermal alteration at Valles Caldera core hole 1, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Thomas N.; Kranz, Robert L.

    1988-06-01

    We measured the densities, total and microcrack porosities, and ultrasonic velocities of a number of core samples from an 856-m-deep core hole near the Banco Bonito vent at Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Reductions in porosity with depth define a zone from about 600 m down where hydrothermal mineralization and recrystallization have been most active. This zone is also reflected in a large decrease in the anisotropy of acoustic velocities. Stress orientation estimates based on microcrack orientations at the 812-m depth as determined by differential strain curve analysis, as well as anelastic strain recovery measurements on a sample from 472-m depth, show a horizontal E-W minimum compression direction and a maximum compression inclined about 30° from vertical.

  18. Effect of somatic cell count level on functional longevity in Valle del Belice dairy sheep assessed using survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, V; Maizon, D O; Portolano, B; Bovenhuis, H; van Arendonk, J A M

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) on functional longevity and to estimate the heritability of functional longevity using survival analysis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. A total of 4,880 lactations of 2,190 ewes from 11 flocks were used. In this study, SCC was considered as an indication of subclinical mastitis. In case of clinical cases, identified by the technicians at milking time, test-day weights and milk samples of those ewes were not considered. Somatic cells were analyzed as counts, without any transformation, and were grouped in 3 classes based on the observed SCC maximum (mxSCC). The mxSCC classes, expressed as 10(3) cells/mL, were classified as 1 if mxSCC or= 1,000. An increase in SCC was associated with an increased hazard of being culled. Ewes in the highest class of SCC on a test-day had a 20% higher hazard of being culled than those in the lowest class. Therefore, SCC played a role in culling decisions of Valle del Belice dairy sheep farmers. The heritability estimate for functional longevity was 7% on the logarithmic scale and 11% on the real scale, indicating that selection for this trait is possible in sheep. The flock-year-season effect explained 19% of the variation on the logarithmic scale and 27% of the variation on the real scale.

  19. Tectonic significance of large-scale chaotic deposits in a Cretaceous fore-arc basin: Valle Formation, Cedros Island (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Busby-Spera, C.J. )

    1990-05-01

    A mappable, deep-marine slide deposit (olistostrome) within medial-Cretaceous fore-arc basin strata (Valle Formation), located on Cedros Island, Baja California Norte, records the initiation of intrabasinal faulting. Studies of both modern and ancient olistostromes show that olistostromes can form in all physiographic provinces (including shelf and abyssal plain) and tectonic settings of the marine environment. A variety of triggering mechanisms have been suggested for olistostromes, including tectonism, sea level changes, diapirism, rapid sedimentation that overloads steep slopes, migration of gas hydrates, or combinations of the above. The olistostrome in the Valle Formation ranges in thickness from 0 to at least 180 m, and extends areally for at least 34 km{sup 2}. It can be divided into two parts. The basal 30-40 m contains large (up to 8 m) angular blocks (allolistoliths) derived from the Jurassic substrate. The allolistoliths decrease in abundance upsection, whereas internally coherent intraformational slide blocks (endolistoliths), which reach tens of meters in width, increase. Beds composing the endolistoliths are alternating mudstone and sandstone turbidites that were deposited on a tectonically stable basin plain or rise setting before catastrophic failure of the sedimentary pile produced the olistostrome. Intrabasinal faulting is invoked as a cause of the sediment failure because of the presence of allolistoliths, which must have been shed into the basin from uplifted( ) basin floor scarps. Allolistoliths occur sporadically throughout at least 400 m of coarse-clastic sediment gravity-flow deposits that cap the olistostrome, suggesting that intrabasinal faulting continued to affect the basin long after the olistrostrome formed.

  20. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  1. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  2. The influence of the topography on landslide's mobility in Valles Marineris (Mars), by a numerical & remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A.; Mangeney, A.

    Landslides play a major role in the erosion processes and transport at the surface of the Earth and Mars. Indeed, the dynamics of the landscapes is strongly tributary of these catastrophic events which also constitute important risks for the populations on Earth. It is thus advisable to study their dynamics. In addition, water often takes part in the dynamics of these events on Earth. Former work highlights a very great mobility of the gravitational flows over Mars [1] [2] [3]. The studies of martians landslides contribute to understand the dynamics of the landscapes and also teach us about climate conditions during those events occurring at Amazonian Time [4] as the potential presence of ground water. Currently, there is no unified theory for describing the landslides at the field scale. The description of granular flows is quiet well understood at the microscopic scale using various experimental and numerical experiments. But at the macroscopic scale, description remains today a largely open and wide problem. Dry granular flows experiments on an horizontal plane [5] present several differences with martians data [7]. Runout of martians landslides are twice larger than in experiments. Numerical studies in agreement with experiments scaling laws using a numerical model developped by F. Bouchut and A. Mangeney [6] based on Saint-Venant equations is proposed. Our studies focus on the influence of the topography on landslide's mobility occuring in Valles Marineris. To start with MOLA/MGS DEM data, it is also possible to rebuild the paleotopography using remote sensing methods for identification of landslide deposits. We use HRSC/MeX, THEMIS/MO and MOC/MGS images to find out correctly each area of deposits in our DEM. Afterwards, we perfom a series of numerical experiments to model landslides over a real topography rebuilt from MOLA grid. Our results show that the topography is a main parameter which contribute significantly to increase the mobility of granular flows

  3. Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-02-01

    Brazil's capital city, Rio de Janeiro, has been called Latin America's slum capital, and is slowly losing its political position to Brasilia and its cultural and economic leadership to Sao Paolo. Rio's metropolitan area includes 14 municipalities and had a population of 9.64 million in 1984, making it Latin America's 4th largest and the world's 14th largest metropolitan area. The 452-square mile central city contains 5.35 million people. Projections predict that Rio will be the world's 9th largest city in the year 2000, with a population of 13.3 million. Rio encompasses sharp social and economic contrasts; population density varies from 30,686 to 124 people per square mile and per capita municipal budgets range from $100 to $12.50. Like most metropolitan areas, Rio's suburbs show its greatest growth. The peripheral municipalities which held only 24% of the population in 1940, now have about 45%. Low land prices and government housing attact poor families to these areas which tend to be economically sluggish. Rio's fertility rate (2.8%) is the lowest in Brazil (4.2%) and life expectancy is somewhat higher than the national average. Low fertility and declining migration result in small households and increasing age structure. 2.2 million households, with 3.8 persons on an average, and 1.3 million households, with 3.6 persons, inhabited the metropolitan area and its municipality, respectively. Less of Rio's population are black (10%) or of mixed descent (39%) than in the rest of Brazil; the population is 97% Brazilian-born. Most metropolitan homes are owner occupied, but Rio also has many highly visible slums. Rio has an 84% literacy rate; 5% of the population have university degrees. The area's geography requires massive daily movement by nearly 60% of the population, and several municpalities function largely as commuter towns. Service jobs (especially for women) account for 27% of all jobs with manufacturing and tourism next in importance. Median monthly income

  4. Estimation of dust variability and scale height of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) in the Valles Marineris on Mars by Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Chauhan, Prakash; Singh, Ramdayal; Moorthi, S. M.; Sarkar, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper analyses of bright hazes observed inside Valles Marineris formed during mid-southern spring of Mars is presented. The analysis is performed by using data collected by Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission on orbits 34, 49 and 52 corresponding to the observation dates of October 28, December 5 and December 13, 2014. It is found that during all these orbits the valley was hazy. On orbit 34 a thick layer of haze was observed, which became relatively thinner on orbit 49. Thick haze reappeared after eight days on orbit 52. We also measured the optical depth of martian atmosphere as a function of altitude above two opposing walls (northern and southern walls of the Valles Marineris near Coprates Chasma region) of the valley, from stereo images that were taken with MCC on December 5, 2014. The optical depth was measured from contrast comparisons of the stereo images with ;stereo method;. In the northern wall of Valles, we estimated the optical depth as a function of altitude (ranging between -6 km and 3 km) and found values between 1.7 (bottom) and 1.0 (top) in red channel and between 2.1 (bottom) and 1.2 (top) in green channel. A fit to these results yields a scale height for the optical depth of 14.08 km and 11.24 km in red and green channel, which are more or less in good agreement to the pressure scaled height of martian atmosphere at that time in the region as consulted from Global Circulation Model (GCM). We also estimated optical depth in southern wall of Valles Marineris. However, in this case optical depth remains nearly constant with decreasing altitude. We consulted GCM for wind direction in the region and found strong wind with direction from south-west to north-east intersecting the mountain like structure of the southern wall of Valles Marineris. Our optical depth results and the wind direction suggest the presence of lee-wave cloud above the southern wall of Valles Marineris.

  5. Paleogene and Neogene magmatism in the Valle del Cura region: New perspective on the evolution of the Pampean flat slab, San Juan province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    2007-09-01

    The Valle del Cura region is characterized by a thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sequence that records the Tertiary arc and backarc magmatic evolution of the Argentine Main Cordillera over the modern Pampean flatslab at 29.5-30°S. During the Eocene, a retroarc basin developed, represented by the Valle del Cura Formation synorogenic volcanosedimentary sequence, which includes rhyolites and dacitic tuffs. These silicic volcanic rocks have weak arc chemical signatures and high lithophile element concentrations and are isotopically enriched relative to the late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks that followed them. Their chemical characteristics fit with eruption through a thin crust. The Valle de Cura Formation was followed by the Oligocene-early Miocene Doña Ana Group volcanic sequence, which erupted at and near the arc front west of the border with Chile. The Doña Ana Group volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline chemical characteristics consistent with parental magmas forming in a mantle wedge and erupting through a normal thickness crust (35 km). Subsequent shallowing of the downgoing Nazca plate caused the volcanic front to migrate eastward. The volcanic sequences of the middle Miocene Cerro de las Tórtolas Formation erupted at this new arc front, essentially at the Argentine border. Two stages are recognized: an older one (16-14 Ma) in which magmas appear to have erupted through a normal thickness crust (30-35 km) and a younger one (13-10 Ma) in which the steeper REE pattern suggests the magmas last equilibrated with higher pressure residual mineral assemblages in a thicker crust. Isotopic ratios in the younger group are consistent with an increase in original crustal components and crust introduced into the mantle source by forearc subduction erosion. A peak in forearc subduction erosion near 12-10 Ma is consistent with when the main part of the Juan Fernandez Ridge began to subduct beneath the region. In addition to late Miocene Tambo Formation dacitic

  6. Orbital Evidence for Clay and Acidic Sulfate Assemblages on Mars and Mineralogical Analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H. H.; Milliken, R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Robertson, K.; Knoll, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    A suite of enigmatic near-infrared reflectance spectra with a 'doublet' absorption between 2.2 and 2.3 µm is observed in CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral images over Ius and Melas Chasma on Mars. The doublet-bearing deposits are found alongside other hydrated minerals including clays, sulfates, and silica, but the mineral(s) responsible for the spectral signature has yet to be identified. Reflectance spectra of rocks and sediments at Rio Tinto, Spain exhibit similar absorptions at airborne, field, and lab spatial scales. Coupled X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectra of these terrestrial examples indicate the absorption arises from a mixture of jarosite, a ferric sulfate, and Al-phyllosilicates (illite/muscovite). Detailed analysis of CRISM data over Ius and Melas Chasma suggests that these deposits also contain mixtures of jarosite and Al-phyllosilicate, where the latter may include halloysite, kaolinite and/or montmorillonite in addition to illite/muscovite. This interpretation is supported because (1) the two absorptions in the doublet feature vary independently, implying the presence of two or more phases, (2) the position of the absorptions is consistent with Al-OH and Fe-OH vibrations in both the Rio Tinto and CRISM spectra and (3) Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite are identified separately in nearby regions. Multiple formation mechanisms are proposed based on stratigraphy in Ius Chasma, where the strength of absorptions varies within a single stratigraphic unit as well as between different units. Mechanisms include authigenic formation of jarosite, which would indicate locally acidic and oxidizing conditions, mixed with detrial Al-phyllosilicates, or authigenic formation of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite. Each implies different conditions in terms of aqueous geochemistry, redox, and sediment transport. Results from the field, lab, and CRISM analysis will be presented to discuss how placing these spectral

  7. Cross faults in extensional settings: Stress triggering, displacement localization, and implications for the origin of blunt troughs at Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Scott J.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2003-06-01

    Motivated by conflicting interpretations concerning the origin of blunt terminations of troughs at Valles Marineris, Mars, we investigate the reactivation of preexisting cross faults in response to stress changes associated with slippage along a major, basin-bounding normal fault (i.e., border fault). Coulomb stress changes indicate that cross fault reactivation is possible in both the footwalls and hanging walls of border faults, although this is dependent on the distance between the border and cross faults. Cross faults accommodate dip-slip normal motion for most border fault geometries and conditions we tested, but strike-slip motions are predicted when preexisting cross faults are vertical. Furthermore, although lateral extensions of the border fault (LEBFs) may nucleate within cross fault footwalls at all stages of border fault development, they are favored to develop when border faults and cross fault tip lines are proximal. Observations from the Valles Marineris extensional province, Mars, are consistent with (1) normal displacements along cross faults, (2) numerous examples of pit-chains, interpreted to represent surface expressions of lateral extensions to the border fault (LEBF), (3) the lack of well-developed cross faults in the footwall of border faults, and (4) the inference that tapered trough ends formed in areas that lacked cross faults prior to the main phase of extension at Valles Marineris. We suggest a new sequence of deformation that accounts for the formation of blunt-trough terminations during the major phase of Valles Marineris extension: coeval and locally bidirectional extension, that results from local stress field changes associated with border fault growth in a dominantly unidirectional remote (extensional) strain field. By implication, many of the irregular closed troughs such as Hebes Chasma are better interpreted as grabens rather than collapse depressions.

  8. [Widows and neighbors, cornfields and magueys. The impact of population increase in the Toluca Valley: the case of Tenango del Valle during the eighteenth century].

    PubMed

    Kanter, D E

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the effect of rapid population growth due to migration on the parish of Tenango del Valle, Mexico, during the eighteenth century. She gives special consideration to the impact on quality of life in indigenous villages, especially for widows and female heads of households who were impoverished as a result of discriminatory land transactions. Data are mainly from the parish register for 1770.

  9. Pristine Noachian crust and key geologic transitions in the lower walls of Valles Marineris: Insights into early igneous processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flahaut, Jessica; Quantin, Cathy; Clenet, Harold; Allemand, Pascal; Mustard, John F.; Thomas, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Valles Marineris is a unique vertical section through the uppermost kilometers of the martian crust. Its location, east of the Tharsis bulge, and its water-related history, fuel a great diversity of rock types in this area (Carr, M.H., Head, J.W. [2010]. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 185-203). HiRISE and CRISM data available over the walls of the canyon were analyzed to infer the importance of magmatic and sedimentary processes through time. This contribution provides a complete morphologic and mineralogic characterization of the cross-section of rocks exposed in the canyon walls. Low-calcium pyroxene and olivine are detected in the lower portion of the walls, in association with morphologically distinct outcrops, leading to the idea that pristine Noachian crust might be exposed. Phyllosilicates are also present within the walls, but they appear to correspond to an alteration product. No proper sedimentary layers were observed within the walls of Valles Marineris at the resolution available today. All these detections are limited to the eastern portion of Valles Marineris, especially Juventae, Coprates, Capri, and Ganges chasmata. Preserved Noachian crustal material is rare on the martian surface and is rarely exposed in its pristine geologic context. Such detections lend precious information about early igneous processes. This survey also supports observations from the nearby impact crater central peaks (Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Allemand, P. [2009]. Lunar Planet. Sci. 10; Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Clenet, H., Allemand, P., Thomas, P. [2011]. Icarus, submitted for publication) and suggests that the western part of Valles Marineris may be cut into another material, consistent with lavas or volcanic sediments.

  10. A Middle Paleozoic shear zone in the Sierra de Valle Fértil, Argentina: Records of a continent-arc collision in the Famatinian margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, E. A.; Otamendi, J. E.; Walker, B. A.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Armas, P.; Bergantz, G. W.; Martino, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geological, petrological and structural observations were obtained along a 30-km-long traverse across a segment of the Valle Fértil shear zone, central-western Argentina. On a regional scale, the shear zone appears as numerous discontinues belts over 25 km in width and is approximately 140 km in length, extended on the western section of the Sierras Valle Fértil - La Huerta mountain range. The steeply dipping shear zone with a vertical mylonitic lineation is composed of amphibolite facies ribbon mylonites and amphibolite to greenschist facies ultramylonites derived from Early Ordovician plutonic and metasedimentary parent rocks. Locally, syn-kinematic retrogression of mylonites formed greenschist facies phyllonites. During the later stages of deformation, unstrained parent rocks, mylonites, ultramylonites and phyllonites were affected by pervasive cataclasis under low greenschist facies conditions associated with localized faulting. One new 40Ar/39Ar age on biotite and published 40Ar/39Ar ages on amphibole in the shear zone yield an average cooling rate of 6.2 °C/Ma for a time period that crosses the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Since in metasedimentary rocks the youngest zircon's rims dated at 465 Ma marks the beginning of cooling, nearly continuous uplift of rocks within the shear zone occurred over a minimum time span of 55 Ma. During the period of active deformation, dip-slip movement can explain uplift of several kilometers of the Early Ordovician arc crust. The Valle Fértil shear zone, which was formed near above the inferred suture zone between the Famatinian arc and Cuyania microcontinent, is a major structural boundary nucleated within the Early Ordovician crust. The simplest geodynamic model to explain the evolution of the Valle Fértil shear zone involves the collision of the composite Cuyania/Precodillera microcontinent against the Famatinian arc.

  11. Genetic population analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three states (Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño) from Southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Julieta Avila, Sandra; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal (DYS19, DYS389 I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic systems were typed in three South West Colombian populations: Valle (short term for Valle del Cauca), Cauca and Nariño. DYS385a/b showed the highest gene diversity in the three populations. A total of 287 different Y-chromosome haplotypes were observed in the 308 males analyzed, and the haplotype diversity among populations was 0.9977. The most frequent haplotype was observed only three times and only nineteen others were observed two times. The highest gene diversity was found in Valle and the lowest in Cauca. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that variation is mainly within populations (99.1%) in agreement with previous results in European populations. In conclusion, these populations could be pooled together in order to create one "Colombian-Mestizo" database for forensic use.

  12. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, C. D.; Castro, A.; Morales, A.; Hoyos, F.; Moreno, P.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of sediment and solute transport using soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small watersheds receiving conservation measures. Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from two streams in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predicted were used with one of these being used for nutrient transport prediction. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the Aguaclara watershed of the Rio Bolo watershed network showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  13. A GIS-based volcanic hazard and risk assessment of eruptions sourced within Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, R.; Panter, K. S.; Gorsevski, P.; Ye, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Jemez Volcanic field in New Mexico is best known for the two cataclysmic eruptions that formed the Valles Caldera and deposited the Bandelier tuff at 1.61 and 1.25 Ma. This was followed by a period of small-scale activity limited to within the moat until ~ 55 ka when plinian eruptions sourced from the El Cajete crater dispersed tephra well beyond the caldera wall. These deposits include the El Cajete pyroclastic beds and the Battleship Rock Ignimbrite. Following the eruption of the Banco Bonito lava flow at ~40 ka, the Valles caldera has lain dormant. However, there is potential for future activity and it is prudent to assess the risk to the surrounding area and consider possible mitigation strategies well before a disaster strikes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the spatial extent of a possible future eruption using a GIS-based volcanic hazards tool designed to simulate pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) as well as lava flows [1] and to assess the social and economic vulnerability of the area at risk. Simulated pyroclastic fall deposits originating from the El Cajete crater are calibrated to isopach and lithic isopleth maps of the Lower and Upper El Cajete as constructed by [2]. The change in the axial orientation of fall deposits between the Lower and Upper El Cajete is best matched using seasonal variations in wind speed and direction based on modern atmospheric records. The calibration of PDCs is based on the distribution and run-out of the Battleship Rock Ignimbrite. Once calibrated, hazards are simulated at two other vent locations determined from probability distributions of structural features. The resulting hazard maps show the potential distribution of pyroclastic fall, PDCs and lava flows, indicating areas to the S/SE of Valles Caldera to be at greatest risk. To assess hazard preparedness, social vulnerability is evaluated for all census-designated places (CDP) within the study site. Based on methods by [3], twenty

  14. Deep Coring in the Valles Caldera, Northern New Mexico to Obtain a Long-Term Paleoclimatic Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Goff, F.; Heikoop, J.; Allen, C. D.; Donohoo, L.; Wawrzyniec, T.; Geissman, J. W.; Johnson, C.; Fessenden-Rahn, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Schnurrenberger, D.

    2004-12-01

    The 22-km diameter Valles caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico contains a thick sequence of lacustrine sediments and hydromagmatic deposits that date from the inception of the caldera (c.a. 1.25 Myr). Geologic mapping shows that lakes formed in the caldera immediately after its formation and existed for some period of time before the caldera wall was breached and the lake drained to the SW through San Diego canyon. Another substantial lake formed during the mid-Pleistocene in the SE caldera moat (Valle Grande) when a post-caldera eruption (c.a. 520 kyr) filled the drainage to S.D. canyon. To determine their paleoclimatic significance, the deposits of this ancient lake were cored in May, 2004 (GLAD 5). Hole VC-3 achieved a total depth of 81 m recovering a complete section of ~75 m of lacustrine mud and silts and gravels. Recovery of lacustrine mud/silt was close to 100 percent while the recovery of gravels encountered at the top and bottom of the sequence was considerably less. The core is currently archived at the National Lacustrine Core Facility (LacCore) at the University of Minnesota. Preliminary analyses show considerable down-core variability in parameters including magnetic susceptibility, gamma-ray density and sedimentary facies. The base of the core consists of pumiceous-rhyolitic sands and gravels intercalated with indurated muds, which grades up into variably laminated and bioturbated lacustrine mud and silty mud. In the lower lacustrine sequence, several turbidites interrupt the laminated mud sequences and in some sections, thick diatomites (up to 5 cm) occur and are indicative of surface eutrophication in the lake. Higher in the core, thin sand lenses indicate periods of enhanced runoff into the lake, and occasional rhyolitic dropstones are observed. Much of the laminated silty clay is rich in diatoms, although both the density and diversity of diatoms are highly variable. In the middle of the core, a brecciated, diatom poor facies

  15. Approximation of functions in variable-exponent Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces by de la Vallée-Poussin means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapudinov, I. I.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the space Lp(\\cdot)2π formed by 2π-periodic real measurable functions f for which the integral \\displaystyle\\int-ππ\\vert f(x)\\vertp(x) dx exists and is finite, where p(x), 1≤ p(x), is a 2π-periodic measurable function (a variable exponent). If p(x)≤ \\overline p<∞, then the space Lp(\\cdot)2π can be endowed with the structure of Banach space with the norm \\displaystyle \\Vert f\\Vert p(\\cdot)=\\inf\\biggl\\α>0:\\int-ππ\\biggl\\vert\\frac{f(x)}{α\\biggr\\vertp(x) dx≤1\\biggr\\}. In the space Lp(\\cdot)2π we distinguish a subspace Wr,p(\\cdot)2π of Sobolev type. We investigate the approximation properties of the de la Vallée-Poussin means for trigonometric Fourier sums for functions in the space Wr,p(\\cdot)2π. In particular, we prove that if the variable exponent p=p(x) satisfies the Dini-Lipschitz condition \\vert p(x)-p(y)\\vert\\ln\\frac{2π}{\\vert x-y\\vert}≤ c and if f\\in Wr,p(\\cdot)2π, then the de la Vallée-Poussin means V_m^n(f)=V_m^n(f,x) with n≤ am satisfy \\displaystyle \\Vert f-V_m^n(f)\\Vert p(\\cdot)≤ \\frac{c_r(p,a)}{n^r}Ω\\biggl(f(r), \\frac1n\\biggr)p(\\cdot), where Ω(g,δ)p(\\cdot) is a modulus of continuity of the function g\\in Lp(\\cdot)2π defined in terms of the Steklov functions. It is proved that if 1, r≥1, f\\in Wr,p(\\cdot)2π and the Dini-Lipschitz condition holds, then \\displaystyle \\vert f(x)-V_m^n(f,x)\\vert≤\\frac{c_r(p)}{m+1}\\sumk=nn+m\\frac{E_k(f(r))p(\\cdot)}{(k+1)r-{{1/{p(x)}}}}, where E_k(g)p(\\cdot) stands for the best approximation to g\\in Lp(\\cdot)2π by trigonometric polynomials of order k. Bibliography: 19 titles.

  16. Identification and spatial distribution of light-toned deposits enriched in Al-phyllosilicates on the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Flahaut, J.; Quantin, C.; Allemand, P.

    2009-12-01

    The plateaus around Valles Marineris consist in series of mafic rocks suggested to be flood basalts (McEwen et al., 1998), lavas interbedded with sediments (Malin and Edgett, 2000), layered intrusive rocks (Williams et al., 2003), or lava flows dated from the Noachian to the late Hesperian epochs (Scott and Carr, 1978). Recent studies show the occurrence of light layered deposits of hundred meters thick cropping out on plateaus near Ius Chasma, Melas Chasma, Candor Chasma, Juventae Chasma and Ganges Chasma deposited during the Hesperian epoch by fluvio-lacustrine processes (Weitz et al., 2009), or by air-fall processes (Le Deit et al., 2009). These layered deposits are enriched in hydrated minerals including opaline silica (Milliken et al., 2008), hydroxylated ferric sulfates (Bishop et al., 2009), and possibly Al-rich phyllosilicates (Le Deit et al., 2009). We identified another type of formation corresponding to light-toned massive deposits cropping out around Valles Marineris. It appears that these light-toned deposits are associated to bright, rough, and highly cratered terrains, located beneath a dark and thin capping unit. Previous studies report the occurrence of phyllosilicates on few locations around Valles Marineris based on OMEGA data analyses (Gondet et al., 2007; Carter et al., 2009). The analysis of CRISM data show that the light-toned deposits are associated with spectra displaying absorption bands at 1.4 μm, 1.9 μm, and a narrow band at 2.2 μm. These spectral characteristics are consistent with the presence of Al-rich phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite, or illite in the light-toned deposits. They constitute dozens of outcrops located on the plateaus south and east of Coprates Chasma and Capri Chasma, and west of Ganges Chasma. All outcrops investigated so far are present over Noachian terrains mapped as the unit Npl2 by Scott and Tanaka (1986), and Witbeck et al. (1991). These light-toned deposits could result from in situ aqueous alteration

  17. New Management Thrust at Los Rios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapstein, Earl L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the management practices adopted by the Los Rios Community College District (California) as a result of the passage of the Jarvis-Gann tax initiative. Alterations included reorganization of upper management structure, full budget disclosures, collective bargaining, merit pay concept for administrative staff, and the creation of a…

  18. Rio Grande rift: problems and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Callender, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Topics and ideas addressed include: (1) the regional extent of the Rio Grande rift; (2) the structure of the crust and upper mantle; (3) whether the evidence for an axile dike in the lower crust is compelling; (4) the nature of faulting and extension in the crust; and (5) the structural and magmatic development of the rift. 88 references, 5 figures.

  19. Abiquiu Dam and Reservoir, Rio Grande Basin, Rio Chama, New Mexico. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    34Engineering and Design, Stability of Earth and Rockfill Dams ," dated I April 1970. 41. Design Assumptions for Stability Analysis. Detailed...their preparation for all new earth and earth - rockfill construction projects, and for existing projects where significant remedial treatment, project...Albuquerque District ABIQUIU DAM AND RESERVOIR RIO GRANDE BASIN, RIO CHAMA NOW MEXICO EMBANKMENT CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE REPORT APR 1987 PPWVA MY NO02

  20. Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande Fracture Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Herlé; Weatherly, Georges L.; Arhan, Michel

    2000-05-01

    Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro Fracture Zone (22°S) and Rio Grande Fracture Zone (26°S) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are identified from hydrographic anomalies observed along 9°W in the Angola Basin. The throughflow water is supplied by a meridional band of cold and fresh water lying against the western flank of the Ridge.

  1. A natural analogue for high-level waste in tuff: Chemical analysis and modeling of the Valles site

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Ho, C.K.; Kovach, L.; McConnell, V.S.

    1995-03-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a high-level waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock Tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 40}Ar isotopic composition. Overall, the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 m of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  2. Morphology, composition, age and spatial extent of a layered superficial formation covering the plains around Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Mège, D.; Sotin, C.; Massé, M.; Sarago, V.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction An extensive light-toned layered formation covers the plains surrounding Valles Marineris on Mars. It is particularly visible south of Ius Chasma and of Melas Chasma [1], southwest of Juventae Chasma [2,3], north of Tithonium Chasma and west of Ganges Chasma. Some deposits of this formation may be enriched in hydrated silicates such as hydrated glasses, chalcedony, opal or other hydrated Si-rich phases according to CRISM data [1]. From an analysis of HRSC, THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, MOLA PEDR, OMEGA and CRISM data, we discuss the morphology, the composition, the age, the spatial extent and the emplacement processes of these layered deposits (LDs). Here we focus on two regions where the LDs are particularly spectacular: Ganges Chasma and Juventae Chasma. Regional map We have compiled a regional map of the LDs around Valles Marineris (orange in Fig. 1a). In some cases their spatial extent is unclear due to their being covered either by dark material or by dust that appears yellow on IRB color HiRISE images (Fig 1b). Dashed contours on Fig. 1a outline these poorly constrained boundaries, whereas plain contours correspond to regions where the stratigraphic contact between the LDs and the underlying basement is unambiguous. The light-toned LDs are located stratigraphically and topographically above the basaltic basement that constitutes the plains surrounding Valles Marineris. The total thickness of the LDs does not exceed a hundred meters on average. They consist of subparallel light-toned layers of various thicknesses that are apparently interbedded with darker beds (Fig. 1b). This difference in albedo can be due to variations in mineralogical composition, topographic slope, roughness, grain size or state of erosion of the different layers, or to partial covering of certain layers by a dark mantle. Ganges Chasma West of Ganges Chasma, the LDs rest topographically and stratigraphically above the Noachian plains that have been defined as the Npl2 unit [4] (Fig. 1

  3. Dark Water near Rio de la Plata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On April 28, 2002, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this image of very bright, sediment-laden water in the Rio de la Plata of South America. Along the coast to the northwest, however, very little light was reflected back to the orbiting sensor. It is not clear what is causing this large, very dark patch of water. Perhaps a phytoplankton bloom being fed by high-nutrient runoff was responsible for absorbing much of the solar radiation that was not absorbed by the water itself. The metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is readily visible as a large gray splotch just below the western end of the Rio de la Plata estuary. Other smaller splotches mark cities such as La Plata (just southeast of Buenos Aires) and Montevideo (on the northern side of the estuary).

  4. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  5. Synthesis of national reports for Rio+20

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-15

    In the lead up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), which took place in Brazil in June 2012, there were numerous efforts in countries around the world to help governments, civil society organizations and individuals prepare for the event. One of the more significant efforts led by UNDP in collaboration with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) was a support programme to 72 countries across all regions to build a consensus on national views around the themes and objectives of the Rio+20 Conference. This report highlights significant advances in sustainable development from almost 60 country reports and underscores the challenges and bottlenecks to moving beyond the economic-led growth strategies of the past 20 years.

  6. History of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Vianna, Francisco Reis

    2014-01-01

    The record of the first cases of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro dates from the seventeenth century. The first local host of leprosy patients was created from 1741, and the first colonies hospitals were built in the early twentieth century, in order to avoid contagion of the population. The first structures dedicated to research also date from this time: the Leprosy International Institute, the Leprology Institute, and the Leprosy Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, where the most prestigious leprologists of Rio de Janeiro worked. Currently, investigations are focused on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation; additionally, leprosy patients are treated at municipal health centers and state hospitals, and former colony hospitals only accept patients with severe disabilities. PMID:24937834

  7. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  8. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  9. The Rio Scale Applied to Fictional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostak, Seth; Almar, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Almar and Tarter (2000)1, and Almar (2001)2 have proposed a scale for quantifying the credibility of claimed detections of extraterrestrial presence, either via signals or via direct physical evidence. The proposed Rio Scale was developed by borrowing from the more widely known Torino scale used by scientists studying the potential consequences of predicted impacts by near-Earth objects, and it is intended to provide the media and the public some indication from the science community of how seriously to regard such claims of detected ETI. In order to provide an illustrative set of examples, the authors have applied the criteria of the Rio Scale to a set of selected fictional extraterrestrial "encounters" from the cinema, as well as to some less dramatic "claims." It is the authors' hope that these examples will both clarify and enhance the usefulness of this important metric. References: 1. Almar, I. and Tarter, J., "The Discovery of ETI as a High-Consequence, Low-Probability Event," 2. Almar, I., "How the Rio Scale Should be Improved," Paper #IAA-01-IAA.9.2.03, presented at the

  10. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  11. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  12. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  13. Structural observations from the Canavese Fault west of Valle d'Ossola (Piemonte) and some time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, Jan; Mancktelow, Neil

    2010-05-01

    The Canavese Fault (CF) is the SW part of the most important fault system in the Alps, the Periadriatic Fault. The CF has a complex kinematic history involving an older stage of NW-side-up faulting and a younger stage of SE-side-up plus dextral faulting in the area of Valle d'Ossola (Schmid et al. 1987). There, shearing occurred under greenschist-facies conditions and the fault is a c. 1 km thick mylonite zone. Toward SW, faulting took place under progressively lower temperatures and the volume of rocks affected by S-side-up plus dextral shearing becomes larger at the expense of the N-side-up mylonites. S of Valle Sesia, brittle fault rocks dominate over mylonites. Still further SW, close to the Serra d'Ivrea, the CF splits into two branches, the Internal Canavese Fault (ICF) and the External Canavese Fault (ECF). S-side-up plus dextral faulting is localised along the ICF while the observed displacement senses at the ECF are mostly, though not always, N-side-up and sinistral. Age constraints for faulting along the CF are mostly derived from absolute ages of magmatic rocks exposed alongside or within the fault. In the section around Biella, NW-side-up faulting cannot have lasted longer than until 31±2 Ma (Scheuring et al. 1974) because this is the age of andesites overlying the basement of the Penninic Sesia Zone. However, some additional uplift of the Sesia Zone with respect to the South Alpine Ivrea Zone was accommodated by down-to-the-SE tilting of the Sesia zone around a roughly NNE-SSW-trending subhorizontal axis which is evidenced by palaeomagnetic data (Lanza 1977). As a result of that, the Early Oligocene Biella Pluton (c. 31 Ma, Romer et al. 1996) today occupies a similar altitude level as the andesites of the same age. Post-31-Ma uplift of the Ivrea Zone with respect to the andesites is evidenced by the Early Oligocene (29-33 Ma, Carraro & Ferrara 1968) Miagliano Pluton which is hosted by the Ivrea Zone rocks and exposed at the present topographic surface

  14. Isotopic and geochemical constraints on the origin and evolution of postcollapse rhyolites in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spell, Terry L.; Kyle, Philip R.; Thirlwall, Matthew F.; Campbell, Andrew R.

    1993-11-01

    Ring-fracture rhyolites of the Valles Caldera (VC) were examined to determine the evolution of the magma system following eruption of the upper Bandelier Tuff (UBT) and subsequent caldera collapse. Volcanism began with eruption of Deer Canyon (DC), Redondo Creek, and Del Medio (DM) rhyolites during the interval 1140-1133 ka. Quartz delta O-18 for the UBT, (average +8.3 %), DC (+7.9 %), and DM (+8.7 %) rhyolites indicate no significant lowering of delta O-18 following caldera collapse. In contrast, DM rhyolites record low epsilon(sub Nd) of -3.6 to -3.8 relative to the UBT (-2.7) and variable initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70923-0.71307). Del Abrigo (DA) and Santa Rosa I rhyolites (973-915 ka) exhibit lower epsilon(Sub Nd) (-4.4 to -4.6) and initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70707-0.71009), as well as shifts in compatible and incompatible trace element ratios. Seco, San Luis, and Santa Rosa II rhyolites (800-787 ka) have epsilon(Sub Nd) (-4.0 to -4.3) similar to the 973 to 915 ka rhyolites but lower initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70616-0.70747). After a hiatus of 230 ka, San Antonio (SA), South Mountain (SM), and La Jara (LJ) rhyolites (557-521 ka) were erupted with epsilon(Sub Nd) of -3.7 to 4.3, distinctly lower initial 87-Sr/86-Sr of 0.70513-0.70553 and less evolved trace element compositions. The youngest rhyolites, the El Cajete-Banco Bonito group (EC-BB) (300-170 ka) are petrographically and geochemically distinct with the highest epsilon(Sub Nd) (-2.7 to -3.0) and the lowest initial 87-Sr/86-Sr (0.70464-0.70478) of postcollapse rhyolites. The isotopic data indicate that Valles rhyolites are not direct melts of Proterozoic basement (epsilon(Sub Nd) of -10 to -15) and indicate a significant mantle-derived (basaltic) component. Elevated initial 87-Sr/86-Sr is restricted to rhyolites depleted in Sr (less than 10 ppm) and probably reflects minor upper crustal assimilation. Calculated magma delta 0-18 values (+6.6 to +7.0 %) indicate no substantial supracrustal sediment in the source region

  15. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Sedimentary record of water column trophic conditions and sediment carbon fluxes in a tropical water reservoir (Valle de Bravo, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Carnero-Bravo, Vladislav; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2015-03-01

    Valle de Bravo (VB) is the main water reservoir of the Cutzamala hydraulic system, which provides 40% of the drinking water consumed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and exhibits symptoms of eutrophication. Nutrient (C, N and P) concentrations were determined in two sediment cores to reconstruct the water column trophic evolution of the reservoir and C fluxes since its creation in 1947. Radiometric methods ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) were used to obtain sediment chronologies, using the presence of pre-reservoir soil layers in one of the cores as an independent chronological marker. Mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.12 to 0.56 g cm(-2) year(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes from 122 to 380 g m(-2) year(-1). Total N ranged 4.9-48 g m(-2) year(-1), and total P 0.6-4.2 g m(-2) year(-1). The sedimentary record shows that all three (C, N and P) fluxes increased significantly after 1991, in good agreement with the assessed trophic evolution of VB and with historic and recent real-time measurements. In the recent years (1992-2006), the TOC flux to the bottom of VB (average 250 g m(-2) year(-1), peaks 323 g m(-2) year(-1)) is similar to that found in highly eutrophic reservoirs and impoundments. Over 1/3 of the total C burial since dam construction, circa 70,000 t, has occurred in this recent period. These results highlight the usefulness of the reconstruction of carbon and nutrient fluxes from the sedimentary record to assess carbon burial and its temporal evolution in freshwater ecosystems.

  17. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter.

  18. The dynamics of surges in the 3 February 2015 avalanches in Vallée de la Sionne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; McElwaine, J. N.; Sovilla, B.; Ash, M.; Brennan, P.

    2016-11-01

    Five avalanches were artificially released at the Vallée de la Sionne test site in the west of Switzerland on 3 February 2015 and recorded by the GEOphysical flow dynamics using pulsed Doppler radAR Mark 3 radar system. The radar beam penetrates the dilute powder cloud and measures reflections from the underlying denser avalanche features allowing the tracking of the flow at 111 Hz with 0.75 m downslope resolution. The data show that the avalanches contain many internal surges. The large or "major" surges originate from the secondary release of slabs. These slabs can each contain more mass than the initial release, and thus can greatly affect the flow dynamics, by unevenly distributing the mass. The small or "minor" surges appear to be a roll wave-like instability, and these can greatly influence the front dynamics as they can repeatedly overtake the leading edge. We analyzed the friction acting on the fronts of minor surges using a Voellmy-like, simple one-dimensional model with frictional resistance and velocity-squared drag. This model fits the data of the overall velocity, but it cannot capture the dynamics and especially the slowing of the minor surges, which requires dramatically varying effective friction. Our findings suggest that current avalanche models based on Voellmy-like friction laws do not accurately describe the physics of the intermittent frontal region of large mixed avalanches. We suggest that these data can only be explained by changes in the snow surface, such as the entrainment of the upper snow layers and the smoothing by earlier flow fronts.

  19. The predominance of post-wildfire erosion in the long-term denudation of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, Caitlin A.; Pelletier, Jon D.

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires can dramatically increase erosion rates over time scales on the order of several years, yet few data firmly constrain the relative importance of post-wildfire erosion in the long-term denudation of landscapes. We tested the hypothesis that wildfire-affected erosion is responsible for a large majority of long-term denudation in the uplands of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, by quantifying erosion rates in wildfire-affected and non-wildfire-affected watersheds over short (~100-101 years) time scales using suspended sediment loads, multitemporal terrestrial laser scanning, and airborne laser scanning and over long (~103-106 years) time scales using 10Be inventories and incision into a dated paleosurface. We found that following the Las Conchas fire in 2011, mean watershed-averaged erosion rates were more than 1000 µm yr-1, i.e., ~103-105 times higher than nearby unburned watersheds of similar area, relief, and lithology. Long-term denudation rates are on the order of 10-100 µm yr-1. Combining data for wildfire-affected and non-wildfire-affected erosion rates into a long-term denudation rate budget, we found that wildfire-affected erosion is responsible for at least 90% of denudation over geologic time scales in our study area despite the fact that such conditions occur only at a small fraction of the time. Monte Carlo analyses demonstrate that this conclusion is robust with respect to uncertainties in the rates and time scales used in the calculations.

  20. The Valle de Bravo Volcanic Field. A monogenetic field in the central front of the Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Jaimes-Viera, M. D.; Nieto-Obreg¢n, J.; Lozano-Santacruz, R.

    2003-12-01

    The Valle de Bravo volcanic field, VBVF, is located in the central-southern front of the Mexican Volcanic Belt just to the southwest of Nevado de Toluca volcano. The VBVF covers 3,703 square Km and includes at least 122 cinder cones, 1 shield volcano, several domes, and the 2 volcanic complexes of Zitacuaro and Villa de Allende. Morphometric parameters calibrated with isotopic ages of the volcanic products indicate four groups or units for the VBVF, Pliocene domes and lava flows, undifferentiated Pleistocene lava flows,> 40 Ka cones and lavas, 40 to 25 Ka cones and lavas, 25 to 10 Ka cones and lavas, and < 10 Ka cones and lavas. Whole-rock chemistry shows that all products of the VBVF range from basaltic andesites to dacites. No basalts were found, in spite of many units are olivine-rich and large some with large weight percent contents of MgO, 1 to 9. There is the possibility that some or all of the olivines in some samples could be xenocrysts. Some andesites are high in Sr, 1000 to 1800 ppm, that correlates with relatively high values of Ba, Cr, Ni, Cu, CaO and MgO. Y and Nb have the typical low values for orogenic rocks. The only shield volcano of the VBVF has a base of 9 Km, and its composition is practically the average composition of the whole field. Stratigraphycally, it is one of the earlier events of the VBVF. Compared with other volcanic fields of the Mexican Volcanic Belt, it lacks basalts and alkalic rocks. All volcanism of this field is calcalkaline

  1. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of swine manure as alternative feedstock for the Del Valle Hog Farm fuel alcohol facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.; Vinson, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this proejct was to investigate the use of swine manure as a feedstock for fuel alcohol plants. The project was conducted on the Del Valle Hog Farm and made use of the 24 gal/day fuel alcohol plant in operation there. The project involved the determination of the starch content of various samples of hog manure, and if an adequate source of starch was found, to use that manure as feedstock in full scale tests that would lead to a determination of the economic feasibility of such use. A full scale test consists of the conversion and fermentation of about 250 gallon batches of test feedstock. The production yield was determined by measurement of evolved gas during fermentation. The analysis of raw hog manure samples indicate that a good portion, about 19% by weight, of the dry matter is starch. The plant modifications required to operate with hog manure as feedstock appear to be reasonable and inexpensive. Full efficiency of conversion and fermentation was achieved with mash of about 4% solids concentration. However, with solids concentrations of 10% to 15%, the yeast died within a short time. A theory for the yeast deaths is that some yeast poison is present in the manure, and that it can be mitigated by dilution with water. Lab scale experiments confirm the dilution dependent behavior, however, no determination of the nature of the poison has been made. The study concludes that hog manure would be a viable feedstock if the yeast deaths can be prevented. The mash concentration could then be raised to 25% solids, and with screened manure of say 40% starch, the alcohol plant would work at 137% capacity with the same operating costs (acid, lime, yeast, but not heat) as with a batch of milo.

  3. Economic evaluation of three populational screening strategies for cervical cancer in the county of Valles Occidental: CRICERVA clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A high percentage of cervical cancer cases have not undergone cytological tests within 10 years prior to diagnosis. Different population interventions could improve coverage in the public system, although costs will also increase. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the costs of three types of population interventions to increase the number of female participants in the screening programmes for cancer of the cervix carried out by Primary Care in four basic health care areas. Methods/Design A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from the perspective of public health system including women from 30 to 70 years of age (n = 20,994) with incorrect screening criteria from four basic health care areas in the Valles Occidental, Barcelona, Spain. The patients will be randomly distributed into the control group and the three intervention groups (IG1: invitation letter to participate in the screening; IG2: invitation letter and informative leaflet; IG3: invitation letter, informative leaflet and a phone call reminder) and followed for three years. Clinical effectiveness will be measured by the number of HPV, epithelial lesions and cancer of cervix cases detected. The number of deaths avoided will be secondary measures of effectiveness. The temporal horizon of the analysis will be the life expectancy of the female population in the study. Costs and effectiveness will be discounted at 3%. In addition, univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis will be carried out. Discussion IG3 is expected to be more cost-effective intervention than IG1 and IG2, with greater detection of HPV infections, epithelial lesions and cancer than other strategies, albeit at a greater cost. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01373723 PMID:22011387

  4. Peripheral structures of the Rio Grande Rift in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, around the Colorado-New Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrich, C. J.; Workman, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Recently active faults of the Rio Grande rift near the Colorado-New Mexico border are almost entirely limited to the San Luis basin. In contrast, the early (≈26 to ≈10 Ma) structure of the rift in this area is significantly broader. A wide zone of abandoned, peripheral extensional structures is exposed on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin—in the west half of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, known in this area as the southern Culebra and northern Taos Ranges. New detailed mapping shows that the eastern limit of the zone of early peripheral extension is marked by an aligned series of north-trending grabens, including the Devil’s Park, Valle Vidal, and Moreno Valley basins. Master faults of these intermontaine basins are partly localized along, and evidently reactivated moderate- to high-angle Laramide (≈70 to ≈40 Ma) reverse faults of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Between these grabens and the San Luis basin lies a structural zone that varies in style from block faulting, in the north, to more closely spaced tilted-domino-style faulting in the Latir volcanic field, to the south. Additional early rift structures include several long northwest-striking faults, the largest of which are interpreted to have accommodated significant right-lateral strike-slip, based on abrupt southwestward increase in the magnitude of extension across them. These faults evidently transferred strain from the axial part of the rift into the zone of early peripheral extension, and accommodated lateral changes in structural style. Throughout the area of early peripheral extension, there is a correlation between the magnitude of local volcanism and the degree of extension; however, it is unclear if extension drove volcanism—via mantle upwelling, or if extension was maximized where the crust was weakest, owing to the presence of magma and hot rock at shallow depths.

  5. Orbital evidence for clay and acidic sulfate assemblages on Mars based on mineralogical analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Hannah H.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo; Robertson, Kevin; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Outcrops of hydrated minerals are widespread across the surface of Mars, with clay minerals and sulfates being commonly identified phases. Orbitally-based reflectance spectra are often used to classify these hydrated components in terms of a single mineralogy, although most surfaces likely contain multiple minerals that have the potential to record local geochemical conditions and processes. Reflectance spectra for previously identified deposits in Ius and Melas Chasma within the Valles Marineris, Mars, exhibit an enigmatic feature with two distinct absorptions between 2.2 and 2.3 μm. This spectral 'doublet' feature is proposed to result from a mixture of hydrated minerals, although the identity of the minerals has remained ambiguous. Here we demonstrate that similar spectral doublet features are observed in airborne, field, and laboratory reflectance spectra of rock and sediment samples from Rio Tinto, Spain. Combined visible-near infrared reflectance spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements of these samples reveal that the doublet feature arises from a mixture of Al-phyllosilicate (illite or muscovite) and jarosite. Analyses of orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows that the martian spectral equivalents are also consistent with mixtures of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite, where the Al-phyllosilicate may also include kaolinite and/or halloysite. A case study for a region within Ius Chasma demonstrates that the relative proportions of the Al-phyllosilicate(s) and jarosite vary within one stratigraphic unit as well as between stratigraphic units. The former observation suggests that the jarosite may be a diagenetic (authigenic) product and thus indicative of local pH and redox conditions, whereas the latter observation may be consistent with variations in sediment flux and/or fluid chemistry during sediment deposition.

  6. Further analyses of Rio Cuarto impact glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Bunch, T. E.; Koeberl, C.; Collins, W.

    1993-01-01

    Initial analyses of the geologic setting, petrology, and geochemistry of glasses recovered from within and around the elongate Rio Cuarto (RC) craters in Argentina focused on selected samples in order to document the general similarity with impactites around other terrestrial impact craters and to establish their origin. Continued analysis has surveyed the diversity in compositions for a range of samples, examined further evidence for temperature and pressure history, and compared the results with experimentally fused loess from oblique hypervelocity impacts. These new results not only firmly establish their impact origin but provide new insight on the impact process.

  7. A geostatistical methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, G. S.; Júnez-Ferreira, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This work introduces a new methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer in Mexico. The selection of the space-time monitoring points is done using a static Kalman filter combined with a sequential optimization method. The Kalman filter requires as input a space-time covariance matrix, which is derived from a geostatistical analysis. A sequential optimization method that selects the space-time point that minimizes a function of the variance, in each step, is used. We demonstrate the methodology applying it to the redesign of the hydraulic head monitoring network of the Valle de Querétaro aquifer with the objective of selecting from a set of monitoring positions and times, those that minimize the spatiotemporal redundancy. The database for the geostatistical space-time analysis corresponds to information of 273 wells located within the aquifer for the period 1970-2007. A total of 1,435 hydraulic head data were used to construct the experimental space-time variogram. The results show that from the existing monitoring program that consists of 418 space-time monitoring points, only 178 are not redundant. The implied reduction of monitoring costs was possible because the proposed method is successful in propagating information in space and time.

  8. A geostatistical methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the optimal design of space-time hydraulic head monitoring networks and its application to the Valle de Querétaro aquifer in Mexico. The selection of the space-time monitoring points is done using a static Kalman filter combined with a sequential optimization method. The Kalman filter requires as input a space-time covariance matrix, which is derived from a geostatistical analysis. A sequential optimization method that selects the space-time point that minimizes a function of the variance, in each step, is used. We demonstrate the methodology applying it to the redesign of the hydraulic head monitoring network of the Valle de Querétaro aquifer with the objective of selecting from a set of monitoring positions and times, those that minimize the spatiotemporal redundancy. The database for the geostatistical space-time analysis corresponds to information of 273 wells located within the aquifer for the period 1970-2007. A total of 1,435 hydraulic head data were used to construct the experimental space-time variogram. The results show that from the existing monitoring program that consists of 418 space-time monitoring points, only 178 are not redundant. The implied reduction of monitoring costs was possible because the proposed method is successful in propagating information in space and time.

  9. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... Rio Tinto is a dual-listed company (``DLC'') comprised of two distinct, commonly controlled corporate entities, RTP and RTL, which operate pursuant to a DLC Sharing Agreement (the ``Sharing Agreement'').\\1... following key principles of the DLC structure: (a) RTP and RTL are each required to have a ``special...

  10. Rio Hondo Sediment Assessment Analysis Using SAM. Numerical Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    MISCELLANEOUS PAPER HL-91-1 M ~ RIO HONDO SEDIMENT ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS USING SAM Numerical Model Investigation AD-A238 572Ii 1 11byIll lil Nolan K...FUNDING NUMBERS Rio Hondo Sediment Assessment Analysis Using SAM; Numerical Model Investigation 6. AUTHOR(S) Nolan K. Raphelt Michael J. Trawle William A... Rio Hondo through Roswell, NM, was conducted. The investigation represented a sediment assessment level study conducted to test for potential

  11. RIO: The R-Process Isotope Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B.; Westphal, A.

    Our galaxy is filled with a "gas" of relativistic nuclei and electrons--the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The source of GCR nuclei is unknown, but there is a general consensus among high-energy astrophysicists that GCRs are accelerated by supernova (SN) shocks in the interstellar medium. The evidence in support of this picture is strong but indirect. The fact that the cosmic-ray spectrum extends continuously, without steps or peaks, to more than five orders of magnitude in energy beyond the limit of SN shock acceleration appears to be incompatible with this picture, at least without extreme fine-tuning of models. A "smoking gun" is needed to definitively establish that SN shocks are indeed the accelerator of GCRs. If GCRs are accelerated in SN shocks, they will be enhanced in freshly-synthesized r-process material. We are currently studying R-process Isotope Observer (RIO) as a Mission of Opportunity for the International Space Station. RIO will make the first measurements of the isotopic abundances of the "ultraheavy" GCRs (those in the range 32Z42) and will determine the fractional contribution of freshly-synthesized r-process material in GCRs through the measurement of several key isotopic ratios.

  12. RIO: The R-Process Isotope Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B. A.; Westphal, A. J.

    2003-07-01

    The source of galactic cosmic-ray nuclei is unknown, but there is a general consensus that galactic cosmic rays are accelerated by supernova shocks in the interstellar medium. The evidence in support of this picture is strong but indirect. However, the fact that the cosmic-ray spectrum extends continuously, without steps or peaks, to more than five orders of magnitude in energy beyond the limit of supernova shock acceleration appears to be incompatible with this picture, at least without extreme fine-tuning of models. A "smoking gun" is needed to definitively establish that supernova shocks are indeed the accelerator of galactic cosmic rays. If galactic cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova shocks, they will be enhanced in freshly-synthesized r-pro cess material. We are currently studying the R-pro cess Isotop e Observer (RIO) as a Mission of opportunity for the International Space Station. RIO will make the first measurements of the isotopic abundances of the "ultraheavy" galactic cosmic rays (those in the range 32 ≤ Z ≤ 42) and will determine the fractional contribution of freshly-synthesized r-pro cess material in galactic cosmic rays through the measurement of several key isotopic ratios.

  13. RIO: the R-process isotope observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B. A.; Westphal, A. J.

    Our galaxy is filled with a “gas” of relativistic nuclei and electrons - the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The source of GCR nuclei is unknown, but there is a general consensus among high-energy astrophysicists that GCRs are accelerated by supernova (SN) shocks in the interstellar medium. The evidence in support of this picture is strong but indirect. However, the fact that the cosmic-ray spectrum extends continuously, without steps or peaks, to more than five orders of magnitude in energy beyond the limit of SN shock acceleration appears to be incompatible with this picture, at least without extreme fine-tuning of models. A “smoking gun” is needed to definitively establish that SN shocks are indeed the accelerator of GCRs. If GCRs are accelerated in SN shocks, they will be enhanced in freshly-synthesized r-process material. We are currently studying the R-process Isotope Observer (RIO) as a Mission of Opportunity for the International Space Station. RIO will make the first measurements of the isotopic abundances of the “ultraheavy” GCRs (those in the range 32 ⩽ Z ⩽ 42) and will determine the fractional contribution of freshly-synthesized r-process material in GCRs through the measurement of several key isotopic ratios.

  14. Extension in the Rio Grande rift.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.

    1982-01-01

    A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

  15. Stratigraphy and composition of volcanic rocks cropping out along the northern walls of the Valle del Bove, Mount Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Niceforo, G. A. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Valle del Bove cuts the eastern sector of Mount Etna and represents a key area for understanding of the most recent history of this complex volcano. Lava flows and tuffs related to the volcanic activity preceding the building of the most recent center (Recent Mongibello) outcrop along its sheer slopes. In this work 14 stratigraphic sections, comprising products of the Ellittico center at elevations between 1300 and 2400 m a.s.l., have been examined. In each section lava flows alternate with volcaniclastic deposits, with their thickness varying from less than 1 to 30 m. The matrix ash in thin tephra levels is commonly deeply weathered. Some of these layers show graded bedding and some others plane-parallel and cross-laminated structures, whereas thicker deposits do not show any clear internal structures and are poorly sorted.. The lithic component is always igneous in origin and is represented by dark or reddish, massive lava fragments either rounded or angular in shape, with their size attaining up to 1 m across in the massive beds. The juvenile fraction is represented by dark, vesiculated scoria. Isolated crystals of pyroxene are also present. The limited lateral distribution of the thick massive beds and their textural and compositional characters suggests their emplacement as Lahar-type highly concentrated flows, probably of secondary origin. A primary fall-out pyroclastic origin is inferred for the thin laminated and graded beds . Lavas, light to dark grey in colour, are commonly massive, and only rarely slightly vesicular; their massive portion is 0.5 to 5 m. thick. Plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts may be recognised by naked eye; smaller crystals of olivine are present too. Whole rock compositions, obtained by XRF analysis, vary from hawaiites to mugeariites, and. are consistent with those of the Ellittico products. Lateral and vertical variations of some chemical characters of lavas in different stratigraphic sections suggest slight changes of the

  16. The central uplift of Elorza Crater: Insights into its geology and possible relationships to the Valles Marineris and Tharsis regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, R. T.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.

    2017-03-01

    The majority of hydrated silicate occurrences on Mars are associated with impact craters (Ehlmann et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2013). Three formation mechanisms have been suggested to account for this correlation: (1) aqueous alteration occurred pre-impact, and was subsequently exposed via the impact (pre-impact; Bibring et al., 2006; Ehlmann et al., 2011), (2) heat generated from the impact facilitated the formation of a hydrothermal system, leading to alteration products (syn-impact; e.g. Marzo et al., 2010; Osinski et al., 2013), and/or (3) altered materials were deposited after crater formation, or formed within the crater well after the impact had taken place (post-impact). In this study, we analyze the central uplift of Elorza Crater, a ∼40 km diameter impact crater located ∼300 km north of Valles Marineris. To determine whether hydrated minerals found within the uplift were generated pre-, syn-, or post-impact, we used a data synthesis approach, utilizing High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Context Camera (CTX), and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) imagery. Opaline silica is observed in two locations on the southwestern side of the uplift and is interpreted to have been pre-existing or formed via hydrothermal alteration due to stratigraphic relationships with the overlying impact melt unit. Both Fe/Mg smectite and low-calcium pyroxene (LCP) are found throughout the uplift. Bedrock exposures on the northern wall of Coprates Chasma containing Fe/Mg smectite and LCP suggest an uplifted origin for these units. In all cases, although a pre-existing origin is probable, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of an impact-generated hydrothermal origin. Using the observed stratigraphy exposed in Coprates Chasma and bedrock exposures analyzed in nearby craters, we were able to constrain the pre-impact stratigraphy around Elorza. The near-subsurface consists of Hesperian

  17. Modelling caldera collapse into a crystal mush, with application to the Bandelier Tuff, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, S. R.; Wolff, J. A.; Jellinek, M.; Ramos, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Valles caldera, NM, was formed in two eruptions at 1.61 Ma and 1.25 Ma that produced the Bandelier Tuff. The older Otowi Member of the Bandelier is a compositionally zoned high-silica rhyolite (>75% SiO2) with a dense rock equivalent volume of ~450 km3, and up to 5-fold variation in the incompatible element content of pumice fragments. Volume-composition relations require that 3 - 4 times the erupted volume, i.e. 1350 - 1800 km3, of leucogranitic crystal residue must complement the erupted magma. Quartz-sanidine glomerocrysts in late-erupted pumices are interpreted as fragments of the residue, but have a cumulative volume << 100 km3. Therefore, most of the residue was not erupted. The younger Tshirege member of the Bandelier Tuff, erupted from the same site 360,000 years later, is a ~250 km3 zoned high-silica rhyolitic ignimbrite similar to the Otowi, but additionally contains magmatic components of low-silica rhyolite and dacite. Also, incompatible elements in the Tshirege exhibit a much greater degree of scatter on covariation diagrams than is the case for the Otowi Member. The dacite is not closely related to the rhyolites and was introduced during a late recharge event that may have triggered the eruption. The extent and style of recycling of Otowi crystal residue into the Tshirege magma body is a long-standing question. To begin to investigate this problem, we have initiated a series of laboratory experiments designed to simulate the settling of a caldera block into a crystal mush layer underlying supernatant, eruptible, crystal-poor magma during caldera-forming super-eruptions. The extent and character of mush disruption and eruption on collapse vary with the amounts of crystal-rich and crystal-poor magma, roof block weight and thickness, melt viscosity and heterogeneity and lead to a first-order prediction that rejuvenation of the disturbed crystal mush should result in greater chemical complexity during subsequent magmatic cycles. This is consistent

  18. FIO/RIO -- FORTRAN file I/O routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.; Chipperfield, A. J.

    FIO/RIO is a subroutine package that allows a FORTRAN programmer to access sequential and direct access data files in a machine independent manner. The package consists of stand alone FIO and RIO routines, which can be used independently of the Starlink software environment, plus routines to interface to the Starlink parameter system.

  19. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  20. The eruptive and magmatic history of the youngest pulse of volcanism at the Valles caldera: Implications for successfully dating late Quaternary eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerer, Matthew J.; Lafferty, John; Coble, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar and U/Th ages provide insight into the youngest eruptions at the Valles caldera and also reveal previously unknown pulses of magmatism. The youngest eruptive units, collectively termed the East Fork Member of the Valles Rhyolite, include the El Cajete pyroclastic beds and co-erupted Battleship Rock ignimbrite, and the disconformably overlying Banco Bonito lava flow. Previous attempts to date these units using a variety of techniques yielded ages ranging from < 40 ka to > 1 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar ages were generated using the high-sensitivity, multi-collector ARGUS VI mass spectrometer, which provides more than an order of magnitude increase in precision compared to most single-detector mass spectrometers. 40Ar/39Ar dating of single crystals yields a range of ages, of which the youngest populations are interpreted to represent the eruption age. Sanidine ages indicate that the El Cajete pyroclastic beds and Battleship Rock ignimbrite erupted at 74.4 ± 1.3 ka, whereas the Banco Bonito lava erupted at 68.3 ± 1.5 ka. Populations of older crystals represent variably degassed xenocrysts, explaining why previous 40Ar/39Ar bulk step-heating analyses yielded spuriously old and irreproducible results. U/Th dating of unpolished zircon surfaces also yield multiple age populations, which range from the eruption age to > 350 ka, indicating protracted magmatism during the 453-ka-long eruptive hiatus prior to the eruption of the East Fork Member. 40Ar/39Ar and U/Th ages indicate that the East Fork Member represents a short (6.1 ± 2.8 ka) eruptive cycle, from a longer-lived magmatic system beneath the southern caldera. Equally short repose periods, similar to the interval between the El Cajete-Battleship Rock and Banco Bonito eruptions, are possible during future volcanism at the Valles caldera. Results demonstrate that detailed geochronology using single-crystal and in-situ techniques is necessary for understanding the eruptive history and magmatic evolution at some

  1. Morphology, stratigraphy, and mineralogical composition of a layered formation covering the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars: Implications for its geological history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Mège, D.; Hauber, E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Massé, M.; Jaumann, R.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2010-08-01

    An extensive layered formation covers the high plateaus around Valles Marineris. Mapping based on HiRISE, CTX and HRSC images reveals these layered deposits (LDs) crop out north of Tithonium Chasma, south of Ius Chasma, around West Candor Chasma, and southwest of Juventae Chasma and Ganges Chasma. The estimated area covered by LDs is ˜42,300 km 2. They consist of a series of alternating light and dark beds, a 100 m in total thickness that is covered by a dark unconsolidated mantle possibly resulting from their erosion. Their stratigraphic relationships with the plateaus and the Valles Marineris chasmata indicate that the LDs were deposited during the Early- to Late Hesperian, and possibly later depending on the region, before the end of the backwasting of the walls near Juventae Chasma, and probably before Louros Valles sapping near Ius Chasma. Their large spatial coverage and their location mainly on highly elevated plateaus lead us to conclude that LDs correspond to airfall dust and/or volcanic ash. The surface of LDs is characterized by various morphological features, including lobate ejecta and pedestal craters, polygonal fractures, valleys and sinuous ridges, and a pitted surface, which are all consistent with liquid water and/or water ice filling the pores of LDs. LDs were episodically eroded by fluvial processes and were possibly modified by sublimation processes. Considering that LDs correspond to dust and/or ash possibly mixed with ice particles in the past, LDs may be compared to Dissected Mantle Terrains currently observed in mid- to high latitudes on Mars, which correspond to a mantle of mixed dust and ice that is partially or totally dissected by sublimation. The analysis of CRISM and OMEGA hyperspectral data indicates that the basal layer of LDs near Ganges Chasma exhibits spectra with absorption bands at ˜1.4 μm, and ˜1.9 μm and a large deep band between ˜2.21 and ˜2.26 μm that are consistent with previous spectral analysis in other regions

  2. The seismic history of the Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, one of the major geologic structures of the Southwest, cuts through the center of New Mexico from north to south. The rift is also referred to as the Rio Grande Trench and as the Rio Grande Trough. It extends from the northern end of the San Luis Valley in Colorado southward 725 kilometres along the course of the Rio Grande River through New Mexico to near El Paso, Tex. The Rio Grande Rift is not a single trough but a series of north-trending basins arranged en echelon and separated by narrow constrictions or channels. The rift follows the western flank of the southern Rocky Mountains and apparently was formed at the same time as the moutains. 

  3. Stratigraphy of Lower Cambrian and unconformable Lower Carboniferous beds from the Valls unit (Catalonian Coastal Ranges)Stratigraphie des couches du Cambrien inférieur et des calcaires discordants du Carbonifère inférieur de l'unité de Valls (chaînes côtières Catalanes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-López, Javier; Melgarejo, Joan-Carles; Crimes, Thomas Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Palaeozoic rocks outcropping around Valls are divided into two stratigraphic units. The boundary between both is an unconformity. The lower unit is composed by nearshore platform sediments and a Lower Cambrian age is indicated according to ichnotaxa content. The upper unit consists of pink nodular limestones and dark limestones, and it is followed by siliciclastic Culm Facies rocks. These limestones contain conodonts of the Uppermost Tournaisian at its base ( anchoralis- latus Zone) and Lower Bashkirian (Namurian B) in the upper part. This condensed carbonate sequence was coeval with the thick siliciclastic Culm sedimentation in the surrounding areas.

  4. de la Vallée-Poussin means of Fourier series for the quadratic spectrum and for spectra with power-like density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A new method is proposed and elaborated for investigating complex or real trigonometric series with various spectra. It is based on new multiplicative inequalities which give a lower bound for the integral norm of the de la Vallée-Poussin means and are themselves based on results establishing corresponding analogues of the Littlewood-Paley theorem in the BMO, Hardy, and Lorentz spaces. For spectra with power-like density a description of the class of absolute values of coefficients such that the corresponding complex or real trigonometric series are Fourier series is found which depends on the arithmetic characteristics of the spectrum and is sharp in limiting cases. Furthermore, for the quadratic spectrum some results of Hardy and Littlewood on elliptic theta functions are generalized and refined. For the quadratic spectrum and power-like spectra with non-integer exponents new lower bounds are found for the integral norms of exponential sums. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  5. Putative Large and Small Volcanic Edifices in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Evidence of Ground Water/Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.; Smellie, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    Large mounds and mesas of interior layered deposits (ILDs) in Valles Marineris Chasmata have been suggested to be sub-ice volcanoes based on MGS and Viking data [1,2,3]. Similar to terrestrial sub-ice volcanoes, spectral investigation indicates the bright mounds are hydrothermally altered, palagonitic rocks [4]. These putative edifices are associated with outcrops of dark materials that have each been interpreted previously as young, volcanic ash deposits of mafic composition [5,6]. Spectral investigation also indicates that the dark materials are less water-altered and mafic in composition [4]. TES-detected concentrations of crystalline hematite have been noted to occur in these dark materials [7]. Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images indicate that the dark materials locally blanket chasmata floors and embay ILDs and are associated with small volcanic vents. These apparent vents may have emitted some of the ash-like deposits. The vent features appear very young, lacking impact craters and having non-eroded rims. Where they embay the ILDs, the vents have low rims similar to terrrestrial maar or tuff cones, which possibly indicates interaction with groundwater or ice. In support of ground-ice within the ILDs, MOC data show (1) channels that occur on the flanks of the bright mounds, and (2) theatre-headed gullies are eroded into caprock of the ILDs and the heads of valleys, formerly interpreted by Viking data to be wind flutes on ILD flanks. Both features may be related to spring sapping. MOC images also show that dark materials on the floor of many chasmata and Aram Chaos are associated with small fissures or cone-shaped mounds with central depressions that do not appear to have interacted with ground-ice. Perhaps late-stage water/ice circulated or was stored within the interior mounds after removal of large ponds of surface ice elsewhere. Young, dark, volcanic ash in the chasmata could be a product of both "dry" volcanism and water/magma interactions, which may have

  6. One million cubic kilometers of fossil ice in Valles Marineris: relicts of a 3.5 Gy old glacial landsystem along the Martian equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, O.; Gourronc, M.; Mège, D.; Pochat, S.; Bultel, B.; Massé, M.; Le Deit, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Mercier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Self-consistent landform assemblages suggest that Valles Marineris, the giant valley system that stretches along the Martian equator, was entirely glaciated during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian times and still contains huge volumes of fossil ice. Some of these glacial landforms assemblages are illustrated here. A morphological boundary separating an upper spur-and-gully morphology from a smooth basal escarpment has been spectacularly preserved along valley walls throughout Valles Marineris. The boundary winds around topographic obstacles and displays long-wavelength variations in elevation. It is associated with lateral benches, hanging valleys and truncated spurs. Comparisons with terrestrial analogues indicate that it is most reasonably interpreted as a glacial trimline. Chasma floors are covered by various kinds of terrains, including hummocky terrains, platy terrains, lateral banks, layered benches and a draping mantle. Landforms in these terrains and their spatial relationship with the interpreted trimline suggest that they correspond to various disintegration stages of an ancient glacial fill, currently protected by a superficial cover of ablation till. Altogether, these landforms and terrains compose a full glacial landsystem with wet-based glaciers that were able to flow and slide over their beds. It was most probably fed by ice accumulating at low elevations directly from the atmosphere onto valley floors and walls, with only minor contributions from tributary glaciers flowing down from higher elevations. Similar fossil glacial landsystems dating back from the early Martian history are to be expected in many other low-latitude troughs such as chasmata, chaos, valleys, impact craters and other basins.

  7. One million cubic kilometers of fossil ice in Valles Marineris: Relicts of a 3.5 Gy old glacial landsystem along the Martian equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourronc, Marine; Bourgeois, Olivier; Mège, Daniel; Pochat, Stéphane; Bultel, Benjamin; Massé, Marion; Le Deit, Laetitia; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mercier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent landform assemblages suggest that Valles Marineris, the giant valley system that stretches along the Martian equator, was entirely glaciated during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian times and still contains huge volumes of fossil ice. Some of these glacial landform assemblages are illustrated here, with representative examples selected in three regions: Ius Chasma, Central Candor Chasma and the junction between Coprates Chasma and Capri Chasma. A morphological boundary separating an upper spur-and-gully morphology from a smooth basal escarpment has been spectacularly preserved along valley walls throughout Valles Marineris. The boundary winds around topographic obstacles and displays long-wavelength variations in elevation. It is associated with lateral benches, hanging valleys and truncated spurs. Comparisons with terrestrial analogs indicate that it is most reasonably interpreted as a glacial trimline. Chasma floors are covered by various kinds of terrains, including hummocky terrains, platy terrains, lateral banks, layered benches and a draping mantle. Landforms in these terrains and their spatial relationship with the interpreted trimline suggest that they correspond to various disintegration stages of an ancient glacial fill, currently protected by a superficial cover of ablation till. Altogether, these landforms and terrains compose a full glacial landsystem with wet-based glaciers that were able to flow and slide over their beds. It was most probably fed by ice accumulating at low elevations directly from the atmosphere onto valley floors and walls, with only minor contributions from tributary glaciers flowing down from higher elevations. Similar fossil glacial landsystems dating back from the early Martian history are to be expected in many other low-latitude troughs such as chasmata, chaos, valleys, impact craters and other basins.

  8. Survey on gynecological cancer treatment by Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology)

    PubMed Central

    Cattari, Gabriella; Delmastro, Elena; Bresciani, Sara; Gribaudo, Sergio; Melano, Antonella; Giannelli, Flavio; Tessa, Maria; Chiarlone, Renato; Scolaro, Tindaro; Krengli, Marco; Urgesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We focused the attention on radiation therapy practices about the gynecological malignancies in Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta to know the current treatment practice and to improve the quality of care. Material and methods We proposed a cognitive survey to evaluate the standard practice patterns for gynecological cancer management, adopted from 2012 to 2014 by radiotherapy (RT) centers with a large amount of gynecological cancer cases. There were three topics: 1. Taking care and multidisciplinary approach, 2. Radiotherapy treatment and brachytherapy, 3. Follow-up. Results Nineteen centers treated gynecological malignancies and 12 of these had a multidisciplinary dedicated team. Radiotherapy option has been used in all clinical setting: definitive, adjuvant, and palliative. In general, 1978 patients were treated. There were 834 brachytherapy (BRT) treatments. The fusion between diagnostic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging – MRI, positron emission tomography – PET) and computed tomography (CT) simulation was used for contouring in all centers. Conformal RT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were the most frequent techniques. The image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was used in 10/19 centers. There were 8 active BRT centers. Brachytherapy was performed both with radical intent and as boost, mostly by HDR (6/8 centers). The doses for exclusive BRT were between 20 to 30 Gy. The doses for BRT boost were between 10 and 20 Gy. Four centers used CT-MRI compatible applicators but only one used MRI for planning. The BRT plans on vaginal cuff were still performed on traditional radiographies in 2 centers. The plan sum was evaluated in only 1 center. Only 1 center performed in vivo dosimetry. Conclusions In the last three years, multidisciplinary approach, contouring, treatment techniques, doses, and control systems were similar in Liguria-Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. However, the technology implementation didn't translate in a real treatment

  9. Tensor CSAMT survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A. Part 1: Implications for structure of the western caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1997-03-01

    An extensive tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been carried out over the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Forty-five sites were acquired using two crossed transmitter bipoles placed approximately 13 km south of the center of the survey. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. CSAMT and magnetotelluric (MT) data taken outside Valles Caldera were constrained by drill logs and imply resistive Bandelier Tuff, underlain by conductive Paleozoic sediments, and further underlain by resistive, primarily Precambrian crystalline rocks. Model cross-sections within the caldera were derived using 2-D parameterized inversion constrained by drilling, with layered-earth inversion for starting models. Southeast of the Sulphur Creek fault, the upper 200 m of the section are of relatively low resistivity and correspond to unconsolidated land-slide and debris flows. The Bandelier Tuff below exhibits higher but variable resistivities because of alteration controlled by local faulting. Beneath the Bandelier Tuff, the Paleozoic sedimentary layer is only moderately less resistive than it is outside the caldera, with the lowest values occurring northwest of Sulphur Creek. Its low resistivity per se does not necessarily represent a hydrothermal aquifer. The Sulphur Creek fault appears to be a locus of substantial change in structural relief; upthrow of stratigraphy and basement to its west appears to be about 400--500 m. A major normal fault down to the southeast is located under the topographic expression of Freelove Canyon, which is up to 1 km farther southeast than suggested by previous geologic sections. High resistivities possibly corresponding to a vapor zone in the upper 500 m near VC-2B and VC-2A are not consistent with the CSAMT data.

  10. SHARAD detections of subsurface reflectors near RSL sites on the Tharsis Plateau immediately adjacent to the canyon rim of Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. B.; Stillman, D. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Forget, F.; Mellon, M. T.; Spiga, A.; Putzig, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are very exciting features that exhibit evidence for water flow on the Martian surface. The number of RSL sites has risen to ~100 since their first detection in 2011. Those sites extend over a large portion of the Valles Marineris margin and nearby smaller canyons, but no source for this flowing water has been identified. Two possible sources exist for water near the Martian equator: the atmospheric and the subsurface. At low latitudes, atmospheric water vapor abundance is extremely low, and condensation of water from the air is unlikely. Furthermore, subsurface water ice is unlikely to remain stable in the long term, but scenarios for retaining ice on shorter timescales have not been fully tested. The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has successfully probed the subsurface of Mars to locate dielectric interfaces that delineate volcanic boundaries, layers within the polar ice caps, and ice-rock boundaries. Using the same technique of searching for dielectric contrasts at lower latitudes, we have found several detections at the highest elevations of the Tharsis Plateau, near the cliffs that form Valles Marineris at depths ranging from 30 to 80 m, depending on the dielectric properties of the overlying material. These reflectors are located near the canyon rim and slope towards the canyon, potentially crossing geologic boundaries mapped from surface data. Because of the proximity of the reflectors to RSL and the geometry of the reflections, we hypothesize that SHARAD may be detecting an ice or water reservoir that can act as a source for flowing water on the surface. We test this hypothesis by employing a one-dimensional thermal model to estimate the stability of ground ice over a wide range of durations at this latitude, including recent epochs of high obliquity, when ice would be more stable at low latitudes and for longer periods.

  11. Humility and opportunity in Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.A. )

    1989-09-01

    One of the hardest things to do is to admit a mistake. But we can often learn valuable lessons when we analyze why we made our mistakes and when we admit our vulnerability to the unknown. In 1984, the authors published an article that described what they referred to privately as a geologic Moebius loop where a seismic grid appeared to grossly mistie. They though they stayed in the same Paleozoic carbonate formation all the way around the loop. Drilling subsequent to that article has deepened the mystery of the correlations by proving that the target formations were indeed limestones and showing they may not be the Paleozoic limestones they though they started in but are perhaps a new, previously undescribed sequence of thick Tertiary lacustrine limestone. The Yates La Mesa 2 well in Sec. 24, T17N, R8E, has spawned more questions than it has answered, but it has paradoxically also pointed out the potential for new and exciting plays in the Rio Grande rift basins and has given them an opportunity to show how previous misinterpreted work can teach new lessons. Seismic lines in the rift and in the Yates well illustrate how they can both deceive and inspire themselves in the search for hydrocarbons.

  12. The Rio conference a view from India

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.N. )

    1993-02-01

    Although the achievements of the Rio Conference were quite significant and will have far-reaching consequences as far as the global environment is concerned, there were many shortcomings in it as well. The Earth Summit failed to obtain the necessary financial resources needed to safeguard people from environmental degradation. The summit acknowledged the need for a radical change in attitude on the part of the developed countries toward economic growth and development as well as toward the problems of underdevelopment in countries of the Southern Hermisphere. It also emphasized that unless the rich nations of the Northern Hemisphere change their lifestyle of lavishly and selfishly using natural resources, their own future will be in grave peril. Developing countries have diverse problems, including lack of education, malnutrition, worm infestation, anemia, and poor health. The industrial policy of developing countries needs reorientation. It should be modified to provide for value-added, decentralized production. Deforestation is another serious problem in India and some of the other developing countries.

  13. View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing structure (on left) with the Santaella residence (on right) - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  14. View looking from the Ariel Rios Federal Building across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking from the Ariel Rios Federal Building across the great plaza to the Fourteenth Street facade - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  16. Biology of the Rio Grande border region : a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lynne E.; Jacobs, Linda J.; Papoulias, Diana

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography includes 1,913 references to the literature of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte). The specific geographic area covered extends 100 km on either side of the river from Elephant Butte Dam in New Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. The bibliography focuses on the biological literature, divided into major subject areas, and also includes supporting literature from the physical and environmental sciences.

  17. Molecular and structural insight into plasmodium falciparum RIO2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharon, Ashoke; Bal, Chandralata

    2013-02-01

    Among approximately 65 kinases of the malarial genome, RIO2 (right open reading frame) kinase belonging to the atypical class of kinase is unique because along with a kinase domain, it has a highly conserved N-terminal winged helix (wHTH) domain. The wHTH domain resembles the wing like domain found in DNA binding proteins and is situated near to the kinase domain. Ligand binding to this domain may reposition the kinase domain leading to inhibition of enzyme function and could be utilized as a novel allosteric site to design inhibitor. In the present study, we have generated a model of RIO2 kinase from Plasmodium falciparum utilizing multiple modeling, simulation approach. A novel putative DNA-binding site is identified for the first time in PfRIO2 kinase to understand the DNA binding events involving wHTH domain and flexible loop. Induced fit DNA docking followed by minimization, molecular dynamics simulation, energetic scoring and binding mode studies are used to reveal the structural basis of PfRIO2-ATP-DNA complex. Ser105 as a potential site of phosphorylation is revealed through the structural studies of ATP binding in PfRIO2. Overall the present study discloses the structural facets of unknown PfRIO2 complex and opens an avenue toward exploration of novel drug target.

  18. Thermomechanical models of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Bridwell, R.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional, coupled thermochemical solutions of a continental rift and platform are used to model the crust and mantle structure of a hot, buoyant mantle diapir beneath the Rio Grande rift. The thermomechanical model includes both linear and nonlinear laws of the Weertman type relating shear stress and creep strain rate, viscosity which depends on temperature and pressure, and activation energy, temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, temperature-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, the Boussinesq approximation for thermal bouyancy, material convection using a stress rate that is invariant to rigid rotations, an elastically deformable crust, and a free surface. The model determines the free surface velocities, solid state flow field in the mantle, and viscosity structure of lithosphere and asthenosphere. Regional topography and crustal heat flow are simulated. A suite of symmetric models, assumes continental geotherms on the right and the successively increasing rift geotherms on the left. These models predict an asthenospheric flow field which transfers cold material laterally toward the rift at > 300 km, hot, buoyant material approx. 200 km wide which ascends vertically at rates of 1 km/my between 175 to 325 km, and spreads laterally away from the rift at the base of the lithosphere. Crustal spreading rates are similar to uplift rates. The lithosphere acts as stiff, elastic cap, damping upward motion through decreased velocities of 1 km/10 my and spreading uplift laterally. A parameter study varying material coefficients for the Weertman flow law suggests asthenospheric viscosities of approx. 10/sup 22/ to 10/sup 23/ poise. Similar studies predict crustal viscosities of approx. 10/sup 25/ poise. The buoyant process of mantle flow narrows and concentrates heat transport beneath the rift, increases upward velocity, and broadly arches the lithosphere. 10 figures, 1 table.

  19. Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Epipsocidae), from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and description of the female E.chiquibulensis García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; González Obando, Ranulfo; García Aldrete, Alfonso Neri

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and the female of Edmockfordiachiquibulensis García Aldrete, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Edmockfordia is included; the genus was previously known only from Belize. The genus is re-diagnosed to include female characters. The distribution of the genus is considerably widened, from Belize to northeastern South America.

  20. Trace elements and organic compounds associated with riverbed sediments in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin, Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) was mandated by the Texas Clean Rivers Act (Senate Bill 818) to assess water quality of rivers in Texas. Recent efforts to collect information for the assessment of water quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin have involved Federal agencies on both sides of the 1,248-mile U.S.-Mexico border?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Secretary for Social Development, Mexico), National Water Commission of Mexico, and International Boundary and Water Commission?as well as State and local agencies in a spirit of international cooperation. Substantial efforts have been made to gather data needed to determine the quality of water and ecological status of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, especially at sites along the border (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to assess selected historical data of trace elements and organic compounds in riverbed sediments of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, and of the Pecos River and the Arroyo Colorado in Texas.

  1. Chemical Contamination of the Lower Rio Grande near Laredo, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, B.; Ren, J.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Belzer, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Rio Grande River stretches over 2000 miles from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the tip of Texas where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico. It is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX, to Brownsville, TX. The communities along the border heavily rely upon the Rio Grande as a primary source of water for consumption, agricultural uses, supporting wildlife and recreation. For many years the Rio Grande has been polluted with municipal, industrial, agricultural and farming contaminants from both sides of the border. This pollution has led to the extinction or reduction of certain wildlife species as well as affecting the health of the residences along the border. Even though great strides have been made in monitoring the Rio Grande, there has been a lack of intense monitoring data collection for pollutants such as pesticides. Three sampling sites including Manadas Creek, the Rio Grande River at International Bridge I, and USGS monitoring site 08459200 off of Highway 83 were chosen. The water quality parameters focused include temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and pesticides. Preliminary results have shown elevated concentration of total phosphorus and ortho-phosphorus in the Manadas Creek site. Organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor and 4, 4 DDE were detected at various concentrations at all sites and endrin aldehyde was found at Manadas Creek site. This research has provided more information on the current chemical contamination level of the Rio Grande in the Laredo area.

  2. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

  3. Metamorphic evolution of migmatites from the deep Famatinian arc crust exposed in Sierras Valle Fértil La Huerta, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otamendi, J. E.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Vujovich, G. I.; Viñao, G. A.

    2008-05-01

    Meta-supracrustal migmatitic packages in the Sierras Valle Fértil-La Huerta of northwestern Argentina occur as wedge- or strip-shaped septa interlayered among mafic to intermediate igneous plutonic rocks. Meta-supracrustal rocks were metamorphosed under granulite-facies conditions during the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc, and are among the structurally deepest rocks exposed within the belt dominated by Ordovician plutonism. Petrographic analysis, mineral chemistry and whole rock geochemistry of granulite-facies migmatites are used to argue that the meta-supracrustal packages comprise a sequence of pelitic to quartzo-feldspathic sedimentary rocks that achieved peak metamorphic P- T conditions of 5.2-7.1 kbar and 770-840 °C. There are no resolvable differences in peak P- T conditions for migmatites separated 70 km along strike of the Sierras Valle Fértil and La Huerta, suggesting that similar levels of the Famatinian paleo-arc crust are currently exposed in these ranges. Idioblastic poikilitic garnets displaying weak to absent chemical zoning profiles developed at or close to the peak metamorphic stage are used in conjunction with petrogenetic grid constraints to interpret the prograde evolution. At the time the supracrustal rocks experienced maximum thermal conditions, they underwent dehydration partial melting. Microtextural features show that felsic melt (leucosome) back reacted with the adjacent coexisting mineral assemblage (mesosome). These observations are interpreted as evidence that the migmatites evolved through a continuous heating-cooling cycle with minor pressure change. This is consistent with the general lack of reaction textures denoting decompression at high temperatures, and with the possibility that in some migmatites retrograde reactions formed staurolite. Collectively, these features indicate that when the migmatites attained peak thermal conditions, the deepest exposed arc crust was about 20-25 km beneath the Ordovician surface

  4. Sedimentology and hydrology of a well-preserved paleoriver systems with a series of dam-breach paleolakes at Moa Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salese, Francesco; Di Achille, Gaetano; Neesemann, Adrian; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Hauber, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Moa Valles is a well-preserved paleodrainage system that is nearly 300-km-long and carved into ancient highland terrains west of Idaeus Fossae. The paleofluvial system apparently originated from fluidized ejecta blankets, and it consists of a series of dam-breach paleolakes with associated fan-shaped sedimentary deposits. This paleofluvial system shows a rich morphological record of hydrologic activity in the highlands of Mars. Based on crater counting the latter activity seems to be Amazonian in age (2.43 - 1.41 Ga). This work is based on a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Context camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) stereo images. Our goals are to (a) study the complex channel flow paths draining into Idaeus Fossae after forming a series of dam-breach paleolakes and to (b) investigate the origin and evolution of this valley system with its implications for climate and tectonic control. The first part of the system is characterized by many paleolakes, which are interconnected and drain eastward into Liberta crater, forming a complex and multilobate deltaic deposit exhibiting a well-developed channelized distributary pattern with evidence of switching on the delta plain. A breach area, consisting of three spillover channels, is present in the eastern part of the crater rim. These channels connect the Liberta crater to the eastward portion of the valley system, continuing toward Moa Valles with a complex pattern of anabranching channels that is more than 180-km-long. Our crater counting results and hydrological calculations of infilling and spillover discharges of the Liberta crater-lake suggest that the system is the result of an Early Amazonian water-rich environment that was likely sustained by relatively short fluvial events (<102 years), thereby supporting the hypotheses that water-related erosion might have been active on Mars (at least locally) during the Amazonian. The most important water source for the system could

  5. Creating a standardized watersheds database for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Julie R.; Ulery, Randy L.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the creation of a large-scale watershed database for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin in Texas. The watershed database includes watersheds delineated to all 1:24,000-scale mapped stream confluences and other hydrologically significant points, selected watershed characteristics, and hydrologic derivative datasets. Computer technology allows generation of preliminary watershed boundaries in a fraction of the time needed for manual methods. This automated process reduces development time and results in quality improvements in watershed boundaries and characteristics. These data can then be compiled in a permanent database, eliminating the time-consuming step of data creation at the beginning of a project and providing a stable base dataset that can give users greater confidence when further subdividing watersheds. A standardized dataset of watershed characteristics is a valuable contribution to the understanding and management of natural resources. Vertical integration of the input datasets used to automatically generate watershed boundaries is crucial to the success of such an effort. The optimum situation would be to use the digital orthophoto quadrangles as the source of all the input datasets. While the hydrographic data from the digital line graphs can be revised to match the digital orthophoto quadrangles, hypsography data cannot be revised to match the digital orthophoto quadrangles. Revised hydrography from the digital orthophoto quadrangle should be used to create an updated digital elevation model that incorporates the stream channels as revised from the digital orthophoto quadrangle. Computer-generated, standardized watersheds that are vertically integrated with existing digital line graph hydrographic data will continue to be difficult to create until revisions can be made to existing source datasets. Until such time, manual editing will be necessary to make adjustments for man-made features and changes in the natural landscape

  6. Overview of Astronomy arrays at Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, K. J.; Love, P. J.; Lum, N. A.; Gulbransen, D. J.; Hoffman, A. W.; Corrales, E.; Mills, R. E.; Murray, M. E.

    We review the various types of astronomy arrays currently available from RIO for wide-field imaging and spectroscopy. Arrays for infrared astronomy became available from RIO (previously the Santa Barbara Research Center) with the introduction of the 58x62 InSb in 1984. Since the introduction of this first array, RIO has developed and produced increasingly larger format arrays, including the 256x256 InSb array for SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) and the Aladdin 1Kx1K array. Over 70 Aladdin arrays have been delivered and are currently deployed on a number of major telescopes throughout the world. RIO is currently developing the next generation of 2Kx2K format arrays. These include the 2Kx2K ORION InSb array, and the VIRGO 2KxK SWIR HgCdTe array for ground-based applications and the 2Kx2K InSb array for the NGST program. In addition, RIO is currently developing the next generation large format 1Kx1K Si:As Impurity Band Conduction (IBC) arrays for the NGST MIR instrument.

  7. Traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, Water Years 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of water in the Rio Grande is becoming increasingly important as more surface water is proposed for diversion from the river for potable and nonpotable uses. In cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, the U.S. Geological Survey examined traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin to evaluate the potential travel of a conservative solute entrained in the river's streamflow. A flow-pulse analysis was performed to determine traveltimes of a wide range of streamflows in the Rio Grande, to develop traveltime curves for estimating the possible traveltime of a conservative solute in the Rio Grande between Cochiti Dam and Albuquerque, and to evaluate streamflow velocities and dispersion and storage characteristics of the Rio Grande in the entire Middle Rio Grande Basin. A flow-pulse analysis was applied to 12 pulse events recorded during the 2003-05 water years for streamflow-gaging stations between Cochiti Dam and the city of San Acacia. Pulse streamflows ranged from 495 to 5,190 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Three points of each pulse were tracked as the pulse passed a station - rising-limb leading edge, plateau leading edge, and plateau trailing edge. Most pulses indicated longer traveltimes for each successive point in the pulse. Dispersion and spreading of the pulses decreased with increased streamflow. Decreasing traveltimes were not always consistent with increasing streamflow, particularly for flows less than 1,750 ft3/s, and the relation of traveltime and original pulse streamflow at Cochiti indicated a nonlinear component. Average streamflow velocities decreased by greater than 30 percent from San Felipe to San Acacia. The expected trend of increasing dispersion with downstream travel was not always visible because of other influences on streamflow. With downstream flow, distributions of the pulses became more skewed to the descending limbs, indicating possible short-term storage of a part of the

  8. Volcanological investigation of the Banco Bonito eruption and subsurface geology of the ring fracture zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Final technical report, September 1, 1985-December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.; Wolff, J.; Kircher, D.

    1987-03-01

    A low-silica rhyolite eruptive sequence of 3 to 4 kmT (dense rock equivalent volume) forms the youngest volcanic event from the ring-fracture of the Valles caldera. STTh/STSTh - STYU/STSTh activity ratios determined for whole rock, glass, and mineral phases indicate that the magma system became closed isotopically approx.150 Ka. Other evidence from age dating supports an age for the eruption between 150 and 130 Ka. This event was of considerable duration with plinian and ignimbrite-forming activity preceding an effusive phase by a lengthy, but indeterminable, interval. The lava flow was emplaced onto a much-dissected surface cut into the E1 Cajete and Battleship Rock pyroclastic deposits. Twenty-four bulk-rock samples from all 3 eruptive stages exhibit little significant compositional variation, and the 3 units are petrographically identical (apart from differences arising from contrasting eruption styles). Nonetheless, phenocrysts and glasses exhibit substantial compositional variations and complex textural relations throughout the sequence. Very few phenocrysts appear to have been in equilibrium with the matrix rhyolitic liquid. The petrologic relationships are interpreted to result from partial melting of a pre-existing crustal igneous rock, probably of dioritic to granodioritic composition, and subsequent eruption of the resulting liquid and ''restite'' crystals. Kinetic arguments suggest a time-scale for magma production and eruption of the order of thousands of years.

  9. Fluid inclusion evidence for recent temperature increases at Fenton Hill hot dry rock test site west of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Masakatsu

    1989-02-01

    The fluid inclusions in calcite veins and those in quartz of the host Precambrian rocks from the GT-2 drill hole have been studied microthermometrically to determine the recent thermal history of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock test site west of the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The calcite veins were collected from 1876 m and 2624 m depth. They contain primary liquid-rich inclusions and secondary liquid-rich and monophase liquid inclusions. The homogenization temperature ( T h) and final melting point of ice ( T m) of these inclusions and the secondary inclusions in quartz from the host Precambrian rocks were measured using α USGS-type gas flow heating/freezing stage. The CO 2 content was also determined semiquantitatively using a microscope crushing stage. The trapping temperature was determined on the isochore under the assumption of lithostatic pressure. NaCl eq. salinity was also determined from T m after correction for CO 2. Microthermometry of primary inclusions in calcite and secondary inclusions in quartz indicates that the calcite veins precipitated from low-salinity geothermal fluids at temperatures at least 10-15°C lower than the thermal maximum recorded in the secondary inclusions in quartz of the Precambrian rocks. The lowest temperature determined from the minimum trapping temperature of secondary inclusions in calcite is 26°C lower than the present borehole temperature of 178°C at 2624 m. After this cooling the temperature increased again up to the present geothermal profile.

  10. Geochemistry of mafic Paleocene volcanic rocks in the Valle del Cura region: Implications for the petrogenesis of primary mantle-derived melts over the Pampean flat-slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella

    2010-04-01

    Mafic volcanism of Paleocene age was recently reported in the Valle del Cura region and the El Indio Belt in the aphanitic and very homogenous well-preserved lavas flows of the Río Frío Basalts unit. These are high-K basalts, with high Fe 2O 3 and TiO 2 contents that imply an alkaline tendency and show typical intraplate-type patterns on a MORB normalized trace elements plot. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios evidence a mantle affinity. The chemistry indicates that these rocks are high temperature melts that result from a low degree of melting of an enriched portion of lithospheric mantle, with no contamination from crustal derived components. The alkaline back-arc Las Máquinas Basalts of Lower Miocene age are derived from more primitive magmas closer to the original source. Mantle composition was relatively constant from Paleocene to Lower Miocene in the studied latitudes over the Pampean flat-slab. Both mafic units share the isotopic trend of pre-Miocene mafic lavas from the Central Andes that were not affected by crustal contamination. Post-Miocene mafic lavas show a strong influence from crust-related processes.

  11. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  12. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

  13. Introduction to Special Section on the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.

    1986-05-01

    With the aid of a Penrose Conference in 1974 and an international rift conference held in 1978 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Rio Grande rift has become widely recognized as a major Cenozoic continental rift zone. As a result of the 1978 Santa Fe meeting, the American Geophysical Union published a special volume of papers concerned with the Rio Grande rift [Riecker, 1979], and the New Mexico Geological Society recently published another volume focused on this rift [Baldridge et al., 1984]. These volumes are a manifestation of the research activity which lead to the formation of the Rio Grande rift consortium whose purpose is to foster rift-related research and communication. This organization has sponsored several special sessions at geological and geophysical meetings and has generally increased the awareness of this important feature.

  14. The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

    1997-02-01

    The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

  15. Guidebook to Rio Grande rift in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawley, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the details of geologic features along the rift zone. Included are short papers on topics relative to the overall region. These papers and the road logs are of special interest to any one pursuing further study of the rift. This book is a comprehensive guide to the middle and late Cenozoic geology of the Rio Grande region of Colorado and New Mexico. Though initially used on field trips for the International Symposium on Tectonics and Magmatism of the Rio Grande rift, the guidebook will be useful to anyone interested in the Cenozoic history of the 600-mi-long area extending from central Colorado to El Paso, Texas.

  16. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  17. Digital airborne time domain electromagnetic data from surveys over Cochiti Pueblo, Rio Puerco, and Rio Rancho, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Rodriguez, B.D.; Doucette, J.P.; Godbout, Michel; Williams, J.M.; Sawyer, D.A.; Stone, B.D.; Grauch, V.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Albuquerque-Santa Fe region is rapidly growing. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) is the main source of municipal water for the greater Albuquerque metropolitan area and is more limited than previously thought (Thorn et al., 1993). The MRGB, as defined hydrologically and used here, is the area within the Rio Grande Valley extending from Cochiti Dam downstream to the community of San Acacia (Figure 1). Because approximately 600,000 people (40 percent of the population of New Mexico) live in the study area (Bartolino, 1999), water shortfalls could have serious consequences for the state. Future growth and land management in the region depends on accurate assessment and protection of the region’s groundwater resources. An important issue in understanding the ground water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group, the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift and contain the principal groundwater aquifers.

  18. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  19. Society and Health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, William

    Shedding light on problems of mental health and illness that have baffled public health workers attempting to improve the health and welfare of Mexican Americans living in the lower Rio Grande Valley, this document reports the folk customs, social organization, medical practices, and beliefs of the Mexican American of this area. Chapters describe…

  20. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

  1. 77 FR 51966 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  2. 77 FR 51967 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The meeting is open...

  3. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis after swimming in the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    DeNapoli, T S; Rutman, J Y; Robinson, J R; Rhodes, M M

    1996-10-01

    We report a case of fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) with Naegleria fowleri in a 13-year-old male, and review the clinical course and diagnostic autopsy findings. The boy developed the infection after swimming with relatives in the Rio Grande and in a holding tank containing water pumped from the river. The clinical and neuropathologic features of PAM are presented. The microscopic features of motile unicellular organisms with pathognomonic broad, lobate pseudopodia are diagnostic and, if recognized before death, allow for timely treatment. A public health investigation into this case implicated river water from the Rio Grande polluted with sewage as the infection source. Exposure to polluted river water from some areas of the Rio Grande may represent a risk factor for infection with Naegleria fowerli, because the high levels of coliform bacteria found in sewage and the warm, sluggish water of the river are favorable growth conditions for the amoebae. Because the Rio Grande is an international border, this case illustrates the importance of international cooperation in pollution control in the prevention of a potentially fatal infectious disease.

  4. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  5. The School Cultures in the Lower Rio Bravo Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This report focuses on Hispanic American culture in the schools of the lower Rio Bravo Valley (Texas) through impressions and descriptions of the interrelationship of school and community. School culture is defined as reflecting the shared characteristics and uniqueness of the community cultures around the school. The school cultures of the Valley…

  6. Modeling streamflow from snowmelt in the upper Rio Grande

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual snowpack in the high elevation snowsheds of the Upper Rio Grande (URG) Basin is a vital source of surface water for irrigated agriculture in New Mexico. Maximum streamflow from the annual snowpack usually occurs in early May for the southernmost snowsheds (e.g., Ojo Caliente) and at the end o...

  7. WATER QUALITY MODELING IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the Rio Chone Estuary, a seasonally inverse, tropical estuary, in Ecuador was characterized by modeling the distribution of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the water column. These two variables are modeled using modif...

  8. Runoff Production in the Upper Rio Chagres Catchment, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezialek, J. M.; Ogden, F. L.

    2003-12-01

    Runoff production in watersheds in the seasonal tropics is governed by a number of factors. The mountainous 414 sq. km upper Rio Chagres watershed offers a unique opportunity to better understand the runoff production mechanisms in seasonal tropical catchments through data analysis and modeling. The upper Rio Chagres catchment provides the majority of inflows to the Panama Canal, has been monitored for over 60 years as part of canal operations. Discharge data are available at both the catchment outlet (Chico gaging station) and an internal catchment location (Rio Piedras gaging station). There are also seven tipping bucket recording rain gages in and around the catchment. Analysis of runoff data reveals anomalously-high runoff production efficiencies early in the wet season. Furthermore, the existence of two quasi-stable base flow regimes during the wet season imply critical threshold storages. Initial field studies have shown that the soils are water repellent during the dry season. Runoff data from the 80 sq. km Rio Piedras subcatchment reveal ephemeral flows throughout the wet season, indicating significant heterogeneity in runoff production and deep groundwater circulation. Preliminary hydrologic modeling is performed with the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA), calibrated using data from 1988 and verified using data from 1989. Further modeling on the flood of 28-31 December, 2000 is also performed. Modeling using the distributed parameter GSSHA model combined with the Sacramento groundwater module allows simulation of distributed runoff. However, the role of interception by the triple-layer tropical canopy and the magnitude of evapotranspiration are uncertain. New data collection is proposed in the Rio Chagres catchment to help quantify interception and evapotranspiration. This instrumentation will include measurements of rainfall above the canopy, cloud stripping, stemflow, throughfall, soil moisture, groundwater, interflow

  9. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs Thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.; Implication for structure of the western Caldera and for CSAMT methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have carried Out an extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. This survey, consisting of 45 high-quality sites, has been acquired by in support of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter dipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 kW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. The electric bipoles parallel to each profile were deployed contiguously to ensure against spatial aliasing of the impedance response corresponding to current flow across structural trends. The frequency range of acquisition was 4096 Hz down to 1 Hz for the central line, but only down to 4 Hz for most sites of the other lines. Data quality is high overall and is established by repeatability of measurements. Agreement between the CSAMT and available natural field MT data is very good over almost all the period range of overlap indicating that we are free of calibration problems and that far-field results are generally being obtained. Non plane-wave effects in the CSAMT around Sulphur Springs are apparent at 1 to 2 Hz, and perhaps slightly even at 4 Hz, however, which is near the bottom of our frequency range. CSAMT and MT data taken outside the Valles Caldera to the west were modeled in an attempt to compare resistivity structure exterior to the caldera to that within. With the availability of tensor CSAMT and MT data both inside and outside Valles Caldera, assumptions and methods of CSAMT are tested. In the Sulphur Springs area, near-coincident CSAMT and MT data near well VC -2B indicate that non-lane-wave effects in the apparent resistivity and impedance phase occure at a frequency near to that predicted from the resistivity structure local to the wester caldera.

  10. Geology and petrology of a deep crustal zone from the Famatinian paleo-arc, Sierras de Valle Fértil and La Huerta, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otamendi, J. E.; Vujovich, G. I.; de la Rosa, J. D.; Tibaldi, A. M.; Castro, A.; Martino, R. D.; Pinotti, L. P.

    2009-04-01

    The ranges of the Sierras Valle Fértil-La Huerta expose natural cross sections through a paleo-arc crust that formed in the Late Cambrian - Early Ordovician Famatinian magmatic arc, northwestern Argentina. Thick mafic sequences of amphibole gabbronorites to orthopyroxene-amphibole-biotite diorites form the lower levels of the exposed paleo-arc section. This mafic unit includes lens-shaped bodies of olivine-bearing cumulate rocks and tabular-shaped sill/dike intrusions of fine-grained chilled amphibole gabbro. The mafic magmas were emplaced into regional metasedimentary sequences at lower crustal levels, corresponding to pressure from 5 to 7 kbar. Gabbronorites likely representing the parental magmas that fluxed into the exposed paleo-arc crust differ from primitive magmatic arc rocks in having somewhat lower Mg-number ( ca. 0.60) and compatible (Cr and Ni) trace element contents, and slightly higher Al 2O 3 contents. This difference is taken to indicate that a pyroxene-rich olivine-bearing assemblage with a bulk high Mg/Fe ratio and low Al 2O 3 content crystallized from mantle-derived melts before mafic magmas reached the crustal levels currently exhumed. However, some gabbronorites have incompatible trace element signatures typical of primitive mafic arc magmatism. Igneous rocks to some extent more evolved than those of the mafic unit make up a tonalite-dominated intermediate unit. The intermediate unit consists of a heterogeneous suite that ranges from orthopyroxene-bearing amphibole-rich diorites to biotite-rich amphibole-poor tonalites. Within the intermediate unit, chilled mafic rocks are found as a network of dikes, whereas metasedimentary migmatites appear interlayered as m-wide septa and km-long strips. The tonalite-dominated intermediate unit passes into a granodiorite batholith through a transitional zone that is up to 2-km wide. The boundary zone separating the tonalite-dominated and granodiorite-dominated units is characterized by mingling of tonalitic

  11. 78 FR 35639 - Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...-acre Wind River Ranch in Mora County, New Mexico. ADDRESSES: A map depicting the approved boundary and... Mexico, and the Rio Mora Conservation Area, including portions of Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico. The Service may pursue protection and management of wildlife resources in the...

  12. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  13. The Simud-Tiu Valles hydrologic system: A multidisciplinary study of a possible site for future Mars on-site exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Baratti, Emanuele; Mangili, Clara; Mancarella, Francesca; McBride, Karen; Coradini, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    When looking for traces of past life on Mars, we have to look primarily for places where water was present, possibly for long time intervals. The Simud and Tiu Valles are two large outflow channels connected to the north with the Chryse Basin, Oxia Palus quadrangle. The area, carved by water during the Noachian/Early Hesperian is characterized by a complex geological evolution. The geomorphological analysis shows the presence of fluvial and alluvial structures, interpreted as fluvial channels and terraces, debris flow fronts and short-lasting small water flows coexisting with maar-diatremes and mud volcanoes. Several morphological features indicate a change in water flux direction after the main erosive phase. During this period water originated from the Masursky crater and flown southwards into the Hydraotes Chaos. This phenomenon caused the studied area to become a depocenter where fine-grained material deposition took place, possibly in association with ponding water. This setting is potentially quite valuable as traces of life may have been preserved. The presence of water at various times over a period of about 1 Ga in the area is corroborated by mineralogical analyses of different areas that indicate the possible presence of hydrated minerals mixtures, such as sulfate-bearing deposits. Given the uniqueness of the evolution of this region, the long term interactions between fluvial, volcanic, and tectonic processes and its extremely favorable landing parameters (elevation, slope, roughness, rock distribution, thermal inertia, albedo, etc.), we decided to propose this location as a possible landing site for the ESA ExoMars 2018, the NASA Mars 2020 and future on-site missions.

  14. Late-glacial and Holocene high-altitude environmental changes in Vallée des Merveilles (Alpes-Maritimes, France): insect evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponel, Philippe; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Parchoux, Franck; Juhasz, Imola; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis

    2001-12-01

    A series of sedimentary profiles derived from the Lac Long Inférieur peat-bog (2090 m altitude, southern Alps) enabled the tracing of the evolution of successive fossil insect assemblages (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera Formicidae, Diptera Bibionidae, Trichoptera, Megaloptera and Nevroptera) from the Würm deglaciation to the present in this part of Vallée des Merveilles. This evolution reflects the climatic changes and hence the vegetation changes, as well as the human impact on the environment since neolithic times. During deglaciation, an episode marked by very poor fossil insect assemblages was followed by one with abundant boreo-alpine Coleoptera dependent on melting snow and steppe Coleoptera. This episode corresponds to the Younger Dryas climatic deterioration (10 970 +/- 210yr BP; 10 430 +/- 210yr BP) during which a steppe vegetation prevailed. The sudden fall in the number of insects belonging to cold environments marks the beginning of the Holocene warming. During the Preboreal and the Boreal period (8801 +/- 54 yr BP; 8692 +/- 53 yr BP) these insects disappear almost totally. On the other hand, Coleoptera mostly living at the tree-line and at forest margins increase and reach a maximum at the end of the Boreal. Thereafter (Atlantic, 8087 +/- 58yr BP; 5678 +/- 50yr BP) they decrease to the benefit of forest insects. This development corresponds to an elevation of the tree-line during the Atlantic and the Sub-boreal (4770 +/- 300yr BP; 3740 +/- 160yr BP) and to a thicker forest cover. Coleoptera dependent on Abies and Larix appear at this time. The final entomological event occurs at the end of the Sub-boreal and in the Subatlantic (2660 +/- 190yr BP): it is characterised by a regular decrease of tree-dependent taxa. This development is attributed to human action.

  15. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  16. Formes hémorragiques graves de la fièvre de la vallée du Rift: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Fall-Malick, Fatimetou Zahra; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Mokhtar, Abdelwedoud

    2016-01-01

    La fièvre de la vallée du Rift (FVR) est une arbovirose due à un virus à ARN appartenant à la famille de Bunyaviridae (genre phlebovirus). C'est une zoonose touchant principalement les animaux mais pouvant aussi contaminer l'homme, soit directement par la manipulation des viandes ou avortons d'animaux malades ou indirectement par la piqure de moustiques infectées (Aèdes sp, anophèles sp, Culex sp). Dans la majorité des cas, l'infection humaine à FVR est asymptomatique, mais elle peut également se manifester par un syndrome fébrile modérée d’évolution favorable. Néanmoins, certains patients peuvent développer un syndrome hémorragique et/ou des lésions neurologiques d’évolution mortelle. Nous décrivons l’évolution de cinq cas de patients atteints de la FVR, admis dans le service de médecine interne du Centre Hospitalier National de Nouakchott (Mauritanie), le mois d'Octobre 2015 et présentant tous, un syndrome hémorragique dans un contexte fébrile. L’évolution n’était favorable que pour 2 des cinq patients. Les 3 autres sont décédés, deux dans un tableau de choc hémorragique et dans un état de choc septique. PMID:27642413

  17. Optimal design of monitoring networks for multiple groundwater quality parameters using a Kalman filter: application to the Irapuato-Valle aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S; González-Hita, L; Cardona, A; Mora-Rodríguez, J

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks is introduced in this paper. Various indicator parameters were considered simultaneously and tested for the Irapuato-Valle aquifer in Mexico. The steps followed in the design were (1) establishment of the monitoring network objectives, (2) definition of a groundwater quality conceptual model for the study area, (3) selection of the parameters to be sampled, and (4) selection of a monitoring network by choosing the well positions that minimize the estimate error variance of the selected indicator parameters. Equal weight for each parameter was given to most of the aquifer positions and a higher weight to priority zones. The objective for the monitoring network in the specific application was to obtain a general reconnaissance of the water quality, including water types, water origin, and first indications of contamination. Water quality indicator parameters were chosen in accordance with this objective, and for the selection of the optimal monitoring sites, it was sought to obtain a low-uncertainty estimate of these parameters for the entire aquifer and with more certainty in priority zones. The optimal monitoring network was selected using a combination of geostatistical methods, a Kalman filter and a heuristic optimization method. Results show that when monitoring the 69 locations with higher priority order (the optimal monitoring network), the joint average standard error in the study area for all the groundwater quality parameters was approximately 90 % of the obtained with the 140 available sampling locations (the set of pilot wells). This demonstrates that an optimal design can help to reduce monitoring costs, by avoiding redundancy in data acquisition.

  18. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  19. Geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines, Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2017-03-09

    The Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines are located in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri, where barite and lead ore are present together in surficial and near-surface deposits. Lead mining in the area began in the early 1700’s and extended into the early 1900’s. Hand mining of lead in the residuum resulted in widespread pits (also called shafts or diggings), and there was some underground mining of lead in bedrock. By the 1860’s barite was recovered from the residuum by hand mining, also resulting in widespread diggings, but generally not underground mines in bedrock. Mechanized open-pit mining of the residuum for barite began in the 1920’s. Barite production slowed by the 1980’s, and there has not been any barite mining since 1998. Mechanized barite mining resulted in large mined areas and tailings ponds containing waste from barite mills.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that lead is present in surface soils in Washington and Jefferson Counties at concentrations exceeding health-based screening levels. Also, elevated concentrations of barium, arsenic, and cadmium have been identified in surface soils, and lead concentrations exceeding the Federal drinking-water standard of 15 micrograms per liter have been identified in private drinking-water wells. Potential sources of these contaminants are wastes associated with barite mining, wastes associated with lead mining, or unmined natural deposits of barium, lead, and other metals. As a first step in helping EPA determine the source of soil and groundwater contamination, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, investigated the geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines.Ore minerals are barite (barium sulfate), galena (lead sulfide), cerussite (lead carbonate), anglesite (lead sulfate), sphalerite (zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate), and chalcopyrite (copper

  20. Late archaic settlement systems in the northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Vierra, Bradley J.

    2003-01-01

    Last year at these meetings I proposed a possible seasonal transhumance pattern for the Late Archaic in the northern Rio Grande region. This pattern involved the movement of groups from the lowland juniper-savanna grasslands in the early summer, to the upland ponderosa pindmixed conifer forests in the mid to late summer, and then back down to the piiion-juniper woodlands during the fall. The Rio Grande Valley was also used for winter habitation sites. Following on this research, I take the next step by studying the inter-assemblage variability represented in a sample of open-air sites located within each of these vegetation communities. The results indicate that there are significant differences in reduction tactics represented between valley habitation vs., upland campsites, and that these site sites are linked together by obsidian procurement patterns.

  1. rio Magalhães: Development is Health.

    PubMed

    Escorel, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    rio Magalhães da Silveira (1905-1986) was the main mentor of the school of thought known as "developmental public health" whose influence peaked at the III National Health Assembly. A critic of the adoption of North American models of public health organization, of the centralism and vertical organization of public health campaigns and the interference of international bodies, the public health doctor held the view that as health is a problem of superstructure, it depends on industrial economic development. He also defended the urgent need to municipalize public health in order to attend to the real needs of the Brazilian population. A pioneer of the intermingling of economic and demographic variables, he may be seen as a predecessor of the health economy discipline. The article describes the professional path of Mário Magalhães as a backdrop to his critical thinking on specific national situations and the health policies adopted.

  2. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  3. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa

    2017-04-01

    The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.

  4. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  5. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...&SF RR) tracks, approx. 250 feet east of elevation mark 4,889 feet on the Turn, N. Mex. U.S.G.S. map... “Middle Rio Grande Valley” viticultural area are 24 U.S.G.S. Quadrangle (7.5 Minute Series) maps and 1 (15 Minute Series) U.S.G.S. map. They are titled: (1) Abeytas, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1979. (2) Alameda,...

  6. Migrant Worker: A Boy from the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    Ricky is an 11-year-old migrant worker. During the summer, he travels with his family from their home in Rio Grande City, Texas, to farms farther north. There they spend 10-12 hours a day in the hot sun picking fruit and vegetables and packing the harvest for market. Ricky is not protected by the federal laws that govern the hours, wages, and…

  7. Mesohabitats, fish assemblage composition, and mesohabitat use of the Rio Grande silvery minnow over a range of seasonal flow regimes in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte, in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce; Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    There were no statistically significant differences between the stream velocities associated with seine hauls of the Rio Grande silvery minnow and Tamaulipas shiner. Stream velocities associated with the seine hauls that included Rio Grande silvery minnow indicate that this species is predominantly found in low-velocity mesohabitats. Velocities associated with seine hauls that included the Tamaulipas shiner represented a much broader overall range of velocities than those associated with Rio Grande silvery minnow collections. No statistically significant differences were found between the depths for seine hauls that included Rio Grande silvery minnow or Tamaulipas shiner. The Rio Grande silvery minnow was more commonly collected in seine hauls from mesohabitats dominated by cobble substrates and less frequently collected in mesohabitats with substrates dominated by fine-sized silt and clay particles, gravels, and sands, in that order. In contrast, the Tamaulipas shiner was broadly distributed among mesohabitats characterized as having gravel, cobble, and silt and clay.

  8. Geology, hydrocarbon potential of Rio Muni area, Equatorial Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Hempstead, N. )

    1993-08-30

    The Republic of Equatorial Guinea, located in the oil producing province of West Africa, consists of three islands and an enclave in continental Africa with a total surface area of about 28,000 sq km. The islands are in the Gulf of Guinea. The largest, Bioko, lies off Nigeria and Cameroon. The continental enclave, Rio Muni, is bounded to the north by Cameroon and to the east and south by Gabon. The coastal basin of Rio Muni, which is the subject of this article, contributes the major portion of areas offered in the current exploration licensing round. Some 5,275 km of seismic data have been recorded the past 10 years covering most of the offshore and onshore areas of Rio Muni. The quality of seismic data is generally good. Data from all size wells drilled in the area and an aeromagnetic survey of the whole onshore and offshore are also available. The paper describes the West African setting, exploration history, basin development, presalt play, postsalt Aptian play, Albian play, clastic play, Senonian/Paleogene play, and the current licensing round.

  9. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  10. Network of healthy communities of Rio de Janeiro--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Katia B; Guimarães, Wanda; Vasconcelos, Maria S; Bonatto, Daniella; Nunes, Nilza R; Baptista, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Poor communities in Rio de Janeiro, which are known as favelas, suffer from various problems related to poor housing, poverty, unemployment, violence and organized crime, and lack of access to basic services, such as health care and education. In order to tackle these determinants, and inspired by WHO's international Healthy Communities/Cities movement, the etwork of Healthy Communities of Rio de Janeiro was formed in 2004. The Network is coordinated by the Center for Health Promotion (CEDAPS) and now includes more than 100 community groups and organizations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Their aim is to promote health, community development and equity through community empowerment, participation, capacity building and advocacy. The paper describes the work that has been done since the Network's inception and the challenges which they face to reach their goals in the context of a country like Brazil. The Network represents an important landmark of how poor populations can organize themselves in a collective, participatory and constructive way to influence public policy and strive for better conditions of life in disadvantaged settings, like the favelas.

  11. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was

  12. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began full implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (Leahy and others, 1990). Also in 1991, the State of Texas established the Clean Rivers Program (CRP) administered by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). The coring study reported here was a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the CRP Rio Grande Border Environmental Assessment Team, with additional funding support from the El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1.

  13. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casale, Giuseppe R; Siani, Anna Maria; Diémoz, Henri; Agnesod, Giovanni; Parisi, Alfio V; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m(-2) and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m(-2). The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure.

  14. Decoupling of the Assimilation and Fractionation Signatures in a MASH Zone: Evidence from the Sierra Valle Fértil Mafic Zone, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. A., Jr.; Bergantz, G. W.; Otamendi, J.; Ducea, M. N.; Cristofolini, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra Valle Fértil (SVF) in northern Argentina is a tilted Ordovician fossil arc complex with continuous exposure from paleodepths of ~10 km to ~30 km. The system is layered when viewed at a large scale: shallow, granodiorite plutons give way to a heterogeneous granodiorite-tonalite zone, which in turn grades into a gabbro-tonalite zone at the base of the section. A metapelitic country rock package is interlayered throughout the magmatic complex, allowing for determination of emplacement depths within the section. Our work focuses on the lowermost domain of the SVF, as it preserves what we consider to be a frozen example of a MASH zone. Here, dominant rock types are hornblende gabbronorite and tonalitie variants, which appear to be interfingered as dm- to 10s of m-scale sheets. Mappable ultramafic pods containing dunites, websterites, troctolites, and minor anorthosites are also present. Field relations are consistent with a complex series of intrusive events. Much of the SVF mafic zone compositional array can be modeled by fractional crystallization where the mafic rocks are cumulate assemblages and the intermediate rocks are the daughter magmas. Amphibole and, perhaps more importantly, Fe-Ti oxide crystallization are likely the principal agents of silica enrichment. Metapelitic rocks exposed throughout the SVF are likely the vestiges of a country rock package that was melted (or reacted) and incorporated into SVF magmas, but field and compositional evidence for assimilation is cryptic in the mafic zone. While isotopic data (Sr, Nd, O) seem to implicate crustal contributions to the SVF mafic zone, incompatible major and trace elements typically associated with an "assimilation signature" (e.g., K, Rb, Ba) are sparse. Such elements are abundant in the metapelites and in igneous rocks farther up section. We interpret this isotopic and elemental decoupling as a byproduct of prolonged MASH processes in the lower crust. A high temperature and an increasingly

  15. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  16. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1988-06-01

    An unusual breccia sequence penetrated in the lower 30 m of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 (total depth 856 m) records a complex hydrothermal history culminating in hydraulic rock rupture and associated alteration at the edge of the Quaternary Valles caldera. The breccias, both tectonic and hydrothermal in origin, were formed in the Jemez fault zone, near the intersection of this major regional structure with the caldera's ring-fracture margin. Tectonic breccias in the sequence are contorted, crushed, and sheared. Coexisting hydrothermal breccias lack such frictional textures but display matrix flow foliation and prominent clast rounding, features characteristic of fluidization. These hydrothermal breccias were intensely altered, during at least five major stages, to quartz-illite-phengite-pyrite aggregates; traces of molybdenite occur locally. This assemblage indicates interaction with hydrothermal fluid at temperatures in excess of 200°C. The extrapolated present maximum temperature of 184°C in the breccia zone therefore represents considerable cooling since these phases were formed. Fluid inclusions in the breccias also preserve evidence of the prior passage of hotter fluids. The inclusions are principally two phase, liquid rich, secondary in origin, and concentrated in hydrothermal quartz. Older, high-salinity inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, homogenize in the temperature range 189°-246°C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize in the temperature range 230°-283°C; locally coexisting liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions document periodic boiling of the dilute fluids. These fluid-inclusion data, along with the probable age of the hydrothermal breccias (<1.5 Ma), the assumed depth at which they developed (about 515 m), and the contemporaneous state of stress (extensional) can be combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site. The minimum fluid pressure (Pfr) required to

  17. Genetic relationships among calving ease, gestation length, and calf survival to weaning in the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the genetic relationships among calving ease (CE), calf survival (CS), and gestation length (GL) to assess the possibility of including this information in beef cattle breeding programs. A total of 35,395 field records were available for CE, 30,684 for GL, and 36,132 for CS from the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed. The 3 traits were analyzed as traits of the calf fitting a multivariate linear mixed model. Estimates of heritability (+/-SE) for the direct genetic effects (CEd, GLd, and CSd) were 0.325 +/- 0.022, 0.331 +/- 0.026, and 0.226 +/- 0.018, respectively, whereas the estimates for maternal genetic effects (CEm, GLm, and CSm) were 0.066 +/- 0.018, 0.066 +/- 0.017, and 0.034 +/- 0.011. The estimates for the ratio of permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance were CEc 0.090 +/- 0.011, GLc 0.066 +/- 0.011, and CSc 0.024 +/- 0.007. Genetic correlations between direct, maternal genetic, or permanent environmental effects involving CE and GL were, in general, positive and moderate, whereas those involving CE and CS were high. All were significant except for the pair CEm-GLm (0.277 +/- 0.172). Correlations between GL and CS were nonsignificant. Genetic correlations for CEd-CEm, GLd-GLm, and CSd-CSm were negative and high, ranging from -0.461 +/- 0.120 for GLd-GLm to -0.821 +/- 0.145 for CSd-CSm. The genetic correlations for CEd-CSm and for CSd-CEm were negative, significant, and high, whereas that for GLd-CEm was moderate (-0.323 +/- 0.124) and that for GLd-CSm was nonsignificant. The genetic correlations for GLm with the direct effects of the other traits were non-significant. Strong selection for CE will result in a significant correlated response in CS. Therefore, CE can be considered an early indicator of CS performance. The benefit of using GL as a correlated trait in a genetic evaluation with CE and CS seems limited.

  18. Genomic differentiation between Asturiana de los Valles, Avileña-Negra Ibérica, Bruna dels Pirineus, Morucha, Pirenaica, Retinta and Rubia Gallega cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A; Munilla, S; Mouresan, E F; Cañas-Álvarez, J J; Baro, J A; Molina, A; Díaz, C; Altarriba, J; Piedrafita, J; Varona, L

    2017-03-08

    The Spanish local beef cattle breeds have most likely common origin followed by a process of differentiation. This particular historical evolution has most probably left detectable signatures in the genome. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with differentiation processes in seven Spanish autochthonous populations (Asturiana de los Valles (AV), Avileña-Negra Ibérica (ANI), Bruna dels Pirineus (BP), Morucha (Mo), Pirenaica (Pi), Retinta (Re) and Rubia Gallega (RG)). The BovineHD 777K BeadChip was used on 342 individuals (AV, n=50; ANI, n=48; BP, n=50; Mo, n=50; Pi, n=48; Re, n=48; RG, n=48) chosen to be as unrelated as possible. We calculated the fixation index (F ST ) and performed a Bayesian analysis named SelEstim. The output of both procedures was very similar, although the Bayesian analysis provided a richer inference and allowed us to calculate significance thresholds by generating a pseudo-observed data set from the estimated posterior distributions. We identified a very large number of genomic regions, but when a very restrictive significance threshold was applied these regions were reduced to only 10. Among them, four regions can be highlighted because they comprised a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms and showed extremely high signals (Kullback-Leiber divergence (KLD)>6). They are located in BTA 2 (5 575 950 to 10 152 228 base pairs (bp)), BTA 5 (17 596 734 to 18 850 702 bp), BTA 6 (37 853 912 to 39 441 548 bp) and BTA 18 (13 345 515 to 15 243 838 bp) and harbor, among others, the MSTN (Myostatin), KIT-LG (KIT Ligand), LAP3 (leucine aminopeptidase 3), NAPCG (non-SMC condensing I complex, subunit G), LCORL (ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like) and MC1R (Melanocortin 1 receptor) genes. Knowledge on these genomic regions allows to identify potential targets of recent selection and helps to define potential candidate genes associated with traits of interest, such as coat color, muscle

  19. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15Â 16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, G.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, V.

    On 15-16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy), triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000). Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI -Hydrogeological setting plan, in press), an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones"). Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3-hex - a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966), specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002). In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices); moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3-hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial volume for these new cases

  20. Geographic distribution of genetic diversity in populations of Rio Grande Chub Gila pandora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galindo, Rene; Wilson, Wade; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    In the southwestern United States (US), the Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) is state-listed as a fish species of greatest conservation need and federally listed as sensitive due to habitat alterations and competition with non-native fishes. Characterizing genetic diversity, genetic population structure, and effective number of breeders will assist with conservation efforts by providing a baseline of genetic metrics. Genetic relatedness within and among G. pandora populations throughout New Mexico was characterized using 11 microsatellite loci among 15 populations in three drainage basins (Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian). Observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.71–0.87 and was similar to expected heterozygosity (0.75–0.87). Rio Ojo Caliente (Rio Grande) had the highest allelic richness (AR = 15.09), while Upper Rio Bonito (Pecos) had the lowest allelic richness (AR = 6.75). Genetic differentiation existed among all populations with the lowest genetic variation occurring within the Pecos drainage. STRUCTURE analysis revealed seven genetic clusters. Populations of G. pandora within the upper Rio Grande drainage (Rio Ojo Caliente, Rio Vallecitos, Rio Pueblo de Taos) had high levels of admixture with Q-values ranging from 0.30–0.50. In contrast, populations within the Pecos drainage (Pecos River and Upper Rio Bonito) had low levels of admixture (Q = 0.94 and 0.87, respectively). Estimates of effective number of breeders (N b ) varied from 6.1 (Pecos: Upper Rio Bonito) to 109.7 (Rio Grande: Rio Peñasco) indicating that populations in the Pecos drainage are at risk of extirpation. In the event that management actions are deemed necessary to preserve or increase genetic diversity of G. pandora, consideration must be given as to which populations are selected for translocation.

  1. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of Quaternary volcanic rocks and Late Paleozoic strata, VC-1 core hole, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, with emphasis on remagnetization of Late Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    1988-06-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data obtained from azimuthally unoriented core samples, collected at approximately 1- to 3-m intervals, of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 have prompted reinterpretations of the Quaternary volcanic stratigraphy intersected by the bore and have aided in evaluating the thermal regime within late Paleozoic strata attending fluid circulation and mineral deposition during and after development of the Toledo and Valles calderas. The results from Quaternary units (Banco Bonito Obsidian: I = +35.4°, a95 = 2.8° (inclination only determinations), n = 33; Battleship Rock Tuff: D = 359.6°, I = +42.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 5 site means (surface sites); VC-1 Rhyolite: I = +39.2°, a95 = 12.8°, n = 7; Upper VC-1 Tuff: I = +37.2°, a95 = 10.7°, n = 13; Middle VC-1 Tuff: I = +42.1°, a95 = 2.1°, n = 39; South Mountain Rhyolite: D = 350.9°, I = +49.9°, a95 = 3.4°, n = 10 (one surface site)) are consistent with isotopic age data, indicating that the entire moat volcanic sequence intersected is less than 650 kyr. Monitoring of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity, NRM directions, directions of magnetizations isolated during progressive demagnetization, median destructive forces, and rock magnetization parameters has identified systematic variations within the thick Banco Bonito Obsidian and VC-1 Tuff units. The Permian Abo Formation, Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian Madera Limestone, and Pennsylvanian Sandia Formation typically contain a moderate positive inclination magnetization component (Abo Formation: I = +52.2°, a95 = 7.4°, n = 16; Madera Limestone: I = +58.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 105; Sandia Formation: I = +53.9°, a95 = 4.8°, n = 21); when residing in magnetite, it is usually unblocked in the laboratory by 350°C; when carried by hematite it is unblocked by 550°C. A moderate negative inclination (e.g., Madera and Abo strata: D = 173.1°, I = -46.6°, a95 = 5.5°; n = 47 samples; assuming a north seeking

  2. Organics-bearing Clays from the Rio Tinto (spain): A Novel Analog for the Phyllosilicates Outcrops Seen By Omega-mex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba

    2007-12-01

    The Rio Tinto (RT) is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars and an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [1]. The RT system comprises the upper sequence of an acid rock drainage system where weathered iron -rich rocks, overlain a massive-pyrite deposit. The RT analog site is ideal for testing on the preservation of organics in hematite-rich vs. phyllosilicates-rich environments [3]. It is suggested here that RT near-surface rocks, which embed pockets of Clays, represent also a potential new model analog for the phyllosilicates-rich outcrops seen by OMEGA-MEx on the surface of Mars [5]. Results from the analysis of cores drilled under the 2005 Robotic experiment of the MARTE project (Borehole#7 Site 607cm) [2-3] are presented in this paper. Primary mineral assemblages include hematite, goethite, and Phyllosilicates e.g.,smectite, kaolinite, as quantified by X-ray diffraction [4]. Organic carbon is at low concentration (<0.05%) beneath the soil horizon in most cores dominated by iron minerals but is considerably higher in Phyllosilicate-rich levels i.e., 0.2-0.3Wt% at 385 -550 cm-depth [2-3]. Phyllosilicate-rich terrains have been identified OMEGA/MEx in the Nili Fossae, Mawrth Valles and Candor Chasma regions [e.g., 5]. These outcrops are surrounded by hematite-rich deposits, which are potentially barren in organics [6]. The potential of phyllosilicates to preserve higher amounts of organics/ biosignatures is well known for several Earth environments as well as the RT near subsurface. This potential brings a relevant element for the selection of candidate sites for the MSL mission [e.g., 1]. References: [1]Fernandez-Remolar et al.,2005 EPSL, 240,149-167; [2]Stoker et al., 2007; [3] Bonaccorsi et al., 2007; [4] Sutter et al., 2007 in Astrobiology,MARTE Spec. Issue; [5] Bibring et al., 2006, Science 312, 400-404; [6] Sumner, 2004, JGR 109. Anknowlegments: NASA-Postdoctoral-Program/C.Stoker, B.Sutter, A.F Davila and the MARTE team for

  3. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  4. Fawn Creek Government No. 1. Project Rio Blanco. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low-permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7000-foot well in northwestern Colorado (Fig. 1). Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975, and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. Project Rio Blanco Site Restoration Final Report, NVO-183, January 1978, summarizes the activities throughout the restoration period and describes the final site status. The subsurface plugging of Fawn Creek Government No. 1 well commenced on July 16, 1986, and was completed on July 17, 1986. The details of the plugging operation are contained in Appendix B and the final status as plugged and abandoned is shown in Figure 3. The general method was to use the in-place gas production tubing as a working string to set a cast iron bridge plug in the 5 1/2 in. casing at 5030 feet, and to pump an 80-foot cement plug on top of the cast iron bridge plug. The casing was then perforated at selected points to place the required cement plugs. A total of about 266 cubic feet of cement slurry was pumped to place the cement plugs. The 10 3/4 in. surface casing and the 5 1/2 in. casing were cut off below the ground level and a steel plate was welded on the top of the 10 3/4 in. casing. A permanent marker was welded to the steel plate.

  5. Seismic anisotropy of the Rio Grande Rift and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Rockett, C. V.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, located between the Colorado Plateau and the Great Plains, has a complex tectonic history comprised of two distinct phases in the Cenozoic era. An early stage of rifting began in the mid-Oligocene (~30 Ma) and lasted until the early Miocene (~18 Ma), followed by a lull and then an apparent reactivation along previous zones of weakness during a separate extension event in the late Miocene (~10 Ma), which continues today. The rift now extends more than 1000 km in length, trending north-south from Southern Colorado through New Mexico and Western Texas and into Chihuahua, Mexico. Structure of the rift is complex due to its multiple events of extension. The LA RISTRA seismic study (1999-2006) deployed broadband seismographs on a transect from Texas to Utah to investigate the structure and processes that control the Rift. Among other results, they found distinct differences in orientation of the fast polarization direction, as measured from SKS splitting, in the three main regions: the Colorado Plateau, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Great Plains. In 2008 71 EarthScope FlexArray stations were installed between Transportable Array stations to form a broad 2D deployment on the eastern flank of the RGR in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas as part of the SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Associated with the Rio Grande Rift) study. SKS splitting measurements from these, as well as from TA stations in the vicinity, show a more complex 2D pattern, but one which conforms with variations in crustal thickness and velocity anomalies in the uppermost mantle. We will report on these measurements and their implications for the style of convection associated with the RGR.

  6. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  7. rio Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-01

    rio Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  8. rio Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-17

    rio Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  9. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  10. Rio Grande Rift GPS Measurements 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, H.; Sheehan, A. F.; Nerem, R.; Choe, J.; Lowry, A. R.; Roy, M.; Blume, F.; Murray, M.

    2009-12-01

    We use three years of measurements from 25 continuous GPS stations across the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico and Colorado to estimate surface velocities, time series, baselines, and strain rates. The stations are part of the EarthScope Rio Grande Rift experiment, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of New Mexico, and Utah State University. The network includes 5 east-west station profiles transecting the rift, with the southernmost line in southern New Mexico and the northernmost line in northern Colorado. Most of the stations have shallow-drilled braced monuments installed in 2006-2007 and will remain occupied until 2010-2011 or longer. We also estimate station coordinates and velocities from the 2001 and 2008 High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) campaigns conducted in Colorado. Initial 72-hour observations were made in the summer of 2001 and were repeated in the summer of 2008. Data from regional Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations are included in the processing to increase station density and extend profiles further to the east and west of the Rio Grande Rift. We use GAMIT/GLOBK to process regional sub-networks that share several common sites well determined in the Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF). These common sites are used as a tie between the sub-networks and SNARF. Our time series from the first three years of the experiment show excellent monument stability. We have solved for baseline distance as a function of time across each of these lines. Despite what might be expected for a rigid Colorado Plateau moving away from rigid North America about a pole near Colorado, we find no evidence of an increase in Rio Grande Rift opening to the south. Our results suggest that steady-state extension across the rift from northern Colorado to southern New Mexico has an upper bound less than ~1 mm/yr with strain rates less than ~20 nanostrain/yr, although these results are still preliminary

  11. Assessing the preparedness of research integrity officers (RIOs) to appropriately handle possible research misconduct cases.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Arthur J; Titus, Sandra L; Wright, David E

    2012-12-01

    Institutions receiving federal funding for research from the U.S.Public Health Service need to have policies and procedures to both prevent research misconduct and to adjudicate it when it occurs. The person who is designated to handle research misconduct is typically referred to as the research integrity officer (RIO). In this interview study we report on 79 RIOs who describe how they would handle allegations of research misconduct. Their responses were compared to two expert RIOs. The responses to the allegations in the scenarios demonstrated that RIOs are not uniformly well prepared to handle activities associated with reported allegations of research misconduct. We recommend greater preparation through directed training, use of check lists of possible behaviors necessary to consider when situations arise, being involved in a network of RIOs so one can discuss options, and the possible need to certify RIOs.

  12. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  13. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    ER D C /E L SR -0 5- 1 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande... Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004 Chetta S. Owens Analytical Services Inc. Lewisville Aquatic Ecosystem Research Facility U.S. Army Engineer...Reclamation, Denver, CO. Owens, C. S., Grodowitz, M. J., and Nibling, F. (2005). “A survey of the invasive aquatic and riparian plants of the lower Rio

  14. Multifractal prediction of hydrological extremes and the RIO research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Hubert, P.; Bendjoudi, H.; Lovejoy, S.

    2004-05-01

    One of the main research themes of the current RIO (Risque Inondation / Flood Risk) program of the Ministry of Environment in France is the prediction of extreme hydrological events and the development of new tools for their prediction, prevention and alert. Deterministic models based on various physical and/or statistical approaches are still not capable to capture the phenomena of extreme precipitation and floods. It is well known that one of the main difficulties for the description of hydro-meteorological extremes is the colossal variability of their intensities over a wide range of space-time scales. To contribute to the RIO program, our group uses the multifractal framework not only to explain the power-law fall-off of probability distributions for hydrological-meteorological extremes, but also to explore a link between the observed variability and the underlying physics. We analyze space-time distributions of precipitation and discharges over widely different hydrological regions. A multifractal data analysis performed in the space-time domain produces - amongst other results - a physically-based tool for the clear distinction and multifractal description of flash-floods. We illustrate these methods on two recent flooding events in France: the Abbeville phreatic floods in 2001 and the flash floods in Gard in 2002.

  15. Multifractal forecast of hydrological extremes in the RIO research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjoudi, H.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Hubert, P.; Biaou, A.; Lovejoy, S.

    2003-04-01

    One of the main research axes of the current RIO (Risque Inondation) program of the Ministry of Environment in France is the general forecast of extreme hydrological events and the development of new tools for their prediction, prevention and alert. Deterministic models based on various physical and/or statistical approaches are still not capable to capture the phenomena of extreme precipitation and floods. It is well known that one of the main difficulties for the description of hydro-meteorological extremes is the colossal variability of their intensities over a wide range of space-time scales. To contribute to the RIO program, our group uses the multifractal framework not only to explain the power-law fall-off of probability distributions for hydrological-meteorological extremes, but also to explore a connection of the observed variability with the physics. We analyze space-time distributions of precipitation and discharges over different hydrological regions. A multifractal data analysis performed in the space-time domain produces - amongst other things - a physically-based tool for the clear distinction and multifractal description of flash-floods. We illustrate these methods on two recent flooding events in France: the Abbeville phreatic floods in 2001 and the flash floods in Gard in 2002.

  16. [Urban sporotrichosis: a neglected epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares da; Costa, Mônica Motta de Mattos; Torres, Carla Carrilho da Silva; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar F M; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de

    2012-10-01

    In the scientific literature, sporotrichosis has traditionally been associated with agricultural work, since the causative agent is found naturally in the soil. However, cases have been reported recently in an urban area, related to zoonotic transmission. The current study aimed to contribute to knowledge on sporotrichosis in an urban area through an exploratory analysis of its socio-spatial distribution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2007, identifying the areas with the heaviest transmission. The database from the Health Surveillance Service at the Evandro Chagas Institute for Clinical Research, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was used to estimate incidence rates and spatial distribution. During the study period, 1,848 cases of sporotrichosis were reported, predominantly in adult women not currently in the labor market. The leading source of infection was wounds caused by domestic cats, which contributed to the spread of sporotrichosis in this urban area. Georeferencing of 1,681 cases showed a transmission belt along the border between the city of Rio de Janeiro and the adjacent municipalities in the Greater Metropolitan Area.

  17. The Ocean Sciences RIOS REU Site at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassle, J. P.; Ammerman, J. W.; Quinlan, J. A.; Deluca, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University recently completed the first year of its new NSF Ocean Sciences-supported REU site. This program is called RIOS, for Research Internships in Ocean Sciences. The program enrolled 15 students for a 10-week program, 11 located on the New Brunswick campus, and 4 at the Tuckerton field station. NSF funds supported ten of these students and funds from several other sources supported the other five students. All students participated in the group activities during the first and last weeks and periodically throughout the summer. One day of the first week was devoted to a Hudson River plume cruise, which introduced the students to river plume systems and provided data for a group project. Students pursued a variety of individual research projects with faculty mentors, explored the use of MATLAB for data analysis, and collaborated in the analysis of the Hudson plume data. The program culminated in a poster session with presentations of all the individual projects. This presentation will present highlights of the RIOS program, discuss its successes and areas for improvement, and outline plans for next summer.

  18. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  19. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization.

  20. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  1. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  2. Flow directions in ash-flow tuffs: a comparison of geological and magnetic susceptibility measurements, Tshirege member (upper Bandelier Tuff), Valles caldera, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonadl, W. D.; Palmer, H. C.

    1990-12-01

    This study concludes that the elongation axis ( K 1) of the ellipsoid of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a suitable proxy for flow axis in ashflow tuffs. 153 oriented samples (176 specimens) were studied from 18 sites in the 1.1 Ma Tshirege member of the Bandelier Tuff. These sites are distributed around the Valles caldera at distances of 5 25 km outside of the rim. K 1 axes correlate well with postulated radial flow axes at 13 sites. K 1 also agrees with measured geological flow indicators, mainly imbricated larger clasts, at 7 sites. At 2 of the 5 sites where significant disagreement is seen between theoretical radial flow directions and measured K 1 axes, the K 1 axes correspond well with geological flow indicators, indicating that the divergence of flow from the predicted radial flow pattern is real. Two major topographic buttresses are suggested as the cause of flow divergence for the Tshirege ash flows: the San Pedro buttress northwest of the caldera, and the San Miguel buttress in the southeast. In situ K 1 axes plunge about 7° toward the source at two-thirds of the sites; therefore the plunge of K 1 is a plausible in situ indicator for the direction of flow. Multiple flow zones in sections of several meters thickness indicate changes of flow direction that are both rapid and large during ash-flow emplacement. These observations raisre the question of how best to represent ‘mean’ flow directions in ash-flow sheets: by eigenvector methods, by vector-sum methods, or by modes. A method for measuring imbrication of larger clasts using apparent dips in vertical joints is outlined. Imbrication, determined in this way at one-third of the sites, dips toward the source, i.e., up-flow. The minimum ( K 3) axis of the AMS ellipsoid correlates with the flow foliation rather than with the larger clast imbrication. The flow axes of ash flows correspond with the K 1 axes, not with the declination of K 3 axes as suggested by some authors. Initial dip of the

  3. Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    The morphology of the landslides in the Martian equatorial troughs, the geologic structure of the troughs, the time of emplacement, the similarity to terrestrial landslides, and the origin and mechanism of transport are analyzed. About 35 large landslides well-resolved on Viking images were examined, and it is found that the major landslides cover 31,000 sq km of the trough floors, and individual slides range in area from 40 to 7000 sq km. The morphologic variations of the landslides can be attributed mainly to their degree of confinement on trough floors. Many prominent landslides appear to be of similar age and were emplaced after a major faulting that dropped the trough floors. Most sliding occurred after the created scarps were dissected into spurs, gullies, and tributary canyons. Emplacement of the landslides approximately coincided with a late episode of major eruptive activity of the Tharsis volcanoes, and it is suggested that the slides may have originated as gigantic mudflows with slump blocks at their heads. The large size of many landslides is due to the fault scarps as high as 7 km on which they formed in the absence of vigorous fluvial erosion. The landslides suggest that Mars is earthlike in some respects, which may be important for further evaluations.

  4. Vengo del Valle: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casavantes, Edward

    1972-01-01

    The second of two articles concerning a program designed to train migrant, semi-skilled, and unskilled Mexican American workers for stable, well-paying jobs. The first article appeared in the Summer 1971 issue of Civil Rights Digest," volume 4, number 3. (RJ)

  5. [Temporary workers' perceptions of occupational risks in the port of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul Andrés; Almeida, Tabajara Lucas de; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Costa, Valdecir Zavarese da

    2008-06-01

    This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study in the port of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aimed at identifying occupational risk perceptions in a sample of 306 temporary dockworkers. Most temporary dockworkers (93.46%) acknowledged the existence of health risks on the job, independently of schooling (p = 0.44) and job activity (p = 0.47). Risks identified by temporary workers as a whole included falling of suspended objects (8.43 +/- 2.47), noise (8.06 +/- 2.32), and bad weather conditions (8.05 +/- 2.48). Risks that varied significantly between jobs were: noise (p = 0.00), lifting loads manually (p = 0.00), work tools (p = 0,00), insufficient number of work team members (p = 0.03), extra wages based on productivity (p = 0.00), work pace (p = 0.01), working on scaffolding and other high areas (p = 0.00), workers moving on top of cargo (p = 0.00), and ship's ladders and gangways (p = 0.00). The study corroborated that temporary dock work is unhealthy and hazardous, and that the risks affect workers according to the specific jobs they perform.

  6. Quantifying Ichthyofaunal Zonation and Species Richness along a 2800 km Reach of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande (U.S.A.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ichthyofaunal zonation occurs when lotic fishes are partitioned into distinct assemblages, usually in response to longitudinally distributed habitats. Several studies have documented zonation within the Rio Grande, but this is the first to quantitatively test the zonation hypothe...

  7. Effects of reservoir installation, San Juan-Chama Project water, and reservoir operations on streamflow and water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, 1938-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    The coordinated operation of Heron, El Vado, and Abiquiu Dams on the Rio Chama and Cochiti Dam on the Rio Grande and the importation of Colorado River Basin water by the San Juan-Chama Project have altered streamflow and water quality of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande in northern and central New Mexico. The coordinated retention of streamflow in the four reservoirs increased median streamflows, decreased extreme flows, and decreased periods of small streamflow; inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water increased overall streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. These changes to streamflow decreased specific conductance and suspended-sediment concentration and increased pH in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande. Following construction of Heron and Cochiti Dams and integration of reservoir operations on the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande, the inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water and retention of snowmelt runoff influenced water quality. These influences varied by season because reservoir releases fluctuated according to downstream user needs and annual streamflow variation. The influences of San Juan-Chama Project water and retained snowmelt on water quality diminished with downstream flow as the Rio Grande was subjected to various natural and anthropogenic inflows. Because of the variability and type of seasonal influences, streamflow did not have a strong annual correlation with water quality in the Rio Chama or the Rio Grande.

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of diversification on the Amazon: A test of the riverine hypothesis for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and Rio Branco in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boubli, Jean P; Ribas, Camila; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Alfaro, Michael E; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Pinho, Gabriela M; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The role of Amazonian rivers as drivers of speciation through vicariance remains controversial. Here we explore the riverine hypothesis by comparing spatial and temporal concordances in pattern of diversification for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and its largest tributary, Rio Branco. We built a comprehensive comparative phylogenetic timetree to identify sister lineages of primates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences from 94 samples, including 19 of the 20 species of diurnal primates from our study region and 17 related taxa from elsewhere. Of the ten primate genera found in this region, three had populations on opposite banks of Rio Negro that formed reciprocally monophyletic clades, with roughly similar divergence times (Cebus: 1.85 Ma, HPD 95% 1.19-2.62; Callicebus: 0.83 Ma HPD 95% 0.36-1.32, Cacajao: 1.09 Ma, 95% HPD 0.58-1.77). This also coincided with time of divergence of several allopatric species of Amazonian birds separated by this river as reported by other authors. Our data offer support for the riverine hypothesis and for a Plio-Pleistocene time of origin for Amazonian drainage system. We showed that Rio Branco was an important geographical barrier, limiting the distribution of six primate genera: Cacajao, Callicebus, Cebus to the west and Pithecia, Saguinus, Sapajus to the east. The role of this river as a vicariant agent however, was less clear. For example, Chiropotes sagulata on the left bank of the Rio Branco formed a clade with C. chiropotes from the Amazonas Department of Venezuela, north of Rio Branco headwaters, with C. israelita on the right bank of the Rio Branco as the sister taxon to C. chiropotes+C. sagulata. Although we showed that the formation of the Rio Negro was important in driving diversification in some of our studied taxa, future studies including more extensive sampling of markers across the genome would help determine what processes contributed to the evolutionary history of the remaining primate genera.

  9. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil, with comments on a putative case of polymorphic Batesian mimicry.

    PubMed

    Zanata, A M; Birindelli, J L O; Moreira, C R

    2009-12-01

    A new species of Moenkhausia is described from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except from Moenkhausia moisae, by having more scales in the lateral series, 43-47 (v. 23-41 in the remaining congeners). The new species is distinguished from M. moisae by its colour pattern, which consists of a dark midlateral stripe, and an asymmetrical caudal blotch (inconspicuous or faded in specimens from the Rio Arinos) continuous with the midlateral stripe (v. narrow dark midlateral line and conspicuous, regularly rounded and symmetrical blotch not continuous with the midlateral line). The new species is putatively assumed to be mimetic to Jupiaba apenima, in the Rio Xingu and Rio Teles Pires drainages, and to Jupiaba yarina in the Rio Arinos. The two species of Jupiaba are sympatric and remarkably similar in size, general external morphology and colouration to the new species. A small difference occurs in the colouration between the two species of Jupiaba and is also observed in the two respectively sympatric morphotypes of the new species of Moenkhausia. The occurrence of polymorphic Batesian mimicry is therefore discussed for neotropical freshwater fishes.

  10. Entrepreneurship in the Engineering Curriculum: Some Initial Results of PUC-Rio's Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranha, Jose Alberto S.; Pimenta-Bueno, J. A.; Scavarda do Carmo, Luiz Carlos; da Silveira, Marcos A.

    The ideal of the entrepreneurial spirit has played a key role in shaping the current reform of engineering education at the Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio). The previous paradigm of a science-based conceptual engineer has given place to what may be termed a science-based entrepreneurial engineer. This paper discusses…

  11. 75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... (mi)) reach of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico, downstream of Cochiti Dam to the headwaters of Elephant Butte Reservoir. In December 2008, silvery minnows were introduced into the Rio Grande River near Big Bend, Texas, as a nonessential, experimental population under section 10(j) of the ESA (December...

  12. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  13. Basic Education in the Lower Rio Grande Valley: Human Capital Development or a Colonial System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This report describes economic, social, and political characteristics of the lower Rio Grande Valley with implications for the educational system, and presents preliminary findings on how south Texas schools are integrating new immigrant Mexican students. The lower Rio Grande Valley comprises four Texas counties and northern Tamaulipas, Mexico.…

  14. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  15. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY (COMMUNITY SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was done to determine if movement of air pollutants across the U.S.-Mexico border was occurring in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (hereinafter called "the Valley") and, if so, the extent. The study w...

  16. Letter Report: Rio Blanco Sampling of Proximate Producing Natural Gas Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Clay Cooper; Craig Shirley

    2004-04-01

    Two wells proximate to the Rio Blanco gas stimulation test were sampled and the gas analyzed. The samples from two wells showed no tritium above the detection limit concentrations of 10 and 12.4 (TU), respectively. The analytical results from the gas production wells show no impact from the Rio Blanco nuclear test

  17. Social Entrepreneurs in Rio De Janeiro: Learning Experiences and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how social entrepreneurs dedicated to violence prevention in Rio de Janeiro learn to take on the role of a social entrepreneur. Based on a two-tiered interview process with 27 social entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro conducted over a period of nine months, the study explores the breadth of…

  18. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  19. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  20. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  1. 40 CFR 81.83 - Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.83 Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) is revised to... Air Quality Control Region. 81.83 Section 81.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.239 Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the... Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

  4. STEM education for teachers in the Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Judit Gyorgyey; Baguio, Margaret R.

    2015-11-01

    We have worked with elementary and middle school teachers in the Rio Grande Valley for the last 10 years bringing Earth and Space Science themed workshops to underserved areas of Texas. The Texas curriculum was also changed to include Astronomy and Space Science requirement in the tests students need to take to prove their academic preparedness. The teachers worked through a variety of inquiry-based, hands-on activities after a short presentation on the background science. In order to evaluate our effectiveness, we have asked the teachers to take pre- and post-workshop tests, and we asked them to fill out a self-reflective survey. We will report on our experiences, what works best with the teachers, and in what areas we still have a long way to go.This work was supported by various NASA education grants and Cooperative agreements, as well as grants provided by the Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present.

  6. A groundwater convection model for Rio Grande rift geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Harder, V.; Daggett, P. H.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that forced convection, driven by normal groundwater flow through the interconnected basins of the Rio Grande rift is the primary source mechanism for the numerous geothermal anomalies along the rift. A test of this concept using an analytical model indicates that significant forced convection must occur in the basins even if permeabilities are as low as 50-200 millidarcies at a depth of 2 km. Where groundwater flow is constricted at the discharge areas of the basins forced convection can locally increase the gradient to a level where free convection also occurs, generating surface heat flow anomalies 5-15 times background. A compilation of groundwater data for the rift basins shows a strong correlation between constrictions in groundwater flow and hot springs and geothermal anomalies, giving strong circumstantial support to the convection model.

  7. Climate Change Impacts in the Upper Rio Grande Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, T.; Siegfried, T. U.; Sellars, S. L.; Schlager, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US Southwest, evidence of increased future drought severity and duration in the context of climate change has been detected. Considering the already difficult water distribution and allocation strategies within the region, we are investigating the Costilla Creek, a tributary to the Rio Grande. The catchment is located in Costilla county in Colorado from where on runoff is crossing boundaries between Colorado and New Mexico three times before its confluence with the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Water allocation is governed by an interstate compact between Colorado and New Mexico. While the states have been relatively successful in complying with the compact’s allocation rules, the Costilla Creek catchment has experienced interstate upstream/downstream conflict, mainly during irrigation seasons. Whether or not the states will be able to avert conflict in the future and maintain compliance with the compact, is a critical question. The situation in the relatively small catchment is not unique. Various interstate watersheds, including the entire Rio Grande basin, the La Plata, Arkansas, and Colorado, are expected to face similar impacts from climate change, yet the water compacts that govern them may not be structured to adapt to these conditions. Looking at the Costilla Creek offers a valuable starting point for understanding how to model these effects across various basins. We have developed a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model including snow storage of the Costilla Creek watershed. Temperature and precipitation data from NCRS - SNOTEL stations together with USGS gauging station data were utilized for model calibration and validation. ISCCP solar radiation data and temperature data were used to estimate irrigation water demand in irrigated agriculture. The model is driven by the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. GCM ensemble averaged temperature / precipitation trends were extracted for the upper Rio Grande region. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a

  8. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-05-06

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani).

  9. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  10. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  11. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  12. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  13. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  14. The Link between Protein Kinase CK2 and Atypical Kinase Rio1

    PubMed Central

    Kubiński, Konrad; Masłyk, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    The atypical kinase Rio1 is widespread in many organisms, ranging from Archaebacteria to humans, and is an essential factor in ribosome biogenesis. Little is known about the protein substrates of the enzyme and small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase. Protein kinase CK2 was the first interaction partner of Rio1, identified in yeast cells. The enzyme from various sources undergoes CK2-mediated phosphorylation at several sites and this modification regulates the activity of Rio1. The aim of this review is to present studies of the relationship between the two different kinases, with respect to CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rio1, regulation of Rio1 activity, and similar susceptibility of the kinases to benzimidazole inhibitors. PMID:28178206

  15. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  16. Streamflow and water-quality trends of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, water years 1985 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Nolan, Emma O.

    2005-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque plans to divert San Juan-Chama Project water from the Rio Grande for potable water use. This report examines streamflow and water-quality trends in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande for water years 1985 to 2002 following the implementation of reservoir storage agreements in northern and central New Mexico. Streamflow/water-quality stations used for this study include the Rio Grande stations of Taos, Otowi, San Felipe, and Albuquerque and the Rio Chama station of Chamita. Water years 1985 to 2002 were a period of larger than average precipitation and streamflow compared to the stations. historical averages. Annual precipitation and streamflow trended downward during the study period because of a drought during 1999 to 2002. Streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande was divided into three distinct seasonal periods that corresponded to natural and anthropogenic influences: fall/winter baseflow (November through February), snowmelt runoff (March through June), and the irrigation/monsoon (July through October) seasons. A calcium bicarbonate water type was evident at all study area stations on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. Specific conductance increased downstream, but alkalinity and pH did not substantially change in the downstream direction. Nearly all nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were less than 1 milligram per liter for all stations. Median trace-element concentrations and maximum radionuclide concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Anthropogenic compounds were infrequently detected in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, and concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande varied spatially and temporally during water years 1985 to 2002. Specific conductance increased downstream in the Rio Grande during the fall/winter baseflow and snowmelt runoff seasons but was similar at the Taos, Otowi, and San Felipe stations during the irrigation/monsoon season. This similarity was a

  17. Resolving the Latemar Controversy: a new magnetostratigraphy at Rio Sacuz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Z.; Kodama, K. P.

    2011-12-01

    A new magnetostratigraphic study of the Middle Triassic Ambata, Plattenkalke, and Knollenkalke Formations at Rio Sacuz, northern Italy, suggests a depositional duration of ~1 my for the entire Latemar Platform, effectively resolving the debate informally known as "the Latemar Controversy." This debate is framed around an order of magnitude discrepancy in the depositional durations suggested by cyclostratigraphic (~12 my) and geochronologic (~1 my) methods (Preto et al, 2001; Mundil et al., 2003). Since a previous magnetostratigraphic study (Kent et al. 2004) of the Latemar was affected by lightning strikes, this study determined the magnetostratigraphy of a correlative section unaffected by lightning. Horizons were collected approximately every meter throughout the 70 m section in order to take into account the limiting hypothesis of the long depositional duration, which gives the smallest stratigraphic chron thickness (~3m). At least three individually oriented samples were collected with a gasoline-powered sampling drill from each horizon, for a total of 65 sites and 213 samples. The organic-rich, muddy, pelagic limestone samples were thermally demagnetized in 25°C temperature steps from 100°C up to 550°C and measured with a superconducting magnetometer to isolate their characteristic remanence. Most samples were completely demagnetized by 400°C, however, approximately 10% of the samples were not demagnetized until 500°C. Vector endpoint diagrams show good linear trends into the origin for 90% of samples. A N-R-N-R sequence was observed at Rio Sacuz with 1n (0-27 m), 1r (27-36 m), 2n (36-62 m) and 2r (62-65 m) in contrast to predominately one polarity for the Kent et al. (2004) study. Thermal demagnetization of orthogonal IRMs applied in 1 T and 0.16 T fields indicates that the magnetic carriers were greigite and magnetite. The greigite and magnetite carry the same paleomagnetic direction, suggesting a primary depositional remanence for the magnetite and

  18. Implication of the RD(Rio) Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage in multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Susana; Duarte, Elsa L; Leite, Clarice Queico Fugimura; Ribeiro, João-Nuno; Maio, José-Nuno; Paixão, Eleonora; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; Germano de Sousa, José

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug and extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis are a threat to tuberculosis control programs. Genotyping methods, such as spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units), are useful in monitoring potentially epidemic strains and estimating strain phylogenetic lineages and/or genotypic families. M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family is a major worldwide contributor to tuberculosis (TB). LAM specific molecular markers, Ag85C(103) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and RD(Rio) long-sequence polymorphism (LSP), were used to characterize spoligotype signatures from 859 patient isolates from Portugal. LAM strains were found responsible for 57.7% of all tuberculosis cases. Strains with the RD(Rio) deletion (referred to as RD(Rio)) were estimated to represent 1/3 of all the strains and over 60% of the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The major spoligotype signature SIT20 belonging to the LAM1 RD(Rio) sublineage, represented close to 1/5th of all the strains, over 20% of which were MDR. Analysis of published datasets according to stipulated 12loci MIRU-VNTR RD(Rio) signatures revealed that 96.3% (129/134) of MDR and extensively drug resistant (XDR) clusters were RD(Rio). This is the first report associating the LAM RD(Rio) sublineage with MDR. These results are an important contribution to the monitoring of these strains with heightened transmission for future endeavors to arrest MDR-TB and XDR-TB.

  19. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. Results A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester

  20. Software Development for a CompactRIO-Based Wire Scanner Control and Data Acquisition SYstem

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James Daniel

    2012-05-16

    The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is developing a wire scanner data acquisition and control system with a National Instrument's compactRIO at its core. For this application, the compactRIO controller not only requires programming the FPGA and RT computer internal to the compactRIO, but also requires programming a client computer and a touch panel display. This article will summarize the hardware interfaces and describe the software design approach utilized for programming and interfacing the four systems together in order to fulfill the design requirements and promote reliable interoperability.

  1. Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental Change and Contamination in the Nuclear Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipnik, Mark

    Plutonium and the Rio Grande begins with an evocative description of the tranquility that prevailed along the Rio Grande in the halcyon days before the Manhattan Project changed the environment of this corner of New Mexico forever. Graf presents a methodology for studying the environmental impacts of the plutonium releases from facilities at Los Alamos. Specifically, he quantifies releases of various isotopes of plutonium and tracks their fate in the sediments and water bodies of the Rio Grande. Despite access to ample reliable data, his task is challenging: it requires regional-scale analysis and applications of techniques from disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology, environmental chemistry, plant physiology, and historical research.

  2. Upwarp of anomalous asthenosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, E.C.; Davis, P.M.; Evans, J.R.; Iyer, H.M.; Olsen, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Continental rifts are possible analogues of mid-ocean ridges, although major plate tectonic features are less clearly observed1. Current thermal models of mid-ocean ridges2-4 consist of solid lithospheric plates overlying the hotter, less viscous asthenosphere, with plate thickness increasing away from the ridge axis. The lithospheric lower boundary lies at or near the melting point isotherm, so that at greater depths higher temperatures account for lower viscosity, lower seismic velocities and possibly partial melting. Upwarp of this boundary at the ridge axis concentrates heat there, thus lowering densities by expansion and raising the sea floor to the level of thermal isostatic equilibrium. At slow spreading ridges, a major central graben forms owing to the mechanics of magma injection into the crust5. Topography, heat flow, gravity and seismic studies support these models. On the continents, a low-velocity channel has been observed, although it is poorly developed beneath ancient cratons6-9. Plate tectonic models have been applied to continental basins and margins10-12, but further similarities to the oceanic models remain elusive. Topographic uplift is often ascribed to Airy type isostatic compensation caused by crustal thickening, rather than thermal compensation in the asthenosphere. Here we discuss the Rio Grande rift, in southwestern United States. Teleseismic P-wave residuals show that regional uplift is explained by asthenosphere uplift rather than crustal thickening. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Comparison Between Water Level and Precipitation in Rio Negro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuolo, G. C.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Correia, F.; Oliveira, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon Basin holds a lot of difficulties for providing data that enable regional researching works, because of its large extension and for having areas, whose access is very difficult. Remote sensing data presents an excellent way for monitoring the Amazon Basin and collecting data for researches. This current study aims matching radar altimetry data from the JASON-2, with the rainfall data from the TRMM satellite in order to analyze the relation between the water level and the precipitation in two different points along the Rio Negro Basin. After data analysis, it was possible noting a difference on the responding process for both regions. Whilst at the NEGRO_089_03 station (located in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira) the graphic of precipitation and water level were very similar, in NEGRO_063 station (located in the city of Manaus) the graphic showed a two month discrepancy due to the difference of the river's bottom size in both regions, at NEGRO_089_03's area for having a smaller river and the water level rises faster, whereas in NEGRO_063 the water level takes about two months to respond to precipitation.

  4. Hydrological and Meteorological Disturbances in Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, J. R.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive species and ecohydrological disturbances are imperiling native riparian ecosystems. Adaptable, resilient exotic competitors including tamarisk have colonized many waterways in the western US. Alteration of the natural flow regime due to water diversions is expected to be exacerbated by climate change in this region, confounding restoration efforts. Climate change may also increase the likelihood of other disturbances, including extreme weather events (drought, floods, temperatures). We investigate how hydrological and meteorological variability impact water use by tamarisk communities that have overtaken native riparian vegetation. We have collected more than a decade of complete growing season eddy covariance evapotranspiration (ET) and water table (WT) elevation data at two sites along the Rio Grande corridor of central New Mexico, USA. Conditions have ranged from extreme drought to exceedingly wet years with extensive overbank flooding, and from record setting warm to cold temperatures. Severe to extreme droughts persisted throughout 2002 and 2003. Abundant snowpacks and wetter conditions led to extensive flooding early in the 2005 and 2008 growing seasons. Along with a return to intense drought conditions, extreme temperatures struck New Mexico in 2011. A deep freeze in early February followed by an extraordinarily late, extended hard freeze at the onset of the growing season was then succeeded by the warmest summer in the state's 117 year record. We present how water use by the replacement communities responds to droughts, flooding, and extreme temperatures, all of which are expected to increase in frequency, and speculate how these disturbances will affect native riparian ecosystems.

  5. Extreme Drought Conditions in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Dracup, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Treaty of February 3, 1944 entitled "Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande" between the U.S. and Mexico regulates the distribution of flows of the rivers between these two countries. The treaty is based on hydrological data available up to 1944. Using new (historical and paleoclimatological) data, the water balance presented in the Treaty is re-examinated and the 431,721,000 m3/year allocation for USA during "extreme drought conditions" is re-evaluated. The authors define "extreme drought conditions" for this basin and a hydrological drought analysis is carried out using a streamflow simulation model. The analysis is complemented with an analysis of the effects of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on precipitation and streamflow. The results of this research will be applicable to potential changes in the current water resources management policies on the basin. Given the social, economical and political importance of this basin, the findings of this research potentially will have significant impacts. This research is founded by the NSF fund SAHRA (Science and Technology Center to study and promote the "Sustainability of Water Resources in Semi-Arid Regions" at the University of Arizona).

  6. Industrial hygiene sampling at Rio Blanco oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.; Vigil, E.A.; Royer, G.W.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-02-01

    The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC) facility, in its early stages of development, provided the unique opportunity to sample a Modified In-Situ (MIS) operation during the preparation phase of the first retort, during pyrolysis, and during preparation of a subsequent retort. Industrial hygiene measurements were made in the lowest (G) level (835 feet) of the mine, prior to and during the first 30 days of the Retort Zero burn. These measurements were designed to define and characterize potential inhalation exposures associated with the MIS shale oil recovery process. This information, along with bulk samples of oil shale materials and products, was provided for use in laboratory toxicological studies. Gas and vapor samples of the compounds of interest were all much below threshold limit values (TLV) both before and after retort zero ignition although slightly elevated after ignition. Airborne dust concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 mg/m/sup 3/ at sizes of 0.3- to 5.2-..mu..m mass median aerodynamic diameter and alpha quartz content ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 percent. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons were found in relatively low concentrations with the anthracene/phenanthrene mixture at the highest level of 0.6 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The wetness and ventilation in this mine apparently helped control airborne contaminant concentrations below their TLV values.

  7. [Newborn hearing screening in Rio de Janeiro's municipal network, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Priscila Tavares; Goldbach, Márcia Goldfeld; Monteiro, Márcia Cavadas; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Hearing deficiencies are a prevalent disease and justify the need for regulation of the Laws and their execution through Hearing Health Care Ordinances. In line with public policies, maternity hospitals that were part of the network began to implement the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) service, as had occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The otoacoustic emissions test is used for NHS as it is a rapid and highly reliable method that is easy to perform and gives objective results. The scope of this article is to get fully acquainted with the assistance and care for the hearing health of newborns in maternity wards of the Municipal Health Grid. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis with frequency distribution, and was conducted at SMS-RJ Maternity hospitals that perform NHS. Three maternity hospitals with NHS (A, B and C) were identified, in which 1,865 live newborns were recorded. Of this total, 40.5% performed the NHS exam. In maternity hospitals A and B, the NHS exam was applied to 54.6%, of which 97.3% passed and only 1.8% failed and needed to be referred to the high complexity unit. The NHS is the initial stage of the Hearing Health Care Program for the newborn. It is important that the NHS services should be fully integrated into the network through the Hearing Health Care Program.

  8. Mantle water contents beneath the Rio Grande Rift (NM, USA): FTIR analysis of Rio Puerco and Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, L. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Brandon, A. D.; Selverstone, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths from the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) are being analyzed for H2O contents by FTIR as well as for major and trace element compositions. Nine samples are from the Rio Puerco Volcanic Field (RP) which overlaps the central RGR and southeastern Colorado Plateau; seventeen samples are from Kilbourne Hole (KH) in the southern RGR. Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.08-0.46) and olivine Mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.883-0.911) of samples fall within the olivine-spinel mantle array from [1], an indicator that these are residues of partial melting. Pyroxene H2O contents in KH correlate with bulk rock and pyroxene Al2O3 contents. The KH clinopyroxene rare earth element (REE) variations fit models of 0-13% fractional melting of a primitive upper mantle. Most KH peridotites have bulk-rock light REE depleted patterns, but five are enriched in light REEs consistent with metasomatism. Variation in H2O content seems unrelated to REE enrichment. Metasomatism is seen in RP pyroxenite xenoliths [2] and will be examined in the peridotites studied here. Olivine H2O contents are low (≤20 ppm), and decrease from core to rim within grains. This is likely due to H loss during xenolith transport by the host magma [3]. Diffusion models of H suggest that mantle H2O contents are still preserved in cores of KH olivine, but not those of RP olivine. The average H2O content of Colorado Plateau clinopyroxene (670 ppm) [4] is ~300 ppm higher than RGR clinopyroxene (350 ppm). This upholds the hypothesis that hydration-induced lithospheric melting occurred during flat-slab subduction of the Farallon plate [5]. Numerical models indicate hydration via slab fluids is possible beneath the plateau, ~600 km from the paleo-trench, but less likely ~850 km away beneath the rift [6]. [1]Arai, 1994 CG 113, 191-204.[2]Porreca et al., 2006 Geosp 2, 333-351.[3]Peslier and Luhr, 2006 EPSL 242, 302-319.[4]Li et al., 2008 JGR 113, 1978-2012.[5]Humphreys et al., 2003 Int Geol Rev 45, 575-595.[6]English et al., 2003 EPSL

  9. Mantle Water Contents Beneath the Rio Grande Rift (NM, USA): FTIR Analysis of Rio Puerco and Kilbourne Hole Peridotite Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Brandon, A.; Selverstone, J.

    2015-01-01

    Peridotite xenoliths from the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) are being analyzed for H (sub 2) O contents by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) as well as for major and trace element compositions. Nine samples are from the Rio Puerco Volcanic Field (RP) which overlaps the central RGR and southeastern Colorado Plateau; seventeen samples are from Kilbourne Hole (KH) in the southern RGR. Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al)) (0.08-0.46) and olivine Mg# (Mg/(Mg plus Fe)) (0.883-0.911) of all RGR samples fall within the olivine-spinel mantle array from [1], an indicator that peridotites are residues of partial melting. Pyroxene H (sub 2) O in KH correlate with bulk rock and pyroxene Al (sub 2) O (sub 3).The KH clinopyroxene rare earth element (REE) variations fit models of 0-13 percent fractional melting of a primitive upper mantle. Most KH peridotites have bulk-rock light REE depleted patterns, but five are enriched in light REEs consistent with metasomatism. Variation in H (sub 2) O content is unrelated to REE enrichment. Metasomatism is seen in RP pyroxenite xenoliths [2] and will be examined in the peridotites studied here. Olivine H (sub 2) O contents are low (less than or equal to 15 parts per million), and decrease from core to rim within grains. This is likely due to H loss during xenolith transport by the host magma [3]. Diffusion models of H suggest that mantle H (sub 2) O contents are still preserved in cores of KH olivine, but not RP olivine. The average H (sub 2) O content of Colorado Plateau clinopyroxene (670 parts per million) [4] is approximately 300 parts per million higher than RGR clinopyroxene (350 parts per million). This upholds the hypothesis that hydration-induced lithospheric melting occurred during flat-slab subduction of the Farallon plate [5]. Numerical models indicate hydration via slab fluids is possible beneath the plateau, approximately 600 kilometers from the paleo-trench, but less likely approximately 850 kilometers away beneath the rift [6].

  10. The Confluence of Gangis and Eos Chasmas (5-12 deg S, 31-41 deg W): Geologic, Hydrologic, and Exobiologic Considerations for Landing Site at the East End of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Clifford, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Over its 3,500 km length, Valles Marineris exhibits an enormous range of geologic and environmental diversity. At its western end, the canyon is dominated by the tectonic complex of Noctis Labyrinthus; while in the east it grades into an extensive region of chaos where scoured channels and streamlined islands provide evidence of catastrophic floods that spilled into the northern plains. In the central portion of the system, debris derived from the massive interior layered deposits of Candor and Ophir Chasmas spills into the central trough. In other areas, 6 km-deep exposures of Hesperian and Noachian-age canyon wall stratigraphy have collapsed in massive landslides that extend many tens of kilometers across the canyon floor. Ejecta from interior craters, aeolian sediments, and possible volcanics emanating from structurally controlled vents along the base of the scarps, further contribute to the canyon's geologic complexity. Following the initial rifting that gave birth to Valles Marineris, water appears to have been a principal agent in the canyon's geomorphic development an agent whose significance is given added weight by its potential role in both sustaining and preserving evidence of past life. In this regard, the interior layered deposits of Candor, Ophir, and Hebes Chasmas, have been identified as possible lucustrine sediments that may have been laid down in long-standing ice-covered lakes. The potential survival and growth of native organisms in such an environment, or in the aquifers whose disruption gave birth to the chaotic terrain and outflow channels to the north and east of the canyon, raises the possibility that fossil indicators of life may be present in the local sediment and rock. Because of the enormous distances over which these diverse environments occur, identifying a single landing site that maximizes the opportunity for scientific return is not a simple task. However, given the fluvial history and narrow geometry of the canyon, the presence

  11. Changes in Precipitation Sources over Glacial/Interglacial MIS 11 and 12 Examined by Δ17O of SiO2 Obtained from Diatoms along the Valles Caldera Lake Core, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, J.; Sharp, Z. D.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of the isotopic composition of paleo-lake water have been made using 18O/16O (ẟ18O) in diatom silica (Dodd and Sharp, GCA, 2010). Post-mortem diatom silica equilibrates with ambient lake water within six months, chronicling the bulk oxygen isotope composition of the lake and resulting in silica that is near the quartz-water fractionation line (Dodd et al, GGG, 2012). The δ18O values of lacustrine diatoms from the Valles Caldera, NM, vary by ~25‰ between glacial and interglacial periods and suggest a collapse of the summer monsoon that currently provides 50% of the modern precipitation in NM. Triple oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica may serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of the lake water and as an estimate of paleo-humidity over the precipitation source. The deuterium excess parameter (d= ẟD - 8 ẟ18O) has been used along ice cores as a source relative humidity index, but is difficult to make in lake sediments. Instead, high precision 17O-excess (∆17O) measurements (=ẟ17O - 0.528 ẟ18O) may provide paleo-humidity information. Landais et al. (GRL, 2008) found a ∆17O difference of 0.02‰ in the Vostok ice core between glacial and interglacial times, interpreted as a function of changing relative humidity of the precipitation source. A 0.03‰ change was observed in glacial (∆17O=-0.22‰) and interglacial (∆17O=-0.19‰) diatom silica along the Valles Caldera lake core. Further information regarding the δ18O value of meteoric water can be calculated from paired δ18O-δ17O measurements. The combined δ18O-δ17O values of interglacial diatoms suggest a δ18Ometeoric water value of -9‰. Modern δ18O value of monsoonal precipitation in NM is ~-10‰. The δ18O of glacial diatoms suggest a δ18Ometeoric water = -20‰. Modern δ18O value of winter precipitation in NM is ~-20‰. These results suggest that the seasonality of precipitation in New Mexico can be inferred based on changes in the relative

  12. Configuration and Correlation of Fluvial Terrace Deposits In the Lower Rio Salado Valley: A Record of Magmatic Uplift and Active Normal Faulting in the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, B. D.; Axen, G. J.; Phillips, F. M.; Harrison, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Salado is a western tributary of the Rio Grande whose valley is flanked by six major terrace levels. The Rio crosses several active rift-related normal faults and the active, mid-crustal Socorro Magma Body (SMB; a sill at 19 km depth that is actively doming the land surface), providing an unusual opportunity to explore the effects of deep magma emplacement and active faulting on the terraces. Rio Salado terraces were mapped using a high-resolution DEM and digital color stereophotographs and were projected onto a valley-parallel vertical plane to construct longitudinal profiles. Three new soil pits were described to aid terrace correlation. A net incision rate of 0.41 ± 0.06 m/ka was inferred from the correlation of a major fill-cut terrace to the 122 ± 18 ka Airport surface ~25 km south of the Rio Salado. This incision rate is >1.5 times more rapid than estimated rates nearby or in other parts of New Mexico, but yields age estimates for other terraces that are consistent with soil development. Terrace gradients in the Rio Salado have increased through time, indicating either stream response to Rio Grande incision or footwall tilting from the Quaternary Loma Blanca fault (LBF). Two terraces in the LBF hanging wall are back-tilted relative to their footwall counterparts, suggesting a listric geometry for the LBF. However, two others (Qtf and Qtc) are east-tilted relative to their footwall counterparts. Both Qtf and Qtc merge eastward with the next youngest terrace in the flight, and Qtc is arched, consistent with an earlier episode of surface uplift above the SMB. Future work will involve (a) additional terrace mapping over the SMB, (b) cosmogenic 36Cl depth profile dating of the Rio Salado terraces to determine incision rates, allow regional terrace correlations, and constrain fault-slip slip rates and the record of SMB-related surface uplift, and (c) numerical modeling of SMB inflation constrained by uplift signals.

  13. New species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Rio Tapajós and Rio Xingu drainages, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marina B; Netto-Ferreira, Andre L

    2015-09-24

    Characidium nana is described from the Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós drainages. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the absence of the inner series of dentary teeth, the absence of the parietal branch of the supraorbital laterosensory canal, the incomplete lateral line, the lack of an adipose fin, the presence of a conspicuous dark blotch on caudal peduncle as well as an evident dark, midlateral stripe, and the presence of 12 circumpeduncular scales. The relationships of the new species and its inclusion among the species of clade C4 are discussed.

  14. 78 FR 25097 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    .... DATES: The meeting will be held from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. on May 29, 2013. ADDRESSES: Rio Grande Water Conservation District, 10900 East U.S. Highway 160, Alamosa, CO 81101. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  15. Raman Analysis of Sulfate Sequence of Precipitation from Iron-rich Waters of Rio Tinto River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansano, A.; Sobron, P.; Lafuente, B.; Medina, J.; Rull, F.

    2009-03-01

    Rio Tinto area is considered a referent as an extremophilic scenery of iron rich. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that allows studying these. This work shows the aplication of this technique on natural and simulated evaporitic samples.

  16. Workshop on The Rio Grande Rift: Crustal Modeling and Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The elements of a program that could address significant earth science problems by combining remote sensing and traditional geological, geophysical, and geochemical approaches were addressed. Specific areas and tasks related to the Rio Grande Rift are discussed.

  17. Meetings and Events for Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  18. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-de-Brito, Anielly; de Miranda, Rafaella Moraes; Barbosa da Silva, Keli Antunes; de Castro, Marcia Gonçalves; Raphael, Lidiane M. S.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection) from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1). Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population—ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen), head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission. Conclusions/Significance The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti. PMID

  19. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    ER D C /E L TR -0 5- 6 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande...is unlimited. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program ERDC/EL TR-05-6 April 2005 A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the...SUBTITLE A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  20. Analysis of Three Cobble Ring Sites at Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    STAIOANOS -(963- ANALYSIS OF THREE COBBLE RING SITES AT ABIQUIU RESERVOIR, RIO ARRIBA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...Albuquerque District Albuquerque, New Mexico Prepared by Mariah Associates, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico Amy C. Earls, Ph.D. Christopher R. Lintz, Ph.D...Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico Final 6- PERFORMING GO. ~R 7.A-HCRs CONTRACT OR GRAN I .<- Amy C. Earls, Ph.D. Christopher R. Lintz

  1. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  2. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  3. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1) a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2) odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3) a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4) a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5) by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6) a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7) lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8) higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso. PMID:25931967

  4. Population pressure. The road from Rio is paved with factions.

    PubMed

    Holloway, M

    1992-09-01

    Groups focused on women's rights, family planning and health, environmental protection, reduced consumption of natural resources, economic development and population control differ greatly in their views of population pressure's role in preventing sustainable development. Yet, it is these same groups that should be working together to achieve sustainable development. Some speakers at the 1991 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, encouraged world leaders to take immediate steps to deal with population growth and stated that poverty, environment, and population are intertwined. At the same time in the same city, panel participants at the Global Forum, attended by almost 2000 nongovernmental organizations, considered population control as a violation of women's rights, as a means to circumvent poverty eradication in developing countries, and as a means to suppress the poor in developing countries. These debates, whether population control or economic development is the best means to reduce population growth have been occurring since 1968. In the interim, the world population has increased form 3.5-5.5 billion. The population growth rate has fallen from 2-1.7%, however, but 97 million more people will appear on this earth each year during the 1990s. Because any discussion of contraceptives and family planning may be misinterpreted by members as abortion, many environmental groups do not address it. They also fear undertaking immigration issues, since past attempts were labelled as racist. Nevertheless, more and more organizations, e.g., the Natural Resources Defense Council, are beginning to address the need to focus on population growth to prevent environmental degradation. Further, some foundations, e.g., the Pew Charitable Trusts, are offering grants to environmental groups to begin population programs. All too often development plans neglect family health and do not consider the concerns of the target population.

  5. Organic solute profile of water from Rio Blanco Retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Clark, J.A.; Borg, H.M.

    1985-12-01

    Two water samples were taken from the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Retort 1 more than three years after shutdown of the retort burn. The retort had received considerable flushing. These water samples were screened and profiled chromatographically to ascertain the character of the 20 to 30 ppM total organic carbon remaining in each. The waters were found to contain only organophilic solutes above the one-part-per-billion level. Special detection methods with part-per-billion detection limits for selected hydrophilic indicators proved negative for those indicators. Selected indicators ranged from the most hydrophilic (alkanoic acids, alkylamines, and amides) to the least (phenol). The principal species readily identified by either gas chromatography or reversed-phase liquid chromatography were the light polyalkylpyridines and the polyalkylphenols. The two principal individual compounds detected in each water were 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol. The approximate concentrations of each were 200 ppb for a sample taken from the retort center and 400 ppb for a sample taken from the bottom level. It appears that there is a residual oil reservoir in the retort serving as a source of organophilic solutes. Any organic material now passing out of the retort would be highly organophilic and predisposed to deposit on even slightly hydrophobic surfaces such as oil shale or retorted oil shale. Based on the observations in this report, hydrophilic organic solutes may be presumed to be the key indicators for the interaction between oil shale in situ retort effluent and the surrounding environment. Timely monitoring of such sites and development of highly sensitive detection techniques for this class of materials would permit accurate description of migration pathways. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Study of phyllosilicates and carbonates from the Capri Chasma region of Valles Marineris on Mars based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (MRO-CRISM) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nirmala; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-04-01

    Spectral reflectance data from the MRO-CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) of Capri Chasma, a large canyon within Valles Marineris on Mars, have been studied. Results of this analysis reveal the presence of minerals, such as, phyllosilicates (illite, smectite (montmorillonite)) and carbonates (ankerite and manganocalcite). These minerals hint of the aqueous history of Noachian time on Mars. Phyllosilicates are products of chemical weathering of igneous rocks, whereas carbonates could have formed from local aqueous alteration of olivine and other igneous minerals. Four different locations within the Capri Chasma region were studied for spectral reflectance based mineral detection. The study area also shows the spectral signatures of iron-bearing minerals, e.g. olivine with carbonate, indicating partial weathering of parent rocks primarily rich in ferrous mineral. The present study shows that the minerals of Capri Chasma are characterized by the presence of prominent spectral absorption features at 2.31 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.22 μm, 2.48 μm and 2.52 μm wavelength regions, indicating the existence of hydrous minerals, i.e., carbonates and phyllosilicates. The occurrence of carbonates and phyllosilicates in the study area suggests the presence of alkaline environment during the period of their formation. Results of the study are important to understand the formation processes of these mineral assemblages on Mars, which may help in understanding the evolutionary history of the planet.

  7. Two new species of Melanorivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) from Rio Verde drainage, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Volcan, Matheus Vieira; Klotzel, Bruno; Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause

    2017-02-21

    Two new species of the genus Melanorivulus are herein described from the middle Rio Verde drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both new species are members of the Melanorivulus pictus clade, diagnosed by having ventral process of angulo-articular vestigial and flanks intense greenish blue or greenish golden to purplish blue above anal fin base in males. Melanorivulus nigropunctatus, new species, from wetlands of a small drainage tributary of right side of the Rio Verde, differs from all other congeners by possessing black dots over the head and body in both sexes and pectoral fin orange with a dark grey margin in males. Melanorivulus ofaie, new species, is found in a similar environment, but at the opposite margin of the Rio Verde. It is distinguished by males presenting flank greenish blue to light blue, with seven to nine oblique chevron-like red bars, ventral portion of head whitish with dark brown spots, dorsal fin yellow with two to three transverse broad red oblique stripes and distal region red, anal fin light orangish yellow, basal area light blue with short red bars and distal portion with a dark red margin, and caudal fin yellow or orangish yellow with three to four vertical red bars in the dorsal and middle portions, sometimes with a orange distal margin. Both new species are considered endangered due to the loss and degradation of their habitat.

  8. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  9. Quantifying Nitrogen Sources and Cycling Along the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G.; Brooks, P.; Hogan, J.; Lacey, H.; McDonnell, D.; Zeglin, L.; Mills, S.; Villinski, J.

    2005-05-01

    Synoptic sampling of a 1200km reach of the Upper Rio Grande has been performed in January and August from 2000 to present. The objective of this sampling has been to develop seasonal relationships between discharge, land use, and major water quality parameters including salinity and nutrients. In general, water quality, both salinity and nutrient concentrations, degrades with distance downstream. Increased salinity is explained largely by gradual downstream increase due to evapoconcentration punctuated by localized inputs of saline groundwater. Both total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations gradually increase with distance downstream, however for TDN this trend is punctuated by large, localized inputs primarily from urban areas. Somewhat surprisingly, surface water draining from areas of intensive, irrigated agriculture during the growing season often had lower nutrient and DOC concentrations than the river. Increased spatial and temporal sampling of the 250km reach between Cochiti Dam and Elephant Butte Reservoir was conducted in June, July and August of 2004 to quantify the relationships between agricultural and urban land use and nutrient loading as well as nutrient sinks within the surface water, hyporheic and riparian systems. Summer 2004 data indicate that wastewater treatment plants are the largest and most consistent sources of inorganic nitrogen to the river. In both June and July there was a net removal of nitrogen from the reach as discharge decreased 26%, concentrations decreased 39%, and TDN loads decreased 56%. Interestingly, the diversion of river water for irrigated agriculture reduced discharge 25%, TDN loads 60% and concentrations 47% along the same reach before draining back to the main stem of the river suggesting that agricultural diversions were serving as a sink for nitrogen. However in August, TDN loads were higher in returning drains suggesting that agricultural systems had switched to a net source of

  10. Evaluation of canoe surveys for anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jung, R.E.; Bonine, K.E.; Rosenshield, M.L.; de la Reza, A.; Raimondo, S.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys for amphibians along large rivers pose monitoring and sampling problems. We used canoes at night to spotlight and listen for anurans along four stretches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1998 and 1999. We explored temporal and spatial variation in amphibian counts and species richness and assessed relationships between amphibian counts and environmental variables, as well as amphibian-habitat associations along the banks of the Rio Grande. We documented seven anuran species, but Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) accounted for 96% of the visual counts. Chorus surveys along the river detected similar or fewer numbers of species, but orders of magnitude fewer individuals compared to visual surveys. The number of species varied on average by 37% across monthly and nightly surveys. We found similar average coefficients of variation in counts of Rio Grande leopard frogs on monthly and nightly bases (CVs = 42-44%), suggesting that canoe surveys are a fairly precise technique for counts of this species. Numbers of Rio Grande leopard frogs observed were influenced by river gage levels and air and water temperatures, suggesting that surveys should be conducted under certain environmental conditions to maximize counts and maintain consistency. We found significant differences in species richness and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) counts among the four river stretches. Four rare anuran species were found along certain stretches but not others, which could represent either sampling error or unmeasured environmental or habitat differences among the river stretches. We found a greater association of Rio Grande leopard frogs with mud banks compared to rock or cliff (canyon) areas and with seepwillow and open areas compared to giant reed and other vegetation types. Canoe surveys appear to be a useful survey technique for anurans along the Rio Grande and may work for other large river systems as well.

  11. Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Muriceak, D.R. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the upper Rio Grande at least twice during late Quaternary time. Terminal moraines that are equivalent to Pinedale and Bull Lake stages of ice advance occur at the upstream origin of the terraces. Incision of the Rio Grande river since Pinedale time has resulted in at least three cut terraces that converge downstream. The purpose of this report is to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Rio Grande river valley during its transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions. A total geodetic station provided coordinate and elevation data to correlate the terraces, extrapolate channel geometry through cross sections, and construct longitudinal profiles of the individual terrace surfaces. Measurements of the B-axis length of boulders on both terrace tread surfaces and surfaces within the terrace deposits were used to reconstruct paleoflow hydrology. The coarsest channel morphological features, too large to be deposited by normal glacial outwash, were deposited during a catastrophic outburst flood (after the failure of an ice dammed lake) that produced high discharge.

  12. Monitoring the water quality of the Nation's large rivers: Rio Grande NASQAN Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the water quality in the Rio Grande Basin as part of the redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) since 1995 (Hooper and others, 1997). The NASQAN program was designed to characterize the concentrations and transport of sediment and selected chemical constituents found in the Nation's large rivers-including the Mississippi, Colorado, and Columbia in addition to the Rio Grande. In these four basins, the USGS currently (1998) operates a network of 40 NASQAN sites, with an emphasis on quantifying the mass flux for each constituent (the amount of material moving past the site, expressed in tons per day). By applying a consistent flux-based approach in the Rio Grande Basin, the NASQAN program is generating the information needed to identify regional sources for a variety of constituents, including agricultural chemicals and trace elements, in the basin. The effect of the large reservoirs on the Rio Grande can be observed as constituent fluxes are routed downstream. The analysis of constituent fluxes on a basin-wide scale will provide the means to assess the influence of human activity on water-quality conditions in the Rio Grande.

  13. A atuação do Observatório Nacional registrada nos relatórios ministeriais 1889 a 1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, T.

    2003-08-01

    O período republicano até 1930 foi marcante na história do Observatório Nacional. Diversas reformas levaram a instituição a três ministérios diferentes e mudaram a ênfase do seu trabalho. A tão aguardada mudança para uma nova sede, em São Cristóvão, em 1920, não foi suficiente para que a instituição acompanhasse o ritmo tomado pela astronomia no mundo e se firmasse como ambiente de pesquisa. Uma análise simplificada poderia caracterizar um período de produção científica insignificante, dado o distanciamento da instituição dos novos rumos da astrofísica e da rápida inovação dos instrumentos, além do pequeno volume de publicações. Era uma época em que ainda não existiam os mecanismos formais de apoio e avaliação da atividade científica. Esse trabalho procura identificar a real atividade do Observatório no conteúdo dos Relatórios Ministeriais que, ao final de cada ano, apresentava as atividades, sucessos e problemas enfrentados pela instituição. Questões como instrumental e recursos humanos necessários; entraves burocráticos e financeiros; e articulações com outros observatórios se complementaram entre si ao longo desses anos para definir o perfil institucional e alguns aspectos fundamentais para a construção da astronomia no país. É possível concluir que a ênfase em serviços geográficos e de meteorologia, ao lado da inadequação dos instrumentos e do local, quase fizeram desaparecer a pesquisa em astronomia. Porém, vale destacar a sobrevivência de alguns trabalhos, como, por exemplo, variação de latitude e observação de estrelas duplas que mantiveram importante intercâmbio com outros grupos de pesquisa, demonstrando o constante esforço dos astrônomos e das diretorias em defesa da atividade científica.

  14. Interaction of Rio1 Kinase with Toyocamycin Reveals a Conformational Switch That Controls Oligomeric State and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kiburu, Irene N.; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole

    2012-10-10

    Rio1 kinase is an essential ribosome-processing factor required for proper maturation of 40 S ribosomal subunit. Although its structure is known, several questions regarding its functional remain to be addressed. We report that both Archaeoglobus fulgidus and human Rio1 bind more tightly to an adenosine analog, toyocamycin, than to ATP. Toyocamycin has antibiotic, antiviral and cytotoxic properties, and is known to inhibit ribosome biogenesis, specifically the maturation of 40 S. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of toyocamycin bound to Rio1 at 2.0 {angstrom} and demonstrated that toyocamycin binds in the ATP binding pocket of the protein. Despite this, measured steady state kinetics were inconsistent with strict competitive inhibition by toyocamycin. In analyzing this interaction, we discovered that Rio1 is capable of accessing multiple distinct oligomeric states and that toyocamycin may inhibit Rio1 by stabilizing a less catalytically active oligomer. We also present evidence of substrate inhibition by high concentrations of ATP for both archaeal and human Rio1. Oligomeric state studies show both proteins access a higher order oligomeric state in the presence of ATP. The study revealed that autophosphorylation by Rio1 reduces oligomer formation and promotes monomerization, resulting in the most active species. Taken together, these results suggest the activity of Rio1 may be modulated by regulating its oligomerization properties in a conserved mechanism, identifies the first ribosome processing target of toyocamycin and presents the first small molecule inhibitor of Rio1 kinase activity.

  15. Interdisciplinary approach on evaluation and sustainable usage of the water resources in the semi-arid Northwest Mexico to counter the imbalance of water: Case study Valle de Guadalupe, Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Hernandez, R.; Valenzuela, C.; Cabello, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Baja California peninsula are several watersheds present, of which the hydrogeological conditions are of great importance to communities in the area. The Valle de Guadalupe watershed, for instance has a wine industry of national importance. Irrigation of crops is carried out exclusively with water from the aquifer, which consists of Quaternary sediments filling this depression of Post-Miocene age. Apart from the use of the aquifer by the wine industry, the water utility of Ensenada operates 10 drinking water wells with a total capacity of 320 L/s or 42% of supply in the valley. In the arid northern Mexico mountain front recharge is an important recharge source to the aquifers. Other important recharge sources are related to direct infiltration of the precipitation, recharge from runoff into streams (mountain block recharge) and the provision by active faults. The knowledge of the aquifer is crucial to maintain sustainable management of water resources in the Valle de Guadalupe. This intense use of water resources is reflected in a degradation of the aquifer water quality and reduced water table. The integrated approach for a sustainable evaluation and usage of the aquifer includes besides the hydrogeological evaluation, the determination of the water stress on the vineyards as well as the usage of treated waste water as alternative resource as well the evaluation of the effects of climatic variations and measurement and modeling of the vegetation, the main interface between atmosphere and soil, affecting the hydrology in the process of interception, infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration. With these detailed ongoing studies we expect to identify and counter imbalance of water in the study area. This requires 1) modeling and hydrogeological studies for the determination of the present and future imbalance 2) estimation of the impacts of industrial activities on water resources 3) characterization of alternative water sources, 4) optimization of the water

  16. Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, A.; Balch, R.; House, L.; Hartse, H.

    1995-12-01

    San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

  17. [Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Adriana da Costa

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes the political and social impacts of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's federal capital. Based on an analysis of Rio de Janeiro press reports and of other documentation (including annals, reports, and bulletins from a federal ministry, the Mayor's Office, and the Chamber of Deputies, along with studies from the Brazilian National Academy of Medicine and dissertations from Rio de Janeiro's Faculdade de Medicina), we explore use of the epidemic as a means of political engineering. Our focus is on how the epidemic impacted not only the representation of certain political and social actors but also the reaffirmation of a group of sanitarians as an intelligentsia with a vocation for political leadership who played a key role in the process of modernizing Brazilian society.

  18. A new species of Centromochlus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) from the middle Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Lima, F C T

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) is described. The new species is diagnosed by having numerous dark rounded blotches over the body and fins, dorsal-fin spine with serrations anteriorly and smooth posteriorly, anal fin of mature males with three unbranched and seven branched rays, anterior nuchal plate absent and posterior nuchal plate not extended ventrally. The new species is described from a small stream in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral de Tocantins, a natural reserve in the centre of the Brazilian Cerrado, close to the watershed between the Rio Tocantins and the Rio São Francisco basins. The new species is possibly the sister taxon to the recently described Centromochlus meridionalis from the upper Rio Tapajós. Those two species share with Centromochlus perugiae, from the upper Amazon and upper Paraguay, derived features associated with the modified anal fin in sexually mature males.

  19. Merged digital aeromagnetic data for the middle Rio Grande and southern Espanola basins, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted a multi-disciplinary study of the Middle Rio Grande basin (Bartolino and Cole, 2002; Fig. 1). The main purpose of this study was to gain a better multi-dimensional understanding of the basin's hydrogeologic framework and use this new understanding to construct an improved regional ground-water flow model. The Middle Rio Grande basin fill serves as the primary water resource for Albuquerque and surrounding communities (Thorn and others, 1993). It is composed of poorly consolidated, Tertiary to Quaternary sediments, collectively called the Santa Fe Group. These sediments were deposited during the Tertiary to Quaternary development of the Rio Grande rift (Fig. 1, inset). The strata vary in thickness from 1,000 to more than 4,000 m and range from mudstone to conglomerate (Kelley, 1977; May and Russell, 1994).

  20. The Effect of Human Borders on Water Dynamics in an Arid Region: A Regional Research Overview of the Middle Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J.

    2013-05-01

    International and internal borders transect surface and subsurface waters. Such boundaries add complexity to already complicated biophysical and human use trade-offs and interactions between surface and subsurface waters. The surface-subsurface interactions are shaped by a combination of climate change, human community change, and politics and governance decisions. Understanding such dynamics are crucial due to the importance of these waters in arid regions around the world, often affected by borders. This paper provides an overview of the interacting systems involving and affecting surface and subsurface water in the middle Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin of the United States and Mexico, and the emerging binational research network examining these dynamics. While details are specific to the region, many issues and relationships are generalizable to the Americas and the world.

  1. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from headwaters of Rio Pacaás Novos, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Ohara, Willian M

    2015-09-25

    Characidium summus, new species, is described from rio Pacaás Novos, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil. The new species is the unique among congeners for completely lacking an adipose fin and having a complete lateral line. Characidium summus can be further distinguished from congeners, including C. vestigipinne that also has a complete lateral line and adipose fin absent, vestigial or reduced by the absence of dark bars or spots on head, body or fins, except for a dark blotch on the rear of the opercle, a narrow midlateral dark stripe, and a dark basicaudal spot. In addition, C. summus possess a vestigial supraorbital and a remarkably small pseutotympanum. The possible mimetic relationship between the new species with Erythrinus erythrinus is discussed.

  2. A Preliminary Overview of Cultural History in the Lower Rio Chama, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-15

    Schaafsma (197614) suggests that the home base for these early Anasasi hunters was the Rosa Phase settlement around Dulce , New Mexico . This may explain...Preliminary Overview of Cultural History in the Lower Rio Chama, New Mexico P/ ~~ I Penelope Whitten and Margaret A. Powers i TIc 1980 |ozpulic...TO en Sub9 S. R’~’eport Date ’"" and ’ue A Preliminary Overview of Cultural History in the L 1980. Lower Rio Chama; New Mexico 1. 7. A t~"s) a

  3. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande _____ Chetta S. Owens, Michael J. Grodowitz, and Fred Nibling April 2005 A~~~loilisCrit \\,~~ni .... W]oGa de 6...Program April 2005 A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande Chetta S. Owens Analytical Services, Inc., Lewisville...DATES COVERED (From - To) April 2005 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the

  4. Geomorphic and Aqueous Chemistry of a Portion of the Upper Rio Tinto System, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Amils, R.; Stein, T. C.; Heil-Chapdelaine, V.; Friedlander, L. R.; Herndon, B.; Marlow, J.; Rosenberg, S.; Scherpker, K.; Steiner, A.

    2007-01-01

    Observations from the two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, combined with discoveries of extensive hydrated sulfate deposits from OMEGA and CRISM show that aqueous deposition and alteration involving acidic systems and sulfate deposition has been a key contributor to the martian geologic record. Rio Tinto, Spain, provides a process model for formation of sulfates on Mars by evaporation of acidic waters within shallow fluvial pools, particularly during dry seasons. We present results from a detailed investigation of an upper portion of the Rio Tinto, focusing on geomorphology, clastic sediment transport, and acidic aqueous processes. We also lay out lessons-learned for under-standing sulfate formation and alteration on Mars.

  5. 75 FR 39668 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio del Oro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... (FEIS) for the Rio del Oro Specific Plan Project, a proposed master-planned, mixed use development... a mixed- use development in the approximately 3,828-acre Rio del Oro Specific Plan Area. In response... (City). The City is the local agency responsible for preparing an Environmental Impact Report...

  6. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  7. Magnetotelluric data in the middle Rio Grande basin, Albuquerque volcanoes, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    The population in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe region of New Mexico is rapidly growing. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Middle Rio Grande Basin is the main source of municipal water for the greater Albuquerque metropolitan area. The capacity of this aquifer is more limited than previously thought (Thorn et al., 1993). The Middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined hydrologically and used here, is the area within the Rio Grande Valley extending from Cochiti Dam downstream to the community of San Acacia (Figure 1). Because approximately 600,000 people (40 percent of the population of New Mexico) live in the study area (Bartolino, 1999), water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depends on accurate assessment and protection of the region’s groundwater resources. An important issue in defining the ground water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the other sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift.

  8. Dolores Del Rio, the First "Latin Invasion", and Hollywood's Transition to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The career and promotion of Mexican actress Dolores Del Rio as a case study of how Hollywood's shift to sound film affected Latino and Latina actors is examined. It reveals the way in which the starring opportunities for Latinos dwindled when accent and language increasingly marked them as nonwhite in the 1930s in the talkie films.

  9. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  10. Measuring Between-School Segregation in an Open Enrollment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Tiago Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in Rio de Janeiro public schools has brought to light a "Hidden Quasi-Market" that combines purported freedom of choice for parents with school control over their pupil intake. The article analyzes patterns of segregation among schools, from 2004 to 2010, according to three indicators of potentially disadvantaged pupils:…

  11. Rio Salado Community College Adjunct Faculty Staffing and Development Program, July 1989-August 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.

    In July 1989, Rio Salado Community College established an Adjunct Faculty Staffing and Development Program (AFSDP) with the following goals: to insure excellence in instruction through content consistency and the use of effective teaching and learning strategies; to increase adjunct faculty identification with the college and appreciation of the…

  12. Environmental Degradation in a Dependent Region: The Rio Grande Valley of Mexico and Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    Traces the interrelationships among dependence, environmental degradation, and human health in the Rio Grande Valley of Mexico and Texas. Presents a case study on environmental factors threatening family health in households located on both sides of the border; the health problems can be overcome by addressing restrictive zoning, health services,…

  13. Projecting avian responses to landscape management along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of flooding due to river impoundments on the middle Rio Grande has contributed to the spread of exotic vegetation with dense understory fuel loads. Restoration has focused on understory vegetation thinning but it is unclear how these actions impact bird populations. We quantified densities of ...

  14. Student Hotline Procedural Manual. Instructional Technology and Design. Rio Salado Community College. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.

    Rio Salado Community College offers a variety of alternative delivery courses utilizing different forms of instructional technology (e.g., broadcast and cable television, radio, audio and video cassettes, and computer-managed instruction) for both credit and non-credit instruction. This manual provides information for student operators of a…

  15. Raman and XRD Field Characterisation of Sulfate Efflorescences at Rio Tinto (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, F.; Sansano, A.; Sobron, P.; Lafuente, B.; Sarrazin, P.; Gailhanou, M.; Blake, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this work a comparative in-situ analysis of evaporate minerals from Rio Tinto (Spain) is undertaken using two techniques selected for Mars exploration: Raman spectrometer and CheMin XRD both selected as part of the ExoMars and MSL missions respectively.

  16. Poverty in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.; Maril, Robert Lee

    Relative to other urbanized areas, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas consistently ranks at the bottom in regard to almost every objective indicator of socioeconomic welfare: per capita income, educational attainment, employment, and health and housing conditions. The 1970 census discovered that approximately one-half of its population,…

  17. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  18. 78 FR 5480 - Draft Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances and Draft Environmental Assessment; Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... historically occupied streams. The proposed CCAA would be in effect for 25 years on Vermejo Park Ranch in Taos... Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis) is native to the Rio Grande, Pecos River, and Canadian River basins in New Mexico and Colorado. It is the southernmost subspecies of cutthroat...

  19. Outcomes of a Scientific Nonformal Educational Initiative for Youth in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.…

  20. Projecting avian responses to landscape managment along the middle RIO GRANDE, New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of flooding due to river impoundments on the middle Rio Grande has contributed to the spread of exotic vegetation with dense understory fuel loads. Restoration has focused on understory vegetation thinning but it is unclear how these actions impact bird populations. We quantified densities of ...

  1. Educating Copacabana: A Critical Analysis of the "Second Half", an Olympic Education Program of Rio 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knijnik, Jorge; Tavares, Otavio

    2012-01-01

    The Second Half Program (SHP) is an educational sports program running in Brazil. It began in 2003 and was one of the Olympic educational proposals described in the Rio 2016 Olympics bid. Using sport as a tool, the SHP aims to deliver moral education and to promote citizenship in order to counteract "social exclusion" and "social…

  2. Los Rios Community College District Fall 2000 Student Profile, Based upon First Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    This is the eleventh in a series of Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) (California) fall student profiles. These annual summaries provide the district and its colleges--American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC)--with data on student demographics and enrollment trends. The Fall 2000…

  3. The Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Rio Negro Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Glenda M.; Larrieu, Edmundo; Uchiumi, Leonardo; Mercapide, Carlos; Mujica, Guillermo; Del Carpio, Mario; Hererro, Eduardo; Salvitti, Juan Carlos; Norby, Bo; Budke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis with substantial human health and economic consequences, is highly endemic in Rio Negro Province, Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect human and livestock-associated monetary losses attributable to CE, in Rio Negro Province, for the year 2010. Human costs were estimated using data obtained from hospital chart reviews, patient interviews, and government reports. Livestock-associated losses were estimated using data from government reports and scientific publications. Spreadsheet models were developed utilizing Latin Hypercube sampling to account for uncertainty in the input parameters. In 2010, the estimated total cost of CE, in Rio Negro Province, ranged from US$4,234,000 (95% credible interval [CI]: US$2,709,000–US$6,226,000) to US$5,897,000 (95% CI: US$3,452,000–US$9,105,000), with livestock-associated losses representing between 80% and 94% of the total losses, depending on whether non-healthcare-seeking human cases were included and if livestock slaughter values were adjusted to account for underreporting. These estimates suggest that CE is responsible for considerable human and livestock-associated monetary losses in Rio Negro Province. Stakeholders and policymakers can use these data to better allocate public health and agricultural resources for this region. PMID:26787144

  4. Computer Skills and Digital Media Uses among Young Students in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rosalia; Cazelli, Sibele; Migliora, Rita; Coimbra, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is provide information relevant for the formulation of new policies for the integration of technology in education from the discussion of research results that analyse computer skills and digital media uses among students (between 12 to 18 years old) from schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The schools…

  5. The Associate Degree Nursing Program at Rio Hondo College: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Joseph

    During 1975-76, an evaluation of the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Rio Hondo College was undertaken which involved: (1) surveying all nursing graduates in the classes of 1973, 1974, and 1975, and all fourth semester students currently enrolled in the program; (2) surveying or interviewing all instructional staff for the ADN program;…

  6. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  7. The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo Dui Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Morral, Andrew R.; Raymond, Barbara; Eibner, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This study reports results from an evaluation of the experimental Rio Hondo driving under the influence (DUI) court of Los Angeles County, California. Interviews and official record checks with 284 research participants who were randomly assigned to a DUI court or a traditional criminal court were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up.…

  8. The Civil Engineering Graduate Program at PUC-Rio: A Brazilian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanel, Celso; Filho, Jose Napoleao

    This document discusses the graduate programs in civil engineering at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the oldest Brazilian private university. The report features discussions of faculty member backgrounds, trends in student enrollment, women's participation in the program, degree completion, student origins,…

  9. A Demographic and Student Outcomes Profile of AFDC Students Enrolled in Los Rios Colleges: Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith; La, Minh

    The four reports collected in this document describe the characteristics and academic outcomes of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients attending California's Los Rios Community College District as of the end of fall 1996. The first report describes the characteristics of AFDC recipients and legal immigrant AFDC recipients…

  10. Los Rios Community College District. Spring 1999 Student Profile, Based upon First Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    This report, the second in a series based upon the official Spring First Census, provides data on student demographics and enrollment trends from spring 1994 to spring 1999 for the three colleges in California's Los Rios Community College District: American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College. For the first time, the…

  11. The Museum as a Catalyst for Education and Citizenship: Breaking Barriers in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrel Tostes, Vera Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's National History Museum in Rio de Janeiro is reaching out to the most marginalized young people and establishing itself as an important partner in offering them alternatives to a life of crime and addiction. The target population for its programs includes disenfranchised children and young people aged 10 to 20--those living in the…

  12. 78 FR 57411 - Second Call for Nominations for the Rio Grande Natural Area Commission, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Second Call for Nominations for the Rio Grande Natural Area Commission, CO... implementation of a management plan relating to non-Federal land in the Natural Area. The BLM is issuing a...

  13. Estimating water use by giant reed along the Rio Grande River using a large aperture scintillometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a bamboo-like perennial invasive weed from Eurasia presenting a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande River Basin. It is known to consume excessive amounts of water to support its rapid vegetative growth rat...

  14. Economic implications for the biological control of Arundo donax: Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L., is a large, bamboo-like plant native to the Mediterranean region. It has invaded several thousand hectares of the Rio Grande riparian habitat in Texas and Mexico. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) is investigating four...

  15. Economic implications for the biological control of Arundo donax: Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L., is a large bamboo-like plant native to the Mediterranean region. It has invaded several thousand hectares of the Rio Grande riparian habitat in Texas and Mexico. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) is investigating four ...

  16. Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista, California, January through May, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmon, Dana D.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Hager, Stephen W.; Ota, Allan Y.

    1986-01-01

    Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista , California, for the period of January to May, 1983 are presented in this report. Measurements include specific conductance, alkalinity, suspended particulate matter, and the dissolved inorganic nutrients; nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, ammonium, dissolved silica, and ortho-phosphate. Numerical results are tabulated and details of the methods are described. 

  17. STS-65 Earth observation of dust plumes from Rio Grande in Southern Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of dust plumes from the Rio Grande in Southern Bolivia. A series of dust plumes can be seen rising from sand banks in the Rio Grande of southern Bolivia, bottom right of this northeast-looking view. The Rio Grande brings sediment from the Andes (foothills visible in the foreground, bottom left) and flows across the flat country of the northern Chaco plain. During the low-flow season, sand banks of this sediment are exposed to northerly winds which often blow dust into the surrounding forest. One of the significances of the dust plumes is that dust acts as a source of nutrient for the local soils. This is the most impressive example of dust ever recorded on Shuttle photography from this river. Such plumes have been seen on photographs from four previous missions (STS-31, STS-47, STS-48, STS-51I) emanating from the Rio Grande. The plumes are regularly space because the sand is blown only from those reaches of th

  18. Occurrence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of abortion in sheep and a zoonotic risk to humans, leading to significant hazards to health and to economic losses. This study examined the soroprevalence and associated risk factors for infection with Toxoplama gondii in 379 sheep from 12 flocks in Rio de Janeir...

  19. Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Tatiana M B; Barboza, Carlos A M; Skinner, Viviane B; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Rocha, Rafael C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Valentin, Jean L; Cardoso, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated concentrations of eight heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co and V, in tissues of representative macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The links between contamination levels and community descriptors such as diversity, evenness, density and biomass, were also investigated. Metal concentrations from macrofaunal tissues were compared to maximum permissible limits for human ingestion stipulated by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). Generalized linear models (GLM's) were used to investigate the variability in macrofauna density, richness, eveness and biomass in the seven different regions. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (n-MDS) was used to investigate the spatial pattern of heavy metal concentrations along the seven regions of Rio de Janeiro coast. Variation partitioning was applied to evaluate the variance in the community assemblage explained by the environmental variables and the heavy metal concentrations. Our data suggested high spatial variation in the concentration of heavy metals in macrofauna species from the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. This result highlighted a diffuse source of contamination along the coast. Most of the metals concentrations were under the limits established by ANVISA. The variability in community descriptors was related to morphodynamic variables, but not with metal contamination values, indicating the lack of direct relationships at the community level. Concentration levels of eight heavy metals in macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches on Rio de Janeiro coast (Brazil) were spatially correlated with anthropogenic activities such as industrialization and urbanization.

  20. Cenozoic thermal, mechanical and tectonic evolution of the Rio Grande rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Seager, W. R.; Golombek, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    Two areas of New Mexico which exhibit complex but similar Cenozoic histories of extensional tectonism are analyzed. The first study area is the Basin and Range province and southern Rio Gande rift in southern New Mexico; the second study area is the central Rio Grande rift in central and northern New Mexico, the southern San Luis basin, the Espanola basin, and the Albuquerque basin. Two phases of extension were identified: the first phase which began in mid-Oligocene was characterized by local high-strain extension events, low-angle faulting, and the development of broad, shallow basins, all indicating an approximately NE-SW + or - 25 deg extension direction; the later phase which occurred primarily in the late Miocene, was characterized by synchronous, high-angle faulting, resulting in large vertical strains which produced the modern Rio Grande rift morphology. Extension direction was approximately E-W. Geotherms were estimated and lithospheric strength curves were calculated for these two phases of extension. A high geotherm was deduced for the early phase resulting in a shallow crustal brittle transition, and insignificant mantle strength. The lithosphere subsequently cooled, resulting in a significant zone of mantle strength beneath the Moho. It is concluded that the interrelationship among regional and local prerifting, synrifting, and postrifting events in the Rio Grande rift attests to the fact that the rifting (in the region studied) should be considered in the context of other geologic events.