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Sample records for rio urucu sobre

  1. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    teste notamos que a porcentagem de acertos a respeito de alguns conceitos teve um aumento significativo associado à reformulação da pergunta, ressaltando a importância de tomar cuidado para evitar respostas erradas geradas por perguntas pouco claras e não por ignorância do respondente sobre o assunto. Confirmamos os resultados de outros estudos de que as maiores dificuldades dos alunos sobre o tema Fases da Lua dizem respeito a relacionar a fase que a Lua apresenta com a sua posição no céu em determinada hora. Por outro lado, nossos resultados sugerem que, em geral, os estudantes de Física entendem melhor o fenômeno das fases lunares do que a média dos estudantes universitários.

  2. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and hypoglycemic effect of stilbenes from the Amazonian plant Deguelia rufescens var. urucu (Ducke) A. M. G. Azevedo (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aline C; Arruda, Mara S; da Silva, Ewerton A; da Silva, Milton N; Lemos, Virgínia S; Cortes, Steyner F

    2012-01-01

    The control of blood glucose levels is critical in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. α-Glucosidase inhibitors are of great importance in reducing hyperglycemia, and plants have provided many of these agents. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of two stilbenes, lonchocarpene and 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-O-prenyl-trans-stilbene (DPS), isolated from the Amazonian plant Deguelia rufescens var. urucu, on α-glucosidase activity and on mice postprandial hyperglycemia. Lonchocarpene and DPS inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro, with pIC(50) values of 5.68 ± 0.12 and 5.73 ± 0.08, respectively. In addition, when given orally, DPS produced a significant reduction of hyperglycemia induced by an oral tolerance test, while lonchocarpene did not. Data suggest that DPS may have a potential use as an antidiabetic drug.

  3. Influence of the natural Rio Negro water on the toxicological effects of a crude oil and its chemical dispersion to the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Braz-Mota, Susana; Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca

    2016-10-01

    The increment in crude oil exploitation over the last decades has considerably increased the risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination to Amazonian aquatic environments, especially for the black water environments such as the Rio Negro. The present work was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the Urucu crude oil (CO), the chemically dispersed Urucu crude oil (CO + D), and the dispersant alone (D) to the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum. Acute toxicity tests were performed, using a more realistic approach, where fish were acclimated to both groundwater (GW), used as internal control, and natural Rio Negro water (RNW) and exposed to CO, CO + D and D. Then, biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (s-SDH) in liver, DNA damage in blood cells, and the presence of the benzo[a]pyrene-type, pyrene-type, and naphthalene-type metabolites in fish bile were assessed. Fish exposed to CO and CO + D, at both water types tested, presented increased biomarker responses and higher PAH-type metabolites in the bile. However, fish exposed to these treatments after the acclimation to RNW increased the levels of LPO, s-SDH (hepatotoxicity), DNA damage in blood cells (genotoxicity), and benzo[a]pyrene-type metabolites when compared to fish in GW. Our data suggests that some physicochemical properties of Rio Negro water (i.e., presence of natural organic matter (NOM)) might cause mild chemical stress responses in fish, which can make it more susceptible to oxidative stress following exposure to crude oil, particularly to those chemically dispersed.

  4. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  5. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  6. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os

  7. Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dengue fever outbreak has plagued Rio de Janeiro since January 2002. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease. The elimination of standing water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes, is a primary defense against mosquito-borne diseases like dengue. Removing such water remains a difficult problem in many urban regions. The International Space Station astronauts took this image (ISS001-ESC-5418) of Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. The Rio Chagres, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Russell S.

    This book calls the attention of the scientific community, government organizations and non-government agencies, and the general public to arguably one of the most important and complex of the world's tropical rainforest regions -- the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The Rio Chagres basin is the primary source for water to operate the Panama Canal, and also supplies water for electricity generation and potable water for municipal use, but this important national resource is largely unstudied from a scientific point of view.

  9. Population post-Rio.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1993-01-01

    The June 1993 Rio Earth Summit barely recognized population growth as an issue, despite the evidence that rapid population growth is harming both the environment and development efforts. One reason given for brushing the population issue to the sidelines was that the UN had a major population conference scheduled for 1994. This overlooked the fact that in the interim between the two conferences, the population problem would be compounded by an additional 200 million people. Any delay now will increase the number of potential parents in the future and create an ever-increasing problem. The male participants at Rio who were willing to procrastinate on population issues were joined by feminists who claimed that men should leave this issue to women. These women ignore the fact that men need to be more, not less, involved in family planning. Women need support in increasing their status and in improving educational opportunities for girls. Providing girls with as much education as boys receive in low-income nations would cost less than a quarter of a percent of the collective gross national product of these nations, and this education would provide a solid boast to their economies and to their family planning campaigns. Procrastinators on population issues must stop acting as though a spare planet is available when we overload the earth.

  10. Rio San Jose Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the II residential properties that compose the Rio San Jose Radiation Site located in Laguna, Mesita, Paraje, and Seama, Pueblo of Laguna located in Cibola County, New Mexico.

  11. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  12. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  13. Rio Grande Wetbacks: Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norquest, Carrol

    Farmers in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas saw a rise of wetback labor in the 1930s and 40s. The wetback laborers were Mexicans who had crossed the Rio Grande and were in the United States illegally to work. Carrol Norquest, a farmer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, employed wetbacks regularly. In this book, Mr. Norquest writes about the…

  14. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  15. On Ensino de Astronomia nas Cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Apesar da astronomia ser um dos temas indicados pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, observa-se que poucas mudanças ocorreram desde a implementação do mesmo em sala de aula. A presente pesquisa diz respeito sobre como os tópicos de astronomia estão sendo abordados pelos professores no ensino médio. Optou-se por aplicar um questionário com os professores que ministram a disciplina de física. Os mesmos trabalham em escolas estaduais situadas nas cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra, ambas subordinadas a Diretoria de Ensino de Mauá, no Estado de São Paulo. O questionário foi aplicado durante o 2° semestre de 2006. Até o momento os resultados são preliminares. Dos 82,0% dos professores que responderam ao questionário no município de Rio Grande da Serra, 66,7% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 77,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 66,7% não utilizaram laboratório, que 77,8% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetários e que 66,7% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia aos seus alunos. No município de Ribeirão Pires, 53,3% dos professores responderam ao questionário, destes 75,0% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 93,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 75,0% não utilizaram laboratório, 81,3% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetário e 56,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia ao seus alunos. Apesar da maioria dos professores reconhecerem que o conteúdo de astronomia influi na formação do jovem, os mesmos não incluem o tema em seus planejamentos escolares.

  16. BIO: an alternative to RIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuroglu, Bahri; Oktug, Sema

    2001-07-01

    RED (Random Early Detection) is the most popular active queue management algorithm, although it has some weaknesses. Recently, another active queue management algorithm, BLUE, was proposed and shown that it is more successful in controlling the queue length when high number of flows are active on ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) capable networks. In this paper, RED and BLUE algorithms are evaluated for different levels of RTTs, with/without ECN support. It is shown that BLUE on ECN incapable networks is not as successful as on ECN capable networks. Differentiated Services architecture suggests that RIO (Red with In and Out) style queue management algorithms are to be used on each AF (Assured Forwarding) queue to offer different levels of services for different priorities at each AF class. Inspired of BLUE's success over RED on ECN capable networks, we developed a simple alternative to RIO, BIO (BLUE with In and Out). BIO, which runs two different BLUE algorithms for in and out packets, was expected to achieve lower loss rates while maximizing link utilization for high number of active flows on AF queues. However, due to the self-configuring architecture of the algorithm, it is observed that BIO marks packets too aggressively and degrades utilization. In this paper, the properties of BIO are also explained and the results obtained are justified.

  17. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  18. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  19. Solar astrometry with Rio Astrolabe & Heliometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.; Boscardin, S.; Andrei, A. H.; Reis-Neto, E.; Penna, J. L.; D'Ávila, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the micro-variations of the solar diameter helps to better understand local and secular trends of solar activity and Earth climate. The instant measurements with the Reflecting Heliometer of Observatório Nacional in Rio de Janeiro (RHRJ) have minimized optical and thermal distortion, statistically reducing air turbulence effects down to 0.01 arcsec. Contrarily to satellites RHRJ has unlimited lifetime, and it bridges and extends the measures made with drift-scan timings across altitude circles with 0.1 arcsec rms with Astrolabes. The Astrolabe in Rio (ARJ) operated from 1998 to 2009 to measure the solar diameter and the detected variations have statistical significance.

  20. Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  1. Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1985-02-01

    Brazil's capital city, Rio de Janeiro, has been called Latin America's slum capital, and is slowly losing its political position to Brasilia and its cultural and economic leadership to Sao Paolo. Rio's metropolitan area includes 14 municipalities and had a population of 9.64 million in 1984, making it Latin America's 4th largest and the world's 14th largest metropolitan area. The 452-square mile central city contains 5.35 million people. Projections predict that Rio will be the world's 9th largest city in the year 2000, with a population of 13.3 million. Rio encompasses sharp social and economic contrasts; population density varies from 30,686 to 124 people per square mile and per capita municipal budgets range from $100 to $12.50. Like most metropolitan areas, Rio's suburbs show its greatest growth. The peripheral municipalities which held only 24% of the population in 1940, now have about 45%. Low land prices and government housing attact poor families to these areas which tend to be economically sluggish. Rio's fertility rate (2.8%) is the lowest in Brazil (4.2%) and life expectancy is somewhat higher than the national average. Low fertility and declining migration result in small households and increasing age structure. 2.2 million households, with 3.8 persons on an average, and 1.3 million households, with 3.6 persons, inhabited the metropolitan area and its municipality, respectively. Less of Rio's population are black (10%) or of mixed descent (39%) than in the rest of Brazil; the population is 97% Brazilian-born. Most metropolitan homes are owner occupied, but Rio also has many highly visible slums. Rio has an 84% literacy rate; 5% of the population have university degrees. The area's geography requires massive daily movement by nearly 60% of the population, and several municpalities function largely as commuter towns. Service jobs (especially for women) account for 27% of all jobs with manufacturing and tourism next in importance. Median monthly income

  2. New Management Thrust at Los Rios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapstein, Earl L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the management practices adopted by the Los Rios Community College District (California) as a result of the passage of the Jarvis-Gann tax initiative. Alterations included reorganization of upper management structure, full budget disclosures, collective bargaining, merit pay concept for administrative staff, and the creation of a…

  3. Rio Grande rift: problems and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Callender, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Topics and ideas addressed include: (1) the regional extent of the Rio Grande rift; (2) the structure of the crust and upper mantle; (3) whether the evidence for an axile dike in the lower crust is compelling; (4) the nature of faulting and extension in the crust; and (5) the structural and magmatic development of the rift. 88 references, 5 figures.

  4. Abiquiu Dam and Reservoir, Rio Grande Basin, Rio Chama, New Mexico. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    34Engineering and Design, Stability of Earth and Rockfill Dams ," dated I April 1970. 41. Design Assumptions for Stability Analysis. Detailed...their preparation for all new earth and earth - rockfill construction projects, and for existing projects where significant remedial treatment, project...Albuquerque District ABIQUIU DAM AND RESERVOIR RIO GRANDE BASIN, RIO CHAMA NOW MEXICO EMBANKMENT CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE REPORT APR 1987 PPWVA MY NO02

  5. Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande Fracture Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Herlé; Weatherly, Georges L.; Arhan, Michel

    2000-05-01

    Bottom water throughflows at the Rio de Janeiro Fracture Zone (22°S) and Rio Grande Fracture Zone (26°S) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are identified from hydrographic anomalies observed along 9°W in the Angola Basin. The throughflow water is supplied by a meridional band of cold and fresh water lying against the western flank of the Ridge.

  6. Dark Water near Rio de la Plata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On April 28, 2002, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this image of very bright, sediment-laden water in the Rio de la Plata of South America. Along the coast to the northwest, however, very little light was reflected back to the orbiting sensor. It is not clear what is causing this large, very dark patch of water. Perhaps a phytoplankton bloom being fed by high-nutrient runoff was responsible for absorbing much of the solar radiation that was not absorbed by the water itself. The metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is readily visible as a large gray splotch just below the western end of the Rio de la Plata estuary. Other smaller splotches mark cities such as La Plata (just southeast of Buenos Aires) and Montevideo (on the northern side of the estuary).

  7. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  8. Synthesis of national reports for Rio+20

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-15

    In the lead up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), which took place in Brazil in June 2012, there were numerous efforts in countries around the world to help governments, civil society organizations and individuals prepare for the event. One of the more significant efforts led by UNDP in collaboration with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) was a support programme to 72 countries across all regions to build a consensus on national views around the themes and objectives of the Rio+20 Conference. This report highlights significant advances in sustainable development from almost 60 country reports and underscores the challenges and bottlenecks to moving beyond the economic-led growth strategies of the past 20 years.

  9. History of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro*

    PubMed Central

    Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Vianna, Francisco Reis

    2014-01-01

    The record of the first cases of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro dates from the seventeenth century. The first local host of leprosy patients was created from 1741, and the first colonies hospitals were built in the early twentieth century, in order to avoid contagion of the population. The first structures dedicated to research also date from this time: the Leprosy International Institute, the Leprology Institute, and the Leprosy Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, where the most prestigious leprologists of Rio de Janeiro worked. Currently, investigations are focused on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation; additionally, leprosy patients are treated at municipal health centers and state hospitals, and former colony hospitals only accept patients with severe disabilities. PMID:24937834

  10. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  11. The Rio Scale Applied to Fictional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostak, Seth; Almar, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Almar and Tarter (2000)1, and Almar (2001)2 have proposed a scale for quantifying the credibility of claimed detections of extraterrestrial presence, either via signals or via direct physical evidence. The proposed Rio Scale was developed by borrowing from the more widely known Torino scale used by scientists studying the potential consequences of predicted impacts by near-Earth objects, and it is intended to provide the media and the public some indication from the science community of how seriously to regard such claims of detected ETI. In order to provide an illustrative set of examples, the authors have applied the criteria of the Rio Scale to a set of selected fictional extraterrestrial "encounters" from the cinema, as well as to some less dramatic "claims." It is the authors' hope that these examples will both clarify and enhance the usefulness of this important metric. References: 1. Almar, I. and Tarter, J., "The Discovery of ETI as a High-Consequence, Low-Probability Event," 2. Almar, I., "How the Rio Scale Should be Improved," Paper #IAA-01-IAA.9.2.03, presented at the

  12. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  13. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  14. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  15. Further analyses of Rio Cuarto impact glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Bunch, T. E.; Koeberl, C.; Collins, W.

    1993-01-01

    Initial analyses of the geologic setting, petrology, and geochemistry of glasses recovered from within and around the elongate Rio Cuarto (RC) craters in Argentina focused on selected samples in order to document the general similarity with impactites around other terrestrial impact craters and to establish their origin. Continued analysis has surveyed the diversity in compositions for a range of samples, examined further evidence for temperature and pressure history, and compared the results with experimentally fused loess from oblique hypervelocity impacts. These new results not only firmly establish their impact origin but provide new insight on the impact process.

  16. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... Rio Tinto is a dual-listed company (``DLC'') comprised of two distinct, commonly controlled corporate entities, RTP and RTL, which operate pursuant to a DLC Sharing Agreement (the ``Sharing Agreement'').\\1... following key principles of the DLC structure: (a) RTP and RTL are each required to have a ``special...

  17. Rio Hondo Sediment Assessment Analysis Using SAM. Numerical Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    MISCELLANEOUS PAPER HL-91-1 M ~ RIO HONDO SEDIMENT ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS USING SAM Numerical Model Investigation AD-A238 572Ii 1 11byIll lil Nolan K...FUNDING NUMBERS Rio Hondo Sediment Assessment Analysis Using SAM; Numerical Model Investigation 6. AUTHOR(S) Nolan K. Raphelt Michael J. Trawle William A... Rio Hondo through Roswell, NM, was conducted. The investigation represented a sediment assessment level study conducted to test for potential

  18. RIO: The R-Process Isotope Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B.; Westphal, A.

    Our galaxy is filled with a "gas" of relativistic nuclei and electrons--the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The source of GCR nuclei is unknown, but there is a general consensus among high-energy astrophysicists that GCRs are accelerated by supernova (SN) shocks in the interstellar medium. The evidence in support of this picture is strong but indirect. The fact that the cosmic-ray spectrum extends continuously, without steps or peaks, to more than five orders of magnitude in energy beyond the limit of SN shock acceleration appears to be incompatible with this picture, at least without extreme fine-tuning of models. A "smoking gun" is needed to definitively establish that SN shocks are indeed the accelerator of GCRs. If GCRs are accelerated in SN shocks, they will be enhanced in freshly-synthesized r-process material. We are currently studying R-process Isotope Observer (RIO) as a Mission of Opportunity for the International Space Station. RIO will make the first measurements of the isotopic abundances of the "ultraheavy" GCRs (those in the range 32Z42) and will determine the fractional contribution of freshly-synthesized r-process material in GCRs through the measurement of several key isotopic ratios.

  19. RIO: The R-Process Isotope Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B. A.; Westphal, A. J.

    2003-07-01

    The source of galactic cosmic-ray nuclei is unknown, but there is a general consensus that galactic cosmic rays are accelerated by supernova shocks in the interstellar medium. The evidence in support of this picture is strong but indirect. However, the fact that the cosmic-ray spectrum extends continuously, without steps or peaks, to more than five orders of magnitude in energy beyond the limit of supernova shock acceleration appears to be incompatible with this picture, at least without extreme fine-tuning of models. A "smoking gun" is needed to definitively establish that supernova shocks are indeed the accelerator of galactic cosmic rays. If galactic cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova shocks, they will be enhanced in freshly-synthesized r-pro cess material. We are currently studying the R-pro cess Isotop e Observer (RIO) as a Mission of opportunity for the International Space Station. RIO will make the first measurements of the isotopic abundances of the "ultraheavy" galactic cosmic rays (those in the range 32 ≤ Z ≤ 42) and will determine the fractional contribution of freshly-synthesized r-pro cess material in galactic cosmic rays through the measurement of several key isotopic ratios.

  20. RIO: the R-process isotope observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, B. A.; Westphal, A. J.

    Our galaxy is filled with a “gas” of relativistic nuclei and electrons - the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The source of GCR nuclei is unknown, but there is a general consensus among high-energy astrophysicists that GCRs are accelerated by supernova (SN) shocks in the interstellar medium. The evidence in support of this picture is strong but indirect. However, the fact that the cosmic-ray spectrum extends continuously, without steps or peaks, to more than five orders of magnitude in energy beyond the limit of SN shock acceleration appears to be incompatible with this picture, at least without extreme fine-tuning of models. A “smoking gun” is needed to definitively establish that SN shocks are indeed the accelerator of GCRs. If GCRs are accelerated in SN shocks, they will be enhanced in freshly-synthesized r-process material. We are currently studying the R-process Isotope Observer (RIO) as a Mission of Opportunity for the International Space Station. RIO will make the first measurements of the isotopic abundances of the “ultraheavy” GCRs (those in the range 32 ⩽ Z ⩽ 42) and will determine the fractional contribution of freshly-synthesized r-process material in GCRs through the measurement of several key isotopic ratios.

  1. Extension in the Rio Grande rift.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.

    1982-01-01

    A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

  2. FIO/RIO -- FORTRAN file I/O routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.; Chipperfield, A. J.

    FIO/RIO is a subroutine package that allows a FORTRAN programmer to access sequential and direct access data files in a machine independent manner. The package consists of stand alone FIO and RIO routines, which can be used independently of the Starlink software environment, plus routines to interface to the Starlink parameter system.

  3. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  4. The seismic history of the Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, one of the major geologic structures of the Southwest, cuts through the center of New Mexico from north to south. The rift is also referred to as the Rio Grande Trench and as the Rio Grande Trough. It extends from the northern end of the San Luis Valley in Colorado southward 725 kilometres along the course of the Rio Grande River through New Mexico to near El Paso, Tex. The Rio Grande Rift is not a single trough but a series of north-trending basins arranged en echelon and separated by narrow constrictions or channels. The rift follows the western flank of the southern Rocky Mountains and apparently was formed at the same time as the moutains. 

  5. Humility and opportunity in Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.A. )

    1989-09-01

    One of the hardest things to do is to admit a mistake. But we can often learn valuable lessons when we analyze why we made our mistakes and when we admit our vulnerability to the unknown. In 1984, the authors published an article that described what they referred to privately as a geologic Moebius loop where a seismic grid appeared to grossly mistie. They though they stayed in the same Paleozoic carbonate formation all the way around the loop. Drilling subsequent to that article has deepened the mystery of the correlations by proving that the target formations were indeed limestones and showing they may not be the Paleozoic limestones they though they started in but are perhaps a new, previously undescribed sequence of thick Tertiary lacustrine limestone. The Yates La Mesa 2 well in Sec. 24, T17N, R8E, has spawned more questions than it has answered, but it has paradoxically also pointed out the potential for new and exciting plays in the Rio Grande rift basins and has given them an opportunity to show how previous misinterpreted work can teach new lessons. Seismic lines in the rift and in the Yates well illustrate how they can both deceive and inspire themselves in the search for hydrocarbons.

  6. The Rio conference a view from India

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.N. )

    1993-02-01

    Although the achievements of the Rio Conference were quite significant and will have far-reaching consequences as far as the global environment is concerned, there were many shortcomings in it as well. The Earth Summit failed to obtain the necessary financial resources needed to safeguard people from environmental degradation. The summit acknowledged the need for a radical change in attitude on the part of the developed countries toward economic growth and development as well as toward the problems of underdevelopment in countries of the Southern Hermisphere. It also emphasized that unless the rich nations of the Northern Hemisphere change their lifestyle of lavishly and selfishly using natural resources, their own future will be in grave peril. Developing countries have diverse problems, including lack of education, malnutrition, worm infestation, anemia, and poor health. The industrial policy of developing countries needs reorientation. It should be modified to provide for value-added, decentralized production. Deforestation is another serious problem in India and some of the other developing countries.

  7. View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing structure (on left) with the Santaella residence (on right) - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  8. View looking from the Ariel Rios Federal Building across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking from the Ariel Rios Federal Building across the great plaza to the Fourteenth Street facade - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  10. Biology of the Rio Grande border region : a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lynne E.; Jacobs, Linda J.; Papoulias, Diana

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography includes 1,913 references to the literature of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte). The specific geographic area covered extends 100 km on either side of the river from Elephant Butte Dam in New Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. The bibliography focuses on the biological literature, divided into major subject areas, and also includes supporting literature from the physical and environmental sciences.

  11. Molecular and structural insight into plasmodium falciparum RIO2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharon, Ashoke; Bal, Chandralata

    2013-02-01

    Among approximately 65 kinases of the malarial genome, RIO2 (right open reading frame) kinase belonging to the atypical class of kinase is unique because along with a kinase domain, it has a highly conserved N-terminal winged helix (wHTH) domain. The wHTH domain resembles the wing like domain found in DNA binding proteins and is situated near to the kinase domain. Ligand binding to this domain may reposition the kinase domain leading to inhibition of enzyme function and could be utilized as a novel allosteric site to design inhibitor. In the present study, we have generated a model of RIO2 kinase from Plasmodium falciparum utilizing multiple modeling, simulation approach. A novel putative DNA-binding site is identified for the first time in PfRIO2 kinase to understand the DNA binding events involving wHTH domain and flexible loop. Induced fit DNA docking followed by minimization, molecular dynamics simulation, energetic scoring and binding mode studies are used to reveal the structural basis of PfRIO2-ATP-DNA complex. Ser105 as a potential site of phosphorylation is revealed through the structural studies of ATP binding in PfRIO2. Overall the present study discloses the structural facets of unknown PfRIO2 complex and opens an avenue toward exploration of novel drug target.

  12. Thermomechanical models of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Bridwell, R.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional, coupled thermochemical solutions of a continental rift and platform are used to model the crust and mantle structure of a hot, buoyant mantle diapir beneath the Rio Grande rift. The thermomechanical model includes both linear and nonlinear laws of the Weertman type relating shear stress and creep strain rate, viscosity which depends on temperature and pressure, and activation energy, temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, temperature-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, the Boussinesq approximation for thermal bouyancy, material convection using a stress rate that is invariant to rigid rotations, an elastically deformable crust, and a free surface. The model determines the free surface velocities, solid state flow field in the mantle, and viscosity structure of lithosphere and asthenosphere. Regional topography and crustal heat flow are simulated. A suite of symmetric models, assumes continental geotherms on the right and the successively increasing rift geotherms on the left. These models predict an asthenospheric flow field which transfers cold material laterally toward the rift at > 300 km, hot, buoyant material approx. 200 km wide which ascends vertically at rates of 1 km/my between 175 to 325 km, and spreads laterally away from the rift at the base of the lithosphere. Crustal spreading rates are similar to uplift rates. The lithosphere acts as stiff, elastic cap, damping upward motion through decreased velocities of 1 km/10 my and spreading uplift laterally. A parameter study varying material coefficients for the Weertman flow law suggests asthenospheric viscosities of approx. 10/sup 22/ to 10/sup 23/ poise. Similar studies predict crustal viscosities of approx. 10/sup 25/ poise. The buoyant process of mantle flow narrows and concentrates heat transport beneath the rift, increases upward velocity, and broadly arches the lithosphere. 10 figures, 1 table.

  13. Trace elements and organic compounds associated with riverbed sediments in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin, Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) was mandated by the Texas Clean Rivers Act (Senate Bill 818) to assess water quality of rivers in Texas. Recent efforts to collect information for the assessment of water quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin have involved Federal agencies on both sides of the 1,248-mile U.S.-Mexico border?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Secretary for Social Development, Mexico), National Water Commission of Mexico, and International Boundary and Water Commission?as well as State and local agencies in a spirit of international cooperation. Substantial efforts have been made to gather data needed to determine the quality of water and ecological status of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, especially at sites along the border (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to assess selected historical data of trace elements and organic compounds in riverbed sediments of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, and of the Pecos River and the Arroyo Colorado in Texas.

  14. Chemical Contamination of the Lower Rio Grande near Laredo, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, B.; Ren, J.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Belzer, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Rio Grande River stretches over 2000 miles from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the tip of Texas where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico. It is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX, to Brownsville, TX. The communities along the border heavily rely upon the Rio Grande as a primary source of water for consumption, agricultural uses, supporting wildlife and recreation. For many years the Rio Grande has been polluted with municipal, industrial, agricultural and farming contaminants from both sides of the border. This pollution has led to the extinction or reduction of certain wildlife species as well as affecting the health of the residences along the border. Even though great strides have been made in monitoring the Rio Grande, there has been a lack of intense monitoring data collection for pollutants such as pesticides. Three sampling sites including Manadas Creek, the Rio Grande River at International Bridge I, and USGS monitoring site 08459200 off of Highway 83 were chosen. The water quality parameters focused include temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and pesticides. Preliminary results have shown elevated concentration of total phosphorus and ortho-phosphorus in the Manadas Creek site. Organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor and 4, 4 DDE were detected at various concentrations at all sites and endrin aldehyde was found at Manadas Creek site. This research has provided more information on the current chemical contamination level of the Rio Grande in the Laredo area.

  15. Creating a standardized watersheds database for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Julie R.; Ulery, Randy L.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the creation of a large-scale watershed database for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin in Texas. The watershed database includes watersheds delineated to all 1:24,000-scale mapped stream confluences and other hydrologically significant points, selected watershed characteristics, and hydrologic derivative datasets. Computer technology allows generation of preliminary watershed boundaries in a fraction of the time needed for manual methods. This automated process reduces development time and results in quality improvements in watershed boundaries and characteristics. These data can then be compiled in a permanent database, eliminating the time-consuming step of data creation at the beginning of a project and providing a stable base dataset that can give users greater confidence when further subdividing watersheds. A standardized dataset of watershed characteristics is a valuable contribution to the understanding and management of natural resources. Vertical integration of the input datasets used to automatically generate watershed boundaries is crucial to the success of such an effort. The optimum situation would be to use the digital orthophoto quadrangles as the source of all the input datasets. While the hydrographic data from the digital line graphs can be revised to match the digital orthophoto quadrangles, hypsography data cannot be revised to match the digital orthophoto quadrangles. Revised hydrography from the digital orthophoto quadrangle should be used to create an updated digital elevation model that incorporates the stream channels as revised from the digital orthophoto quadrangle. Computer-generated, standardized watersheds that are vertically integrated with existing digital line graph hydrographic data will continue to be difficult to create until revisions can be made to existing source datasets. Until such time, manual editing will be necessary to make adjustments for man-made features and changes in the natural landscape

  16. Overview of Astronomy arrays at Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, K. J.; Love, P. J.; Lum, N. A.; Gulbransen, D. J.; Hoffman, A. W.; Corrales, E.; Mills, R. E.; Murray, M. E.

    We review the various types of astronomy arrays currently available from RIO for wide-field imaging and spectroscopy. Arrays for infrared astronomy became available from RIO (previously the Santa Barbara Research Center) with the introduction of the 58x62 InSb in 1984. Since the introduction of this first array, RIO has developed and produced increasingly larger format arrays, including the 256x256 InSb array for SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) and the Aladdin 1Kx1K array. Over 70 Aladdin arrays have been delivered and are currently deployed on a number of major telescopes throughout the world. RIO is currently developing the next generation of 2Kx2K format arrays. These include the 2Kx2K ORION InSb array, and the VIRGO 2KxK SWIR HgCdTe array for ground-based applications and the 2Kx2K InSb array for the NGST program. In addition, RIO is currently developing the next generation large format 1Kx1K Si:As Impurity Band Conduction (IBC) arrays for the NGST MIR instrument.

  17. Traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, Water Years 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of water in the Rio Grande is becoming increasingly important as more surface water is proposed for diversion from the river for potable and nonpotable uses. In cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, the U.S. Geological Survey examined traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin to evaluate the potential travel of a conservative solute entrained in the river's streamflow. A flow-pulse analysis was performed to determine traveltimes of a wide range of streamflows in the Rio Grande, to develop traveltime curves for estimating the possible traveltime of a conservative solute in the Rio Grande between Cochiti Dam and Albuquerque, and to evaluate streamflow velocities and dispersion and storage characteristics of the Rio Grande in the entire Middle Rio Grande Basin. A flow-pulse analysis was applied to 12 pulse events recorded during the 2003-05 water years for streamflow-gaging stations between Cochiti Dam and the city of San Acacia. Pulse streamflows ranged from 495 to 5,190 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Three points of each pulse were tracked as the pulse passed a station - rising-limb leading edge, plateau leading edge, and plateau trailing edge. Most pulses indicated longer traveltimes for each successive point in the pulse. Dispersion and spreading of the pulses decreased with increased streamflow. Decreasing traveltimes were not always consistent with increasing streamflow, particularly for flows less than 1,750 ft3/s, and the relation of traveltime and original pulse streamflow at Cochiti indicated a nonlinear component. Average streamflow velocities decreased by greater than 30 percent from San Felipe to San Acacia. The expected trend of increasing dispersion with downstream travel was not always visible because of other influences on streamflow. With downstream flow, distributions of the pulses became more skewed to the descending limbs, indicating possible short-term storage of a part of the

  18. Introduction to Special Section on the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.

    1986-05-01

    With the aid of a Penrose Conference in 1974 and an international rift conference held in 1978 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Rio Grande rift has become widely recognized as a major Cenozoic continental rift zone. As a result of the 1978 Santa Fe meeting, the American Geophysical Union published a special volume of papers concerned with the Rio Grande rift [Riecker, 1979], and the New Mexico Geological Society recently published another volume focused on this rift [Baldridge et al., 1984]. These volumes are a manifestation of the research activity which lead to the formation of the Rio Grande rift consortium whose purpose is to foster rift-related research and communication. This organization has sponsored several special sessions at geological and geophysical meetings and has generally increased the awareness of this important feature.

  19. The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

    1997-02-01

    The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

  20. Guidebook to Rio Grande rift in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawley, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the details of geologic features along the rift zone. Included are short papers on topics relative to the overall region. These papers and the road logs are of special interest to any one pursuing further study of the rift. This book is a comprehensive guide to the middle and late Cenozoic geology of the Rio Grande region of Colorado and New Mexico. Though initially used on field trips for the International Symposium on Tectonics and Magmatism of the Rio Grande rift, the guidebook will be useful to anyone interested in the Cenozoic history of the 600-mi-long area extending from central Colorado to El Paso, Texas.

  1. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  2. Digital airborne time domain electromagnetic data from surveys over Cochiti Pueblo, Rio Puerco, and Rio Rancho, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Rodriguez, B.D.; Doucette, J.P.; Godbout, Michel; Williams, J.M.; Sawyer, D.A.; Stone, B.D.; Grauch, V.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Albuquerque-Santa Fe region is rapidly growing. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) is the main source of municipal water for the greater Albuquerque metropolitan area and is more limited than previously thought (Thorn et al., 1993). The MRGB, as defined hydrologically and used here, is the area within the Rio Grande Valley extending from Cochiti Dam downstream to the community of San Acacia (Figure 1). Because approximately 600,000 people (40 percent of the population of New Mexico) live in the study area (Bartolino, 1999), water shortfalls could have serious consequences for the state. Future growth and land management in the region depends on accurate assessment and protection of the region’s groundwater resources. An important issue in understanding the ground water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group, the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift and contain the principal groundwater aquifers.

  3. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  4. Society and Health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, William

    Shedding light on problems of mental health and illness that have baffled public health workers attempting to improve the health and welfare of Mexican Americans living in the lower Rio Grande Valley, this document reports the folk customs, social organization, medical practices, and beliefs of the Mexican American of this area. Chapters describe…

  5. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

  6. 77 FR 51966 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  7. 77 FR 51967 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The meeting is open...

  8. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis after swimming in the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    DeNapoli, T S; Rutman, J Y; Robinson, J R; Rhodes, M M

    1996-10-01

    We report a case of fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) with Naegleria fowleri in a 13-year-old male, and review the clinical course and diagnostic autopsy findings. The boy developed the infection after swimming with relatives in the Rio Grande and in a holding tank containing water pumped from the river. The clinical and neuropathologic features of PAM are presented. The microscopic features of motile unicellular organisms with pathognomonic broad, lobate pseudopodia are diagnostic and, if recognized before death, allow for timely treatment. A public health investigation into this case implicated river water from the Rio Grande polluted with sewage as the infection source. Exposure to polluted river water from some areas of the Rio Grande may represent a risk factor for infection with Naegleria fowerli, because the high levels of coliform bacteria found in sewage and the warm, sluggish water of the river are favorable growth conditions for the amoebae. Because the Rio Grande is an international border, this case illustrates the importance of international cooperation in pollution control in the prevention of a potentially fatal infectious disease.

  9. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  10. The School Cultures in the Lower Rio Bravo Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This report focuses on Hispanic American culture in the schools of the lower Rio Bravo Valley (Texas) through impressions and descriptions of the interrelationship of school and community. School culture is defined as reflecting the shared characteristics and uniqueness of the community cultures around the school. The school cultures of the Valley…

  11. Modeling streamflow from snowmelt in the upper Rio Grande

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual snowpack in the high elevation snowsheds of the Upper Rio Grande (URG) Basin is a vital source of surface water for irrigated agriculture in New Mexico. Maximum streamflow from the annual snowpack usually occurs in early May for the southernmost snowsheds (e.g., Ojo Caliente) and at the end o...

  12. WATER QUALITY MODELING IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the Rio Chone Estuary, a seasonally inverse, tropical estuary, in Ecuador was characterized by modeling the distribution of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the water column. These two variables are modeled using modif...

  13. Runoff Production in the Upper Rio Chagres Catchment, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezialek, J. M.; Ogden, F. L.

    2003-12-01

    Runoff production in watersheds in the seasonal tropics is governed by a number of factors. The mountainous 414 sq. km upper Rio Chagres watershed offers a unique opportunity to better understand the runoff production mechanisms in seasonal tropical catchments through data analysis and modeling. The upper Rio Chagres catchment provides the majority of inflows to the Panama Canal, has been monitored for over 60 years as part of canal operations. Discharge data are available at both the catchment outlet (Chico gaging station) and an internal catchment location (Rio Piedras gaging station). There are also seven tipping bucket recording rain gages in and around the catchment. Analysis of runoff data reveals anomalously-high runoff production efficiencies early in the wet season. Furthermore, the existence of two quasi-stable base flow regimes during the wet season imply critical threshold storages. Initial field studies have shown that the soils are water repellent during the dry season. Runoff data from the 80 sq. km Rio Piedras subcatchment reveal ephemeral flows throughout the wet season, indicating significant heterogeneity in runoff production and deep groundwater circulation. Preliminary hydrologic modeling is performed with the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA), calibrated using data from 1988 and verified using data from 1989. Further modeling on the flood of 28-31 December, 2000 is also performed. Modeling using the distributed parameter GSSHA model combined with the Sacramento groundwater module allows simulation of distributed runoff. However, the role of interception by the triple-layer tropical canopy and the magnitude of evapotranspiration are uncertain. New data collection is proposed in the Rio Chagres catchment to help quantify interception and evapotranspiration. This instrumentation will include measurements of rainfall above the canopy, cloud stripping, stemflow, throughfall, soil moisture, groundwater, interflow

  14. 78 FR 35639 - Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...-acre Wind River Ranch in Mora County, New Mexico. ADDRESSES: A map depicting the approved boundary and... Mexico, and the Rio Mora Conservation Area, including portions of Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico. The Service may pursue protection and management of wildlife resources in the...

  15. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  16. Late archaic settlement systems in the northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Vierra, Bradley J.

    2003-01-01

    Last year at these meetings I proposed a possible seasonal transhumance pattern for the Late Archaic in the northern Rio Grande region. This pattern involved the movement of groups from the lowland juniper-savanna grasslands in the early summer, to the upland ponderosa pindmixed conifer forests in the mid to late summer, and then back down to the piiion-juniper woodlands during the fall. The Rio Grande Valley was also used for winter habitation sites. Following on this research, I take the next step by studying the inter-assemblage variability represented in a sample of open-air sites located within each of these vegetation communities. The results indicate that there are significant differences in reduction tactics represented between valley habitation vs., upland campsites, and that these site sites are linked together by obsidian procurement patterns.

  17. rio Magalhães: Development is Health.

    PubMed

    Escorel, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    rio Magalhães da Silveira (1905-1986) was the main mentor of the school of thought known as "developmental public health" whose influence peaked at the III National Health Assembly. A critic of the adoption of North American models of public health organization, of the centralism and vertical organization of public health campaigns and the interference of international bodies, the public health doctor held the view that as health is a problem of superstructure, it depends on industrial economic development. He also defended the urgent need to municipalize public health in order to attend to the real needs of the Brazilian population. A pioneer of the intermingling of economic and demographic variables, he may be seen as a predecessor of the health economy discipline. The article describes the professional path of Mário Magalhães as a backdrop to his critical thinking on specific national situations and the health policies adopted.

  18. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  19. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa

    2017-04-01

    The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.

  20. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  1. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...&SF RR) tracks, approx. 250 feet east of elevation mark 4,889 feet on the Turn, N. Mex. U.S.G.S. map... “Middle Rio Grande Valley” viticultural area are 24 U.S.G.S. Quadrangle (7.5 Minute Series) maps and 1 (15 Minute Series) U.S.G.S. map. They are titled: (1) Abeytas, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1979. (2) Alameda,...

  2. Migrant Worker: A Boy from the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    Ricky is an 11-year-old migrant worker. During the summer, he travels with his family from their home in Rio Grande City, Texas, to farms farther north. There they spend 10-12 hours a day in the hot sun picking fruit and vegetables and packing the harvest for market. Ricky is not protected by the federal laws that govern the hours, wages, and…

  3. Mesohabitats, fish assemblage composition, and mesohabitat use of the Rio Grande silvery minnow over a range of seasonal flow regimes in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte, in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce; Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    There were no statistically significant differences between the stream velocities associated with seine hauls of the Rio Grande silvery minnow and Tamaulipas shiner. Stream velocities associated with the seine hauls that included Rio Grande silvery minnow indicate that this species is predominantly found in low-velocity mesohabitats. Velocities associated with seine hauls that included the Tamaulipas shiner represented a much broader overall range of velocities than those associated with Rio Grande silvery minnow collections. No statistically significant differences were found between the depths for seine hauls that included Rio Grande silvery minnow or Tamaulipas shiner. The Rio Grande silvery minnow was more commonly collected in seine hauls from mesohabitats dominated by cobble substrates and less frequently collected in mesohabitats with substrates dominated by fine-sized silt and clay particles, gravels, and sands, in that order. In contrast, the Tamaulipas shiner was broadly distributed among mesohabitats characterized as having gravel, cobble, and silt and clay.

  4. Geology, hydrocarbon potential of Rio Muni area, Equatorial Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Hempstead, N. )

    1993-08-30

    The Republic of Equatorial Guinea, located in the oil producing province of West Africa, consists of three islands and an enclave in continental Africa with a total surface area of about 28,000 sq km. The islands are in the Gulf of Guinea. The largest, Bioko, lies off Nigeria and Cameroon. The continental enclave, Rio Muni, is bounded to the north by Cameroon and to the east and south by Gabon. The coastal basin of Rio Muni, which is the subject of this article, contributes the major portion of areas offered in the current exploration licensing round. Some 5,275 km of seismic data have been recorded the past 10 years covering most of the offshore and onshore areas of Rio Muni. The quality of seismic data is generally good. Data from all size wells drilled in the area and an aeromagnetic survey of the whole onshore and offshore are also available. The paper describes the West African setting, exploration history, basin development, presalt play, postsalt Aptian play, Albian play, clastic play, Senonian/Paleogene play, and the current licensing round.

  5. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  6. Network of healthy communities of Rio de Janeiro--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Katia B; Guimarães, Wanda; Vasconcelos, Maria S; Bonatto, Daniella; Nunes, Nilza R; Baptista, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Poor communities in Rio de Janeiro, which are known as favelas, suffer from various problems related to poor housing, poverty, unemployment, violence and organized crime, and lack of access to basic services, such as health care and education. In order to tackle these determinants, and inspired by WHO's international Healthy Communities/Cities movement, the etwork of Healthy Communities of Rio de Janeiro was formed in 2004. The Network is coordinated by the Center for Health Promotion (CEDAPS) and now includes more than 100 community groups and organizations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Their aim is to promote health, community development and equity through community empowerment, participation, capacity building and advocacy. The paper describes the work that has been done since the Network's inception and the challenges which they face to reach their goals in the context of a country like Brazil. The Network represents an important landmark of how poor populations can organize themselves in a collective, participatory and constructive way to influence public policy and strive for better conditions of life in disadvantaged settings, like the favelas.

  7. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was

  8. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began full implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (Leahy and others, 1990). Also in 1991, the State of Texas established the Clean Rivers Program (CRP) administered by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). The coring study reported here was a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the CRP Rio Grande Border Environmental Assessment Team, with additional funding support from the El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1.

  9. Geographic distribution of genetic diversity in populations of Rio Grande Chub Gila pandora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galindo, Rene; Wilson, Wade; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    In the southwestern United States (US), the Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) is state-listed as a fish species of greatest conservation need and federally listed as sensitive due to habitat alterations and competition with non-native fishes. Characterizing genetic diversity, genetic population structure, and effective number of breeders will assist with conservation efforts by providing a baseline of genetic metrics. Genetic relatedness within and among G. pandora populations throughout New Mexico was characterized using 11 microsatellite loci among 15 populations in three drainage basins (Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian). Observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.71–0.87 and was similar to expected heterozygosity (0.75–0.87). Rio Ojo Caliente (Rio Grande) had the highest allelic richness (AR = 15.09), while Upper Rio Bonito (Pecos) had the lowest allelic richness (AR = 6.75). Genetic differentiation existed among all populations with the lowest genetic variation occurring within the Pecos drainage. STRUCTURE analysis revealed seven genetic clusters. Populations of G. pandora within the upper Rio Grande drainage (Rio Ojo Caliente, Rio Vallecitos, Rio Pueblo de Taos) had high levels of admixture with Q-values ranging from 0.30–0.50. In contrast, populations within the Pecos drainage (Pecos River and Upper Rio Bonito) had low levels of admixture (Q = 0.94 and 0.87, respectively). Estimates of effective number of breeders (N b ) varied from 6.1 (Pecos: Upper Rio Bonito) to 109.7 (Rio Grande: Rio Peñasco) indicating that populations in the Pecos drainage are at risk of extirpation. In the event that management actions are deemed necessary to preserve or increase genetic diversity of G. pandora, consideration must be given as to which populations are selected for translocation.

  10. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  11. Fawn Creek Government No. 1. Project Rio Blanco. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low-permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7000-foot well in northwestern Colorado (Fig. 1). Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975, and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. Project Rio Blanco Site Restoration Final Report, NVO-183, January 1978, summarizes the activities throughout the restoration period and describes the final site status. The subsurface plugging of Fawn Creek Government No. 1 well commenced on July 16, 1986, and was completed on July 17, 1986. The details of the plugging operation are contained in Appendix B and the final status as plugged and abandoned is shown in Figure 3. The general method was to use the in-place gas production tubing as a working string to set a cast iron bridge plug in the 5 1/2 in. casing at 5030 feet, and to pump an 80-foot cement plug on top of the cast iron bridge plug. The casing was then perforated at selected points to place the required cement plugs. A total of about 266 cubic feet of cement slurry was pumped to place the cement plugs. The 10 3/4 in. surface casing and the 5 1/2 in. casing were cut off below the ground level and a steel plate was welded on the top of the 10 3/4 in. casing. A permanent marker was welded to the steel plate.

  12. Seismic anisotropy of the Rio Grande Rift and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Rockett, C. V.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, located between the Colorado Plateau and the Great Plains, has a complex tectonic history comprised of two distinct phases in the Cenozoic era. An early stage of rifting began in the mid-Oligocene (~30 Ma) and lasted until the early Miocene (~18 Ma), followed by a lull and then an apparent reactivation along previous zones of weakness during a separate extension event in the late Miocene (~10 Ma), which continues today. The rift now extends more than 1000 km in length, trending north-south from Southern Colorado through New Mexico and Western Texas and into Chihuahua, Mexico. Structure of the rift is complex due to its multiple events of extension. The LA RISTRA seismic study (1999-2006) deployed broadband seismographs on a transect from Texas to Utah to investigate the structure and processes that control the Rift. Among other results, they found distinct differences in orientation of the fast polarization direction, as measured from SKS splitting, in the three main regions: the Colorado Plateau, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Great Plains. In 2008 71 EarthScope FlexArray stations were installed between Transportable Array stations to form a broad 2D deployment on the eastern flank of the RGR in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas as part of the SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Associated with the Rio Grande Rift) study. SKS splitting measurements from these, as well as from TA stations in the vicinity, show a more complex 2D pattern, but one which conforms with variations in crustal thickness and velocity anomalies in the uppermost mantle. We will report on these measurements and their implications for the style of convection associated with the RGR.

  13. rio Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-01

    rio Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  14. rio Schenberg: Physicist, politician and art critic

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, M. M.; Reggiani, N.

    2015-12-17

    rio Schenberg is considered one of the greatest theoretical physicists of Brazil. He worked in different fields of physics including thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, general relativity, astrophysics and mathematics. He was assistant of the Ukrainian naturalized Italian physicist Gleb Wataghin and worked with prestigious physicists like as the Brazilians José Leite Lopes and César Lattes, the Russian-born American George Gamow and the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Besides, he was also an active politician and critic of art.

  15. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  16. Rio Grande Rift GPS Measurements 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, H.; Sheehan, A. F.; Nerem, R.; Choe, J.; Lowry, A. R.; Roy, M.; Blume, F.; Murray, M.

    2009-12-01

    We use three years of measurements from 25 continuous GPS stations across the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico and Colorado to estimate surface velocities, time series, baselines, and strain rates. The stations are part of the EarthScope Rio Grande Rift experiment, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of New Mexico, and Utah State University. The network includes 5 east-west station profiles transecting the rift, with the southernmost line in southern New Mexico and the northernmost line in northern Colorado. Most of the stations have shallow-drilled braced monuments installed in 2006-2007 and will remain occupied until 2010-2011 or longer. We also estimate station coordinates and velocities from the 2001 and 2008 High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) campaigns conducted in Colorado. Initial 72-hour observations were made in the summer of 2001 and were repeated in the summer of 2008. Data from regional Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations are included in the processing to increase station density and extend profiles further to the east and west of the Rio Grande Rift. We use GAMIT/GLOBK to process regional sub-networks that share several common sites well determined in the Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF). These common sites are used as a tie between the sub-networks and SNARF. Our time series from the first three years of the experiment show excellent monument stability. We have solved for baseline distance as a function of time across each of these lines. Despite what might be expected for a rigid Colorado Plateau moving away from rigid North America about a pole near Colorado, we find no evidence of an increase in Rio Grande Rift opening to the south. Our results suggest that steady-state extension across the rift from northern Colorado to southern New Mexico has an upper bound less than ~1 mm/yr with strain rates less than ~20 nanostrain/yr, although these results are still preliminary

  17. Assessing the preparedness of research integrity officers (RIOs) to appropriately handle possible research misconduct cases.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Arthur J; Titus, Sandra L; Wright, David E

    2012-12-01

    Institutions receiving federal funding for research from the U.S.Public Health Service need to have policies and procedures to both prevent research misconduct and to adjudicate it when it occurs. The person who is designated to handle research misconduct is typically referred to as the research integrity officer (RIO). In this interview study we report on 79 RIOs who describe how they would handle allegations of research misconduct. Their responses were compared to two expert RIOs. The responses to the allegations in the scenarios demonstrated that RIOs are not uniformly well prepared to handle activities associated with reported allegations of research misconduct. We recommend greater preparation through directed training, use of check lists of possible behaviors necessary to consider when situations arise, being involved in a network of RIOs so one can discuss options, and the possible need to certify RIOs.

  18. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    ER D C /E L SR -0 5- 1 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande... Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004 Chetta S. Owens Analytical Services Inc. Lewisville Aquatic Ecosystem Research Facility U.S. Army Engineer...Reclamation, Denver, CO. Owens, C. S., Grodowitz, M. J., and Nibling, F. (2005). “A survey of the invasive aquatic and riparian plants of the lower Rio

  19. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  20. Multifractal prediction of hydrological extremes and the RIO research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Hubert, P.; Bendjoudi, H.; Lovejoy, S.

    2004-05-01

    One of the main research themes of the current RIO (Risque Inondation / Flood Risk) program of the Ministry of Environment in France is the prediction of extreme hydrological events and the development of new tools for their prediction, prevention and alert. Deterministic models based on various physical and/or statistical approaches are still not capable to capture the phenomena of extreme precipitation and floods. It is well known that one of the main difficulties for the description of hydro-meteorological extremes is the colossal variability of their intensities over a wide range of space-time scales. To contribute to the RIO program, our group uses the multifractal framework not only to explain the power-law fall-off of probability distributions for hydrological-meteorological extremes, but also to explore a link between the observed variability and the underlying physics. We analyze space-time distributions of precipitation and discharges over widely different hydrological regions. A multifractal data analysis performed in the space-time domain produces - amongst other results - a physically-based tool for the clear distinction and multifractal description of flash-floods. We illustrate these methods on two recent flooding events in France: the Abbeville phreatic floods in 2001 and the flash floods in Gard in 2002.

  1. Multifractal forecast of hydrological extremes in the RIO research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjoudi, H.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Hubert, P.; Biaou, A.; Lovejoy, S.

    2003-04-01

    One of the main research axes of the current RIO (Risque Inondation) program of the Ministry of Environment in France is the general forecast of extreme hydrological events and the development of new tools for their prediction, prevention and alert. Deterministic models based on various physical and/or statistical approaches are still not capable to capture the phenomena of extreme precipitation and floods. It is well known that one of the main difficulties for the description of hydro-meteorological extremes is the colossal variability of their intensities over a wide range of space-time scales. To contribute to the RIO program, our group uses the multifractal framework not only to explain the power-law fall-off of probability distributions for hydrological-meteorological extremes, but also to explore a connection of the observed variability with the physics. We analyze space-time distributions of precipitation and discharges over different hydrological regions. A multifractal data analysis performed in the space-time domain produces - amongst other things - a physically-based tool for the clear distinction and multifractal description of flash-floods. We illustrate these methods on two recent flooding events in France: the Abbeville phreatic floods in 2001 and the flash floods in Gard in 2002.

  2. [Urban sporotrichosis: a neglected epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares da; Costa, Mônica Motta de Mattos; Torres, Carla Carrilho da Silva; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar F M; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de

    2012-10-01

    In the scientific literature, sporotrichosis has traditionally been associated with agricultural work, since the causative agent is found naturally in the soil. However, cases have been reported recently in an urban area, related to zoonotic transmission. The current study aimed to contribute to knowledge on sporotrichosis in an urban area through an exploratory analysis of its socio-spatial distribution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2007, identifying the areas with the heaviest transmission. The database from the Health Surveillance Service at the Evandro Chagas Institute for Clinical Research, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was used to estimate incidence rates and spatial distribution. During the study period, 1,848 cases of sporotrichosis were reported, predominantly in adult women not currently in the labor market. The leading source of infection was wounds caused by domestic cats, which contributed to the spread of sporotrichosis in this urban area. Georeferencing of 1,681 cases showed a transmission belt along the border between the city of Rio de Janeiro and the adjacent municipalities in the Greater Metropolitan Area.

  3. The Ocean Sciences RIOS REU Site at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassle, J. P.; Ammerman, J. W.; Quinlan, J. A.; Deluca, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University recently completed the first year of its new NSF Ocean Sciences-supported REU site. This program is called RIOS, for Research Internships in Ocean Sciences. The program enrolled 15 students for a 10-week program, 11 located on the New Brunswick campus, and 4 at the Tuckerton field station. NSF funds supported ten of these students and funds from several other sources supported the other five students. All students participated in the group activities during the first and last weeks and periodically throughout the summer. One day of the first week was devoted to a Hudson River plume cruise, which introduced the students to river plume systems and provided data for a group project. Students pursued a variety of individual research projects with faculty mentors, explored the use of MATLAB for data analysis, and collaborated in the analysis of the Hudson plume data. The program culminated in a poster session with presentations of all the individual projects. This presentation will present highlights of the RIOS program, discuss its successes and areas for improvement, and outline plans for next summer.

  4. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  5. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization.

  6. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  7. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  8. [Temporary workers' perceptions of occupational risks in the port of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul Andrés; Almeida, Tabajara Lucas de; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Costa, Valdecir Zavarese da

    2008-06-01

    This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study in the port of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aimed at identifying occupational risk perceptions in a sample of 306 temporary dockworkers. Most temporary dockworkers (93.46%) acknowledged the existence of health risks on the job, independently of schooling (p = 0.44) and job activity (p = 0.47). Risks identified by temporary workers as a whole included falling of suspended objects (8.43 +/- 2.47), noise (8.06 +/- 2.32), and bad weather conditions (8.05 +/- 2.48). Risks that varied significantly between jobs were: noise (p = 0.00), lifting loads manually (p = 0.00), work tools (p = 0,00), insufficient number of work team members (p = 0.03), extra wages based on productivity (p = 0.00), work pace (p = 0.01), working on scaffolding and other high areas (p = 0.00), workers moving on top of cargo (p = 0.00), and ship's ladders and gangways (p = 0.00). The study corroborated that temporary dock work is unhealthy and hazardous, and that the risks affect workers according to the specific jobs they perform.

  9. Quantifying Ichthyofaunal Zonation and Species Richness along a 2800 km Reach of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande (U.S.A.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ichthyofaunal zonation occurs when lotic fishes are partitioned into distinct assemblages, usually in response to longitudinally distributed habitats. Several studies have documented zonation within the Rio Grande, but this is the first to quantitatively test the zonation hypothe...

  10. Effects of reservoir installation, San Juan-Chama Project water, and reservoir operations on streamflow and water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, 1938-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    The coordinated operation of Heron, El Vado, and Abiquiu Dams on the Rio Chama and Cochiti Dam on the Rio Grande and the importation of Colorado River Basin water by the San Juan-Chama Project have altered streamflow and water quality of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande in northern and central New Mexico. The coordinated retention of streamflow in the four reservoirs increased median streamflows, decreased extreme flows, and decreased periods of small streamflow; inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water increased overall streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. These changes to streamflow decreased specific conductance and suspended-sediment concentration and increased pH in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande. Following construction of Heron and Cochiti Dams and integration of reservoir operations on the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande, the inflow of San Juan-Chama Project water and retention of snowmelt runoff influenced water quality. These influences varied by season because reservoir releases fluctuated according to downstream user needs and annual streamflow variation. The influences of San Juan-Chama Project water and retained snowmelt on water quality diminished with downstream flow as the Rio Grande was subjected to various natural and anthropogenic inflows. Because of the variability and type of seasonal influences, streamflow did not have a strong annual correlation with water quality in the Rio Chama or the Rio Grande.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of diversification on the Amazon: A test of the riverine hypothesis for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and Rio Branco in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boubli, Jean P; Ribas, Camila; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Alfaro, Michael E; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Pinho, Gabriela M; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The role of Amazonian rivers as drivers of speciation through vicariance remains controversial. Here we explore the riverine hypothesis by comparing spatial and temporal concordances in pattern of diversification for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and its largest tributary, Rio Branco. We built a comprehensive comparative phylogenetic timetree to identify sister lineages of primates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences from 94 samples, including 19 of the 20 species of diurnal primates from our study region and 17 related taxa from elsewhere. Of the ten primate genera found in this region, three had populations on opposite banks of Rio Negro that formed reciprocally monophyletic clades, with roughly similar divergence times (Cebus: 1.85 Ma, HPD 95% 1.19-2.62; Callicebus: 0.83 Ma HPD 95% 0.36-1.32, Cacajao: 1.09 Ma, 95% HPD 0.58-1.77). This also coincided with time of divergence of several allopatric species of Amazonian birds separated by this river as reported by other authors. Our data offer support for the riverine hypothesis and for a Plio-Pleistocene time of origin for Amazonian drainage system. We showed that Rio Branco was an important geographical barrier, limiting the distribution of six primate genera: Cacajao, Callicebus, Cebus to the west and Pithecia, Saguinus, Sapajus to the east. The role of this river as a vicariant agent however, was less clear. For example, Chiropotes sagulata on the left bank of the Rio Branco formed a clade with C. chiropotes from the Amazonas Department of Venezuela, north of Rio Branco headwaters, with C. israelita on the right bank of the Rio Branco as the sister taxon to C. chiropotes+C. sagulata. Although we showed that the formation of the Rio Negro was important in driving diversification in some of our studied taxa, future studies including more extensive sampling of markers across the genome would help determine what processes contributed to the evolutionary history of the remaining primate genera.

  12. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil, with comments on a putative case of polymorphic Batesian mimicry.

    PubMed

    Zanata, A M; Birindelli, J L O; Moreira, C R

    2009-12-01

    A new species of Moenkhausia is described from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except from Moenkhausia moisae, by having more scales in the lateral series, 43-47 (v. 23-41 in the remaining congeners). The new species is distinguished from M. moisae by its colour pattern, which consists of a dark midlateral stripe, and an asymmetrical caudal blotch (inconspicuous or faded in specimens from the Rio Arinos) continuous with the midlateral stripe (v. narrow dark midlateral line and conspicuous, regularly rounded and symmetrical blotch not continuous with the midlateral line). The new species is putatively assumed to be mimetic to Jupiaba apenima, in the Rio Xingu and Rio Teles Pires drainages, and to Jupiaba yarina in the Rio Arinos. The two species of Jupiaba are sympatric and remarkably similar in size, general external morphology and colouration to the new species. A small difference occurs in the colouration between the two species of Jupiaba and is also observed in the two respectively sympatric morphotypes of the new species of Moenkhausia. The occurrence of polymorphic Batesian mimicry is therefore discussed for neotropical freshwater fishes.

  13. Entrepreneurship in the Engineering Curriculum: Some Initial Results of PUC-Rio's Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranha, Jose Alberto S.; Pimenta-Bueno, J. A.; Scavarda do Carmo, Luiz Carlos; da Silveira, Marcos A.

    The ideal of the entrepreneurial spirit has played a key role in shaping the current reform of engineering education at the Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio). The previous paradigm of a science-based conceptual engineer has given place to what may be termed a science-based entrepreneurial engineer. This paper discusses…

  14. 75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... (mi)) reach of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico, downstream of Cochiti Dam to the headwaters of Elephant Butte Reservoir. In December 2008, silvery minnows were introduced into the Rio Grande River near Big Bend, Texas, as a nonessential, experimental population under section 10(j) of the ESA (December...

  15. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  16. Basic Education in the Lower Rio Grande Valley: Human Capital Development or a Colonial System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This report describes economic, social, and political characteristics of the lower Rio Grande Valley with implications for the educational system, and presents preliminary findings on how south Texas schools are integrating new immigrant Mexican students. The lower Rio Grande Valley comprises four Texas counties and northern Tamaulipas, Mexico.…

  17. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  18. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY (COMMUNITY SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was done to determine if movement of air pollutants across the U.S.-Mexico border was occurring in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (hereinafter called "the Valley") and, if so, the extent. The study w...

  19. Letter Report: Rio Blanco Sampling of Proximate Producing Natural Gas Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Clay Cooper; Craig Shirley

    2004-04-01

    Two wells proximate to the Rio Blanco gas stimulation test were sampled and the gas analyzed. The samples from two wells showed no tritium above the detection limit concentrations of 10 and 12.4 (TU), respectively. The analytical results from the gas production wells show no impact from the Rio Blanco nuclear test

  20. Social Entrepreneurs in Rio De Janeiro: Learning Experiences and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how social entrepreneurs dedicated to violence prevention in Rio de Janeiro learn to take on the role of a social entrepreneur. Based on a two-tiered interview process with 27 social entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro conducted over a period of nine months, the study explores the breadth of…

  1. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  2. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  3. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  4. 40 CFR 81.83 - Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.83 Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) is revised to... Air Quality Control Region. 81.83 Section 81.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.239 Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the... Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

  7. STEM education for teachers in the Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Judit Gyorgyey; Baguio, Margaret R.

    2015-11-01

    We have worked with elementary and middle school teachers in the Rio Grande Valley for the last 10 years bringing Earth and Space Science themed workshops to underserved areas of Texas. The Texas curriculum was also changed to include Astronomy and Space Science requirement in the tests students need to take to prove their academic preparedness. The teachers worked through a variety of inquiry-based, hands-on activities after a short presentation on the background science. In order to evaluate our effectiveness, we have asked the teachers to take pre- and post-workshop tests, and we asked them to fill out a self-reflective survey. We will report on our experiences, what works best with the teachers, and in what areas we still have a long way to go.This work was supported by various NASA education grants and Cooperative agreements, as well as grants provided by the Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  8. Being Yoruba in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra Lauderdale

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiences of two West Africans shipped to Bahia as slaves, probably in the 1840s, then sold south to Rio de Janeiro where they met, became lovers, bought their freedom, married, and divorced, I comment on an ongoing debate over the refashioning or transfer of African ethnic identities in American slave societies. The sources in this Brazilian case suggest that previous identities were not suddenly erased, but rather, new layers of understanding and ways of responding were added. Whatever the dynamic of cultural formation, it was memory that crucially bridged the distance between the past they carried with them and the present into which they were thrust; and so it becomes illuminating to reconstruct the plausibly remembered African pasts on which this couple drew to make sense of an unfamiliar Brazilian present.

  9. A groundwater convection model for Rio Grande rift geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Harder, V.; Daggett, P. H.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that forced convection, driven by normal groundwater flow through the interconnected basins of the Rio Grande rift is the primary source mechanism for the numerous geothermal anomalies along the rift. A test of this concept using an analytical model indicates that significant forced convection must occur in the basins even if permeabilities are as low as 50-200 millidarcies at a depth of 2 km. Where groundwater flow is constricted at the discharge areas of the basins forced convection can locally increase the gradient to a level where free convection also occurs, generating surface heat flow anomalies 5-15 times background. A compilation of groundwater data for the rift basins shows a strong correlation between constrictions in groundwater flow and hot springs and geothermal anomalies, giving strong circumstantial support to the convection model.

  10. Climate Change Impacts in the Upper Rio Grande Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, T.; Siegfried, T. U.; Sellars, S. L.; Schlager, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US Southwest, evidence of increased future drought severity and duration in the context of climate change has been detected. Considering the already difficult water distribution and allocation strategies within the region, we are investigating the Costilla Creek, a tributary to the Rio Grande. The catchment is located in Costilla county in Colorado from where on runoff is crossing boundaries between Colorado and New Mexico three times before its confluence with the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Water allocation is governed by an interstate compact between Colorado and New Mexico. While the states have been relatively successful in complying with the compact’s allocation rules, the Costilla Creek catchment has experienced interstate upstream/downstream conflict, mainly during irrigation seasons. Whether or not the states will be able to avert conflict in the future and maintain compliance with the compact, is a critical question. The situation in the relatively small catchment is not unique. Various interstate watersheds, including the entire Rio Grande basin, the La Plata, Arkansas, and Colorado, are expected to face similar impacts from climate change, yet the water compacts that govern them may not be structured to adapt to these conditions. Looking at the Costilla Creek offers a valuable starting point for understanding how to model these effects across various basins. We have developed a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model including snow storage of the Costilla Creek watershed. Temperature and precipitation data from NCRS - SNOTEL stations together with USGS gauging station data were utilized for model calibration and validation. ISCCP solar radiation data and temperature data were used to estimate irrigation water demand in irrigated agriculture. The model is driven by the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. GCM ensemble averaged temperature / precipitation trends were extracted for the upper Rio Grande region. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a

  11. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-05-06

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani).

  12. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  13. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  15. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  16. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  17. The Link between Protein Kinase CK2 and Atypical Kinase Rio1

    PubMed Central

    Kubiński, Konrad; Masłyk, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    The atypical kinase Rio1 is widespread in many organisms, ranging from Archaebacteria to humans, and is an essential factor in ribosome biogenesis. Little is known about the protein substrates of the enzyme and small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase. Protein kinase CK2 was the first interaction partner of Rio1, identified in yeast cells. The enzyme from various sources undergoes CK2-mediated phosphorylation at several sites and this modification regulates the activity of Rio1. The aim of this review is to present studies of the relationship between the two different kinases, with respect to CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rio1, regulation of Rio1 activity, and similar susceptibility of the kinases to benzimidazole inhibitors. PMID:28178206

  18. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  19. Streamflow and water-quality trends of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, water years 1985 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Nolan, Emma O.

    2005-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque plans to divert San Juan-Chama Project water from the Rio Grande for potable water use. This report examines streamflow and water-quality trends in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande for water years 1985 to 2002 following the implementation of reservoir storage agreements in northern and central New Mexico. Streamflow/water-quality stations used for this study include the Rio Grande stations of Taos, Otowi, San Felipe, and Albuquerque and the Rio Chama station of Chamita. Water years 1985 to 2002 were a period of larger than average precipitation and streamflow compared to the stations. historical averages. Annual precipitation and streamflow trended downward during the study period because of a drought during 1999 to 2002. Streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande was divided into three distinct seasonal periods that corresponded to natural and anthropogenic influences: fall/winter baseflow (November through February), snowmelt runoff (March through June), and the irrigation/monsoon (July through October) seasons. A calcium bicarbonate water type was evident at all study area stations on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. Specific conductance increased downstream, but alkalinity and pH did not substantially change in the downstream direction. Nearly all nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were less than 1 milligram per liter for all stations. Median trace-element concentrations and maximum radionuclide concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Anthropogenic compounds were infrequently detected in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, and concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande varied spatially and temporally during water years 1985 to 2002. Specific conductance increased downstream in the Rio Grande during the fall/winter baseflow and snowmelt runoff seasons but was similar at the Taos, Otowi, and San Felipe stations during the irrigation/monsoon season. This similarity was a

  20. Resolving the Latemar Controversy: a new magnetostratigraphy at Rio Sacuz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Z.; Kodama, K. P.

    2011-12-01

    A new magnetostratigraphic study of the Middle Triassic Ambata, Plattenkalke, and Knollenkalke Formations at Rio Sacuz, northern Italy, suggests a depositional duration of ~1 my for the entire Latemar Platform, effectively resolving the debate informally known as "the Latemar Controversy." This debate is framed around an order of magnitude discrepancy in the depositional durations suggested by cyclostratigraphic (~12 my) and geochronologic (~1 my) methods (Preto et al, 2001; Mundil et al., 2003). Since a previous magnetostratigraphic study (Kent et al. 2004) of the Latemar was affected by lightning strikes, this study determined the magnetostratigraphy of a correlative section unaffected by lightning. Horizons were collected approximately every meter throughout the 70 m section in order to take into account the limiting hypothesis of the long depositional duration, which gives the smallest stratigraphic chron thickness (~3m). At least three individually oriented samples were collected with a gasoline-powered sampling drill from each horizon, for a total of 65 sites and 213 samples. The organic-rich, muddy, pelagic limestone samples were thermally demagnetized in 25°C temperature steps from 100°C up to 550°C and measured with a superconducting magnetometer to isolate their characteristic remanence. Most samples were completely demagnetized by 400°C, however, approximately 10% of the samples were not demagnetized until 500°C. Vector endpoint diagrams show good linear trends into the origin for 90% of samples. A N-R-N-R sequence was observed at Rio Sacuz with 1n (0-27 m), 1r (27-36 m), 2n (36-62 m) and 2r (62-65 m) in contrast to predominately one polarity for the Kent et al. (2004) study. Thermal demagnetization of orthogonal IRMs applied in 1 T and 0.16 T fields indicates that the magnetic carriers were greigite and magnetite. The greigite and magnetite carry the same paleomagnetic direction, suggesting a primary depositional remanence for the magnetite and

  1. Implication of the RD(Rio) Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage in multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Susana; Duarte, Elsa L; Leite, Clarice Queico Fugimura; Ribeiro, João-Nuno; Maio, José-Nuno; Paixão, Eleonora; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; Germano de Sousa, José

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug and extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis are a threat to tuberculosis control programs. Genotyping methods, such as spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units), are useful in monitoring potentially epidemic strains and estimating strain phylogenetic lineages and/or genotypic families. M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family is a major worldwide contributor to tuberculosis (TB). LAM specific molecular markers, Ag85C(103) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and RD(Rio) long-sequence polymorphism (LSP), were used to characterize spoligotype signatures from 859 patient isolates from Portugal. LAM strains were found responsible for 57.7% of all tuberculosis cases. Strains with the RD(Rio) deletion (referred to as RD(Rio)) were estimated to represent 1/3 of all the strains and over 60% of the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The major spoligotype signature SIT20 belonging to the LAM1 RD(Rio) sublineage, represented close to 1/5th of all the strains, over 20% of which were MDR. Analysis of published datasets according to stipulated 12loci MIRU-VNTR RD(Rio) signatures revealed that 96.3% (129/134) of MDR and extensively drug resistant (XDR) clusters were RD(Rio). This is the first report associating the LAM RD(Rio) sublineage with MDR. These results are an important contribution to the monitoring of these strains with heightened transmission for future endeavors to arrest MDR-TB and XDR-TB.

  2. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. Results A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester

  3. Software Development for a CompactRIO-Based Wire Scanner Control and Data Acquisition SYstem

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James Daniel

    2012-05-16

    The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is developing a wire scanner data acquisition and control system with a National Instrument's compactRIO at its core. For this application, the compactRIO controller not only requires programming the FPGA and RT computer internal to the compactRIO, but also requires programming a client computer and a touch panel display. This article will summarize the hardware interfaces and describe the software design approach utilized for programming and interfacing the four systems together in order to fulfill the design requirements and promote reliable interoperability.

  4. Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental Change and Contamination in the Nuclear Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipnik, Mark

    Plutonium and the Rio Grande begins with an evocative description of the tranquility that prevailed along the Rio Grande in the halcyon days before the Manhattan Project changed the environment of this corner of New Mexico forever. Graf presents a methodology for studying the environmental impacts of the plutonium releases from facilities at Los Alamos. Specifically, he quantifies releases of various isotopes of plutonium and tracks their fate in the sediments and water bodies of the Rio Grande. Despite access to ample reliable data, his task is challenging: it requires regional-scale analysis and applications of techniques from disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology, environmental chemistry, plant physiology, and historical research.

  5. Upwarp of anomalous asthenosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, E.C.; Davis, P.M.; Evans, J.R.; Iyer, H.M.; Olsen, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Continental rifts are possible analogues of mid-ocean ridges, although major plate tectonic features are less clearly observed1. Current thermal models of mid-ocean ridges2-4 consist of solid lithospheric plates overlying the hotter, less viscous asthenosphere, with plate thickness increasing away from the ridge axis. The lithospheric lower boundary lies at or near the melting point isotherm, so that at greater depths higher temperatures account for lower viscosity, lower seismic velocities and possibly partial melting. Upwarp of this boundary at the ridge axis concentrates heat there, thus lowering densities by expansion and raising the sea floor to the level of thermal isostatic equilibrium. At slow spreading ridges, a major central graben forms owing to the mechanics of magma injection into the crust5. Topography, heat flow, gravity and seismic studies support these models. On the continents, a low-velocity channel has been observed, although it is poorly developed beneath ancient cratons6-9. Plate tectonic models have been applied to continental basins and margins10-12, but further similarities to the oceanic models remain elusive. Topographic uplift is often ascribed to Airy type isostatic compensation caused by crustal thickening, rather than thermal compensation in the asthenosphere. Here we discuss the Rio Grande rift, in southwestern United States. Teleseismic P-wave residuals show that regional uplift is explained by asthenosphere uplift rather than crustal thickening. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Comparison Between Water Level and Precipitation in Rio Negro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuolo, G. C.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Correia, F.; Oliveira, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon Basin holds a lot of difficulties for providing data that enable regional researching works, because of its large extension and for having areas, whose access is very difficult. Remote sensing data presents an excellent way for monitoring the Amazon Basin and collecting data for researches. This current study aims matching radar altimetry data from the JASON-2, with the rainfall data from the TRMM satellite in order to analyze the relation between the water level and the precipitation in two different points along the Rio Negro Basin. After data analysis, it was possible noting a difference on the responding process for both regions. Whilst at the NEGRO_089_03 station (located in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira) the graphic of precipitation and water level were very similar, in NEGRO_063 station (located in the city of Manaus) the graphic showed a two month discrepancy due to the difference of the river's bottom size in both regions, at NEGRO_089_03's area for having a smaller river and the water level rises faster, whereas in NEGRO_063 the water level takes about two months to respond to precipitation.

  7. Hydrological and Meteorological Disturbances in Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, J. R.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive species and ecohydrological disturbances are imperiling native riparian ecosystems. Adaptable, resilient exotic competitors including tamarisk have colonized many waterways in the western US. Alteration of the natural flow regime due to water diversions is expected to be exacerbated by climate change in this region, confounding restoration efforts. Climate change may also increase the likelihood of other disturbances, including extreme weather events (drought, floods, temperatures). We investigate how hydrological and meteorological variability impact water use by tamarisk communities that have overtaken native riparian vegetation. We have collected more than a decade of complete growing season eddy covariance evapotranspiration (ET) and water table (WT) elevation data at two sites along the Rio Grande corridor of central New Mexico, USA. Conditions have ranged from extreme drought to exceedingly wet years with extensive overbank flooding, and from record setting warm to cold temperatures. Severe to extreme droughts persisted throughout 2002 and 2003. Abundant snowpacks and wetter conditions led to extensive flooding early in the 2005 and 2008 growing seasons. Along with a return to intense drought conditions, extreme temperatures struck New Mexico in 2011. A deep freeze in early February followed by an extraordinarily late, extended hard freeze at the onset of the growing season was then succeeded by the warmest summer in the state's 117 year record. We present how water use by the replacement communities responds to droughts, flooding, and extreme temperatures, all of which are expected to increase in frequency, and speculate how these disturbances will affect native riparian ecosystems.

  8. Extreme Drought Conditions in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Dracup, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Treaty of February 3, 1944 entitled "Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande" between the U.S. and Mexico regulates the distribution of flows of the rivers between these two countries. The treaty is based on hydrological data available up to 1944. Using new (historical and paleoclimatological) data, the water balance presented in the Treaty is re-examinated and the 431,721,000 m3/year allocation for USA during "extreme drought conditions" is re-evaluated. The authors define "extreme drought conditions" for this basin and a hydrological drought analysis is carried out using a streamflow simulation model. The analysis is complemented with an analysis of the effects of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on precipitation and streamflow. The results of this research will be applicable to potential changes in the current water resources management policies on the basin. Given the social, economical and political importance of this basin, the findings of this research potentially will have significant impacts. This research is founded by the NSF fund SAHRA (Science and Technology Center to study and promote the "Sustainability of Water Resources in Semi-Arid Regions" at the University of Arizona).

  9. Industrial hygiene sampling at Rio Blanco oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.; Vigil, E.A.; Royer, G.W.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-02-01

    The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC) facility, in its early stages of development, provided the unique opportunity to sample a Modified In-Situ (MIS) operation during the preparation phase of the first retort, during pyrolysis, and during preparation of a subsequent retort. Industrial hygiene measurements were made in the lowest (G) level (835 feet) of the mine, prior to and during the first 30 days of the Retort Zero burn. These measurements were designed to define and characterize potential inhalation exposures associated with the MIS shale oil recovery process. This information, along with bulk samples of oil shale materials and products, was provided for use in laboratory toxicological studies. Gas and vapor samples of the compounds of interest were all much below threshold limit values (TLV) both before and after retort zero ignition although slightly elevated after ignition. Airborne dust concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 mg/m/sup 3/ at sizes of 0.3- to 5.2-..mu..m mass median aerodynamic diameter and alpha quartz content ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 percent. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons were found in relatively low concentrations with the anthracene/phenanthrene mixture at the highest level of 0.6 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The wetness and ventilation in this mine apparently helped control airborne contaminant concentrations below their TLV values.

  10. [Newborn hearing screening in Rio de Janeiro's municipal network, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Priscila Tavares; Goldbach, Márcia Goldfeld; Monteiro, Márcia Cavadas; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Hearing deficiencies are a prevalent disease and justify the need for regulation of the Laws and their execution through Hearing Health Care Ordinances. In line with public policies, maternity hospitals that were part of the network began to implement the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) service, as had occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The otoacoustic emissions test is used for NHS as it is a rapid and highly reliable method that is easy to perform and gives objective results. The scope of this article is to get fully acquainted with the assistance and care for the hearing health of newborns in maternity wards of the Municipal Health Grid. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis with frequency distribution, and was conducted at SMS-RJ Maternity hospitals that perform NHS. Three maternity hospitals with NHS (A, B and C) were identified, in which 1,865 live newborns were recorded. Of this total, 40.5% performed the NHS exam. In maternity hospitals A and B, the NHS exam was applied to 54.6%, of which 97.3% passed and only 1.8% failed and needed to be referred to the high complexity unit. The NHS is the initial stage of the Hearing Health Care Program for the newborn. It is important that the NHS services should be fully integrated into the network through the Hearing Health Care Program.

  11. Mantle water contents beneath the Rio Grande Rift (NM, USA): FTIR analysis of Rio Puerco and Kilbourne Hole peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, L. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Brandon, A. D.; Selverstone, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths from the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) are being analyzed for H2O contents by FTIR as well as for major and trace element compositions. Nine samples are from the Rio Puerco Volcanic Field (RP) which overlaps the central RGR and southeastern Colorado Plateau; seventeen samples are from Kilbourne Hole (KH) in the southern RGR. Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.08-0.46) and olivine Mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.883-0.911) of samples fall within the olivine-spinel mantle array from [1], an indicator that these are residues of partial melting. Pyroxene H2O contents in KH correlate with bulk rock and pyroxene Al2O3 contents. The KH clinopyroxene rare earth element (REE) variations fit models of 0-13% fractional melting of a primitive upper mantle. Most KH peridotites have bulk-rock light REE depleted patterns, but five are enriched in light REEs consistent with metasomatism. Variation in H2O content seems unrelated to REE enrichment. Metasomatism is seen in RP pyroxenite xenoliths [2] and will be examined in the peridotites studied here. Olivine H2O contents are low (≤20 ppm), and decrease from core to rim within grains. This is likely due to H loss during xenolith transport by the host magma [3]. Diffusion models of H suggest that mantle H2O contents are still preserved in cores of KH olivine, but not those of RP olivine. The average H2O content of Colorado Plateau clinopyroxene (670 ppm) [4] is ~300 ppm higher than RGR clinopyroxene (350 ppm). This upholds the hypothesis that hydration-induced lithospheric melting occurred during flat-slab subduction of the Farallon plate [5]. Numerical models indicate hydration via slab fluids is possible beneath the plateau, ~600 km from the paleo-trench, but less likely ~850 km away beneath the rift [6]. [1]Arai, 1994 CG 113, 191-204.[2]Porreca et al., 2006 Geosp 2, 333-351.[3]Peslier and Luhr, 2006 EPSL 242, 302-319.[4]Li et al., 2008 JGR 113, 1978-2012.[5]Humphreys et al., 2003 Int Geol Rev 45, 575-595.[6]English et al., 2003 EPSL

  12. Mantle Water Contents Beneath the Rio Grande Rift (NM, USA): FTIR Analysis of Rio Puerco and Kilbourne Hole Peridotite Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L. A.; Peslier, A. H.; Brandon, A.; Selverstone, J.

    2015-01-01

    Peridotite xenoliths from the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) are being analyzed for H (sub 2) O contents by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) as well as for major and trace element compositions. Nine samples are from the Rio Puerco Volcanic Field (RP) which overlaps the central RGR and southeastern Colorado Plateau; seventeen samples are from Kilbourne Hole (KH) in the southern RGR. Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al)) (0.08-0.46) and olivine Mg# (Mg/(Mg plus Fe)) (0.883-0.911) of all RGR samples fall within the olivine-spinel mantle array from [1], an indicator that peridotites are residues of partial melting. Pyroxene H (sub 2) O in KH correlate with bulk rock and pyroxene Al (sub 2) O (sub 3).The KH clinopyroxene rare earth element (REE) variations fit models of 0-13 percent fractional melting of a primitive upper mantle. Most KH peridotites have bulk-rock light REE depleted patterns, but five are enriched in light REEs consistent with metasomatism. Variation in H (sub 2) O content is unrelated to REE enrichment. Metasomatism is seen in RP pyroxenite xenoliths [2] and will be examined in the peridotites studied here. Olivine H (sub 2) O contents are low (less than or equal to 15 parts per million), and decrease from core to rim within grains. This is likely due to H loss during xenolith transport by the host magma [3]. Diffusion models of H suggest that mantle H (sub 2) O contents are still preserved in cores of KH olivine, but not RP olivine. The average H (sub 2) O content of Colorado Plateau clinopyroxene (670 parts per million) [4] is approximately 300 parts per million higher than RGR clinopyroxene (350 parts per million). This upholds the hypothesis that hydration-induced lithospheric melting occurred during flat-slab subduction of the Farallon plate [5]. Numerical models indicate hydration via slab fluids is possible beneath the plateau, approximately 600 kilometers from the paleo-trench, but less likely approximately 850 kilometers away beneath the rift [6].

  13. Configuration and Correlation of Fluvial Terrace Deposits In the Lower Rio Salado Valley: A Record of Magmatic Uplift and Active Normal Faulting in the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, B. D.; Axen, G. J.; Phillips, F. M.; Harrison, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Salado is a western tributary of the Rio Grande whose valley is flanked by six major terrace levels. The Rio crosses several active rift-related normal faults and the active, mid-crustal Socorro Magma Body (SMB; a sill at 19 km depth that is actively doming the land surface), providing an unusual opportunity to explore the effects of deep magma emplacement and active faulting on the terraces. Rio Salado terraces were mapped using a high-resolution DEM and digital color stereophotographs and were projected onto a valley-parallel vertical plane to construct longitudinal profiles. Three new soil pits were described to aid terrace correlation. A net incision rate of 0.41 ± 0.06 m/ka was inferred from the correlation of a major fill-cut terrace to the 122 ± 18 ka Airport surface ~25 km south of the Rio Salado. This incision rate is >1.5 times more rapid than estimated rates nearby or in other parts of New Mexico, but yields age estimates for other terraces that are consistent with soil development. Terrace gradients in the Rio Salado have increased through time, indicating either stream response to Rio Grande incision or footwall tilting from the Quaternary Loma Blanca fault (LBF). Two terraces in the LBF hanging wall are back-tilted relative to their footwall counterparts, suggesting a listric geometry for the LBF. However, two others (Qtf and Qtc) are east-tilted relative to their footwall counterparts. Both Qtf and Qtc merge eastward with the next youngest terrace in the flight, and Qtc is arched, consistent with an earlier episode of surface uplift above the SMB. Future work will involve (a) additional terrace mapping over the SMB, (b) cosmogenic 36Cl depth profile dating of the Rio Salado terraces to determine incision rates, allow regional terrace correlations, and constrain fault-slip slip rates and the record of SMB-related surface uplift, and (c) numerical modeling of SMB inflation constrained by uplift signals.

  14. New species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Rio Tapajós and Rio Xingu drainages, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marina B; Netto-Ferreira, Andre L

    2015-09-24

    Characidium nana is described from the Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós drainages. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the absence of the inner series of dentary teeth, the absence of the parietal branch of the supraorbital laterosensory canal, the incomplete lateral line, the lack of an adipose fin, the presence of a conspicuous dark blotch on caudal peduncle as well as an evident dark, midlateral stripe, and the presence of 12 circumpeduncular scales. The relationships of the new species and its inclusion among the species of clade C4 are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 25097 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    .... DATES: The meeting will be held from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. on May 29, 2013. ADDRESSES: Rio Grande Water Conservation District, 10900 East U.S. Highway 160, Alamosa, CO 81101. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. Raman Analysis of Sulfate Sequence of Precipitation from Iron-rich Waters of Rio Tinto River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansano, A.; Sobron, P.; Lafuente, B.; Medina, J.; Rull, F.

    2009-03-01

    Rio Tinto area is considered a referent as an extremophilic scenery of iron rich. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that allows studying these. This work shows the aplication of this technique on natural and simulated evaporitic samples.

  17. Workshop on The Rio Grande Rift: Crustal Modeling and Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The elements of a program that could address significant earth science problems by combining remote sensing and traditional geological, geophysical, and geochemical approaches were addressed. Specific areas and tasks related to the Rio Grande Rift are discussed.

  18. Meetings and Events for Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  19. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-de-Brito, Anielly; de Miranda, Rafaella Moraes; Barbosa da Silva, Keli Antunes; de Castro, Marcia Gonçalves; Raphael, Lidiane M. S.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection) from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1). Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population—ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen), head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission. Conclusions/Significance The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti. PMID

  20. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    ER D C /E L TR -0 5- 6 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande...is unlimited. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program ERDC/EL TR-05-6 April 2005 A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the...SUBTITLE A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  1. Analysis of Three Cobble Ring Sites at Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    STAIOANOS -(963- ANALYSIS OF THREE COBBLE RING SITES AT ABIQUIU RESERVOIR, RIO ARRIBA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...Albuquerque District Albuquerque, New Mexico Prepared by Mariah Associates, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico Amy C. Earls, Ph.D. Christopher R. Lintz, Ph.D...Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico Final 6- PERFORMING GO. ~R 7.A-HCRs CONTRACT OR GRAN I .<- Amy C. Earls, Ph.D. Christopher R. Lintz

  2. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  3. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  4. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1) a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2) odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3) a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4) a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5) by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6) a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7) lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8) higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso. PMID:25931967

  5. Population pressure. The road from Rio is paved with factions.

    PubMed

    Holloway, M

    1992-09-01

    Groups focused on women's rights, family planning and health, environmental protection, reduced consumption of natural resources, economic development and population control differ greatly in their views of population pressure's role in preventing sustainable development. Yet, it is these same groups that should be working together to achieve sustainable development. Some speakers at the 1991 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, encouraged world leaders to take immediate steps to deal with population growth and stated that poverty, environment, and population are intertwined. At the same time in the same city, panel participants at the Global Forum, attended by almost 2000 nongovernmental organizations, considered population control as a violation of women's rights, as a means to circumvent poverty eradication in developing countries, and as a means to suppress the poor in developing countries. These debates, whether population control or economic development is the best means to reduce population growth have been occurring since 1968. In the interim, the world population has increased form 3.5-5.5 billion. The population growth rate has fallen from 2-1.7%, however, but 97 million more people will appear on this earth each year during the 1990s. Because any discussion of contraceptives and family planning may be misinterpreted by members as abortion, many environmental groups do not address it. They also fear undertaking immigration issues, since past attempts were labelled as racist. Nevertheless, more and more organizations, e.g., the Natural Resources Defense Council, are beginning to address the need to focus on population growth to prevent environmental degradation. Further, some foundations, e.g., the Pew Charitable Trusts, are offering grants to environmental groups to begin population programs. All too often development plans neglect family health and do not consider the concerns of the target population.

  6. Organic solute profile of water from Rio Blanco Retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Clark, J.A.; Borg, H.M.

    1985-12-01

    Two water samples were taken from the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Retort 1 more than three years after shutdown of the retort burn. The retort had received considerable flushing. These water samples were screened and profiled chromatographically to ascertain the character of the 20 to 30 ppM total organic carbon remaining in each. The waters were found to contain only organophilic solutes above the one-part-per-billion level. Special detection methods with part-per-billion detection limits for selected hydrophilic indicators proved negative for those indicators. Selected indicators ranged from the most hydrophilic (alkanoic acids, alkylamines, and amides) to the least (phenol). The principal species readily identified by either gas chromatography or reversed-phase liquid chromatography were the light polyalkylpyridines and the polyalkylphenols. The two principal individual compounds detected in each water were 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol. The approximate concentrations of each were 200 ppb for a sample taken from the retort center and 400 ppb for a sample taken from the bottom level. It appears that there is a residual oil reservoir in the retort serving as a source of organophilic solutes. Any organic material now passing out of the retort would be highly organophilic and predisposed to deposit on even slightly hydrophobic surfaces such as oil shale or retorted oil shale. Based on the observations in this report, hydrophilic organic solutes may be presumed to be the key indicators for the interaction between oil shale in situ retort effluent and the surrounding environment. Timely monitoring of such sites and development of highly sensitive detection techniques for this class of materials would permit accurate description of migration pathways. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Two new species of Melanorivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Cynolebiidae) from Rio Verde drainage, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Volcan, Matheus Vieira; Klotzel, Bruno; Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause

    2017-02-21

    Two new species of the genus Melanorivulus are herein described from the middle Rio Verde drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both new species are members of the Melanorivulus pictus clade, diagnosed by having ventral process of angulo-articular vestigial and flanks intense greenish blue or greenish golden to purplish blue above anal fin base in males. Melanorivulus nigropunctatus, new species, from wetlands of a small drainage tributary of right side of the Rio Verde, differs from all other congeners by possessing black dots over the head and body in both sexes and pectoral fin orange with a dark grey margin in males. Melanorivulus ofaie, new species, is found in a similar environment, but at the opposite margin of the Rio Verde. It is distinguished by males presenting flank greenish blue to light blue, with seven to nine oblique chevron-like red bars, ventral portion of head whitish with dark brown spots, dorsal fin yellow with two to three transverse broad red oblique stripes and distal region red, anal fin light orangish yellow, basal area light blue with short red bars and distal portion with a dark red margin, and caudal fin yellow or orangish yellow with three to four vertical red bars in the dorsal and middle portions, sometimes with a orange distal margin. Both new species are considered endangered due to the loss and degradation of their habitat.

  8. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  9. Quantifying Nitrogen Sources and Cycling Along the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G.; Brooks, P.; Hogan, J.; Lacey, H.; McDonnell, D.; Zeglin, L.; Mills, S.; Villinski, J.

    2005-05-01

    Synoptic sampling of a 1200km reach of the Upper Rio Grande has been performed in January and August from 2000 to present. The objective of this sampling has been to develop seasonal relationships between discharge, land use, and major water quality parameters including salinity and nutrients. In general, water quality, both salinity and nutrient concentrations, degrades with distance downstream. Increased salinity is explained largely by gradual downstream increase due to evapoconcentration punctuated by localized inputs of saline groundwater. Both total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations gradually increase with distance downstream, however for TDN this trend is punctuated by large, localized inputs primarily from urban areas. Somewhat surprisingly, surface water draining from areas of intensive, irrigated agriculture during the growing season often had lower nutrient and DOC concentrations than the river. Increased spatial and temporal sampling of the 250km reach between Cochiti Dam and Elephant Butte Reservoir was conducted in June, July and August of 2004 to quantify the relationships between agricultural and urban land use and nutrient loading as well as nutrient sinks within the surface water, hyporheic and riparian systems. Summer 2004 data indicate that wastewater treatment plants are the largest and most consistent sources of inorganic nitrogen to the river. In both June and July there was a net removal of nitrogen from the reach as discharge decreased 26%, concentrations decreased 39%, and TDN loads decreased 56%. Interestingly, the diversion of river water for irrigated agriculture reduced discharge 25%, TDN loads 60% and concentrations 47% along the same reach before draining back to the main stem of the river suggesting that agricultural diversions were serving as a sink for nitrogen. However in August, TDN loads were higher in returning drains suggesting that agricultural systems had switched to a net source of

  10. Evaluation of canoe surveys for anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jung, R.E.; Bonine, K.E.; Rosenshield, M.L.; de la Reza, A.; Raimondo, S.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys for amphibians along large rivers pose monitoring and sampling problems. We used canoes at night to spotlight and listen for anurans along four stretches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1998 and 1999. We explored temporal and spatial variation in amphibian counts and species richness and assessed relationships between amphibian counts and environmental variables, as well as amphibian-habitat associations along the banks of the Rio Grande. We documented seven anuran species, but Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) accounted for 96% of the visual counts. Chorus surveys along the river detected similar or fewer numbers of species, but orders of magnitude fewer individuals compared to visual surveys. The number of species varied on average by 37% across monthly and nightly surveys. We found similar average coefficients of variation in counts of Rio Grande leopard frogs on monthly and nightly bases (CVs = 42-44%), suggesting that canoe surveys are a fairly precise technique for counts of this species. Numbers of Rio Grande leopard frogs observed were influenced by river gage levels and air and water temperatures, suggesting that surveys should be conducted under certain environmental conditions to maximize counts and maintain consistency. We found significant differences in species richness and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) counts among the four river stretches. Four rare anuran species were found along certain stretches but not others, which could represent either sampling error or unmeasured environmental or habitat differences among the river stretches. We found a greater association of Rio Grande leopard frogs with mud banks compared to rock or cliff (canyon) areas and with seepwillow and open areas compared to giant reed and other vegetation types. Canoe surveys appear to be a useful survey technique for anurans along the Rio Grande and may work for other large river systems as well.

  11. Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Muriceak, D.R. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the upper Rio Grande at least twice during late Quaternary time. Terminal moraines that are equivalent to Pinedale and Bull Lake stages of ice advance occur at the upstream origin of the terraces. Incision of the Rio Grande river since Pinedale time has resulted in at least three cut terraces that converge downstream. The purpose of this report is to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Rio Grande river valley during its transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions. A total geodetic station provided coordinate and elevation data to correlate the terraces, extrapolate channel geometry through cross sections, and construct longitudinal profiles of the individual terrace surfaces. Measurements of the B-axis length of boulders on both terrace tread surfaces and surfaces within the terrace deposits were used to reconstruct paleoflow hydrology. The coarsest channel morphological features, too large to be deposited by normal glacial outwash, were deposited during a catastrophic outburst flood (after the failure of an ice dammed lake) that produced high discharge.

  12. Monitoring the water quality of the Nation's large rivers: Rio Grande NASQAN Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the water quality in the Rio Grande Basin as part of the redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) since 1995 (Hooper and others, 1997). The NASQAN program was designed to characterize the concentrations and transport of sediment and selected chemical constituents found in the Nation's large rivers-including the Mississippi, Colorado, and Columbia in addition to the Rio Grande. In these four basins, the USGS currently (1998) operates a network of 40 NASQAN sites, with an emphasis on quantifying the mass flux for each constituent (the amount of material moving past the site, expressed in tons per day). By applying a consistent flux-based approach in the Rio Grande Basin, the NASQAN program is generating the information needed to identify regional sources for a variety of constituents, including agricultural chemicals and trace elements, in the basin. The effect of the large reservoirs on the Rio Grande can be observed as constituent fluxes are routed downstream. The analysis of constituent fluxes on a basin-wide scale will provide the means to assess the influence of human activity on water-quality conditions in the Rio Grande.

  13. A atuação do Observatório Nacional registrada nos relatórios ministeriais 1889 a 1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, T.

    2003-08-01

    O período republicano até 1930 foi marcante na história do Observatório Nacional. Diversas reformas levaram a instituição a três ministérios diferentes e mudaram a ênfase do seu trabalho. A tão aguardada mudança para uma nova sede, em São Cristóvão, em 1920, não foi suficiente para que a instituição acompanhasse o ritmo tomado pela astronomia no mundo e se firmasse como ambiente de pesquisa. Uma análise simplificada poderia caracterizar um período de produção científica insignificante, dado o distanciamento da instituição dos novos rumos da astrofísica e da rápida inovação dos instrumentos, além do pequeno volume de publicações. Era uma época em que ainda não existiam os mecanismos formais de apoio e avaliação da atividade científica. Esse trabalho procura identificar a real atividade do Observatório no conteúdo dos Relatórios Ministeriais que, ao final de cada ano, apresentava as atividades, sucessos e problemas enfrentados pela instituição. Questões como instrumental e recursos humanos necessários; entraves burocráticos e financeiros; e articulações com outros observatórios se complementaram entre si ao longo desses anos para definir o perfil institucional e alguns aspectos fundamentais para a construção da astronomia no país. É possível concluir que a ênfase em serviços geográficos e de meteorologia, ao lado da inadequação dos instrumentos e do local, quase fizeram desaparecer a pesquisa em astronomia. Porém, vale destacar a sobrevivência de alguns trabalhos, como, por exemplo, variação de latitude e observação de estrelas duplas que mantiveram importante intercâmbio com outros grupos de pesquisa, demonstrando o constante esforço dos astrônomos e das diretorias em defesa da atividade científica.

  14. Interaction of Rio1 Kinase with Toyocamycin Reveals a Conformational Switch That Controls Oligomeric State and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kiburu, Irene N.; LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole

    2012-10-10

    Rio1 kinase is an essential ribosome-processing factor required for proper maturation of 40 S ribosomal subunit. Although its structure is known, several questions regarding its functional remain to be addressed. We report that both Archaeoglobus fulgidus and human Rio1 bind more tightly to an adenosine analog, toyocamycin, than to ATP. Toyocamycin has antibiotic, antiviral and cytotoxic properties, and is known to inhibit ribosome biogenesis, specifically the maturation of 40 S. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of toyocamycin bound to Rio1 at 2.0 {angstrom} and demonstrated that toyocamycin binds in the ATP binding pocket of the protein. Despite this, measured steady state kinetics were inconsistent with strict competitive inhibition by toyocamycin. In analyzing this interaction, we discovered that Rio1 is capable of accessing multiple distinct oligomeric states and that toyocamycin may inhibit Rio1 by stabilizing a less catalytically active oligomer. We also present evidence of substrate inhibition by high concentrations of ATP for both archaeal and human Rio1. Oligomeric state studies show both proteins access a higher order oligomeric state in the presence of ATP. The study revealed that autophosphorylation by Rio1 reduces oligomer formation and promotes monomerization, resulting in the most active species. Taken together, these results suggest the activity of Rio1 may be modulated by regulating its oligomerization properties in a conserved mechanism, identifies the first ribosome processing target of toyocamycin and presents the first small molecule inhibitor of Rio1 kinase activity.

  15. Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, A.; Balch, R.; House, L.; Hartse, H.

    1995-12-01

    San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

  16. [Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Adriana da Costa

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes the political and social impacts of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's federal capital. Based on an analysis of Rio de Janeiro press reports and of other documentation (including annals, reports, and bulletins from a federal ministry, the Mayor's Office, and the Chamber of Deputies, along with studies from the Brazilian National Academy of Medicine and dissertations from Rio de Janeiro's Faculdade de Medicina), we explore use of the epidemic as a means of political engineering. Our focus is on how the epidemic impacted not only the representation of certain political and social actors but also the reaffirmation of a group of sanitarians as an intelligentsia with a vocation for political leadership who played a key role in the process of modernizing Brazilian society.

  17. A new species of Centromochlus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) from the middle Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Lima, F C T

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) is described. The new species is diagnosed by having numerous dark rounded blotches over the body and fins, dorsal-fin spine with serrations anteriorly and smooth posteriorly, anal fin of mature males with three unbranched and seven branched rays, anterior nuchal plate absent and posterior nuchal plate not extended ventrally. The new species is described from a small stream in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral de Tocantins, a natural reserve in the centre of the Brazilian Cerrado, close to the watershed between the Rio Tocantins and the Rio São Francisco basins. The new species is possibly the sister taxon to the recently described Centromochlus meridionalis from the upper Rio Tapajós. Those two species share with Centromochlus perugiae, from the upper Amazon and upper Paraguay, derived features associated with the modified anal fin in sexually mature males.

  18. Merged digital aeromagnetic data for the middle Rio Grande and southern Espanola basins, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted a multi-disciplinary study of the Middle Rio Grande basin (Bartolino and Cole, 2002; Fig. 1). The main purpose of this study was to gain a better multi-dimensional understanding of the basin's hydrogeologic framework and use this new understanding to construct an improved regional ground-water flow model. The Middle Rio Grande basin fill serves as the primary water resource for Albuquerque and surrounding communities (Thorn and others, 1993). It is composed of poorly consolidated, Tertiary to Quaternary sediments, collectively called the Santa Fe Group. These sediments were deposited during the Tertiary to Quaternary development of the Rio Grande rift (Fig. 1, inset). The strata vary in thickness from 1,000 to more than 4,000 m and range from mudstone to conglomerate (Kelley, 1977; May and Russell, 1994).

  19. The Effect of Human Borders on Water Dynamics in an Arid Region: A Regional Research Overview of the Middle Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J.

    2013-05-01

    International and internal borders transect surface and subsurface waters. Such boundaries add complexity to already complicated biophysical and human use trade-offs and interactions between surface and subsurface waters. The surface-subsurface interactions are shaped by a combination of climate change, human community change, and politics and governance decisions. Understanding such dynamics are crucial due to the importance of these waters in arid regions around the world, often affected by borders. This paper provides an overview of the interacting systems involving and affecting surface and subsurface water in the middle Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin of the United States and Mexico, and the emerging binational research network examining these dynamics. While details are specific to the region, many issues and relationships are generalizable to the Americas and the world.

  20. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from headwaters of Rio Pacaás Novos, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Ohara, Willian M

    2015-09-25

    Characidium summus, new species, is described from rio Pacaás Novos, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil. The new species is the unique among congeners for completely lacking an adipose fin and having a complete lateral line. Characidium summus can be further distinguished from congeners, including C. vestigipinne that also has a complete lateral line and adipose fin absent, vestigial or reduced by the absence of dark bars or spots on head, body or fins, except for a dark blotch on the rear of the opercle, a narrow midlateral dark stripe, and a dark basicaudal spot. In addition, C. summus possess a vestigial supraorbital and a remarkably small pseutotympanum. The possible mimetic relationship between the new species with Erythrinus erythrinus is discussed.

  1. Sobre os sistemas de referência celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.

    2003-02-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho, algumas discussões sobre os sistemas de referência utilizados em Astronomia. Claramente, não é possível esgotar todo este assunto num único texto, mas esperamos, contudo, que o presente material possa ser apreciado nos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia, que estão cada vez mais presentes nas atuais propostas curriculares das graduações de Física. As discussões pertinentes às "Bases de Referência Celeste", serão apresentadas em um outro trabalho.

  2. A Preliminary Overview of Cultural History in the Lower Rio Chama, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-15

    Schaafsma (197614) suggests that the home base for these early Anasasi hunters was the Rosa Phase settlement around Dulce , New Mexico . This may explain...Preliminary Overview of Cultural History in the Lower Rio Chama, New Mexico P/ ~~ I Penelope Whitten and Margaret A. Powers i TIc 1980 |ozpulic...TO en Sub9 S. R’~’eport Date ’"" and ’ue A Preliminary Overview of Cultural History in the L 1980. Lower Rio Chama; New Mexico 1. 7. A t~"s) a

  3. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande _____ Chetta S. Owens, Michael J. Grodowitz, and Fred Nibling April 2005 A~~~loilisCrit \\,~~ni .... W]oGa de 6...Program April 2005 A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande Chetta S. Owens Analytical Services, Inc., Lewisville...DATES COVERED (From - To) April 2005 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the

  4. Geomorphic and Aqueous Chemistry of a Portion of the Upper Rio Tinto System, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Amils, R.; Stein, T. C.; Heil-Chapdelaine, V.; Friedlander, L. R.; Herndon, B.; Marlow, J.; Rosenberg, S.; Scherpker, K.; Steiner, A.

    2007-01-01

    Observations from the two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, combined with discoveries of extensive hydrated sulfate deposits from OMEGA and CRISM show that aqueous deposition and alteration involving acidic systems and sulfate deposition has been a key contributor to the martian geologic record. Rio Tinto, Spain, provides a process model for formation of sulfates on Mars by evaporation of acidic waters within shallow fluvial pools, particularly during dry seasons. We present results from a detailed investigation of an upper portion of the Rio Tinto, focusing on geomorphology, clastic sediment transport, and acidic aqueous processes. We also lay out lessons-learned for under-standing sulfate formation and alteration on Mars.

  5. 75 FR 39668 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio del Oro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... (FEIS) for the Rio del Oro Specific Plan Project, a proposed master-planned, mixed use development... a mixed- use development in the approximately 3,828-acre Rio del Oro Specific Plan Area. In response... (City). The City is the local agency responsible for preparing an Environmental Impact Report...

  6. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  7. Magnetotelluric data in the middle Rio Grande basin, Albuquerque volcanoes, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    The population in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe region of New Mexico is rapidly growing. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Middle Rio Grande Basin is the main source of municipal water for the greater Albuquerque metropolitan area. The capacity of this aquifer is more limited than previously thought (Thorn et al., 1993). The Middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined hydrologically and used here, is the area within the Rio Grande Valley extending from Cochiti Dam downstream to the community of San Acacia (Figure 1). Because approximately 600,000 people (40 percent of the population of New Mexico) live in the study area (Bartolino, 1999), water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depends on accurate assessment and protection of the region’s groundwater resources. An important issue in defining the ground water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the other sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift.

  8. Dolores Del Rio, the First "Latin Invasion", and Hollywood's Transition to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The career and promotion of Mexican actress Dolores Del Rio as a case study of how Hollywood's shift to sound film affected Latino and Latina actors is examined. It reveals the way in which the starring opportunities for Latinos dwindled when accent and language increasingly marked them as nonwhite in the 1930s in the talkie films.

  9. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  10. Measuring Between-School Segregation in an Open Enrollment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Tiago Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in Rio de Janeiro public schools has brought to light a "Hidden Quasi-Market" that combines purported freedom of choice for parents with school control over their pupil intake. The article analyzes patterns of segregation among schools, from 2004 to 2010, according to three indicators of potentially disadvantaged pupils:…

  11. Rio Salado Community College Adjunct Faculty Staffing and Development Program, July 1989-August 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.

    In July 1989, Rio Salado Community College established an Adjunct Faculty Staffing and Development Program (AFSDP) with the following goals: to insure excellence in instruction through content consistency and the use of effective teaching and learning strategies; to increase adjunct faculty identification with the college and appreciation of the…

  12. Environmental Degradation in a Dependent Region: The Rio Grande Valley of Mexico and Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    Traces the interrelationships among dependence, environmental degradation, and human health in the Rio Grande Valley of Mexico and Texas. Presents a case study on environmental factors threatening family health in households located on both sides of the border; the health problems can be overcome by addressing restrictive zoning, health services,…

  13. Projecting avian responses to landscape management along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of flooding due to river impoundments on the middle Rio Grande has contributed to the spread of exotic vegetation with dense understory fuel loads. Restoration has focused on understory vegetation thinning but it is unclear how these actions impact bird populations. We quantified densities of ...

  14. Student Hotline Procedural Manual. Instructional Technology and Design. Rio Salado Community College. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.

    Rio Salado Community College offers a variety of alternative delivery courses utilizing different forms of instructional technology (e.g., broadcast and cable television, radio, audio and video cassettes, and computer-managed instruction) for both credit and non-credit instruction. This manual provides information for student operators of a…

  15. Raman and XRD Field Characterisation of Sulfate Efflorescences at Rio Tinto (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, F.; Sansano, A.; Sobron, P.; Lafuente, B.; Sarrazin, P.; Gailhanou, M.; Blake, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this work a comparative in-situ analysis of evaporate minerals from Rio Tinto (Spain) is undertaken using two techniques selected for Mars exploration: Raman spectrometer and CheMin XRD both selected as part of the ExoMars and MSL missions respectively.

  16. Poverty in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.; Maril, Robert Lee

    Relative to other urbanized areas, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas consistently ranks at the bottom in regard to almost every objective indicator of socioeconomic welfare: per capita income, educational attainment, employment, and health and housing conditions. The 1970 census discovered that approximately one-half of its population,…

  17. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  18. 78 FR 5480 - Draft Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances and Draft Environmental Assessment; Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... historically occupied streams. The proposed CCAA would be in effect for 25 years on Vermejo Park Ranch in Taos... Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis) is native to the Rio Grande, Pecos River, and Canadian River basins in New Mexico and Colorado. It is the southernmost subspecies of cutthroat...

  19. Outcomes of a Scientific Nonformal Educational Initiative for Youth in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how former students view their professional and academic paths after taking part in a specific scientific nonformal educational initiative during high school. This program is called Vocational Scientific Program (Provoc) and is carried out in the Oswald Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.…

  20. Projecting avian responses to landscape managment along the middle RIO GRANDE, New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of flooding due to river impoundments on the middle Rio Grande has contributed to the spread of exotic vegetation with dense understory fuel loads. Restoration has focused on understory vegetation thinning but it is unclear how these actions impact bird populations. We quantified densities of ...

  1. Educating Copacabana: A Critical Analysis of the "Second Half", an Olympic Education Program of Rio 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knijnik, Jorge; Tavares, Otavio

    2012-01-01

    The Second Half Program (SHP) is an educational sports program running in Brazil. It began in 2003 and was one of the Olympic educational proposals described in the Rio 2016 Olympics bid. Using sport as a tool, the SHP aims to deliver moral education and to promote citizenship in order to counteract "social exclusion" and "social…

  2. Los Rios Community College District Fall 2000 Student Profile, Based upon First Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    This is the eleventh in a series of Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) (California) fall student profiles. These annual summaries provide the district and its colleges--American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC)--with data on student demographics and enrollment trends. The Fall 2000…

  3. The Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Rio Negro Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Glenda M.; Larrieu, Edmundo; Uchiumi, Leonardo; Mercapide, Carlos; Mujica, Guillermo; Del Carpio, Mario; Hererro, Eduardo; Salvitti, Juan Carlos; Norby, Bo; Budke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis with substantial human health and economic consequences, is highly endemic in Rio Negro Province, Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect human and livestock-associated monetary losses attributable to CE, in Rio Negro Province, for the year 2010. Human costs were estimated using data obtained from hospital chart reviews, patient interviews, and government reports. Livestock-associated losses were estimated using data from government reports and scientific publications. Spreadsheet models were developed utilizing Latin Hypercube sampling to account for uncertainty in the input parameters. In 2010, the estimated total cost of CE, in Rio Negro Province, ranged from US$4,234,000 (95% credible interval [CI]: US$2,709,000–US$6,226,000) to US$5,897,000 (95% CI: US$3,452,000–US$9,105,000), with livestock-associated losses representing between 80% and 94% of the total losses, depending on whether non-healthcare-seeking human cases were included and if livestock slaughter values were adjusted to account for underreporting. These estimates suggest that CE is responsible for considerable human and livestock-associated monetary losses in Rio Negro Province. Stakeholders and policymakers can use these data to better allocate public health and agricultural resources for this region. PMID:26787144

  4. Tectonic rotations within the Rio Grande rift - Evidence from paleomagnetic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. L.; Golombek, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies on Miocene Pliocene volcanic rocks from the Espanola basin of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, reveal directions discordant form the expected mean direction for North America. The Paliza Canyon Formation, Tschicoma Formation, and Lobato Basalt, all sampled in the Jemez Mountains west of the Pajarito fault zone, have mean declinations east of the expected mean. The Cerros del Rio volcanics, lying east of the Pajarito fault zone, have a westerly declination. Combined with published data on the Santa Fe Group sediments east of the fault zone, and the Valles Rhyolite, west of the fault zone, distinct rotations of the two areas are evident. The western block has rotated clockwise 12 deg, while the eastern block shows 16 deg of conter-clockwise motion. Differential rotations of 25-30 deg are calculated between the two blocks; 4 deg/m.y. is the minimum differential rotation for the past 5 m.y. Geologic explanations for these rotations include the opening of the Rio Grande rift in response to clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau and significant left slip along the Rio Grande rift.

  5. Computer Skills and Digital Media Uses among Young Students in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rosalia; Cazelli, Sibele; Migliora, Rita; Coimbra, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is provide information relevant for the formulation of new policies for the integration of technology in education from the discussion of research results that analyse computer skills and digital media uses among students (between 12 to 18 years old) from schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The schools…

  6. The Associate Degree Nursing Program at Rio Hondo College: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Joseph

    During 1975-76, an evaluation of the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Rio Hondo College was undertaken which involved: (1) surveying all nursing graduates in the classes of 1973, 1974, and 1975, and all fourth semester students currently enrolled in the program; (2) surveying or interviewing all instructional staff for the ADN program;…

  7. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  8. The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo Dui Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Morral, Andrew R.; Raymond, Barbara; Eibner, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This study reports results from an evaluation of the experimental Rio Hondo driving under the influence (DUI) court of Los Angeles County, California. Interviews and official record checks with 284 research participants who were randomly assigned to a DUI court or a traditional criminal court were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up.…

  9. The Civil Engineering Graduate Program at PUC-Rio: A Brazilian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanel, Celso; Filho, Jose Napoleao

    This document discusses the graduate programs in civil engineering at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the oldest Brazilian private university. The report features discussions of faculty member backgrounds, trends in student enrollment, women's participation in the program, degree completion, student origins,…

  10. A Demographic and Student Outcomes Profile of AFDC Students Enrolled in Los Rios Colleges: Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith; La, Minh

    The four reports collected in this document describe the characteristics and academic outcomes of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients attending California's Los Rios Community College District as of the end of fall 1996. The first report describes the characteristics of AFDC recipients and legal immigrant AFDC recipients…

  11. Los Rios Community College District. Spring 1999 Student Profile, Based upon First Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    This report, the second in a series based upon the official Spring First Census, provides data on student demographics and enrollment trends from spring 1994 to spring 1999 for the three colleges in California's Los Rios Community College District: American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College. For the first time, the…

  12. The Museum as a Catalyst for Education and Citizenship: Breaking Barriers in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrel Tostes, Vera Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Brazil's National History Museum in Rio de Janeiro is reaching out to the most marginalized young people and establishing itself as an important partner in offering them alternatives to a life of crime and addiction. The target population for its programs includes disenfranchised children and young people aged 10 to 20--those living in the…

  13. 78 FR 57411 - Second Call for Nominations for the Rio Grande Natural Area Commission, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Second Call for Nominations for the Rio Grande Natural Area Commission, CO... implementation of a management plan relating to non-Federal land in the Natural Area. The BLM is issuing a...

  14. Estimating water use by giant reed along the Rio Grande River using a large aperture scintillometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a bamboo-like perennial invasive weed from Eurasia presenting a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande River Basin. It is known to consume excessive amounts of water to support its rapid vegetative growth rat...

  15. Economic implications for the biological control of Arundo donax: Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L., is a large, bamboo-like plant native to the Mediterranean region. It has invaded several thousand hectares of the Rio Grande riparian habitat in Texas and Mexico. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) is investigating four...

  16. Economic implications for the biological control of Arundo donax: Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed, Arundo donax L., is a large bamboo-like plant native to the Mediterranean region. It has invaded several thousand hectares of the Rio Grande riparian habitat in Texas and Mexico. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) is investigating four ...

  17. Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista, California, January through May, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmon, Dana D.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Hager, Stephen W.; Ota, Allan Y.

    1986-01-01

    Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista , California, for the period of January to May, 1983 are presented in this report. Measurements include specific conductance, alkalinity, suspended particulate matter, and the dissolved inorganic nutrients; nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, ammonium, dissolved silica, and ortho-phosphate. Numerical results are tabulated and details of the methods are described. 

  18. STS-65 Earth observation of dust plumes from Rio Grande in Southern Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of dust plumes from the Rio Grande in Southern Bolivia. A series of dust plumes can be seen rising from sand banks in the Rio Grande of southern Bolivia, bottom right of this northeast-looking view. The Rio Grande brings sediment from the Andes (foothills visible in the foreground, bottom left) and flows across the flat country of the northern Chaco plain. During the low-flow season, sand banks of this sediment are exposed to northerly winds which often blow dust into the surrounding forest. One of the significances of the dust plumes is that dust acts as a source of nutrient for the local soils. This is the most impressive example of dust ever recorded on Shuttle photography from this river. Such plumes have been seen on photographs from four previous missions (STS-31, STS-47, STS-48, STS-51I) emanating from the Rio Grande. The plumes are regularly space because the sand is blown only from those reaches of th

  19. Occurrence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of abortion in sheep and a zoonotic risk to humans, leading to significant hazards to health and to economic losses. This study examined the soroprevalence and associated risk factors for infection with Toxoplama gondii in 379 sheep from 12 flocks in Rio de Janeir...

  20. Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Tatiana M B; Barboza, Carlos A M; Skinner, Viviane B; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Rocha, Rafael C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Valentin, Jean L; Cardoso, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated concentrations of eight heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co and V, in tissues of representative macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The links between contamination levels and community descriptors such as diversity, evenness, density and biomass, were also investigated. Metal concentrations from macrofaunal tissues were compared to maximum permissible limits for human ingestion stipulated by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). Generalized linear models (GLM's) were used to investigate the variability in macrofauna density, richness, eveness and biomass in the seven different regions. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (n-MDS) was used to investigate the spatial pattern of heavy metal concentrations along the seven regions of Rio de Janeiro coast. Variation partitioning was applied to evaluate the variance in the community assemblage explained by the environmental variables and the heavy metal concentrations. Our data suggested high spatial variation in the concentration of heavy metals in macrofauna species from the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. This result highlighted a diffuse source of contamination along the coast. Most of the metals concentrations were under the limits established by ANVISA. The variability in community descriptors was related to morphodynamic variables, but not with metal contamination values, indicating the lack of direct relationships at the community level. Concentration levels of eight heavy metals in macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches on Rio de Janeiro coast (Brazil) were spatially correlated with anthropogenic activities such as industrialization and urbanization.

  1. Cenozoic thermal, mechanical and tectonic evolution of the Rio Grande rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Seager, W. R.; Golombek, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    Two areas of New Mexico which exhibit complex but similar Cenozoic histories of extensional tectonism are analyzed. The first study area is the Basin and Range province and southern Rio Gande rift in southern New Mexico; the second study area is the central Rio Grande rift in central and northern New Mexico, the southern San Luis basin, the Espanola basin, and the Albuquerque basin. Two phases of extension were identified: the first phase which began in mid-Oligocene was characterized by local high-strain extension events, low-angle faulting, and the development of broad, shallow basins, all indicating an approximately NE-SW + or - 25 deg extension direction; the later phase which occurred primarily in the late Miocene, was characterized by synchronous, high-angle faulting, resulting in large vertical strains which produced the modern Rio Grande rift morphology. Extension direction was approximately E-W. Geotherms were estimated and lithospheric strength curves were calculated for these two phases of extension. A high geotherm was deduced for the early phase resulting in a shallow crustal brittle transition, and insignificant mantle strength. The lithosphere subsequently cooled, resulting in a significant zone of mantle strength beneath the Moho. It is concluded that the interrelationship among regional and local prerifting, synrifting, and postrifting events in the Rio Grande rift attests to the fact that the rifting (in the region studied) should be considered in the context of other geologic events.

  2. Geologic Map of the Abiquiu Quadrangle, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2008-01-01

    The Abiquiu 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is located along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande rift margin in north-central New Mexico. The map area lies within the Abiquiu embayment, an early (pre-Miocene) extensional basin of the Rio Grande rift. Rocks exposed include continental Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the Colorado Plateau and Cenozoic basin-fill deposits and volcanic rocks of the Rio Grande rift. Paleozoic units include the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Cutler Group, undivided. Mesozoic units are Upper Triassic Chinle Group, undivided, middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, and Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation. Mesozoic rocks are folded in some areas and overlain disconformably by Cenozoic rocks. Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are composed of the Eocene El Rito Formation, Oligocene Ritito Conglomerate, Oligocene-Miocene Abiquiu Formation, and Miocene Chama-El Rito and Ojo Caliente Sandstone Members of the Tesuque Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Volcanic rocks include the Lobato Basalt, the El Alto Basalt, and dacite of the Tschicoma Formation. Quaternary deposits consist of inset ancestral axial and tributary Rio Chama deposits and Holocene floodplain alluvium, fan and pediment alluvium, and landslide colluvium.

  3. Thirteen Years after Rio: The State of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Shahram

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions are adversely affecting the earth's climate, a global common and a public good. The contribution of individual countries has a limited effect on the biosphere, implying that only globally coordinated efforts may result in significant climate improvements. The Rio Earth Summit (1992) and Kyoto Protocol (1997) are…

  4. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  5. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  6. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  7. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  8. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  9. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  10. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  11. UTERINE RUPTURE AND CESAREAN SURGERY IN THREE RIO CAUCA CAECILIANS (TYPHLONECTES NATANS).

    PubMed

    Barbon, Alberto Rodriguez; Goetz, Matt; Lopez, Javier; Routh, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    A uterine rupture of unknown etiology during gestation causing the death in a Rio Cauca caecilian ( Typhlonectes natans ) and successful anesthesia using tricaine methanesulfonate and cesarean section in three occasions in two other specimens because of suspected dystocia are described. One of the surgeries was performed at an early stage of embryo development, thereby preventing the survival of the neonates.

  12. Trace element characteristics of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle in the Rio Grande rift region

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    Trace element analyses of 10 mafic volcanic rocks from the Colorado Plateau transition zone, Colorado Plateau, Rio Grande rift, and Great Plains were obtained to characterize the trace element characteristics of asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle beneath these regions. Characterization of these mantle reservoirs using the trace element contents of basalts allows one to track the response of the lithosphere to continental rifting and extension.

  13. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  14. Sediment dynamics through space and time in the lower Rio Puerco arroyo, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of riverine erosion and sediment transport can be episodic, spatially and temporally non-uniform, and strongly scale dependent. Identifying the events and processes that control these sediment dynamics requires precise measurements, but overcoming spatial and temporal variability requires observations over large distances and long times. Addressing this challenge, therefore, requires integration of data collection efforts at point, cross-section, reach, and whole-river scales. From the mid-1800s to about the 1930s, extreme high flows caused incision along the Rio Puerco, an ephemeral tributary of the Rio Grande located in semi-arid north-central New Mexico. The incision created an arroyo within the 1 to 2 km wide alluvial valley that by 1927 was an average of 118 m wide and 8.5 m deep. In the early 1900s, sediment transported from the Rio Puerco into the Rio Grande contributed to widespread flooding along the Rio Grande and concerns about filling of Elephant Butte Reservoir, located 100 km downstream. We reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution in a 55 km long segment of the lower Rio Puerco by combining data from 3 trenches excavated across the arroyo bottom with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, aerial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. We then examined changes through time since 1927 in arroyo width, depth, volume, morphology, and vegetation. A transition to filling after the 1930s involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. This strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. Our study reach demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. Since the 1970s, arroyo wall retreat has been mostly limited to locations

  15. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  16. Ensino e divulgação de astronomia no Planetário de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordenação do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Argüello propunha a instalação de um Planetário em Campinas. Convênio firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, possibilitou a aquisição de um planetário Zeiss ZKP2, através do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planetário de Campinas. Desde então várias atividades de ensino e divulgação da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verificação dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto índice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instalações (sala de projeção para 60 pessoas, auditório com 45 poltronas e hall de exposições). As atividades dirigidas ao público, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua existência. Além de sessões públicas e escolares, com duração de 1 hora, são oferecidas às escolas vários outros tipos de atividades, com duração de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e são dirigidas a diferentes níveis de escolaridade. Cursos para o público e para professores, palestras, exposições e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planetário de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfatório, prestando bom serviços à comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de São Paulo e outros Estados. Isso é também atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  17. Social, political, and institutional setting: Water management problems of the Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses various water management issues facing federal, state, and local agencies charged with managing the water resources of the Rio Grande River Basin and its major tributaries. The Rio Grande - 3,058 km (=1,900 mi) long - is the fourth longest river in the United States. The river's basin is 870,236 km2 (=336,000 mi2) and for roughly two-thirds of its length it forms the United States-Mexican border. It is a major recreational resource providing world class trout fishing near its headwaters in Colorado's San Juan Mountains and shoreline, angling, and boating opportunities near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The Rio Grande is the principal tourist attraction of Big Bend National Park and flows through downtown Albuquerque and El Paso. Many reaches are wide and broad, but almost all are relatively shallow and not navigable by commercial ships. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important renewable water resources of the southwestern United States and North America. The issue of the "manageability" of the river in the face of social forces and disparate administrative jurisdictions that adversely impact Rio Grande flows is a thread linking various sections of the paper together. The length of the river; the fact that major reaches lie in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; and its unique role as an international boundary pose complex management problems. The allocation status quo formed by the complex nexus of existing river laws make it difficult to reshape Rio Grande management. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  18. Magnetic Investigation of Ancestral Puebloan Rio Grande (New Mexico) Glaze Wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, J. B.; Geissman, J. W.; Ramenofsky, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    In geologically heterogeneous regions, such as the Rio Grande, archaeologists typically rely on petrographic analyses to determine ceramic provenance and reconstruct prehistoric trade patterns. Even in these regions, other methods are useful for elucidating trade patterns and/or resolving ambiguities from the petrographic data. Magnetic properties of Ancestral central Rio Grande Puebloan ceramics are being acquired to assess their use in identifying provenance, trade patterns, composition, manufacturing techniques, and firing conditions of ceramics, before and during the early European contact period (ca. A.D. 1325-1700) in New Mexico. Similar to the study of Moskowitz et al. (1987), we use a combination of bulk susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and SIRM intensity, AF response by NRM, ARM, and SIRM, thermal demagnetization of NRM and SIRM, and coercivity of remanence, to study temporal change in Rio Grande glaze wares from four archaeological sites in the northern Rio Grande (approximately 90 sherds per site). Rio Grande glaze wares were widely traded among Ancestral Puebloan groups before and during the European contact period. The ceramics are from the two earliest Spanish administrative centers in New Mexico, San Gabriel del Yungue and Palace of the Governors, and two mission pueblos, Pecos Pueblo and San Marcos Pueblo. Magnetic property data are being compared with petrographic observations to test the effectiveness of several magnetic measurements to identify, among other things, ceramic provenance. A tentative observation in our study is that bulk susceptibility values correlate with different ceramic provenances. The mean bulk susceptibility values for Galisteo Basin ceramics, tempered with augite monzonite and hornblende latite, are significantly higher (5.56E-04 and 4.91E-04 SI mass, respectively) than those for Pajarito Plateau ceramics, tempered with glassy tuff, tuff rocks, and andesite, (1.79E-04, 2.53E-04, and 2.58E-04 SI mass, respectively). This study is

  19. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  20. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large

  1. On-site evaluation of the suitability of a wetted instream habitat in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, for the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Two in-situ exposure studies were conducted with the federally-listed endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). One-year-old adults were exposed in cages deployed at three sites in the Middle Rio Grande, N. Mex., for 4 days to assess survival and for 26 days to evaluate survival, growth, overall health, and whole-body elemental composition. The test sites were located on the Pueblo of Isleta in the (1) main channel of the Middle Rio Grande, (2) 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain, and (3) wetted instream habitat created below the outfall of the 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain. During the cage exposures, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and turbidity were monitored continuously (15-minute intervals) and common constituents, nutrients, carbons, metals, and pesticides were measured at discrete intervals. In both studies, there were statistical differences in several water-quality parameters among sites; and except for turbidity, these differences were small and were not considered to be biologically significant. The cages used in the 4-day exposure study were ineffective at preventing access to the fish by predators, and survival was highly variable (20 percent to 90 percent) across sites. In the 26-day chronic exposure study, weight and condition factor of caged-exposed fish at all sites were significantly lower than those at test initiation. After 26 days of exposure, there were no significant differences in survival, total length, weight, or condition factor of fish across sites, but absolute weight loss and relative reduction in condition factor were significantly greater in fish at the wetted instream habitat site compared to those at the Middle Rio Grande site. There were no statistical differences in health assessment indices, mesenteric fat indices, or prevalence of abnormalities in cage-exposed fish among sites. Cage-exposed fish had higher health assessment indices and prevalence of fin anomalies and a lower mesenteric

  2. Lower Rio Puerco geospatial data, 1935 - 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Eleanor R.

    2016-01-01

    A long-term study of the geomorphic history of the lower Rio Puerco arroyo in north-central New Mexico included the collection of high-precision (Real-time kinematic) GPS survey data (2002, 2007, 2010, and 2014), registration and rectification of historical aerial photographs (1935, 1950s, 1970s, and 1996), an aerial LiDAR survey (2005) with collection of digital imagery, and acquisition of post-flood (2006) satellite imagery. The Rio Puerco is a single-thread, meandering stream inset within an arroyo located in semiarid north-central New Mexico. The study reach extent is from the confluence with the Rio San Jose 67 km downvalley to the Rio Puerco streamgage near Bernardo, NM. Arroyo and channel geomorphic features in 1935, 1950s, 1970s, 1996, 2005, and 2006 were mapped from imagery and are provided here as shapefiles. Features mapped for the purpose of assessing spatial and temporal geomorphic change include tops of the arroyo walls, edges of the arroyo bottom, tops of the channel banks, channel centerline, arroyo centerline, and canopy coverage. All of these data are provided here except for the November and December 2006 high-resolution Quickbird II satellite imagery (DigitalGlobe, Inc.), which is proprietary and, therefore, cannot be served here. Publications:Griffin, E.R., Kean, J.W., Vincent, K.R., Smith, J.D., and Friedman, J.M., 2005, Modeling effects of bank friction and woody bank vegetation on channel flow and boundary shear stress in the Rio Puerco, New Mexico, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, F04023. doi: 10.1029/2005JF000322Vincent, K.R., Friedman, J.M., and Griffin, E.R., 2009, Erosional consequence of saltcedar control, Environmental Management, 44, 218-227. doi: 10.1007/s00267-009-9314-8Griffin, E.R., Smith, J.D., Friedman, J.M., and Vincent, K.R., 2010, Progression of streambank erosion during a large flood, Rio Puerco arroyo, New Mexico, Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 – July 1, 2010, 12

  3. Report Summary--Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health: A Snapshot of Canadian Actions 2015.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, A; Herel, M; DesMeules, M

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, Canada and other United Nations (UN) Member States endorsed the "Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health" (Rio Declaration), a non-binding pledge which calls on World Health Organization (WHO) Member States to improve/influence the working and living conditions that affect health and well-being. The Rio Declaration sets out actions to address health inequities in five themes: to adopt better governance for health and development; to promote participation in policy making and implementation; to further reorient the health sector towards reducing health inequities; to strengthen global governance and collaboration; and to monitor and increase accountability. In 2013, following the endorsement of the Rio Declaration, the Government of Canada released a report to begin to document Canadian actions related to its five themes. Building on this first report, and in anticipation of WHO reporting on Member State implementation of the Rio Declaration at the May 2015 World Health Assembly, the Government of Canada developed the report, Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health: A Snapshot of Canadian Actions 2015, which showcases Canada's recent actions since 2013 contributing to the advancement of the five Rio Declaration themes. The report provides a current picture of the diverse spectrum of activities undertaken across levels of government and sectors to advance health equity and address social determinants of health in Canada, and intends to stimulate global and domestic exchange and uptake of promising practices to advance health equity.

  4. Rio Bauta Abajo, Orocovis, Puerto Rico Monitoring: Citizen Science in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, L. D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2015-12-01

    "Conoce tu rio" (Learn about your river) is a Citizen Science-"Para La Naturaleza" Project with the purpose of providing citizens effective monitoring methods for water quality and macro invertebrates. Through the monthly monitoring of Rio Grande de Manatí watershed in Puerto Rico, volunteers gained the knowledge and skills necessary to conduct the same methodology in other rivers of Puerto Rico. This is the case of the Rio Bauta Abajo-Orocovis group, initiated by a volunteer of "Conoce tu Rio". The new group has the objective of monitoring the water quality, shrimps and other macro invertebrate diversity and abundance in a stream reach of Rio Bauta Abajo, Orocovis, Puerto Rico. The group is also part of the EPA Equipment Loan Program for Pathogen and Water Quality Monitoring. Shrimps and macro invertebrates are captured using nets. In this ongoing project, preliminary results show that 5 of the 17 shrimp species of Puerto Rico and the freshwater crab have been captured in the monitoring point of Rio Bauta Abajo. The most abundant species captured was Atya scabra representing 70% of the abundance. The second most abundant species was Xiphocaris elongata representing 20% of the abundance. We also found a large number of gravid females of two shrimp species. Sixty percent of captured Atya scabra were gravid while 100% of the captured Xiphocaris elongata were gravid. Water quality is within the standard except for phosphorous and nitrogen. The most abundant species inhabit different habitats in the river. Atya scabra is found in the riffles and Xiphocaris elongata is found in the stream borders and or pools. The high number of gravid females suggests that the dry season is the reproductive season for this two species. The high concentration of phosphorous and nitrogen suggest that in the area there area either crops of animals facilities whose runoff is getting to the river. This monitoring group expects to continue motivating citizens to monitor the water quality in

  5. FIRST REPORT OF ACUTE CHAGAS DISEASE BY VECTOR TRANSMISSION IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SANGENIS, Luiz Henrique Conde; DE SOUSA, Andréa Silvestre; SPERANDIO DA SILVA, Gilberto Marcelo; XAVIER, Sérgio Salles; MACHADO, Carolina Romero Cardoso; BRASIL, Patrícia; DE CASTRO, Liane; DA SILVA, Sidnei; GEORG, Ingebourg; SARAIVA, Roberto Magalhães; do BRASIL, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; HASSLOCHER-MORENO, Alejandro Marcel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic anthropozoonosis from Latin America of which the main means of transmission is the contact of skin lesions or mucosa with the feces of triatomine bugs infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case acquired by vector transmission in the Rio de Janeiro State and confirmed by parasitological, serological and PCR tests. The patient presented acute cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Together with fever and malaise, a 3 cm wide erythematous, non-pruritic, papule compatible with a "chagoma" was found on his left wrist. This case report draws attention to the possible transmission of CD by non-domiciled native vectors in non-endemic areas. Therefore, acute CD should be included in the diagnostic workout of febrile diseases and acute myopericarditis in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26422165

  6. Comparing Mantle Xenoliths from Mount Taylor and Rio Puerco Necks, New Mexico: Evidence for Metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. E.; Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) is located along the Jemez Lineament at the south eastern margin of the Colorado Plateau in north western New Mexico. To learn about its underlying lithospheric mantle, we conducted a survey of xenoliths from basaltic vents peripheral to the Mount Taylor edifice and the Rio Puerco Volcanic Necks. A total of 89 thin sections (32 from Mount Taylor and 57 from Rio Puerco) were examined. The population of thin sections from Mount Taylor and Rio Puerco listed respectively is: 18 and 20 lherzolites; 8 and 24 pyroxenites; 4 and 3 wehrlites; 1 and 6 dunites; and 1 and 4 harzburgites. Pyroxenite grain size ranged from 1 to 9 mm and lherzolite grains were typically 0.5 to 2 mm. Spinels ranged in colour from dark green, brown to black and they were generally <1 mm and interstitially concentrated. Spinel concentrations between the two suites were comparable, with an average of 2.6% for Mount Taylor and 2.0% for Rio Puerco. The largest concentration of spinels was in a pyroxenite at 12.5% from Mount Taylor. Up to 5% primary calcite is present in the Rio Puerco suite; in contrast calcite has not been identified in the Mount Taylor suite. Calcite grains were <0.5 mm in size and located at grain boundaries and as inclusions in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Equilibrium textures include triple junction grain boundaries between olivines and clinopyroxenes in some lherzolites. Disequilibrium textures include rounded, optically continuous olivine and orthopyroxene in clinopyroxene, complex intergrowths between clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, and sheared olivine. Electron microprobe analyses were performed on 9 representative thin sections with 5 pyroxenites, 4 lherzolites and 1 wehrlite; samples included green, brown, red and black spinels. Pyroxenes for the two suites decrease in Cr2O3 and increase in Al2O3 with decreasing Mg numbers, increase in CaO with decreasing MgO and increase in Na2O with increasing Al2O3. The presence of optically

  7. Two new species of spotted Hypancistrus from the Rio Negro drainage (Loricariidae, Hypostominae)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Milton; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Hypancistrus phantasma and Hypancistrus margaritatus, are described based on material from the Rio Negro drainage. Both species are distinguished from congeners by unique color patterns. Hypancistrus phantasma is described from the Rio Uaupes and differs from congeners by having a tan body with small dark spots (vs. dark with light spots or with saddles or stripes). Hypancistrus margaritatus is described from the Takutu River and differs from congeners by having densely-packed light spots on a dark brown background, with spots about the size of the nasal aperture (vs. sparse light spots either smaller or larger than the nasal aperture, or brown to black spots, saddles, or stripes). PMID:26865819

  8. [Directions in hospital assistance in Rio de Janeiro (1923-31)].

    PubMed

    Sanglard, Gisele; Costa, Renato da Gama-Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on the construction of three hospitals (Gaffrée e Guinle, Hospital do Câncer, and Hospital das Clínicas), the article discusses transformations in Rio de Janeiro's public health sector during the 1920s. The three facilities' architectural design - all under the responsibility of architect and engineer A. Porto d' Ave (1890-1952) - reflected concerns of both sanitary reform and new concepts in bacteriology. Some points are particularly relevant: the relation between advances in bacteriology and architectural development; the concepts and conceptions of bacteriology, on the one hand, and new paradigms in hospital construction, on the other . Discussions were taking place at a critical moment, when there was a shortage of hospital beds throughout Rio, at the same time that adoption of the traditional pavilion structure was hindered by the advances introduced by modern architecture in block.

  9. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible.

  10. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.; Bartram, Jamie; Wade, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low- and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. PMID:27689546

  11. New morphological data of Litomosoides chagasfilhoi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) parasitizing Nectomys squamipes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Pereira, Luís Cláudio; Gonçalves, Paula Araujo; Guimarães, Erick Vaz; Fonseca, Fábio de Oliveira; Santos, José Augusto Albuquerque Dos; Maldonado-Júnior, Arnaldo; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de

    2016-01-01

    Litomosoides chagasfilhoi, originally described by Moraes Neto, Lanfredi & De Souza (1997) parasitizing the abdominal cavity of the wild rodent, Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), was found in the abdominal cavity of Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), from the municipality of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. This study led to addition of new morphological data and a new geographical distribution for this filarioid in Brazil. Several characters were detailed and emended to previous records of L. chagasfilhoi in N. squamipes, and confirming the original description in A. cursor: buccal capsule longer than wide with walls thinner than the lumen, right spicule slightly sclerotized, with membranous distal extremity slender, with a small tongue-like terminal portion, left spicule with handle longer than the blade, whose edges form large membranous wings folded longitudinally.

  12. RiSA: A Science Festival for the Bilingual and Bicultural Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; Torres, Cristina; Stone, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Rio Grande Science and Arts (RiSA) Festival organized by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) will use a wide variety of artforms to bring physics and science topics to the bilingual and bicultural population of the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. The science and art faculty at UTB will partner with art and education professionals to create an annual community event celebrating science though art. Music, dance, poetry, and visual arts will headline the festival activities. Festival events and products will be produced in both English and Spanish to attract and inform the bilingual local community. The RiSA Festival is supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation. Supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation.

  13. Seismic refraction studies at the Painter Street bridge site, Rio Dell, California

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of seismic refraction P- and S-wave measurements, at the site of the Painter Street bridge, in Rio Dell, California. The bridge is spanning highway US 101, 4 miles south of Fortuna, in northwestern California. This study was performed to provide an estimate of material properties for the foundation of the bridge, in support of a seismic stability analysis of the bridge performed at LLNL by D. McCallen. The Rio Dell region is seismically active and the Painter Street bridge is one of only 2 bridges of its type in California, instrumented for strong motion recordings. Measurements were made using a 12-channel Geometric/Nimbus ES 1210 Signal Enhancement Seismograph. 3 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [Quality assessment of the public water supply in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    d'Aguila, P S; Roque, O C; Miranda, C A; Ferreira, A P

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes to develop methodologies for public water supply quality control by implementing evaluation and control mechanisms and enhancing environmental health surveillance decision-making. These objectives were based on data for waterborne diseases recorded at the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department. We selected the following neighborhoods: Posse (1st Township) and Caioaba (5th Township), with dissimilar situations, allowing us to produce a model of water supply coverage in the Municipality of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State. The study underscored the poor quality of the water supply in the two townships, since 61% of the samples were positive on bacteriological examination, showing the undesirable effects of differential sanitation, especially in developing countries.

  15. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  16. The historiography of psychoanalysis in Brazil: the case of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Cristiana; De Castro, Rafael Dias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the background of the historiography of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro. Three different phases and approaches are analyzed, based on the viewpoints of different groups of authors. The first group features authors who displayed an early interest in the subject, in the 1920's-1930's. The second refers to psychiatrists/psychoanalysts who worked with mental health institutes and societies between the 1940's and 1970's, while the third perspective comes from the academic/university environment, from the end of the 70's to the present. This distinction was made not only to better define the timeframe of the arrival and dissemination of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro, but also to provide a better understanding of the relation between the specific professional and intellectual interests of each group and the respective historical context.

  17. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  18. Slave mortality during the cholera epidemic in Rio de Janeiro (1855-1856): a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Kaori; Pimenta, Tânia Salgado; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Bellido, Jaime Gregorio

    2012-12-01

    The article offers a preliminary analysis of the sociodemographic profile of deaths recorded during the first cholera epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, based on data gathered from death records at Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital. After cholera appeared in the country in 1855, Brazilian medical reports indicated a social bias, with slaves and the free poor suffering high mortality. From a historical perspective, however, little research has been done on the epidemic and its dynamics. The recovery of original data on cholera and the analysis of cholera mortality rates help us to better understand aspects of the slave universe in the urban zone of Rio de Janeiro in the period following the end of the slave trade.

  19. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande.

  20. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodidae) in synantropic rodents in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Kathleen Tavares; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha; Antunes, Lidiane Oliveira; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Vianna, Elvia Elena Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is responsible for maintaining and transmitting various pathogens, both in animals and human beings, and it is of great sanitary importance. This communication reports the first occurrence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato parasitizing Rattus norvegicus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and it is also the first record of this tick species parasitizing Rattus rattus in Brazil. The rodents were captured from the port area, located in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We collected 6 larvae of this tick species from 2 male R. rattus individuals, and 3 larvae from 2 female R. norvegicus individuals; parasitized specimens of both rodent species were captured from different sites within the experimental area. This record broadens the number of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato hosts in urban areas, indicating the need for continued monitoring on population density for both R. sanguineus and synanthropic rodents.

  1. Data from sediment studies of the Rio Orinoco, Venezuela, August 15-25, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment discharges were measured and bed-material samples were collected during August, 1982, at 9 cross sections along a 800-kilometer reach of the Rio Orinoco. Flows varied from approximately 31,000 to 72,000 cubic meters per second, and sediment discharge varied from approximately 1,600 to 8,000 kilograms per second. The bed material is mostly fine to medium sand and almost one-third of the suspended sediment is sand.

  2. State of Flood Related Modeling Along Middle Rio Grande: Report Documentary 2007-2008 Work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Ward; James F. Booker; and Ari M. Michelsen Market Prices for Water in the Semiarid West of the United States David S. Brookshire and Bonnie Colby...Agricultural Midwestern United States Hua Xie, J. Wayland Ehear, and Hyunhee An Integrated Frequency Analysis of Extreme Flood Peaks and Flood...Compact apportions the waters of the Upper Rio Grande Basin amongst the three States • The Compact does not affect the obligations of the United States

  3. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas.

  4. Ergonomic work analysis of urban bus drivers in Rio de Janeiro city.

    PubMed

    Querido, Aloá; Nogueira, Tainan; Gama, Rafael; Orlando, José

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study on ergonomic work analysis carried out in an urban bus company located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro. The methodology used in this work follows the French-tradition Ergonomic Analysis of the Work (EWA) combined with the best tradition from anglo-saxon ergonomic work analysis. The situated diagnosis was performed to provide relevant information about the work conditions of a bus driver.

  5. Surface radioactivity at the plowshare gas-stimulation test sites: Gasbuggy, Rulison, Rio Blanco

    SciTech Connect

    Faller, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A surface soil characterization was conducted at three former underground nuclear test sites: Gasbuggy, New Mexico; Rulison, Colorado; and Rio Blanco, Colorado. The abundances of man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides were determined with their contributions to total exposure rate. CS-137 was the only man-made radionuclide detected in the study and was highest at undisturbed locations with little forest litter cover. The amounts observed are consisted with radiocesium fallout concentration observed in other parts of the United States.

  6. Transboundary Climate Change Effects on the Hydrologic Regime in the Rio Conchos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D.; Ingol-Blanco, E.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents results of research to assess potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources in the Rio Conchos basin, with special emphasis on impacts on the transboundary water treaty signed between the US and Mexico in 1944. The Rio Conchos watershed, the main tributary of the lower portion of the bi-national Rio Grande/Bravo river basin, is located in Chihuahua state in northern Mexico. It has a surface drainage of 67,800 km2, with a river length of 750 km. One of the problems most relevant to the study basin is the frequent occurrence of long drought periods such as those that occurred in 1950s, 1960s, and the most recent from 1992 to 2002. Coupled with increased water demand and low irrigation efficiencies means that competition for water resources is high on both sides of the border. Furthermore, this hydrological behavior has contributed to the difficulty of Mexico meeting the treaty requirements, and accumulating substantial water deficits as a result. These facts have motivated this research, whose main objectives are: 1) develop a model of the hydrological behavior of the Rio Conchos basin; 2) downscale climate data for the basin from General Circulation Models (GCMs) for climate change emission scenarios; 3) simulate the basin under the climate change scenarios; 4) assess climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources in the basin; and 5) simulate and evaluate water management scenarios that may help to mitigate the climate change effects in the next decades. A methodology is proposed that includes hydrologic and water allocation modeling, downscaling, simulation, and evaluation of climate change impacts on the transboundary treaty and some water management strategies to mitigate negative effects of climate change.

  7. Evolution of the central Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: New potassium-argon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, W. S.; Damon, P. E.; Shafiqullah, M.; Bridwell, R. J.

    1980-12-01

    New K sbnd Ar age determinations on mid-Oligocene to Pleistocene volcanic and shallow intrusive rocks from the central Rio Grande rift permit a more detailed understanding of the tectonic and magmatic history of the rift. Initial extension in the region of the central rift may have begun prior to 27 m.y. ago. By 25 m.y. ago broad basins existed and were filling with volcaniclastic sediments derived mainly from volcanic centers in the San Juan and Questa areas. Continued tectonic activity narrowed these basins by 21-19 m.y. ago, indicated in the Santa Fe area by tilting and faulting that immediately postdate 20-m.y.-old latite. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo, Sandia, and Nacimiento Mountains shed clastic debris of the Santa Fe Group into these basins. Early rift magmatism is characterized by an overlap of mid-Tertiary intermediate intrusive and extrusive activity, extending to 20 m.y. ago, with mafic and ultramafic volcanism, ranging from 25 to 19 m.y. Both volcanism and tectonic activity were minimal during the middle Miocene. About 13 m.y. ago renewed volcanic activity began. Tectonism commenced in the late Miocene, resulting in the present, narrow grabens. The term "Rio Grande rift" should be restricted to these grabens formed during post-mid-Miocene deformation. Widespread eruption of tholeiitic and alkali olivine basalts occurred 3-2 m.y. ago. The Rio Grande drainage system was integrated 4.5-3 m.y. ago, leading to the present erosional regime. These intervals of deformation and magmatism correspond generally with a similar sequence of events in the Basin and Range province south of the Colorado Plateau. This similarity indicates that the Rio Grande rift is not a unique structure in the southwestern U.S., and must be related to the larger context of the entire Basin and Range province.

  8. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  9. Detection of Carbapenemase Genes in Aquatic Environments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Silva, Dalton Marcondes; Carneiro, Marcos Tavares; Ribeiro, Sthefanie; Fontana-Maurell, Marcela; Alvarez, Patricia; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Zahner, Viviane; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt

    2016-07-01

    This study reveals the presence of different carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaGES, and blaOXA48-like genes) detected directly from water samples and clonal dispersion (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae in two important urban aquatic matrixes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, highlighting the role of aquatic environments as gene pools and the possibility of community spreading.

  10. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  11. Poverty and Problems of Development in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.

    Bounded on the west and south by Mexico and to the east by the Gulf, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas is separated from the nearest U.S. urban center of any size by miles of flat and arid brushland. Its total population of approximately 335,000 is essentially composed of 2 groups--Mexican Americans and Anglos. Although the region is one of the…

  12. Detection of Carbapenemase Genes in Aquatic Environments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Silva, Dalton Marcondes; Carneiro, Marcos Tavares; Ribeiro, Sthefanie; Fontana-Maurell, Marcela; Alvarez, Patricia; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Zahner, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    This study reveals the presence of different carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaGES, and blaOXA48-like genes) detected directly from water samples and clonal dispersion (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae in two important urban aquatic matrixes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, highlighting the role of aquatic environments as gene pools and the possibility of community spreading. PMID:27139469

  13. Sand waves, bars, and wind-blown sands of the Rio Orinoco, Venezuela and Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Perez-Hernandez, David

    1989-01-01

    During March 1982, a reconnaissance study was carried out along a reach of the Rio Orinoco between Puerto Ayacucho and Ciudad Bolivar. This was the low-flow season. Samples of bed material and suspended sediments were collected, sonic records of the bed were obtained at several locations, and the exposed bars and sand waves were studied at four locations. Sounding records were obtained at two of these locations during June and November when flow covered the bars, and additional studies were made on the ground at some of these same sites during March 1983. The bed of the river is mostly sand with small quantities, about 5 percent by weight on average, of gravel. Suspended- sediment concentrations were low, ranging between 20 milligrams per liter above Rio Apure to almost 40 milligrams per liter below its confluence with the Rio Orinoco. The annual sediment load is estimated to be 240x10 6 megagrams per year. During the dry season, 35 percent or more of the bed is exposed in the form of large bars composed of many sand waves. Trade winds blow upriver and there is substantial upriver transport of river sediments by the wind. If the bars contain very coarse sands and fine gravel, deflation forms a lag deposit that armors the bar surface and prevents further erosion. Theoretical calculations show that the lower limit for the fraction of the bed that needs to be covered with nonmoving particles to prevent further erosion and the smallest size of the armor particles depend only on wind speed. Calculations of bed-material transport were made for a typical wide and narrow section of the river; the annual load, excluding the wash load, is about 30 x 10 6 megagrams per year. A new definition for wash load is proposed; it is material that can be suspended as soon as its motion is initiated. For the Rio Orinoco, this is material finer than 0.1 millimeters.

  14. The potential to improve water quality in the middle Rio Grande through effective wetland restoration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ruth; Lougheed, Vanessa L

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Grande, which forms the United States-Mexico border for much of its course, receives diverse pollutants from both urban and agricultural areas, most notably in the sister cities of El Paso (TX, USA)-Ciudad Juárez (CHI, Mexico). This study aimed to describe regional trends in water quality in waters near the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez metroplex and to examine the potential for water quality improvement through the use of a created wetland. Very few differences in nutrient chemistry were found among drains, canals and the Rio Grande, with the exception of elevated chloride and lower phosphorus levels found in the drains. Overall, chloride concentrations increased with distance downstream, likely due to concentration of salts via evaporation from irrigated agriculture. A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) contributed substantially to total phosphorus and nitrate levels, which, together with ammonia, tended to exceed state criteria for water quality downstream of the WWTP outflow. The created Rio Bosque wetlands reduced nitrate concentrations in the water, possibly via denitrification enhanced by algae; algae increased in biomass as water flowed through the wetlands. However, the diversion of water for irrigated agriculture, resulting in the absence of water, and thus aquatic plants, in the wetland in the summer has limited the ability of this wetland to improve regional water quality.

  15. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  16. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  17. Characterization of the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Sabrina S; da Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Consalter, Angélica; Padilha, Felipe G F; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz M; Ferreira, Ana M Reis

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a survey on the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. From 2012 to 2013, a total of 624 blood samples were collected from horses from the eight regions comprising Rio de Janeiro State (Baixadas Litorâneas, Serrana, Norte Fluminense, Noroeste Fluminense, Centro-Sul, Metropolitana, Médio Paraíba, and Costa Verde). All sera samples were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies by performing the modified agglutination test with a cut-off of 1:25. Positive serology for T. gondii was detected in 22.8% (142/624) of the horses studied. Seropositivity was detected in all regions sampled; furthermore, statistical significance was observed when all locations were compared at once. The Médio Paraíba region had the highest number of positive animals 54.76% (23/42) in the Bonferroni correction among Costa Verde, Centro Sul, Metropolitana, and Serrana (p<0.001). Seropositivity was 39.58% (38/96) in Norte Fluminense, which was the second most prevalent region. The results indicated that the T. gondii parasite is widely distributed in horses in Rio de Janeiro State and represents a risk to public and animal health. These findings emphasize the need to increase control and prevention of this disease in horses.

  18. Channel Narrowing and Channel Reset: Effects of a Large Flood on the Vegetated, Narrowing Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In September 2008, heavy precipitation from a tropical storm in the Sierra Madre Occidental, MX, produced large amounts of stream flow to the Rio Conchos and lower Rio Grande. This flood was well publicized in the media due to the widespread flooding in Ojinaga, Chih., and Presidio, TX. Gage records indicate that this flood had an approximate recurrence of 15 years as measured on the Rio Grande near Presidio. Nevertheless, flood stages were the highest ever recorded and resulted from a significant loss of channel capacity due to channel narrowing that had occurred during the previous 18 years. Measurements from aerial photographs indicate that channel width had decreased between 35 and 50% between 1990 and 2008 during regional drought. During this period of low stream flow, invasion by non-native riparian vegetation (Tamarix spp., Arundo donax) helped trap sediment and promote floodplain accretion. Our resurveys of the channel indicate that the 2008 flood was a reset event and that the channel was re-widened by 32 to 48%. Repeated, oblique photographs showed significant channel migration and large scale floodplain stripping during this flood. These results show that although riparian vegetation may actively promote channel narrowing and floodplain accretion, moderately large floods may cause large scale bank erosion, floodplain stripping, and vegetation removal in alluvial valleys subject to large-scale invasion by nonnative plants.

  19. The Rio Tinto Mars analogue site: an extremophilic Raman spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Carter, Elizabeth A; Perez, Fernando Rull; Hargreaves, Michael D

    2007-12-15

    The Rio Tinto site is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue because of the presence of jarosite and related sulfates which have recently been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. It has long been known that acidophilic microbial action is responsible for the deep blood-red colour of the water in Rio Tinto, where the pH varies from about 1.5 to 3.0 and the water is rich in iron and sulfur. Following recent Raman spectroscopic characterisation of the mineral phases of the Rio Tinto system, we report here a study of the biological components found in several specimens of deposited minerals and near the waterside that were collected during a GeoRaman VI Conference organized field trip in 2006. Key biosignatures were found for carotenoids, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids, which are indicative of the biological colonisation of exposed mineral substrates; information from this study will be useful for targeting Martian sites using a miniaturized Raman instrument where the biosignatures of relict or extant life could remain in the geological record.

  20. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  1. [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Warnke, K; Paul, J

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. The current facts are as follows: 1) The Olympic Summer Games will be held during the winter months in Brazil, when the appearance of mosquitoes is expected to be low. 2) Extensive use of insecticides every 6 to 8 weeks in Rio de Janeiro and all Olympic venues has almost eradicated the mosquito population. 3) Individual protection of athletes, trainers and visitors is crucial (wearing appropriate clothing with skin coverage, sleeping under mosquito nets, using contact insecticides for clothing and mosquito nets, and applying insect repellents on a regular basis). 4) Pregnant women should avoid travelling to any country with current Zika virus activity. In sum, the risk to incur a Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro will likely be comparable to the risk in other countries where cases of Zika virus infections are registered.

  2. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Lima, C A; da Silva, V V; Petry, P; Oliveira, E C; Moura, S M

    2001-08-01

    Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  3. Traffic circulation study and long-range plan for Del Rio. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, A.J.; Islam, R.

    1996-03-01

    A 1992 report to Congress, pursuant to Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) sections 1089 and 6015, acknowledges that Texas serves a disproportionate share of the U.S.-Mexico international trade, and, accordingly, recommends the development of federal-aid program options to improve transportation infrastructure related to international trade. In order to take advantage of this recommendation, border states must monitor their transborder traffic demand and develop traffic circulation plans for their border cities. This report presents a 25-year traffic circulation plan for the City of Del Rio, Texas. The plan includes recommendations for increasing roadway capacity, adding left-turn lanes, building new routes to relieve congestion, and adding international thoroughfares. It also includes a comprehensive analysis of a transborder traffic in Del Rio, as well as of international thoroughfares between Cuidad Acuna and Del Rio. The recommendations take into account input from TxDOT personnel, City officials, border inspectors, international bridge managers, and several Mexican officials. The recommendations and schedules discussed in this report can assist TxDOT not only in planning land transport infrastructure, but also in alleviating problems associated with additional highway capacity, pavement rehabilitation, signalization, and right-of-way.

  4. Tectonic controls on the hydrogeology of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Person, Mark; Kelley, Shari; Dunbar, Nelia; Cather, Steve; Strayer, Luther; Hudleston, Pater

    1999-09-01

    Mathematical modeling is used in this study to assess how tectonic movement of fault blocks and fault permeability influence the present-day and paleohydrogeology of the Rio Grande Rift near Socorro, New Mexico. Our analysis focuses on active and ancient groundwater flow patterns and hot spring development within the southern La Jencia and Socorro subbasins. The best agreement between model results and present-day and paleoheat flow data was achieved by representing faults as passive surfaces and incorporating 2 km of moderately permeable (10-14.0 m2) fractured crystalline rocks into the hydrogeologic model. Quantitative results indicate that changes in groundwater flow patterns across the basin are primarily generated by the truncation/reconnection of aquifers and confining units. Calculated flow patterns help to explain the annealing of apatite fission tracks within Eocene Baca Formation clasts to the east of Socorro, potassium metasomatism mass balance constraints within Oligocene volcanics and overlying Santa Fe Group deposits, and the timing of barite/fluorite ore mineralization within the Gonzales prospect on the eastern edge of the Rio Grande Rift. We estimate that about 5% of mountain front recharge penetrates to a depth of 2.8 km below the sedimentary pile. This may have implications for water resource planners who have historically focused on groundwater resource development within the shallow alluvial deposits along the Rio Grande Rift valley.

  5. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  6. Integrated hydrologic modeling of a transboundary aquifer system —Lower Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Knight, Jacob E.; Maddock, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For more than 30 years the agreements developed for the aquifer systems of the lower Rio Grande and related river compacts of the Rio Grande River have evolved into a complex setting of transboundary conjunctive use. The conjunctive use now includes many facets of water rights, water use, and emerging demands between the states of New Mexico and Texas, the United States and Mexico, and various water-supply agencies. The analysis of the complex relations between irrigation and streamflow supplyand-demand components and the effects of surface-water and groundwater use requires an integrated hydrologic model to track all of the use and movement of water. MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MFFMP) provides the integrated approach needed to assess the stream-aquifer interactions that are dynamically affected by irrigation demands on streamflow allotments that are supplemented with groundwater pumpage. As a first step to the ongoing full implementation of MF-FMP by the USGS, the existing model (LRG_2007) was modified to include some FMP features, demonstrating the ability to simulate the existing streamflow-diversion relations known as the D2 and D3 curves, departure of downstream deliveries from these curves during low allocation years and with increasing efficiency upstream, and the dynamic relation between surface-water conveyance and estimates of pumpage and recharge. This new MF-FMP modeling framework can now internally analyze complex relations within the Lower Rio Grande Hydrologic Model (LRGHM_2011) that previous techniques had limited ability to assess.

  7. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  8. [Response to treatment with interferon beta in patients with multiple sclerosis. Validation of the Rio Score].

    PubMed

    Rio, J; Rovira, A; Blanco, Y; Sainz, A; Perkal, H; Robles, R; Ramio-Torrenta, Ll; Diaz, R M; Arroyo, R; Urbaneja, P; Fernandez, O; Garcia-Merino, J A; Reyes, M P; Oreja-Guevara, C; Prieto, J M; Izquierdo, G; Olascoaga, J; Alvarez-Cermeno, J C; Simon, E; Pujal, B; Comabella, M; Montalban, X

    2016-08-16

    Introduccion. Se han propuesto diferentes criterios de respuesta al tratamiento con interferon beta, y el Rio Score es uno de los mas utilizados. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar la utilidad del Rio Score en una cohorte independiente. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio multicentrico, prospectivo y longitudinal de pacientes con esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente tratados con interferon beta. Los pacientes fueron clasificados basandose en la presencia de brotes, lesiones activas (nuevas en T2 o lesiones que captaban gadolinio) en la resonancia magnetica, incremento confirmado de la discapacidad o combinaciones de estas variables (brotes, incremento en la Expanded Disability Status Scale y lesiones activas) tras un año de tratamiento. Se utilizo un analisis de regresion con el fin de identificar las variables de prediccion de respuesta despues de un seguimiento de tres años. Resultados. Se incluyo a 249 pacientes con esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. El modelo logistico confirmo que la presencia de dos (odds ratio = 6,6; IC 95% = 2,7-16,1; p < 0,0001) o tres (odds ratio = 8,5; IC 95% = 1,6-46; p < 0,01) variables positivas durante el primer año de tratamiento conferia un riesgo significativo de actividad (brotes o progresion) en los siguientes dos años. Conclusiones. Se confirma, en una cohorte independiente, la utilidad del Rio Score para identificar a pacientes con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar actividad clinica o progresion de la discapacidad durante el tratamiento con interferon beta.

  9. Finite element analysis of the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, P.A.; Jauregui, D.V.; Vigil, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s numerous bridges were built in the US with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 (I-40) over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH and TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture-critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the I-40 Bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce damage into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. A previous report (LA-12767-MS) summarizes the results of the experimental modal analyses. This report summarizes the numerical analyses of the bridges and compares the results of these analyses to the experimental results.

  10. Report: EPA’s Office of Environmental Information Should Improve Ariel Rios and Potomac Yard Computer Room Security Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0879, September 26, 2012. The security posture and in-place environmental control review of the computer rooms in the Ariel Rios and Potomac Yard buildings revealed numerous security and environmental control deficiencies.

  11. DIETARY CHARACTERIZATIONS IN A STUDY OF HUMAN EXPOSURES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY: I. FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Environmental Study (LRGVES), a cooperative effort between various federal and state agencies, responded to concerns of the local community about possible adverse health effects related to environmental conditions. The LRGVES pilot project, conducted d...

  12. 78 FR 57619 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ..., October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Amendment... Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil scheduled for October 7-10, 2013, to revise...

  13. Study for establishment of the Rio Grande Communications Network connecting federal, state and private facilities in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Heflin, W.H.

    1985-04-30

    Prime objective of NMT Inc. is the facilitation of technological transfer out of the Federal Laboratories at Sandia and Los Alamos to the universities and private sector companies, thereby attracting additional high-technology company programs to locate within the Rio Grande Research Corridor. This was to be done by NMT Inc.'s owning and operating the Rio Grande Communication Network (RGCN). The first interface requirements for the proposed first service offering of electronic mail have been outlined.

  14. Middle Rio Grande Bosque Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study Habitat Assessment Using Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP): Analyses, Results and Documentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    dynamic mosaic of cottonwood forests, coyote willow shrublands, wet meadows, wetlands, oxbow ponds, and open water areas with a variety of depths and...Sandia Lakes . In Corrales, fishing takes place along the drains. Within the Rio Grande Valley State Park, there are various fishing locations. Tingley...than 5 feet in height), seedlings, and grasses. This category includes both dry meadows and the rare marshes found in the oxbow of the Middle Rio

  15. Water resources of the Rio Grande de Anasco lower valley, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Jose Raul; Jordan, Donald G.

    1987-01-01

    A large amount of water suitable for most uses is available in the lower Rio Grande de Anasco Valley, the major source of which is the Rio Grande de Anasco which contributes about 95% of the surface water inflow to the lower valley. River flow at El Espino exceeds 100 cu ft/sec about 85% of the time and 200 cu ft/sec 50% of the time. Average daily flow for the driest months of the year (February, March, and April), is almost always <100 cu ft/sec. In contrast, the average daily flow for the wettest, months of the year (September, October, and November), is > 120 cu ft/sec. During the study period, flows of the Rio Canas averaged about 5 cu ft/sec. The lower valley is underlain by igneous rocks that have been eroded to depths of 350 ft or more below sea level. The valley is filled with 250 ft or more of limestone and clay, that in turn is overlain by as much as 100 ft of alluvium. The amount of groundwater available is unknown. There are large volumes of water in the saturated mostly fine-grained alluvium of Zone II, but as a whole the alluvium does not yield water readily to wells. Sand and gravel deposits associated with former river channels yield an estimated 100 to 150 gal/min to wells. The principal source of groundwater is the limestone of Zone III, that reportedly yields as much as 500 gal/min to wells. The quality of surface water especially that of Rio Grande de Anasco was very good. Specific conductance seldom exceeds 250 microsiemens/cm, even at low flows. Both salinity and sodium are low, falling in the Cl-S1 irrigation water classification. Water quality in the lower 5,000 ft or so of the river was affected by saltwater encroachment from the sea. The water quality of the other streams and canals in the lower valley was variable depending on susceptibility of saltwater encroachment, contamination from man-made sources, and concentration of minerals by evapotranspiration. Specific conductance however seldom exceeded 500 microsiemens/cm and the water

  16. Neoplecostomus doceensis: a new loricariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the rio Doce basin and comments about its putative origin.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Fábio F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Zawadzki, Cláudio H; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Neoplecostomus is described from the rio Doce basin representing the first species of this genus in the basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries, two or three series of developed papillae anterior to premaxillary teeth and a adipose-fin membrane present, and by lacking enlarged odontodes along snout lateral margins in mature males, a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet wider than dorsal-fin spine base, lower number of lateral-line figs and developed membrane on the dorsal portion of the first, second and third pelvic-fin branched rays. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of biogeographic scenarios that may explain the distribution of the new species in the rio Doce basin. We suggested that the ancestral lineage of the new species reached the rio Doce from the upper portions of rio Paraná drainages about 3.5 Mya (95% HPD: 1.6-5.5) indicating a colonization route of the N. doceensis ancestral lineage from the south end of Serra do Espinhaço, probably as a result of headwater capture processes between the upper rio Paraná and rio Doce basins.

  17. Geologic map of the Rio Puerco quadrangle, Bernalillo and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2003-01-01

    The Rio Puerco quadrangle is located southwest of Albuquerque in central New Mexico and covers part of the western part of the Isleta Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and the University of New Mexico have conducted geologic mapping on the Isleta Reservation and vicinity as part of the Middle Rio Grande Basin Project. The map area contains surficial deposits, calcic soils, fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco, deposits of the Santa Fe Group, and three volcanic fields. The area is characterized by predominantly north-trending normal faults with generally down-to-the-east movement. Post-Santa Fe Group deposits are composed of surficial deposits (Pleistocene-Holocene) and fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco (Pleistocene-Holocene). The surficial deposits are divided into eolian, alluvial, colluvial, and landslide deposits. The fluvial deposits of the Rio Puerco consist of four terrace and present channel deposits. The Santa Fe Group is divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part of the Santa Fe Group is exposed near the southwestern corner of the study area where deposits consist of reddish-brown mudstone and sandstone correlated to the Popotosa Formation (Unit 1) of Lozinsky and Tedford (1991). They interpreted deposition of the unit in a basin-floor playa setting. The Popotosa Formation is in fault contact to the east with deposits of the upper Santa Fe Group. The upper Santa Fe Group is derived from major tributary fluvial systems (ancestral Rio Puerco Puerco and possibly the Rio San Jose drainages) draining the adjacent Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nacimiento and correlated to parts of Kelley's (1977) Ceja Formation of the Santa Fe Group and equivalent to Machette's (1978) Sierra Ladrones Formation, Connell's Arroyo Ojito Formation (Connell and others, 1999, and Maldonado's lithofacies of the Isleta Reservation (Maldonado and Atencio,1998a, b). The group also locally includes a fine- grained unit

  18. Hydrology, water quality, and potential alternatives for water-resources development in the Rio Majada and Rio Lapa basins near the Albergue Olimpico, southern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramos-Gines, Orlando

    1994-01-01

    A water-resources investigation was conducted during 1989 in the Rio Lapa mountain basins in southern Puerto Rico, to define the hydrology, water quality, and to describe alternatives for additional water- resources supply. The total water budget for both surface- and ground-water resources in the study area was estimated to be 7,530 acre-feet per year for 1989. The water budget for the ground-water system, from which water needs are supplied in the study area, was estimated to be 2,760 acre-feet per year for 1989. Concentration of dissolved solids and fecal bacteria increased during the dry season as both streamflow and ground-water levels decreased. Water samples collected at two stream sites exceeded the recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fecal bacteria concentration for natural water of 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters during June to November 1989. Water samples obtained from a well in the Rio Lapa Valley exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard for dissolved solids of 500 milligrams per liter during four dry months. In addition, fecal bacteria concentrations at this water-supply well exceeded the primary fecal- bacteria drinking-water standard of 1 colony per 100 milliliter during June to October 1989. Existing water resources can probably be developed to meet additional demands of 110 acre-feet per year pro- jected for 1995. Storage of the surface-water runoff during the wet season and its gradual release to the study area could offset ground-water declines during the dry season. Ground-water withdrawals can be increased by the construction and use of low- capacity wells to reduce the amount of water lowing out of the study area.

  19. Palaeobotanical evidence of wildfires in the Late Palaeozoic of South America - Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2008-12-01

    Fossil charcoal, as direct evidence of palaeowildfires, has repeatedly been reported from several plant-bearing deposits from the Late Palaeozoic of the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast charcoal reports from the Late Palaeozoic deposits of the Southern Hemisphere are relatively rare in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere. Although the presence of pyrogenic coal macerals has repeatedly been reported from Late Palaeozoic coals from South America, no detailed anatomical investigations of such material have been published so far. Here is presented an anatomical analysis of charcoal originating from Early Permian sediments of the Quitéria Outcrop, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, located in the central-eastern portion of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This charcoal comes from two different coaly facies, and it was possible to scrutinize between three types, based on anatomical characters of the charcoal. Two of these charcoal types can be correlated to gymnosperm woods, and the other type corresponds to strongly permineralized bark with characteristic features of lycopsids. The presence of charcoal in different facies, ranging from parautochtonous to allochtonous origin, indicates that different vegetation types, i.e. plants which grew under wet conditions in the lowland as well as in the more dry hinterland, have experienced wildfires. Taking into account previous petrographic and lithological analyses from the facies in which the charcoal occurs and from the conditions of the wood and bark fragments, it was possible to speculate that the intensity of such wildfires most probably corresponds to forest-crown fires. Moreover, it is possible to state that wildfires have been a more or less common element in distinct Late Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems in the South American part of Gondwana. The data support previous assumptions on the occurrence of wildfires in the Early Permian of the Paraná Basin which were based solely on coal-petrographic data.

  20. Protein kinase CK2 activates the atypical Rio1p kinase and promotes its cell-cycle phase-dependent degradation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, Michaela; Hochleitner, Elisabeth; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Bandlow, Wolfhard

    2007-09-01

    Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with MS analysis, we identified the alpha' subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2) as an interaction partner of the atypical Rio1 protein kinase in yeast. Co-purification of Rio1p with CK2 from Deltacka1 or Deltacka2 mutant extracts shows that Rio1p preferentially interacts with Cka2p in vitro. The C-terminal domain of Rio1p is essential and sufficient for this interaction. Six C-terminally located clustered serines were identified as the only CK2 sites present in Rio1p. Replacement of all six serine residues by aspartate, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation, stimulates Rio1p kinase activity about twofold in vitro compared with wild-type or the corresponding (S > A)(6) mutant proteins. Both mutant alleles (S > A)(6) or (S > D)(6) complement in vivo, however, growth of the RIO1 (S > A)(6) mutant is greatly retarded and shows a cell-cycle phenotype, whereas the behaviour of the RIO1 (S > D)(6) mutant is indistinguishable from wild-type. This suggests that phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 leads to moderate activation of Rio1p in vivo and promotes cell proliferation. Physiological studies indicate that phosphorylation by CK2 renders the Rio1 protein kinase susceptible to proteolytic degradation at the G(1)/S transition in the cell-division cycle, whereas the non-phosphorylated version is resistant.

  1. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la

  2. Streamflow and Endangered Species Habitat in the Lower Isleta Reach of the Middle Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Waddle, Terry J.; Spears, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    San Acacia Dam is located in a reach of the Rio Grande that has been designated as critical habitat for two endangered species, the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) and the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Under present operations, the Rio Grande upstream from the dam is used to convey irrigation water to the Socorro main canal at San Acacia Dam. In order to increase operational flexibility and improve irrigation delivery efficiency, the 'Bernardo Siphon' has been proposed to intercept up to 150 cubic feet per second from the Lower San Juan Riverside Drain on the east side of the Rio Grande and transport it under the river into a drainage canal on the west side. Irrigation deliveries to the Socorro main canal would be conveyed by way of the drainage canal rather than the Rio Grande. The objective of this study was to provide the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) and other stakeholders with a tool to evaluate the effects of different operational modes of the Bernardo siphon on habitat for H. amarus and E. t. extimus in this section of river. We used a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation model to simulate hydraulic conditions for a range of discharges at three study sites in the Rio Grande between the proposed siphon location and San Acacia Dam. Suitable habitat characteristics were defined for H. amarus by consensus of a panel of experts and for E. t. extimus on the basis of a study conducted in 2003 by BOR. Habitat suitability maps for each targeted life stage and simulated discharge were constructed using a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) and the results compiled into tables relating discharge to areas of suitable habitat. A separate analysis was conducted to calculate an index of connectivity among habitat patches at low flows. A hydrologic model was constructed to synthesize flows, by reach, without the siphon, which was used as a baseline for comparison with similarly-synthesized discharges with the siphon under

  3. Historic Rio Grande Channel Change: Relating Channel Adjustments Measured from Aerial Photography to Human and Climate Induced Changes in Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G. A.; Swanson, B. J.; Coonrod, J.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last century, flow regulation, changes in land and water use, and climate change, including severe droughts, have altered geomorphic processes along the Middle Rio Grande. In association with the USACE Urban Flood Demonstration Program, we investigated changes in channel and island widths and areas as measured on 1972-2006 aerial photographs in relation to average and peak flows in the Rio Grande through Bernalillo County, NM (Albuquerque). We employed all recent (1992-2006) photographs, which were often taken annually or biannually. Digitized and georeferenced photographs were analyzed using a GIS, with particular attention paid to quantifying potential measurement error and its propagation through estimates of channel areas and bank erosion rates. Average total channel widths decreased from 169 m in 1972 to 130 m in 2006. Narrowing was concentrated in the upper and lower sections of the study reach where tributary sediment inputs and degradation related to dam operations constrict the active channel. Decreases in channel width and area coincide with periods of low flows, although the area changes are associated with large errors. Vegetated island areas have greatly increased since 1972, although islands per se were also lost during the later study period by bank attachment. Bank erosion estimates also have large associated errors. Nonetheless, erosion rates appear to be generally decreasing over time, but accelerated during the 2005 high flows. Additional research will compare geomorphic change along the Rio Grande study reach to channel adjustments along the Rio Chama, both below and above El Vado Dam, to better understand regional channel responses to dam operations and drought cycles. Initial investigations reveal that channel responses to these perturbations along the Rio Chama, a major Rio Grande tributary, are similar to the adjustments observed along the Rio Grande through Albuquerque, but the magnitude of the change is not as dramatic.

  4. Sediment Supply Versus Local Hydraulic Controls on Sediment Transport and Storage in the Rio Grande in the Big Bend Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, has a large sediment supply, and a variable hydrology resulting in rapid channel narrowing during years of low mean and peak flow, and channel widening during rare, large-magnitude floods. This dynamic nature makes the Rio Grande a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment-transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically-based analyses suggest that channel change on the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during flash floods on desert tributaries. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem are the only floods that have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande. These floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment-transport analyses show that sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by the spatial distribution of flow strength as governed by channel slope. However, temporal changes in the grain size and amount of available sand within the channel, as inferred from comprehensive analyses of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size, control the degree of sediment evacuation or accumulation over large spatial scales.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in streamflow, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment in the Rio Grande Valley study unit, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality vary spatially and temporally in the Rio Grande from Del Norte, Colorado, to El Paso, Texas. The variations in streamflow and in concentrations of selected waterquality constituents?dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment?are described in this report. A multivariate linear regression model, ESTIMATOR2000, was used to estimate loads for selected constituents. Streamflow decreases in the downstream direction throughout most of the basin because outflows (due to agricultural use, leakage to ground water, and evapotranspiration) are greater than inflows. Streamflow increases between Rio Grande above the mouth of Trinchera Creek, near Lasauses, Colorado, to Rio Grande at Otowi Bridge, near San Ildefonso, New Mexico, because ground-water and tributary inflow are greater than outflow. Concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment generally increase in the downstream direction. Concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, and total phosphorus decrease between Rio Grande above the mouth of Trinchera Creek, near Lasauses, Colorado, and Rio Grande at Otowi Bridge, near San Ildefonso, New Mexico, because of dilution by tributary inflow. Concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment decrease between Rio Grande Floodway at San Marcial, New Mexico, and Rio Grande below Leasburg Dam, near Leasburg, New Mexico, because of reservoir effects (nutrient uptake and settling of sediment). Several instances of decreasing streamflow and increasing loads indicate the presence of inflows with large constituent concentrations (relative to those of the Rio Grande immediately upstream from that inflow); this occurs (1) between Rio Grande near Del Norte, Colorado, and Rio Grande above the mouth of Trinchera Creek, near Lasauses, Colorado, for dissolved solids, (2) between Rio

  6. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. )

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  7. Zika in Rio de Janeiro: Assessment of basic reproduction number and comparison with dengue outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Villela, D A M; Bastos, L S; DE Carvalho, L M; Cruz, O G; Gomes, M F C; Durovni, B; Lemos, M C; Saraceni, V; Coelho, F C; Codeço, C T

    2017-02-27

    Zika virus infection was declared a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016 in response to the outbreak in Brazil and its suspected link with congenital anomalies. In this study, we use notification data and disease natural history parameters to estimate the basic reproduction number (R 0) of Zika in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also obtain estimates of R 0 of dengue from time series of dengue cases in the outbreaks registered in 2002 and 2012 in the city, when DENV-3 and DENV-4 serotypes, respectively, had just emerged. Our estimates of the basic reproduction number for Zika in Rio de Janeiro based on surveillance notifications (R 0 = 2·33, 95% CI: 1·97-2·97) were higher than those obtained for dengue in the city (year 2002: R 0 = 1·70 [1·50-2·02]; year 2012: R 0 = 1·25 [1·18-1·36]). Given the role of Aedes aegypti as vector of both the Zika and dengue viruses, we also derive R 0 of Zika as a function of both dengue reproduction number and entomological and epidemiological parameters for dengue and Zika. Using the dengue outbreaks from previous years allowed us to estimate the potential R 0 of Zika. Our estimates were closely in agreement with our first Zika's R 0 estimation from notification data. Hence, these results validate deriving the potential risk of Zika transmission in areas with recurring dengue outbreaks. Whether transmission routes other than vector-based can sustain a Zika epidemic still deserves attention, but our results suggest that the Zika outbreak in Rio de Janeiro emerged due to population susceptibility and ubiquitous presence of Ae. aegypti.

  8. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin.

  9. Distribution and habitat associations of juvenile Common Snook in the lower Rio Grande, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Caleb G.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Patino, Reynaldo; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Common Snook Centropomus undecimalis were once abundant off the Texas coast, but these populations are now characterized by low abundance and erratic recruitment. Most research concerning Common Snook in North America has been conducted in Florida and very little is known about the specific biology and habitat needs of Common Snook in Texas. The primary objective of this study was to describe the habitat use patterns of juvenile Common Snook and their role in the fish assemblage in the lower portion of the Rio Grande, Texas. Secondarily, we documented the relationship between age and juvenile reproductive development. Fish were collected during January–March 2006 from the lower 51.5 km of the Rio Grande using a bottom trawl and boat-mounted electrofisher. Measurements of water quality and other habitat traits were recorded at each sampling site. We captured 225 Common Snook exclusively in freshwater habitats above river kilometer 12.9. The distribution of juvenile Common Snook was not random, but influenced primarily by turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Sex differentiation and gonadal development based on histological examination of gonads established that age-1 and age-2 Common Snook were juvenile, prepubertal males. There was no difference between the age groups in their overall distribution in the river. However, age-2 Common Snook were associated with deeper areas with faster currents, higher conductivity, and steeper banks. Overall, Common Snook in the lower Rio Grande show substantial differences in habitat use than their counterparts in other parts of the range of the species, but it is unclear whether this is due to differences in habitat availability, behavioral plasticity, or some combination thereof.

  10. Clonal Dissemination of OXA-370-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Polyana Silva; Borghi, Mirla; de Araújo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Oliveira, Jane Cleide Ribeiro; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes of the OXA-48 family have become some of the most important beta-lactamases in the world. A new OXA-48 variant (OXA-370) was first described for an Enterobacter hormaechei strain isolated in Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil) in 2013. Here we report detection of the blaOXA-370 gene in 24 isolates belonging to three Enterobacteriaceae species (22 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes isolate) collected from five hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014. The isolates showed a multidrug resistance profile, and 12.5% were resistant to polymyxin B. Besides blaOXA-370, no other carbapenemase genes were observed by PCR, whereas blaOXA-1 was found in all isolates and 22 isolates (91.6%) possessed blaCTX-M-15. Molecular typing of the K. pneumoniae isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the presence of two clonal groups, i.e., KpA (21 isolates) and KpB (1 isolate). KpA was characterized as sequence type 16 (ST16) and KpB as ST1041 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). ST16 has been observed for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro. Plasmid analysis performed with six representative OXA-370-producing isolates showed plasmids harboring the blaOXA-370 gene in all strains, ranging from 25 kb to 150 kb. This study suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate the presence of OXA-370 and dissemination of the K. pneumoniae ST16 clone carrying this gene in Brazil. PMID:25987619

  11. HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR CHOLECYSTITIS AND CHOLELITHIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Emeline Caldana; ROSA, Roger dos Santos; BORDIN, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The cholelithiasis is disease of surgical resolution with about 60,000 hospitalizations per year in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian National Health System) of the Rio Grande do Sul state. Aim: To describe the profile of hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis performed by the SUS of Rio Grande do Sul state, 2011-2013. Methods: Hospital Information System data from the National Health System through morbidity list for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (ICD-10 K80-K81). Variables studied were sex, age, number of hospitalizations and approved Hospitalization Authorizations (AIH), total amount and value of hospital services generated, days and average length of stay, mortality, mortality and case fatality ratio, from health regions of the Rio Grande do Sul. Results: During 2011-2013 there were 60,517 hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, representing 18.86 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year, most often in the age group from 60 to 69 years (41.34 admissions per 10,000 inhabitants/year) and female (27.72 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year). The fatality rate presented an inverse characteristic: 13.52 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year for males, compared with 7.12 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year in females. The state had an average total amount spent and value of hospital services of R$ 16,244,050.60 and R$ 10,890,461.31, respectively. The health region "Capital/Gravataí Valley" exhibit the highest total expenditure and hospital services, and the largest number of deaths, and average length of stay. Conclusion: The hospitalization and lethality coefficients, the deaths, the length of stay and spending related to admissions increased from 50 years old. Females had a higher frequency and higher values ​​spent on hospitalization, while the male higher coefficient of mortality and mean hospital stay. PMID:27438030

  12. Spatial distribution and socioeconomic context of tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of risk for tuberculosis and its socioeconomic determinants in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS An ecological study on the association between the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis from 2004 to 2006 and socioeconomic indicators of the Censo Demográfico (Demographic Census) of 2000. The unit of analysis was the home district registered in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Notifiable Diseases Information System) of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The rates were standardized by sex and age group, and smoothed by the empirical Bayes method. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by Moran’s I. Multiple linear regression models were studied and the appropriateness of incorporating the spatial component in modeling was evaluated. RESULTS We observed a higher risk of the disease in some neighborhoods of the port and north regions, as well as a high incidence in the slums of Rocinha and Vidigal, in the south region, and Cidade de Deus, in the west. The final model identified a positive association for the variables: percentage of permanent private households in which the head of the house earns three to five minimum wages; percentage of individual residents in the neighborhood; and percentage of people living in homes with more than two people per bedroom. CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis identified areas of risk of tuberculosis incidence in the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro and also found spatial dependence for the incidence of tuberculosis and some socioeconomic variables. However, the inclusion of the space component in the final model was not required during the modeling process. PMID:26270014

  13. The Disease Burden Attributable to Smoking in the State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Leite, Iuri Costa

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Smoking is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality. An estimated 59 million (4.4%) disability-adjusted life years were lost due to smoking throughout the world in 2000. OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to smoking in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the year 2000. METHODS Based on estimates of smoking prevalence and relative death risks, the smoking-attributable fraction was calculated for each selected cause, by age and gender. The disease burden attributable to smoking was estimated by multiplying the fractions by the corresponding disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS In the State of Rio de Janeiro, 7% of all disability-adjusted life years were due to smoking. For individuals 30 or more years old, the fraction increased to 10.6% (13.6% in males and 7.5% in females). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer accounted for 32.2%, 15.7%, 13.2%, and 11.1% of the estimated total DALYs, respectively, amounting to 72.2% of the smoking-attributable disease burden. DISCUSSION Limitations related to parameter estimates were not unique to this study, and therefore should not compromise the comparability of our results. Outcomes were similar to those obtained in other countries, despite methodological differences. CONCLUSION Smoking is an important risk factor and places a significant disease burden on Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing a pattern similar to that observed in high income countries. PMID:18438576

  14. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the 1960`s and 1970`s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANL`s Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANL`s Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker.

  15. Clonal Dissemination of OXA-370-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Polyana Silva; Borghi, Mirla; de Araújo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Oliveira, Jane Cleide Ribeiro; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt

    2015-08-01

    Enzymes of the OXA-48 family have become some of the most important beta-lactamases in the world. A new OXA-48 variant (OXA-370) was first described for an Enterobacter hormaechei strain isolated in Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil) in 2013. Here we report detection of the blaOXA-370 gene in 24 isolates belonging to three Enterobacteriaceae species (22 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes isolate) collected from five hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014. The isolates showed a multidrug resistance profile, and 12.5% were resistant to polymyxin B. Besides blaOXA-370, no other carbapenemase genes were observed by PCR, whereas blaOXA-1 was found in all isolates and 22 isolates (91.6%) possessed blaCTX-M-15. Molecular typing of the K. pneumoniae isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the presence of two clonal groups, i.e., KpA (21 isolates) and KpB (1 isolate). KpA was characterized as sequence type 16 (ST16) and KpB as ST1041 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). ST16 has been observed for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Rio de Janeiro. Plasmid analysis performed with six representative OXA-370-producing isolates showed plasmids harboring the blaOXA-370 gene in all strains, ranging from 25 kb to 150 kb. This study suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate the presence of OXA-370 and dissemination of the K. pneumoniae ST16 clone carrying this gene in Brazil.

  16. Late Pleistocene landslide-dammed lakes along the Rio Grande, White Rock Canyon, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Dethier, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    Massive slump complexes composed of Pliocene basaltic rocks and underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments flank the Rio Grande along 16 km of northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. The toe area of at least one slump complex was active in the late Pleistocene, damming the Rio Grande at least four times during the period from 18 to 12 {sup 14}C ka and impounding lakes that extended 10-20 km upriver. Stratigraphic relationships and radiocarbon age constraints indicate that three separate lakes formed between 13.7 and 12.4 {sup 14}C ka. The age and dimensions of the ca. 12.4 ka lake are best constrained; it had an estimated maximum depth of {approx}30 m, a length of {approx}13 km, a surface area of {approx}2.7 km{sup 2}, and an initial volume of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}. The youngest landslide-dammed lakes formed during a period of significantly wetter regional climate, strongly suggesting that climate changes were responsible for reactivation of the slump complexes. We are not certain about the exact triggering mechanisms for these landslides, but they probably involved removal of lateral support due to erosion of the slope base by the Rio Grande during periods of exceptionally high flood discharge or rapid incision; increased pore pressures associated with higher water tables; higher seepage forces at sites of ground-water discharge; or some combination of these processes. Seismic shaking could also have contributed to triggering of some of the landslides, particularly if aided by wet antecedent conditions. 54 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Implementing Audio Digital Feedback Loop Using the National Instruments RIO System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Byrd, J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Development of system for high precision RF distribution and laser synchronization at Berkeley Lab has been ongoing for several years. Successful operation of these systems requires multiple audio bandwidth feedback loops running at relatively high gains. Stable operation of the feedback loops requires careful design of the feedback transfer function. To allow for flexible and compact implementation, we have developed digital feedback loops on the National Instruments Reconfigurable Input/Output (RIO) platform. This platform uses an FPGA and multiple I/Os that can provide eight parallel channels running different filters. We present the design and preliminary experimental results of this system.

  18. A DFB fiber laser sensor system using a NI-Compact-RIO-based PGC demodulation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; He, Jun; Feng, Lei; Li, Fang; Liu, Yu-liang

    2009-07-01

    An eight-channel distributed feedback fiber laser (DFB FL) sensor system using phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation scheme is described in this paper. This system employs an unbalanced Michelson interferometer to convert the measurands-induced laser wavelength shifts into the phase shifts. The digital PGC algorithm is realized on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module of the commercialized NI-Compact RIO. The influence of the time delay between the interferometric signal and the PGC carrier is then investigated. Finally, the experimental system is setup to validate the analysis above.

  19. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of skin lesions from sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection in domestic cats in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Nadia R; Danelli, Maria G M; da Silva, Lucia H P; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Mazur, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Peripheral blood smears of 1094 domestic cats were collected and tested by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay for p27 antigen in cells to study the prevalence and risk factors for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sex, age, breed, outdoor access, neutering status, type of habitation (household, shelter, veterinary clinics and other places), number of household cats and clinical signs were registered on a form. Among the tested samples, 11.52% were positive. Risk factors for FeLV infection included outdoor access, age range between 1 and 5 years old, and cohabitation with numerous cats.

  1. Multiclonal expansion of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing-NDM-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Pereira, Polyana Silva; de Araujo, Carlos Felipe Machado; Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Oliveira, Jane Cleide; Buonora, Sibelle Nogueira; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    We characterized NDM-1-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PCR was applied for resistance and virulence determinants. The genetic context of blaNDM was determined by S1 PFGE and hybridization. The genotyping were performed by PFGE and MLST. Most isolates carried multiple resistance genes and remained susceptible to amikacin, fosfomycin/trometamol, polymyxin B and tigecycline. The spread of NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was not associated with a clonal expansion and appears to be associated with Tn3000.

  2. Water resources simulation in the Rio Grande basin using coupled models

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, E.P.; Winter, C.L.; Bossert, J.E.

    1999-04-01

    Regional assessments of water resources under global climate change require models that can resolve management, land use, and climate effects. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a coupled model of water resources that places a river basin in its global context. The upper Rio Grande basin above El Paso, Texas is the testbed for this model. The model structure and computational approach are emphasize and issues such as nonlinear feedback between components and spatial and temporal scaling of processes are discussed. Using simulations of regional meteorology, the effects of high spatial resolution simulations on the distribution of precipitation are demonstrated.

  3. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  4. Identification of Hydrated Sulfates Collected in the Northern Rio Tinto Valley by Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chemtob, S. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Mustard, J. F.; Hutchinson, L.; Stein, T. C.; Donovan, C. E.; Fairchild, G. M.; Friedlander, L. R.; Karas, N. M.; Klasen, N.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Robinson, E. M.; Steinhardt, S. E.; Weber, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA recently identified spectral signatures of kieserite, gypsum, and other polyhydrated sulfates at multiple locations on the surface of Mars [1,2]. The presence of sulfates was confirmed through in situ spectroscopy by MER Opportunity [3]. An approach to validate these interpretations is to collect corresponding spectral data from sulfate-rich terrestrial analog sites. The northern Rio Tinto Valley near Nerva, Spain, is a good Martian analog locale because it features extensive seasonal sulfate mineralization driven by highly acidic waters [4]. We report on mineralogical compositions identified by field VNIR spectroscopy and laboratory Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Radiocarbon measurements of stromatolite heads and crusts at the Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, Melayne M.; Silva, Cleverson G.; Barbosa, Cátia F.; Mueller, Ken A.

    2000-10-01

    In this work, we prepared and measured some stromatolite carbonate samples, from Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Stromatolites are bio-sedimentary, laminated, carbonate structures produced by sedimentary, chemical and biological processes related to the development and growth of microbial benthic communities, mainly dominated by blue algae and cyanobacteria. These structures are present in the geological record in rocks older than 3.0 billion years and have been used to study the origin of primitive life and variations in past environmental conditions. Detailed AMS measurements were performed at PRIME Lab (Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory, Purdue University, IN, USA).

  6. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond.

  7. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  8. The Road to Rio: Medical and Scientific Perspectives on the 2016 Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Lexell, Jan; Derman, Wayne; Idrisova, Guzel; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap; Wosornu, Yetsa Tuakli; Van de Vliet, Peter; Webborn, Nick

    2016-08-01

    In August and September of this year, the world will turn its attention to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. Of interest to physiatrists, the Paralympic Games will take place from September 7 to 18, with an estimated total of 4 billion viewers. In the United States, for the first time in history, the Summer Games will be broadcast over a total of 66 hours on NBCUniversal. The Paralympic Games represent the pinnacle of elite sport for athletes with disabilities while also changing perceptions around the importance of grassroots sport and physical activity opportunities for the disability community more broadly.

  9. Results of the Rio de Janeiro magnetic observations 1781-1788

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.

    2005-07-01

    We have compiled a relatively extensive catalogue of geomagnetic declination measurements performed by the Portuguese Bento Sanches Dorta in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) between 1781 and 1788. All the information was retrieved from printed documents compiled in the first three volumes of the Memories of the Portuguese Royal Academy of Sciences. During this period Sanches Dorta performed roughly 20000 individual observations, however, only a fraction of this data is presently available. In this work, all available information about these measurements is analysed. The annual change (variability and trend) and the daily cycle of geomagnetic declination at monthly scale are discussed. Keywords. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, History of geophysics, Geomagnetic field declination

  10. IRBM for the Rio Conchos Basin as a Restoration and Conservation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, E.; Rodriguez, J. A.; de La Maza, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Rio Conchos basin is the main water supply for the people of the State of Chihuahua and the middle and lower Rio Bravo in northern Mexico. Flowing for about 850 km from the highlands of the Sierra Tarahumara towards the wide valleys of the Chihuahuan Desert, the river presents recurrent periods of water stress and its basin of 6.7 million of hectares experiences a wide spectrum of problems such us long drought periods, water over allocation and extraction, water pollution, severe soil use changes. Besides, drastic soil moisture reduction is forecasted by effects of climate change. These natural and anthropological harmful situations impose a serious stress for this important and beautiful river and the rest of the basin hydrological resources. The WWF-Gonzalo Rio Arronte Alliance and its partners USAID, The Coca Cola Company and RICOH are implementing since 2004 an Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) strategy to recover the natural integrity of the Rio Conchos in the form of environmental flow. The strategy includes the five basic working lines: i) development of river basin scientific knowledge, ii) strengthen of local institutional capacities, iii) development of demonstrative projects, iv) strengthen of indigenous communities, v) education and communication. Although the implementation of the IRBM program is expected to show main results until the year 2050, some interesting results have been obtained. The strategy has provided i) new basic knowledge about the basin dynamic events such as soil change use rates, baseline values of biological integrity, water economic values, among others; ii) strong program acceptance by government and main water users (farmers), and the integration of a working group formed by government, academia and NGO's; iii) local acceptance and understanding of benefits about basin management (soil recovery, reforestation, ecological sanitation) through demonstrative projects; iv) social organization; v) few advances in education

  11. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  12. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention.

  13. [Mental illness in women in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (1870-1910)].

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Cristiane Teresinha de Deus Virgili; Vasconcellos, Silvio José Lemos

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between female gender and mental illness is complex, remaining largely a product of women's social situation as daughters, wives, and mothers. The main objective of this article is to discuss the historical aspects related to mental illness in women in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1870 to 1910. The authors consulted records from several so-called insane asylums as well as periodical articles published during the period. These documents provide good insight into how psychiatrists and lay society interpreted mental disorders in women. The research contributes to an understanding of the historical issues related to diagnosis of mental illness and the implications for current practice.

  14. Taxonomic implications of Rhodotorula rubra isolates from polluted sea water in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C

    1979-04-01

    Sixty two strains of Rhodotorula rubra which were all isolated from marine and estuarine waters of Rio de Janeiro were found variable for 19 to 32 carbon assimilation tests used in yeast taxonomy. Two R. rubra strains which had latent assimilation of maltose and melizitose appeared to be intermediate with R. pilimanae. Strains of R. glutinis var dairenensis which differed from R. rubra only by weak assimilation of nitrate appeared to be intermediated between these two species. Our physiological tests suggested that R. rubra, R. pilimanae, and part of R. glutinis should be combined and this was supported by DNA base composition and coezyme Q data existing in the literature.

  15. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  16. Spatial Evaluation and Modeling of Dengue Seroprevalence and Vector Density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Mônica; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; Gomes, Marcelo Quintela; Pinheiro, Luciane Silva; da Silva Pinel, Célio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Methodology/Principal Findings Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before–after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue

  17. Geologic map of the Ojo Caliente Quadrangle, Rio Arriba and Taos Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1986-11-01

    The Ojo Caliente area forms part of the western limb of the Espanola basin within the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico (Manley, 1979; May, 1979). The geology consists of Miocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks that rest unconformably on, or are faulted against, Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks. The Miocene rocks dip gently to the southeast, except where the attitudes are controlled by faulting or by the underlying basement topography. The Precambrian and Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by Quaternary pediment and river gravels, loess, travertine, landslide debris, and alluvium. The Precambrian rocks are faulted into horsts in several areas by north - northeast - trending normal faults.

  18. Summary of Flow Loss between Selected Cross Sections on the Rio Grande in and near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veenhuis, Jack E.

    2002-01-01

    The upper middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, extends from the headwaters of the Rio Grande in southwestern Colorado to Fort Quitman, Texas. Most of the basin has a semiarid climate typical of the southwestern United States. This climate drives a highly variable streamflow regime that contributes to the complexity of water management in the basin. Currently, rapid population growth in the basin has resulted in increasing demands on the hydrologic system. Water management decisions have become increasingly complex because of the broad range of interests and issues. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, conducted paired flow measurements at two cross sections to determine cross-sectional loss in the Albuquerque reach of the Rio Grande. This report statistically summarizes flow losses in the Albuquerque reach of the Rio Grande during the winter nonirrigation season from December 1996 to February 2000. The two previous flow-loss investigations are statistically summarized. Daily mean flow losses are calculated for the winter nonirrigation season using daily mean flows at three selected Rio Grande streamflow-gaging stations.For the winter nonirrigation season cross-sectional measurements (1996-2000), an average of 210 cubic feet per second was returned to the river between the measurement sites, of which 165 cubic feet per second was intercepted by riverside drains along the 21.9-mile reach from the Rio Grande near Bernalillo to the Rio Grande at Rio Bravo Bridge streamflow-gaging stations. Total cross-sectional losses in this reach averaged about 90 cubic feet per second. Regression equations were determined for estimating downstream total outflow from upstream total inflow for all three paired measurement studies. Regression equations relating the three daily mean flow recording stations also were determined. In each succeeding study, additional outside variables

  19. Rhinolekos capetinga: a new cascudinho species (Loricariidae, Otothyrinae) from the rio Tocantins basin and comments on its ancestral dispersal route

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9th vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24–28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekos capetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekos capetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1–13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages. PMID:25685034

  20. Species richness of fern and lycophyte in an urban park in the Rio dos Sinos basin, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Goetz, M N B

    2010-12-01

    In the northeastern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil, specifically in the Rio dos Sinos basin, urban parks are an important alternative for the conservation of the remaining natural habitats, as well as for the maintenance and perpetuation of biodiversity. A floristic survey of fern and lycophyte species in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR) (29º 41' S and 51º 06' W; alt. 16.4 m) in Novo Hamburgo, (State of Rio Grande do Sul, RS) described their life-forms, as well as substrates and preferential environments. Forty-three species, 30 genera and 15 families were found, 39 of which were ferns. The hemicryptophytes had the highest species richness (26), 17 of which were repent, and nine, rosulate. Most species were found in terrestrial substrates (32) and inside the forest (29). Species richness in the PMHLR corresponded to about 13% of the total fern and lycophyte species listed for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which demonstrates the importance of conservation areas in the Rio dos Sinos basin as an alternative to the preservation of local biodiversity.

  1. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua; Piccinni, Giovanni; Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas; Morrison, Wendy; Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix; Valdes, Juan; Sheng, Zhuping; Lovato, Rene; Guitron, Alberto; Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier; Newman, Gretchen Carr; Michelsen, Ari M.

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  2. Pareiorhaphis vetula, a new armored catfish from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Reis, Roberto E

    2016-07-28

    A new species of Pareiorhaphis is described from the upper Rio Doce basin. The description is based on a series of specimens recently collected in small headwater tributaries to the Rio Guanhães, a tributary of the Rio Santo Antonio, left bank of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis vetula, new species, is a small loricariid catfish with dark brown spots irregularly scattered over a brown background on the dorsal surface of body and along flanks. The new species differs from all other Pareiorhaphis species by having the maxillary barbel completely adnate to the lower lip and by adult males possessing a particularly elongate, sharply pointed, conical urogenital papilla. In addition, Pareiorhaphis vetula is further distinguished from most congeners by having a shorter pelvic-fin spine, or by possessing more numerous premaxillary teeth, and by lacking a dorsal-fin spinelet. A comparison with congeners P. nasuta, P. scutula and P. proskynita, which also occur in headwater streams of the Rio Doce basin is also presented.

  3. Fossilization potential of iron-bearing minerals in acidic environments of Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2008-03-01

    Acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, southwestern Spain, evaporate seasonally, precipitating a variety of iron sulfide and oxide minerals. Schwertmannite and nanophase goethite form thin laminae on biological and detrital grain surfaces, replicating, among other things, the morphologies of insect cuticle, plant tissues, fungi, algae, and bacteria. Intergrain cements also incorporate bacterial cells and filaments. Other sulfate minerals precipitated in Rio Tinto environments are transient and contribute little to short-term preservation. Because the Rio Tinto has been cutting its current valley for several million years, terrace deposits provide a window on longer term fossil preservation. Early and later diagenesis are recorded in terrace deposits formed about one thousand and two million years ago, respectively. The sedimentary structures and mineralogies of these deposits suggest that they formed under physical and chemical conditions comparable to those of modern Rio Tinto sediments. The terrace deposits show quantitative loss of sulfate minerals, increasing crystallinity of goethite and, in the older terrace, replacement of goethite by hematite. Fossils formed originally by schwertmannite and nanophase goethite replication persist through diagenesis, preserving a long term record of local biological diversity. Fossil preservation by iron oxides in the acidic environment of Rio Tinto suggests that if life was present when sedimentary rocks formed at Meridiani Planum, Mars, precipitated minerals could record their presence.

  4. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot"
    subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  5. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  6. Paracoccidioidomycosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul: A retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Silvana Pereira; Jorge, Valéria Magalhães; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and is endemic to Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the PCM cases in the countryside south of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The files from four histopathology laboratories located in the city of Pelotas were obtained, and all of the epidemiological and clinical data from the PCM diagnosed cases were collected for analysis. A total of 123 PCM cases diagnosed between 1966 and 2009 were selected. Of these patients, 104 (84.5%) were male, and 17 were female. The patients ranged from 02 to 92 years of age. Fifty-two cases (41.9%) were obtained from the oral pathology laboratory, and the remaining 71 cases (58.1%) were obtained from the three general pathology laboratories. Of all of the patients studied, 65.2% lived in rural zones and worked in agriculture or other related fields. Data on the evolution of this disease was available for 43 cases, and the time frame ranged from 20 to 2920 days (mean = 572.3 days). An accurate diagnosis performed in less than 30 days only occurred in 21% of the cases. PCM is endemic to the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, it is recommended that PCM be included as a differential diagnosis, mainly for individuals between 30 and 60 years of age, living in rural zones and who have respiratory signs and associated-oropharyngeal lesions. PMID:24948940

  7. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata Fernandes; Cerqueira, Aloysio de Mello Figueiredo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Ferreira, Eliane de Oliveira; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves; Barbosa, André Victor; Macieira, Daniel de Barros; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Ehrlichia canis strains from naturally infected dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, all the clinical and hematological findings observed in these dogs were reported. PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used for diagnostic purposes, and the TRP19 and TRP36 genes were sequenced to evaluate the genetic diversity. Fifteen samples were positive for E. canis. The polymerase chain reaction for the TRP19 gene resulted in 11 amplicons (11/15), which were cloned into the pGEM-T easy vector for sequencing. The complete sequence of TRP19 gene was compared to those in the GenBank, revealing high identicalness. Phylogenetic analysis on the TRP36 gene sequences demonstrated two distinct strains from two dogs, named 56C and 70C. The 56C strain was grouped with the strain Cuiaba 16, which is a hybrid strain formed by Brazilian and US genogroups; and the 70C strain was grouped with other strains of the US genogroup, thus suggesting that there are at least two genogroups of E. canis in Rio de Janeiro (US and Brazilian). Those animals, in which the 70C and 56C strains were isolated, showed distinct clinical and hematological manifestations of the disease. The appearance of different genotypes may express new phenotypes, thus resulting in different forms of presentation of the disease and making its diagnosis more complex.

  8. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  9. Residues of toxaphene in insectivorous birds (Petrochelidon spp.) from the Rio Grande, Texas.

    PubMed

    Maruya, K A; Smalling, K L; Mora, M A

    2005-05-01

    Although it has been documented that wildlife in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) contain increased concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, particularly DDE, little has been published on residues of toxaphene throughout this major North American watershed. In this study, 28 liver composites from adult swallows (Petrochelidon spp.) collected along the Rio Grande from 1999 through 2000 were analyzed for toxaphene residues using congener-specific gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry. Estimated total toxaphene concentrations ranged from 12 to 260 ng/g wet wt and were highest in samples from the lower RGV near Llano Grande Lake in Hidalgo and Cameron counties (Texas). Toxaphene congener profiles were relatively invariant throughout the watershed and were dominated by 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a or B8-806) with lesser amounts of several other Cl(7)-Cl(9) compounds, many of which remain unidentified. Petrochelidon spp. liver profiles appear to be intermediate in complexity between those in invertebrates and fish (more complex) and mammals (less complex) and differs somewhat from those reported for other avian species. In addition to other legacy OC contaminants, toxaphene residues were most concentrated in the lower RGV and accumulated at up to hundreds of parts per billion in these insect-eating birds, underscoring their utility as avian bioindicators of persistent organic pollutants.

  10. [The pharmacist's perceptions about their job at communitarian pharmacies of the state of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Cláudia Regina Garcia; Caetano, Rosângela

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the pharmacist's perceptions that work at communitarian pharmacies from Rio de Janeiro about their professional practices and how this vision can be related to the practice implementation of Pharmaceutical Attention. A qualitative research was developed with the execution of semi-structured interviews; subsequently discourse was submitted to content analysis, through the thematic analysis. This research have been made with 15 pharmaceuticals of Rio de Janeiro state pharmacies with proportional distribution corresponding to the following typology: state pharmacy network; local network; and familiar, without branches. The speech classification which was made here has shown at least three convergences: the continue difficulties of the population about the use of medicines, certain migration of the pharmaceutical practice, in the meaning of (re)valuing the patient and the superficial knowledge about the Attention Pharmaceutical conception. It is necessary to intensify a reflection on this issue to lead us to identify elements that can guarantee that this pharmaceutical practice can be implemented as a complementary health service.

  11. [Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2010-01-01

    In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines.

  12. Genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by MLVA16

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovine epididymitis is predominantly associated with Brucella ovis infection. Molecular characterization of Brucella spp. achieved by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analyses (MLVA) have proved to be a powerful tool for epidemiological trace-back studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16. Findings MLVA16 genotyping identified thirteen distinct genotypes and a Hunter-Gaston diversity index of 0.989 among the fourteen B. ovis genotyped strains. All B. ovis MLVA16 genotypes observed in the present study represented non-previously described profiles. Analyses of the eight conserved loci included in panel 1 (MLVA8) showed three different genotypes, two new and one already described for B. ovis isolates. Among ten B. ovis isolates from same herd only two strains had identical pattern, whereas the four isolates with no epidemiologic information exhibited a single MLVA16 pattern each. Analysis of minimal spanning tree, constructed using the fourteen B. ovis strains typed in this study together with all nineteen B. ovis MLVA16 genotypes available in the MLVAbank 2014, revealed the existence of two clearly distinct major clonal complexes. Conclusions In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a high genetic diversity among B. ovis field isolates from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by MLVA16. PMID:25015223

  13. Birds of the Rio Grande and other riparian habitats of Western Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Blacklock, Gene W.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 164 diurnal morning point counts in 1997 and 89 nocturnal point counts in 1998 along the Rio Grande and at other riparian habitats on remote ranchland in northwestern Webb County. We subsequently conducted 94 diurnal morning and 37 nocturnal point counts in 1999 on public lands along the Rio Grande and at other riparian habitats at Laredo, Webb County. From these systematic surveys (n 384) and other irregular visits to sites during the length of the study, we detected a total of 209 bird species. Many species (97) are distributed widely over much of North America, but substantial numbers of species were also of primarily eastern (30), western (30), southwestern (26), and tropical (26) distributions. Fifty-five of the 209 species (26%) occur on >1 species priority lists in six bird conservation plans that we reviewed, but only four of these were tropical species. This suggests that tropical species, the driving force behind ecotourism-sustained economies in southern Texas, may not benefit directly from recent bird conservation plans, since their lists of priority species do not include many tropical birds. Thus, conservation projects designed to benefit primarily tropical species will not be ranked highly for funding if evaluated on the basis of the bird conservation plans we reviewed.

  14. Reef facies distribution patterns, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation, Rio Bueno, Jamaica, W. I

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, W.F. ); Hoyt, W.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed paleoecologic and sedimentologic studies of the well-exposed, Pleistocene (125 Ka) Falmouth Formation from Rio Bueno, Jamaica, where undertaken to define both temporal and spatial changes in reef architecture. Analyses of samples reveal an overall shallowing - upwards motif and a distinct lateral zonation of reefal facies similar to those observed in Recent fringing-reef and bank-barrier reef complexes from the eastern and western sides of Discovery Bay, Jamaica, respectively. The Falmouth Formation that crops out on the eastern shore of Rio Bueno Harbor is continually exposed (north-south) for approximately 0.5 km in length. The top of the reef exposure is approximately +4.5 m above MSL. This height correlates directly with sea level maxima for the Sangamon in Jamaica based upon a wavecut notch in the Hopegate Formation at the top of the Falmouth onlap surface. Interpretation of these deposits indicates that no lagoon or back-reef facies were present and that there was a gradation of energy regimes from high-to-low, north-to-south within this true fringing reef complex. Detailed sedimentologic analysis of thin-sections from all the above lithologies confirms the aforementioned paleoenvironmental interpretations. This study emphasizes the usefulness of modern counterparts in Pleistocene reef analysis and interpretation, and allows for an understanding of temporal (vertical) and spatial (horizontal) variations due to both physical disturbance and local sea level history that are preserved in these reefal deposits.

  15. Teaching acupuncture to medical students: the experience of Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco Guerreiro; Saidah, Rassen; Megid, Cecília Baccili Cury; Ramos, Neil Alvimar

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, and in particular acupuncture, has been practised and taught in recent years in many universities in the Western world. Here, we relate our experiences since 1997 in teaching acupuncture to medical students at Rio Preto Medical School (Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP)), Brazil. Classes are given in the third and fifth years. The main goals of understanding the mechanisms of action and being able to recognise patients who may benefit from treatment and referring them have been well achieved, scoring 3.6 and 4.1, respectively, on a scale of 1-5. Also using that scale, medical students believe that acupuncture is important in the curriculum (4.6), course time is not sufficient (2.7) and they would like more information (4.6). To overcome these concerns, many students join an undergraduate study group (Acupuncture League) where they have more time to learn. We also describe the presence of foreign medical students who, since 2000, have enrolled in a course of 150 h in an exchange programme.

  16. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M O O; Carestiato, F N; Perdigão, P H; Xavier, M P P T; Silva, Kc; Botelho, M O; Oliveira, L H S; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA) and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788), ranging from 25% (NORMAL) to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  17. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  18. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  19. Hematological changes associated with hemoplasma infection in cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Juliana Macedo; Guimarães, Andresa; Botelho, Camila Flávia Magalhães; Peixoto, Maristela Peckel; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Machado, Carlos Henrique; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Massard, Carlos Luiz; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to detect Mycoplasma spp. in naturally infected cats from Rio de Janeiro and to evaluate hematological abnormalities and factors associated with this infection. Out of the 197 cats sampled, 11.2% presented structures compatible with hemoplasma organisms on blood smears. In contrast, 22.8% were positive for Mycoplasma spp. by means of 16S rRNA gene real-time polymerase chain reaction, which reflects the weak concordance between techniques. The infection rates, by means of 16S rRNA gene conventional polymerase chain reaction, was 4.6%, 4.6% and 11.7% for Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm), respectively. Mhf and CMhm infections are more frequent in the summer (p>0.05). Presence of anemia (p < 0.02), lymphocytosis (p < 0.03), thrombocytopenia (p < 0.04) and activated monocytes (p < 0.04) was associated with Mhf infection. No hematological abnormality was associated with CMt or CMhm infection. Male cats were more prone to be infected by Mhf or CMhm (p < 0.01). Adult cats had more chance to be infected by CMhm. Three hemoplasma species occur in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and Mhf seems to be the most pathogenic of them. Anemia is the most important hematological abnormality.

  20. Crustal structure of the Southern Rio Grande rift determined from seismic refraction profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinno, Y. A.; Keller, G. R.; Harder, S. H.; Daggett, P. H.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a major cooperative seismic experiment, a series of seismic refraction profiles have been recorded in south-central New Mexico with the goal of determining the crustal structure in the southern Rio Grande rift. The data gathered greatly expand the seismic data base in the area, and consist of three interlocking regional profiles: a reversed E-W line across the rift, an unreversed N-S axial line, and an unreversed SW-SE line. The reversed E-W line shows no significant dip along the Moho (32 km thick crust) and a 7.7 km/s Pn velocity. Results from the N-S axial line and the NW-SE line indicate an apparent Pn velocity of 7.95 km/s and significant dip along the Moho with crustal thinning toward the south and southeast. When interpreted together, these data indicate a crustal thinning in the southern rift of 4-6 km with respect to the northern rift and the adjacent Basin and Range province, and establish the regional Pn velocity to be approximately 7.7 km/s. These results suggest that the Rio Grande rift can be identified as a crustal feature separate and distinct from the Basin and Range province.

  1. Paleomagnetism and tectonic interpretations of the Taos Plateau volcanic field, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigate using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chron. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern corner of the counter-clockwise rotating Espanola block.

  2. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World.

  3. Residues of toxaphene in insectivorous birds (Petrochelidon spp.) from the Rio Grande, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maruya, K.A.; Smalling, K.L.; Mora, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Although it has been documented that wildlife in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) contain increased concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, particularly DDE, little has been published on residues of toxaphene throughout this major North American watershed. In this study, 28 liver composites from adult swallows (Petrochelidon spp.) collected along the Rio Grande from 1999 through 2000 were analyzed for toxaphene residues using congener-specific gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry. Estimated total toxaphene concentrations ranged from 12 to 260 ng/g wet wt and were highest in samples from the lower RGV near Llano Grande Lake in Hidalgo and Cameron counties (Texas). Toxaphene congener profiles were relatively invariant throughout the watershed and were dominated by 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10- octachlorobornane (P-42a or B8-806) with lesser amounts of several other Cl 7-Cl9 compounds, many of which remain unidentified. Petrochelidon spp. liver profiles appear to be intermediate in complexity between those in invertebrates and fish (more complex) and mammals (less complex) and differs somewhat from those reported for other avian species. In addition to other legacy OC contaminants, toxaphene residues were most concentrated in the lower RGV and accumulated at up to hundreds of parts per billion in these insect-eating birds, underscoring their utility as avian bioindicators of persistent organic pollutants. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  4. Additional records of bats from the middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Stuart, James N.; Bogan, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    The resident and migratory bat fauna of the middle Rio Grande Valley in central New Mexico is inadequately known. Many of the specimen records from this valley are from Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, ca. 20 km S of Socorro, Socorro Co. Findley et al. (1975) reported Myotis lucifugus, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, and Tadarida brasiliensis from the refuge to which Reith (1982) added Antrozous pallidus. During June and July 1994, we netted nine nights and conducted visual searches of known roosts to capture 67 bats of seven species as part of a baseline survey of bats on the refuge. We surveyed artificial wetlands in the transitional zone between riparian forest and adjacent desert-grassland, within ca. 2 km of the Rio Grande. Nearby agricultural fields and ponds managed primarily for use by waterfowl provided numerous sites suitable for foraging and drinking by bats. We report four new species records for the refuge, one of  which is also a new county record. Voucher material is deposited in the Biological Survey Collection, Fort Collins (BS/FC), now housed in the Museum of Southwestern Biology (MSB), University of New Mexico.

  5. Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2003-08-01

    The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

  6. Induced alkoxyresorufin-O-dealkylases in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) from Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parente, Thiago E M; De-Oliveira, Ana C A X; Silva, Igor B; Araujo, Francisco G; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2004-03-01

    The activity of fish monooxygenases has been extensively used as a monitoring tool to detect contamination of water bodies by cytochrome P450-inducing agents. In this study we evaluated the activities of ethoxy- (EROD), methoxy- (MROD) and pentoxy- (PROD) resorufin-O-dealkylases in the liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) collected at the Guandu river, at a reference clean site (Lake 1) and at two other sampling sites (Lakes 2 and 3) in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Alkoxyresorufin-O-dealkylases were measured fluorimetrically in the hepatic S9 fraction. EROD (17.7-fold), MROD (14.2-fold) as well as PROD activities were considerably higher in tilapias from Guandu river. A moderate increase of EROD (5.0-fold) and MROD (5.4-fold) was also found in tilapias from Lake 3. These findings suggest that Guandu river watershed, the main source of urban drinking water supply in Rio de Janeiro, is polluted with CYP1A-inducing xenobiotics. Furthermore, we also found a good linear relationship between EROD and MROD, a finding that agrees with the hypothesis that the two reactions are catalysed by the same CYP1A isoform in O. niloticus.

  7. Geographical distribution of arsenic in sediments within the Rio Conchos Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Melida; Alarcón-Herrera, M. Teresa; Camacho, Lucy M.

    2009-04-01

    Arsenic (As) content of sediments from the Rio Conchos and Rio San Pedro in northern Mexico were measured to determine if this toxic metalloid had accumulated to unsafe levels to humans and aquatic life. The spatial distribution of As in each of the six clusters of river and arroyo sediments was analyzed to determine variations with respect to background levels and to infer about potential As sources and sinks. In the northern part of the study area, background concentrations varied little throughout the area and concentrations in river sediments were close to background levels. In the southern part, however, the content of As in arroyo sediment contained a wider range of values and anomalous concentrations. The latter could be traced in part to the presence of mine tailings. As concentrations were below the limit in all studied river stretches and thus do not pose an immediate threat to the river environment, but As content in reservoir sediments exceeded the guideline values. Reservoirs seem to act as a sink for As, warranting closer observation and monitoring.

  8. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Bexfield, L.M.; Anderholm, S.K.; Sanford, W.E.; Busenberg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data for groundwater from throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, USA, were used to identify and map groundwater flow from 12 sources of water to the basin,evaluate radiocarbon ages, and refine the conceptual model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Hydrochemical zones, representing groundwater flow over thousands to tens of thousands of years, can be traced over large distances through the primarily siliciclastic aquifer system. The locations of the hydrochemical zones mostly reflect the "modern" predevelopment hydraulic-head distribution, but are inconsistent with a trough in predevelopment water levels in the west-central part of the basin, indicating that this trough is a transient rather than a long-term feature of the aquifer system. Radiocarbon ages adjusted for geochemical reactions, mixing, and evapotranspiration/dilution processes in the aquifer system were nearly identical to the unadjusted radiocarbon ages, and ranged from modern to more than 30 ka. Age gradients from piezometer nests ranged from 0.1 to 2 year cm-1 and indicate a recharge rate of about 3 cm year-1 for recharge along the eastern mountain front and infiltration from the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. There has been appreciably less recharge along the eastern mountain front north and south of Albuquerque. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  9. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Luiz A; Ferreira, João A; Damião, Jorginete J

    2007-11-01

    Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR) was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE) was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 +/- 11.7 bpm (+/- SD), representing 56.9 +/- 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 +/- 738.5 kcal for an average of 293.1 +/- 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.

  10. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  11. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  12. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26273262

  13. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  14. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  15. Official information systems for cryptococcal meningitis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Beatriz Consuelo Quinet; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the epidemiological profile of crytococcal meningitis in different information systems, thus assessing to what extent the profile available in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) reflected cryptococcal meningitis occurrences in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2004. That database was compared to a new database comprised of cryptococcal meningitis cases from this System, from the Assessoria de Meningite da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Health Meningitis Advisory Committee), and from the Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião (State Institute of Infectious Diseases) laboratory records. The System detected 65.7% of the cases present in the new database. The percentage of patients with AIDS as a pre-existing disease was similar in both databases (26% and 24.9%). Thus, even though cryptococcal meningitis incidence is underreported in the System, the profile of notified cases reflects the profile of the total number of cases.

  16. Bedload Transport Rates and Flux Patterns in a Steep Montane Tropical River - Rio Pacuare, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, P.; Fonstad, M. A.; McDowell, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Humid tropical montane rivers convey large magnitude floods that have the potential to mobilize boulder-sized bed material multiple times during a year. In the montane reaches of the Rio Pacuare active boulder deposits with surface areas of up to 300 x 75 meters influence channel form throughout this otherwise hillslope/bedrock confined river. Therefore, rate of bedload sediment flux occurring within and between river segments and reaches provides insight into the geomorphic sensitivity of the system. The study area (78 km) is divided into five river segments based on channel slope and form. The intense discharge regimes of the Rio Pacuare are off-set by the plentiful sediment inputs sourced from upstream, tributaries, and hillslopes, resulting in a system that is predominantly transport-limited. This research presents bedload sediment transport rates and annual yields calculated at seven representative field sites distributed throughout the study area. Results indicate that the D50 and D84 grain-size fractions are mobilized frequently (annual rate is dependent on timing and frequency of precipitation events). Results also indicate that connectivity between river segments ranges from moderate to high, depending most directly on channel slope. This work utilized a unique mix of traditional grain-size analysis and sediment transport models combined with repeat photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) surveys done pre and post flood event to verify grain size mobilization through high-resolution, 3-D modeling.

  17. Annual flooding and fish-mercury bioaccumulation in the environmentally impacted Rio Madeira (Amazon).

    PubMed

    Bastos, Wanderley R; de Almeida, Ronaldo; Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2007-04-01

    Regular annual flooding of the Amazonian rivers changes the aquatic environment affecting fish feeding strategies. The Rio Madeira has been greatly impacted by deforestation for agricultural projects, damming for a hydroelectric power plant, and alluvial gold extraction. We studied fish-Hg concentrations within defined weight ranges of representative species at the top of the food web, comparing high and low water seasons. Selected piscivorous species (Cichla spp, Hoplias malabaricus, Pinirampus pirinampu, Serrasalmus spp) showed a large variation of Hg concentrations but only "traíra" (Hoplias malabaricus) showed a statistically significant difference between seasons. However, the bioaccumulation trends during high and low waters were similar for "tucunaré" (Cichla spp) and "traíra" (Hoplias malabaricus) but different for "piranhas" (Serrasalmus spp), "barba chata" (Pinirampus pirinampu) and the detritivorous Prochilodus nigricans. Fish-Hg bioaccumulation is species specific; changes in feeding strategies brought by flooding seasons can change the bioaccumulation pattern without systematically affecting the overall accrual of methylmercury in tertiary consumer species. It appears that naturally occurring Hg and the high sediment load of the Rio Madeira are secondary factors in the Hg bioaccumulation pattern of fish species at the top of the food chain.

  18. Simulation of a long-term aquifer test conducted near the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.

    2001-01-01

    A long-term aquifer test was conducted near the Rio Grande in Albuquerque during January and February 1995 using 22 wells and piezometers at nine sites, with the City of Albuquerque Griegos 1 production well as the pumped well. Griegos 1 discharge averaged about 2,330 gallons per minute for 54.4 days. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the Griegos well field and the amount of infiltration induced into the aquifer system from the Rio Grande and riverside drains as a result of pumping during the test. The model was initially calibrated by trial-and-error adjustments of the aquifer properties. The model was recalibrated using a nonlinear least-squares regression technique. The aquifer system in the area includes the middle Tertiary to Quaternary Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group valley- and basin-fill deposits of the Albuquerque Basin. The Rio Grande and adjacent riverside drains are in hydraulic connection with the aquifer system. The hydraulic-conductivity values of the upper part of the Santa Fe Group resulting from the model calibrated by trial and error varied by zone in the model and ranged from 12 to 33 feet per day. The hydraulic conductivity of the inner-valley alluvium was 45 feet per day. The vertical to horizontal anisotropy ratio was 1:140. Specific storage was 4 x 10-6 per foot of aquifer thickness, and specific yield was 0.15 (dimensionless). The sum of squared errors between the observed and simulated drawdowns was 130 feet squared. Not all aquifer properties could be estimated using nonlinear regression because of model insensitivity to some aquifer properties at observation locations. Hydraulic conductivity of the inner-valley alluvium, middle part of the Santa Fe Group, and riverbed and riverside-drain bed and specific yield had low sensitivity values and therefore could not be estimated. Of the properties estimated, hydraulic conductivity of the upper part of

  19. [Brazilian physician José Pinto de Azeredo (1766?-1810) and the chemical examination of Rio de Janeiro's atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Manuel Serrano; Cecchini, Marco Antonio G; Malaquias, Isabel Maria; Moreira-Nordemann, Lycia Maria; Pita, João Rui

    2005-01-01

    José Pinto de Azeredo, of Rio de Janeiro, studied medicine and conducted notable experimental research in Edinburgh (1786-88), presenting his graduate thesis on gout in Leiden. Already appointed surgeon-general of Angola, he returned to Rio in 1789 and practiced medicine in Brazil. In 1790 he moved to Luanda, where he practiced at the Hospital Real and founded a medical school that did not survive his departure for Portugal in 1797. He worked at Lisbon's main military hospital and as a private physician until his death. His written works (some ten manuscripts and five publications) warrant an examination from the perspective of the history of medicine. In an article published in 1790 on Rio de Janeiro's air quality, he reveals the skills of an analytical chemist, his interest in the effects of different air components on organisms, and his concern with air quality in Brazil and Europe.

  20. [The Laboratório de Biologia Infantil, 1935-1941: from forensic medicine to social assistance].

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato da

    2011-12-01

    This analysis of the history of the Laboratório de Biologia Infantil (Children's Biology Laboratory) discusses topics related to childhood and adolescence published in the Arquivos de Medicina Legal e Identificação do Rio de Janeiro. It underscores the political-institutional and intellectual contexts that prompted the 1930s debate about childhood among physicians, teachers, educators, and politicians, with a special focus on Leonídio Ribeiro, founder and first editor of the journal. The Laboratório inaugurated a medical and scientific routine for studying, treating, and providing assistance within institutions that had been created to repress, care for, and cure, and as such it represented an important chapter in the history of so-called abandoned and delinquent childhood.

  1. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  2. Seepage investigation on the Rio Grande from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunn, Mark A.; Roark, D. Michael

    2014-01-01

    A seepage investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, along an approximately 106-mile reach of the Rio Grande from below Caballo Reservoir, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, during June 26–28, 2012, to determine gain or loss of streamflow due to seepage to or from the river channel. Discharge measurements were made during the irrigation season at high flow including 5 sites along the Rio Grande, 5 diversions, and 63 inflows. The net gain or loss of flow in the river channel was computed for four reaches within the 106-mile reach of the Rio Grande. The normalized percentage difference was computed for each reach to determine the difference between discharge measured at upstream and downstream sites, and the normalized percentage uncertainty was computed to determine if a computed gain or loss exceeded cumulative uncertainty associated with measurement of discharge.

  3. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  4. Quantifying Salinization of the Upper-Middle Rio Grande Using a Basin-Scale Water and Chloride Mass Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. K.; Phillips, F. M.; Hogan, J. F.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    The Rio Grande is clearly undergoing salinization, manifested by a 50-fold increase in total dissolved solids content between its headwaters in Colorado and the U.S.-Mexico border. To elucidate the causes of this salinization, we conducted an eight-day synoptic sampling campaign in August 2001. This sampling included the river, its major tributaries, and major irrigation drain inflows. Along 1200 km between the river headwaters in Colorado and Fort Quitman, Texas, we collected 110 water samples with an average interval of ~10 km between sampling locales. In the laboratory, samples were analyzed for major constituents including chloride, as well as for bromide and the 36Cl/Cl ratio. Isotopic fingerprinting using the 36Cl/Cl ratio indicates that meteoric waters and deep sedimentary brines respectively account for most of the water and most of the salt inflow to the Rio Grande. The meteoric end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 1100 and a Cl/Br ratio of 30; the brine end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 35 and a Cl/Br ratio of 1150. Using these end member chemistries with USGS stream flow gauging data, we constructed a water- and salt- instantaneous mass balance model of the Rio Grande for the eight-day sampling interval. This model indicates that most water losses from the Rio Grande are due to evaporation from Elephant Butte reservoir, open water evaporation from irrigation ditches, and evapotranspiration of riparian and ditch-bank vegetation. The model also emphasizes the significance of salt input due to deep brine discharge to the river, particularly at the downstream ends of local sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande receives a smaller amount of salt from saline drains near El Paso, which may be acquiring salt from deep brine discharge as they cross over faults or other structural fluid conduits.

  5. Wrapped in flames: Corydoras hephaestus, a new remarkably colored species from the Rio Madeira basin (Teleostei: Callichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Tencatt, Luiz F C; Britto, Marcelo R

    2016-09-26

    A new species of Corydoras is described from the upper Rio Machado, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of contact between the posterior process of the parieto-supraoccipital and the nuchal plate; a ventral laminar expansion of the infraorbital 1 conspicuously developed; and the posterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine with serrations along almost of its entire length, only lacking in the distal portion. Additionally, Corydoras hephaestus possesses dorsal and pectoral spines short, and exhibits an unusual color pattern in life. The conservation status of the new species and other endemic species are briefly commented.

  6. Hydrology and Water Quality of the Rio Chama River, Northern New Mexico: Establishing a Base Line to Manage Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, L.; Crossey, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Chama is the largest stream tributary to the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico. The river's geographic location in a semiarid region results in high rates of evapotranspiration and highly variable streamflow. The Rio Chama is part of the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project, in which water from the San Juan River, southern Colorado, is diverted across the continental divide to the Rio Chama. Surface water moves through Abiquiu, El Vado and Heron Reservoirs to the Rio Grande to supply Albuquerque with potable drinking water. The results of these anthropogenic influences are a modified flow regime, less variability, greater base-flows, and smaller peak flows. We examined selected locations throughout the Rio Chama system to provide base-line water quality data for ongoing studies. This information will contribute to the development of the best plan to optimize flow releases and maximize benefits of the stakeholders and especially the riparian and stream ecosystems. We report results of two sampling trips representing extremes of the hydrograph in summer 2012 and fall 2012. We collected field parameters, processed water samples, and analyzed them for major anions and cations. The geochemistry enables us to better understand the impact of monthly releases of San Juan river water. We captured two points of the river's streamflow range, 54 cubic feet per second in October 2012 and 1,000 cubic feet per second in August 2012 and looked for variability within the results. We found that the reservoirs exhibit varying anion concentrations from samples taken at different depths. We compared stream waters and selected well samples at a stream transect. These samples allowed us to compare shallow ground water with the stream, and they indicated that the changes in ground water are attributed to sulfate reduction. The anion and cation inputs were most likely derived from gypsum, calcite, and salts, as there are many creeks discharging into the Rio Chama whose drainage

  7. Analytical progresses of the World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories: a 2016 update from London to Rio.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, Ioanna; Voss, Sven; Lyris, Emmanouil; Aljaber, Amina; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the biggest event in human sports, was held in Rio de Janeiro with more than 10,500 athletes from 206 countries over the world competing for the highest of sports honors, an Olympic medal. With the hope that the Olympic ideal accompanies all aspects of the XXXI Olympiad, WADA accredited antidoping laboratories use the spearhead of analytical technology as a powerful tool in the fight against doping. This review summarizes the main analytical developments applied in antidoping testing methodology combined with the main amendments on the WADA regulations regarding analytical testing starting from the 2012 London Olympics until the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  8. Determining Environmental Factors Controlling Nitrogen Cycling in the Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D. A.; Szynkiewicz, A.; Faiia, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande is a semi-arid river in the American Southwest supporting agriculture and large populous centers in New Mexico and west Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of nitrate (NO3), up to ~50 mg/L, have been previously observed in the Rio Grande between Las Cruces, New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. This is particularly a problem during non-irrigation season when little surface water is released from upstream reservoirs, substantially reducing stream flows in the Rio Grande. While both irrigation runoff and municipal waste effluents are likely important NO3 contributors, there are no quantitative studies assessing NO3 fluxes to the Rio Grande from these two sources. Therefore, in this study we used 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of NO3 as environmental tracers to characterize major NO3 sources in the Rio Grande and its agricultural drains between Las Cruces and El Paso. Surface water of the semi-arid Rio Grande, drains and major wastewater treatment plants were collected in October 2014 (non-irrigation season) and August 2015 (irrigation season). The water samples from the 2014 sampling campaign showed that the 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of NO3 in the Rio Grande and two agricultural drains located south of El Paso varied in relatively narrow range from +9.8 to +15.7‰ and -5.9 to -0.2‰, respectively. These ranges were similar to 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of local wastewater treatment plants in Las Cruces and El Paso, from +8.2 to +10.2‰ and -9.7 to -2.5‰ respectively. Municipal wastewater effluents are important tributaries to the semi-arid Rio Grande in the studied area, particularly during non-irrigation season. Furthermore, irrigation of agricultural fields south of El Paso is to a large extent supported by reclaimed municipal wastewater. Consequently, these explain the observed higher contributions of NO3 from urban sources in the investigated area.

  9. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  10. Using Transportable Array and CREST data to define seismicity in the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Active low strain-rate deformation across the Rio Grande Rift within the Western U.S. presents the possibility that strain is released through widespread small magnitude earthquakes. In order to define seismicity across the rift and understand its tectonic significance, we construct a catalog of small magnitude earthquakes from 2007-2010. Colorado has never had a statewide seismic network, thus previous catalogs are limited to that from the USGS and from short-term temporary seismometer deployments. New Mexico seismicity is monitored with regional networks around Socorro and Carlsbad, though not statewide. This study is the first opportunity to locate events in a spatially and temporally comprehensive network from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) experiment supplemented by the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic experiment (Karlstrom et al., 2012). Our earthquake catalog will supplement the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF) catalog with smaller magnitude events and refined regional velocity models. We use earthquake detection and location programs to create a raw catalog of associated events and initial locations from 254 seismic stations surrounding the Rio Grande Rift. Detection processing and event association parameters have been chosen specifically to extend the magnitude threshold relative to the ANF catalog (from 3.0 to approximately 1.5) . Mine blasts will be removed by manual waveform identification from the final catalog. The catalog is compared with catalogs of existing small seismic networks near and in the rift, for example, the New Mexico Tech Seismic Network. Questions of interest include: 1) Can earthquakes be identified that are rift-related? 2) What do the patterns of seismicity tell us about the tectonics of the Rio Grande Rift? Preliminary results show event associations to ML 0.0, although magnitude completeness is higher, and several hundred events are identified each month in 2008. Tectonic events will be

  11. Slip re-orientation in the oblique Abiquiu embayment, northern Rio Grande rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Andrea, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional models of oblique rifting predict that an oblique fault accommodates both dip-slip and strike-slip kinematics. However, recent analog experiments suggest that slip can be re-oriented to almost pure dip-slip on oblique faults if a preexisting weak zone is present at the onset of oblique extension. In this study, we use fault slip data from the Abiquiu embayment in northern Rio Grande rift to test the new model. The Rio Grande rift is a Cenozoic oblique rift extending from southern Colorado to New Mexico. From north to south, it comprises three major half grabens (San Luis, Española, and Albuquerque). The Abiquiu embayment is a sub-basin of the San Luis basin in northern New Mexico. Rift-border faults are generally older and oblique to the trend of the rift, whereas internal faults are younger and approximately N-S striking, i.e. orthogonal to the regional extension direction. Rift-border faults are deep-seated in the basement rocks while the internal faults only cut shallow stratigraphic sections. It has been suggested by many that inherited structures may influence the Rio Grande rifting. Particularly, Laramide structures (and possibly the Ancestral Rockies as well) that bound the Abiquiu embayment strike N- to NW. Our data show that internal faults in the Abiquiu embayment exhibit almost pure dip-slip (rake of slickenlines = 90º ± 15º), independent of their orientations with respect to the regional extension direction. On the contrary, border faults show two sets of rakes: almost pure dip-slip (rake = 90º ± 15º) where the fault is sub-parallel to the foliation, and moderately-oblique (rake = 30º ± 15º) where the fault is high angle to the foliation. We conclude that slip re-orientation occurs on most internal faults and some oblique border faults under the influence of inherited structures. Regarding those border faults on which slip is not re-oriented, we hypothesize that it may be caused by the Jemez volcanism or small-scale mantle

  12. Floodplain construction of the Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas, USA: response to Holocene climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stephen A.; Peterson, John A.

    2013-04-01

    The Rio Grande is one of the larger rivers in North America, and the development of its floodplain is related to Holocene climate and climate change. The late Pleistocene through early Holocene channel is characterized by a meander or braided system with lateral cutting and backfilling, resulting in the valley-wide deposition of massive to cross-bedded, fine-to-medium textured sand. The late Pleistocene-early Holocene floodplain is also the sand source for the adjacent Bolson sand sheet. The sand sheet stopped accumulating new sand 5000 yrs ago, an event directly related to the shutting off of the sand supply caused by the deposition of overbank muds that covered and sealed the floodplain surface. During the middle Holocene, the river may have dried intermittently with the floodplain becoming deflated and local sand dunes forming on the floodplain. After 5000 yrs the climate was less arid and the river shifted to a regime of increased flooding and overbank deposition of silt and clay. By 2500 yrs, a late Holocene period of wet climate resulted in further overbank deposition and the formation of a cumulic Mollisol across the floodplain, the Socorro paleosol. The period of wet climate corresponds to the Audubon Neoglacial and active rock glaciers in the southern Rocky Mountains, speleothem growth in nearby caves, and other evidence for wet-cool conditions in the region. After 1000 yrs, the climate became drier, and the deposition and accumulation of overbank muds by the flooding Rio Grande came to a halt. Even though the river has flooded often in historic times, and presumably during late prehistoric times as well, there is little evidence for deposition of overbank sediments on the floodplain since A.D. 1000. Accordingly, the present-day surface of the Lower Valley is ten centuries old. Three channels occur on the US side of the Lower Valley floodplain, and during the past 2500 yrs stream flow has shifted from one to the other by the avulsion process of channel

  13. Birth and evolution of the Rio Grande-Rio Chama fluvial system: The influence of magma-driven dynamic topography on fluvial systems over the last 8 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repasch, M. N.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Heizler, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande-Rio Chama (RG-RC) fluvial system of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico preserves a record of southern Rocky Mountain erosion and sediment transport over the last 8 Ma. During this time the two rivers have evolved wildly, undergoing channel migrations, drainage capture and integration events, carving and refilling of paleocanyons, lake spill-overs, and reshaping of drainage divides. New 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages coupled with new detrital grain age population data for fluvial sediments are beginning to reconstruct the birth of the RG-RC fluvial system and elucidate the processes that drove its evolution over the last ~8 Ma. Twenty-three detrital grain samples have been collected from RG-RC river deposits ranging in age from ~8 Ma (RC) and 4.5 Ma (RG) to modern fluvial sediment. Detrital zircon age spectra for the RG reveal peaks at 25 Ma, 28 Ma, 30-35 Ma (San Juan volcanic), and 70-90Ma (San Juan Basin) in sediments deposited from 4.5 to 0 Ma. RC spectra are richer in San Juan Basin and San Juan volcanic detritus. A 2.6 Ma Totavi Lentil deposit downstream of today's RG-RC confluence is similar to the ancestral RG, while a 1.6 Ma Totavi Lentil is similar to the combined RG-RC, suggesting northward shift of the RG-RC confluence by 1.6 Ma due to Jemez Mountain volcanism. A 4.5 Ma basalt age from Black Mesa and occurrence of San Juan volcanic detritus in 3 to 5 Ma sediment suggests birth of an ancestral RG as early as 4.5 Ma. There is no record of an ancestral RG north of the Red River confluence for the 3.0 to 0.5 Ma time period, supporting prior work that northern San Luis Basin became integrated after 0.5 Ma spill-over of Lake Alamosa. We plan to add detrital sanidine dating to refine the age spectra and help further delineate drainage patterns. The RG-RC system drains a highly tectonically active region. Changes in the fluvial regime suggest: 1) long-lived source of detritus (some recycled) from the San Juan volcanic field, 2) downstream integration

  14. a Microgravity Survey to Determine the Extent of AN Andesitic Sill that Intrudes across the Rio Grande River Basin, Rio Grande Rift Valley, Sunland Park, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L. A.; Shinagel, S.; Villalobos, J. I.; Avila, V.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.

    2012-12-01

    In Sunland Park, NM, there is an andesite outcrop near the bank of the Rio Grande (called the River Andesite) which does not match the surrounding sedimentary deposition. Studies of the River Andesite by Garcia (1970) indicate the outcrop is petrologically similar to the Muleros Andesite of Mt. Cristo Rey located several km to the south. A limited GPR and magnetic survey conducted by UTEP students in 2008 suggested the River Andesite was part of a dike, although Garcia mapped smaller outcrops of andesite ~300 m west of the river that may be part of the same body. We have recently (June 2012) found large andesite boulders that may be the outcrops Garcia mapped, although it is uncertain whether these boulders are in-situ. We initially collected microgravity and magnetic data in a small region near the river outcrop in December 2011 to determine the extent of the outcrop. Our preliminary modeling of these data showed the river outcrop appeared to merge with a more extensive igneous body at depth. Ground conductivity data collected near the river outcrop in March 2012 suggested that the outcrop impacts groundwater flow and sediment deposition adjacent to the river. From May through July 2012 we have been collecting additional microgravity data on a grid with 100-200 m spacing extending ~ 500 m from both sides of the river outcrop to better determine the extent of the buried andesite body. We also plan to conduct GPR and magnetic surveys near the recently discovered andesite boulders to determine if these are truly in-situ and part of the same igneous body as the river outcrop. Our eventual goal is to determine how extensive the andesite unit is and how it may impact groundwater flow and flooding in this area of growing urbanization.

  15. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  16. Development and impact of biological control of giant reed, Arundo donax, in the Rio Grande Basin of the U.S. and Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) also known as giant cane or carrizo cane, is an exotic perennial grass that has infested over 60,000 hectares along riparian corridors in the southwestern U.S. The most severe infestations are in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, where giant reed along the Rio Grande and Mexic...

  17. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) metabolism in normal subjects from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, B A; Rosenthal, D

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic studies of T4 and T3 metabolism were performed on 5 healthy volunteers from Rio de Janeiro to obtain normal values for thyroid hormone metabolism. 125I-T4 and 131I-T3 were administered in bolus and blood samples taken during 7 days. Circulating tracers were isolated by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. The kinetic parameters of T4 and T3 metabolism were calculated by noncompartmental methods. Metabolic clearance rates were 1.04 l/day for T4 and 20.7 l/day for T3. The daily production rate was estimated at 94 micrograms/day for T4 and 23 micrograms/day for T3 and their exchangeable pools at 914 micrograms and 25.5 micrograms, respectively. These values are well within the range of those reported by North American or European authors for normal subjects.

  18. Living in Limbo: Latinas' Assessment of Lower Rio Grande Valley Colonias Communities.

    PubMed

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Sharpe, Patricia A; Del Castillo-González, Lourdes; Treviño, Laura; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2016-12-05

    Community asset mapping (CAM) is the collective process of identifying local assets and strategizing processes to address public health issues and concerns and improve quality of life. Prior to implementing a community-based physical activity intervention with Latinas in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley, promotoras [community health workers] conducted 16 interactive sessions in 8 colonias. The analysis of the transcribed CAM recordings and on-site observational data resulted in the construction of Living in Limbo as the thematic representation of these Latinas' social isolation and marginalization associated with pervasive poverty, undocumented immigration status or lack of citizenship, their fears emanating from threats to physical and emotional safety, and the barriers created by lack of availability and access to resources.

  19. Isolations of yellow fever virus from Haemagogus leucocelaenus in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Sperb, Alethéa F; Monteiro, Hamilton A; Torres, Maria A; Sousa, Maria R; Vasconcelos, Helena B; Mardini, Lúcia B; Rodrigues, Sueli G

    2003-01-01

    Following howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) deaths and yellow fever (YF) antigen detection by immunohistochemistry in the liver sample of a dead monkey in April and May 2001 in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, epidemiological field investigations were initiated. Two strains of YF virus were isolated in suckling mice from 23 Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon mosquitoes collected from the study sites. The YF virus was isolated from this species in the 1930s in Brazil and in the 1940s in Colombia. No human cases were reported during the current epizootic outbreak. The YF virus isolation and the absence of Hg. (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar from the area suggest that Hg. leucocelaenus may be a secondary YF vector and play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease in the Southern Cone.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  1. Solute Sources and Budget for the Rio Grande above El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Issues of water quality, especially salinity, limit the use of water resources from the Rio Grande. Identification and quantification of salinity sources is critical for improved river management. In the headwater region salts are typically derived from atmospheric deposition and chemical weathering reactions. Salinity increases during transit may result from both natural (saline groundwater, hydrothermal springs and dissolution of evaporite deposits) and anthropogenic (agricultural return flow and wastewater from sewage treatment plants) sources. These increases are magnified by evapotranspiration (this includes evaporation from open water, transpiration from irrigated agriculture and transpiration from natural riparian areas). With multiple salinity sources and evapotranspiration acting simultaneously, understanding the solute balance for the Rio Grande at a level needed for improved river management is difficult. We have conducted synoptic sampling of the Rio Grande from the headwaters in Colorado to south of El Paso, Texas. Sampling was conducted in January and August of 2000 and 2001. The total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the Rio Grande increases from < 50 mg/L in headwater regions of Colorado to > 2000 mg/L south of El Paso, Texas. The Cl/Br (wt/wt) ratio for river water increases from ~50 in the headwaters (typical for atmospheric deposition) to ~700 in the lower basin. This increase in Cl/Br ratio demonstrates the importance of additional salinity sources. Three end-members are recognized using Cl/Br mixing plots for winter samples: atmospheric deposition, a hydrothermal end-member localized around Truth of Consequences, NM, and a third end-member that may represent groundwater. Samples collected during the summer months are shifted off the winter mixing lines indicating concentration through ET. Increases in salinity were not a simple function of distance downriver, but rather occurred in a series of steps. Some of these steps are correlated with

  2. Emergency care necessity for sickle cell disease patients at Rio de Janeiro State Coordinating Blood Bank

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario Sant'Anna; de Matos, Haroldo José; Fidlarczyk, Delaine

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, in particular sickle cell disease, is the most prevalent group of genetically transmitted diseases in the Brazilian population and should thus be treated as a public health problem. Many of these patients frequently present with complications and require emergency care at the blood bank Coordinator in Rio de Janeiro. This study was developed with the aim of characterizing the emergency assistance required by sickle cell disease patients registered in the blood bank from January 2007 to December 2008. A retrospective study of medical records was made of 78, mostly children, patients from the date of their registration until December 2009. Most attendances (63.7%) were not considered emergency care. The use of specialized services for cases that do not require this level of complexity may saturate the capacity of these centers. However, delay of intervention for complications due to the transportation of patients to specialist centers may lead to deterioration in the clinical condition. PMID:23284258

  3. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Silvana; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2002-03-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22 degrees 42'-22 degrees 50' S; 43 degrees 53'-44 degrees 05' W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes suggesting an asynchronic development of the ovaries. The total fecundity ranged from 1235 to 4304, averaging 2374. An exponential relationship between fecundity and total length was determined, and a direct linear relationship was found between fecundity and total weight and gonad weight.

  4. [Emil Kraepelin and psychiatric science in Rio de Janeiro, 1903-1933].

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Cristiana; Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves de

    2013-03-01

    The article addresses the penetration of German psychiatric science in early twentieth-century Brazil. More specifically, it explores how the theory and practices of Emil Kraepelin were absorbed by both Juliano Moreira, director of the National Hospital for the Insane (Hospício Nacional de Alienados) and of the agency for Assistance to the Insane (Assistência a Alienados) in the Federal District (Rio de Janeiro), and also by the circle of physicians with close ties to Moreira from 1903 to 1933. It discusses the ways in which Kraepelin's work was adopted, taking into account the day's medical-mental repertoire, the political and scientific context, and the controversies within the Brazilian psychiatric field. Lastly, the study analyzes these choices based on the prevailing relations between Brazilian and German psychiatry back then.

  5. HIV risk behaviors among outpatients with severe mental illness in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    WAINBERG, MILTON L.; MCKINNON, KAREN; ELKINGTON, KATHERINE; MATTOS, PAULO E.; GRUBER MANN, CLAUDIO; DE SOUZA PINTO, DIANA; OTTO-SALAJ, LAURA; COURNOS, FRANCINE; AND THE INVESTIGATORS OF PRISSMA

    2008-01-01

    We conducted the first study to examine rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors, sexual protective behaviors, injection drug use (IDU), needle sharing, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among outpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a measure with demonstrated reliability, we found that 42% of 98 patients engaged in vaginal or anal sex within the past three months. Comorbid substance use disorder was significantly associated with sexual activity. Only 22% of sexually active patients used condoms consistently, despite having better HIV knowledge than those who were sexually abstinent. Overall, 45% of patients reported not engaging in any HIV protective behaviors. There were no reports of drug injection. Adults with SMI in Brazil are in need of efficacious HIV prevention programs and policies that can sustain these programs within mental health treatment settings. PMID:18836542

  6. Multilocus sequence types of invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in the Rio de Janeiro urban area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viguetti, S Z; Pacheco, L G C; Santos, L S; Soares, S C; Bolt, F; Baldwin, A; Dowson, C G; Rosso, M L; Guiso, N; Miyoshi, A; Hirata, R; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Azevedo, V

    2012-04-01

    Invasive infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals have been reported increasingly. In this study we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study genetic relationships between six invasive strains of this bacterium isolated solely in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a 10-year period. Of note, all the strains rendered negative results in PCR reactions for the tox gene, and four strains presented an atypical sucrose-fermenting ability. Five strains represented new sequence types. MLST results did not support the hypothesis that invasive (sucrose-positive) strains of C. diphtheriae are part of a single clonal complex. Instead, one of the main findings of the study was that such strains can be normally found in clonal complexes with strains related to non-invasive disease. Comparative analyses with C. diphtheriae isolated in different countries provided further information on the geographical circulation of some sequence types.

  7. An international borderland of concern: Conservation of biodiversity in the Lower Rio Grande Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie,, David M.

    2016-07-20

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas is located on the United States-Mexico borderland and represents a 240-kilometer (150-mile) linear stretch that ends at the Gulf of Mexico. The LRGV represents a unique transition between temperate and tropical conditions and, as such, sustains an exceptionally high diversity of plants and animals—some of them found in few, or no other, places in the United States. Examples include Leopardus pardalis albescens (northern ocelot) and Falco femoralis septentrionalis (northern aplomado falcon)—both endangered in the United States and emblematic of the LRGV. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) manages three national wildlife refuges (Santa Ana, Lower Rio Grande Valley, and Laguna Atascosa) that together make up the South Texas Refuge Complex, which actively conserves biodiversity in about 76,006 hectares (187,815.5 acres) of native riparian and upland habitats in the LRGV. These diminished habitats harbor many rare, threatened, and endangered species. This report updates the widely used 1988 USFWS biological report titled “Tamaulipan Brushland of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas: Description, Human Impacts, and Management Options” by synthesizing nearly 400 peer-reviewed scientific publications that have resulted from biological and sociological research conducted specifically in the four Texas counties of the LRGV in the past nearly 30 years. This report has three goals: (1) synthesize scientific insights gained since 1988 related to the biology and management of the LRGV and its unique biota, focusing on flora and fauna of greatest conservation concern; (2) update ongoing challenges facing Federal and State agencies and organizations that focus on conservation or key natural resources in the LRGV; and (3) redefine conservation opportunities and land-acquisition strategies that are feasible and appropriate today, given the many new and expanding constraints that challenge conservation

  8. [Healthcare in times of epidemics in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Tânia Salgado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the provision of healthcare for the population of Rio de Janeiro in the mid-19th century and describe its reorganization during the crisis caused by outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera. In this context, it is essential to consider the significant changes taking place in healthcare during this period, also affecting the spaces in which hospital care was offered. Therefore, we focussed our investigation on Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, the most important hospital in the capital of the Brazilian Empire. The sources used are the correspondence between the government and the hospital, the hospital annual reports, archives of the Central Board of Public Hygiene, and wide-circulation medical journals.

  9. Clonal multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum within a nosocomial environment, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Mota, Higor Franceschi; Freitas, Andréa D'avila; Gomes, Débora Leandro Rama; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; Sant'Anna, Lincoln Oliveira; Souza, Mônica Cristina; Camello, Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Hirata, Raphael; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism with the ability to produce outbreaks of nosocomial infections. Here, we document a nosocomial outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) C. striatum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. C. striatum identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing. Fifteen C. striatum strains were isolated from adults (half of whom were 50 years of age and older). C. striatum was mostly isolated in pure culture from tracheal aspirates of patients undergoing endotracheal intubation procedures. The analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated the presence of four PFGE profiles, including two related clones of MDR strains (PFGE I and II). The data demonstrated the predominance of PFGE type I, comprising 11 MDR isolates that were mostly isolated from intensive care units and surgical wards. A potential causal link between death and MDR C. striatum (PFGE types I and II) infection was observed in five cases. PMID:23440110

  10. [Fragments of history in psychiatric care Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes; Santos, Raionara Cristina de Araújo; de Azevedo, Dulcian Medeiros; Fernandes, Rafaella Leite; Costa, Tarciana Sampaio

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to rescue aspects of the performing therapeutic of the Day Hospital (HD) Dr Elger Nunes, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, during its term, and analyze the results regarding to the number of patients assisted from 1996 to 2004. This is an empirical, descriptive and exploratory study, ex post facto with a quantitative approach, carried out through the analysis of the records of 910 people attended in the hospital. The data was submitted to the informational resource software Microsoft Excel and converted into diagrams. The results show a greater accessibility to this treatment modality, decreasing in hospitalization-time length and improving hospital discharge conditions for users, with reduction in number of patients who interrupted treatment. It focus on the importance of the Day Hospital in the process of psychiatric reform, with care grounded on the use of the humanized therapeutic practices, and still not losing the bond with family and society.

  11. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in a slum area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Joycenea Matsuda; Machado, Silvia Maria Almeida; Lourenço, Maria Cristina; Ferreira, Rosa Maria Carvalho; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Saad, Maria Helena Feres

    2008-12-01

    This retrospective molecular study involving restriction fragment length polymorphism, using insertion sequence 6110 as a marker, was conducted in order to provide an initial insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in the slums of the Complexo de Manguinhos, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the 67 strains evaluated, 23 (34.3%) were found to belong to clusters (total clusters, 10). Household and social chains of transmission were associated with clustering, in 20% and 60%, respectively. Living in the Conjunto Habitacional Programado 2 slum was associated with clustering. Although not significant, it is relevant that 26% of the clustered strains presented primary resistance. These findings, although possibly underestimating the prevalence due to the failure to analyze all strains, could help improve the local tuberculosis control program.

  12. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  13. Family Health Teams workers in Rio de Janeiro: leadership aspects in a study on organizational climate.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leda Jung Dos; Paranhos, Maurício Sangama

    2017-03-01

    Organizational climate is understood as the formal or informal perception of policies, practices, actions and organizational procedures, and is a factor of influence in the efficiency of the results, as well as in the conduct of people that are part of an organization. This paper describes one of organizational climate realms, namely, leadership, comparing the strata of professional categories of the Family Health Teams in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Thus, an administrative-based survey was carried out with a sample of n = 9,590 people in 187 primary healthcare units (71 Family Clinics and 116 Municipal Health Centers). The results show that all items that measure the realm of "leadership" were positively evaluated with differences between strata (p-value <0.001). We recommend conducting regular studies and holding leadership workshops in the very health units, as well as using distance-learning tools to exchange information and train staff.

  14. [Operational control of water fluoridation in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maia, Lucianne Cople; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Soares, Eduardo Lúcio; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational control of water fluoridation at the city water supply plant in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to December 2000. The water treatment supervisor filled out a questionnaire on the control of water fluoridation. In addition, water samples were collected every two weeks for fluoride analysis before and after treatment. Samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory using an ion-specific electrode. According to the water treatment supervisor, the entire process for controlling fluoride concentration in the water was rigorous and complied with Brazilian guidelines, but according to testing, 96% of samples were inadequate in terms of risks/benefits of fluoride use from water. The information obtained from the plant supervisor and the test data were thus mutually inconsistent. Based on these data, an independent water fluoride concentration control program is needed to ensure the benefits of dental caries prevention for the population.

  15. Hepatitis a outbreak in a public school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Villar, Livia Melo; Esteves da Costa, Maria do Carmo; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra

    2002-04-01

    From June 1 to July 1 1999, an outbreak involving 25 cases of hepatitis A occurred in a public school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since these cases were notified to the State Health Department, the National Reference Center for Hepatitis Viruses (CNRHV) was required to investigate the extent of hepatitis A virus (HAV) dissemination. Blood samples from all students were tested for IgM and total anti-HAV antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). At the same time, a questionnaire was completed in order to identify possible risk factors for HAV infection. The environmental investigation showed that there was no fecal contamination of the water supply. The epidemiological investigation demonstrated that almost 50% of this population was susceptible to HAV infection and probably person-to-person transmission was the principal mode of virus dissemination. In this situation, a massive vaccination campaign could control the HAV infection.

  16. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments.

  17. Utilization of LANDSAT orbital imagery in the soil survey processes at Rio Grande do Norte state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formaggio, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Pedologic photointerpretative criteria adapted to LANDSAT orbital imagery were used: drainage (pattern, integration degree, density and uniformity degree); relief (pattern, dissection degree and crest lines); photographic texture, photographic tonnality, and the land use (type, glebas size and intensity of use). The performance of the imagery as an auxiliar tool in the soil survey processes, at Rio Grande do Norte State was evaluated. The drainage and relief elements were easily extracted from the imagery and also ones that provided the greatest deductive possibility about pedologic boundaries. Other analyzed criteria were considered only auxiliaries, corroborating some soil limits in the evidences convergence phase. The principal pedologic dominions of the 30,000 sq km are covered by the same LANDSAT image (WRS 359/16) were delimited with good precision: (1) fluvial plains, beaches, dunes and coastal mangroves; (2) North Coast line Plateau; (3) Acu Sandstone Zone; (4) residual plateaus of the Tertiary; and (6) plains of the embasement.

  18. Oligocene basaltic volcanism of the northern Rio Grande Rift: San Luis Hills, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.A.; Johnson, C.M.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The inception of the Rio Grande Rift in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado was accompanied by voluminous mafic volcanism preserved in part as erosional remnants on an intrarift horst within the current axial rift graben of the San Luis Valley. Major and trace element constraints support a petrogenetic model of fractionation plus lower crustal assimilation for petrologic suites within the San Luis Hills rocks, although the model cannot relate lavas for the entire series to a common parent. Most mafic lavas of the San Luis Hills were evolved (Mg # <60) and contaminated by LREE-enriched silicic partial melts of granulitic lower crust depleted in Rb, Th, and U. However, relatively noncontaminated lavas can be identified and indicate at least two mantle source regions were involved. -from Authors

  19. [Scientific diffusion in Rio de Janeiro: some considerations about the 20s].

    PubMed

    Moreira, I de C; Massarani, L

    In this article, we collate data about the activities aimed at the diffusion of scientific knowledge, which were developed in Rio de Janeiro in the 20s, and we discuss their main characteristics. We also point out the significant involvement of members of the scientific and academic communities in such activities. The main research questions guiding the investigation are concerned with the identification of the main characteristics of scientific diffusion at the time, the main actors in such a process, their form of organization, the research means and instruments used. We also provide a general analysis of the motivations, interests, and the philosophical and political perspectives of science in the 20s, as reflected in the type of scientific diffusion produced at the time.

  20. [Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Ferreira, Simone; Fischer, Laura de Almeida; Cardoso, Luciana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher odds of having visited a dentist (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.01-2.1). Public health strategies are needed to determine the effectiveness of health promotion and improve the use of dental services by preschool children.

  1. Geochronology and heavy metal flux to Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro state: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, José A; Peixoto, Tomás C S; Smith, Bernard J; McAlister, John J; Patchineelam, Soraya M; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R; Fonseca, Estefan M

    2013-01-01

    Guanabara Bay, located in Rio de Janeiro state. It is surrounded by the second most important metropolitan area of the country. Over recent decades, land disturbance and urbanization in the surrounding area has significantly increased sediment input to the bay and had a negative effect on its overall environmental. This is especially related to high volumes of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluates the history of this human impact through detailed examination of a sediment core taken from the northern portion of Guanabara Bay. A geochronology is established using ²¹⁰Pb dating and related to organic carbon and heavy metal fluxes to the sediments. This gave a calculated net average sedimentation rate for the core of 0.67 cm.year⁻¹. The organic carbon and heavy metals flux started to increase at the beginning of the last century and the highest values was observed in the top of the cores.

  2. Geologic interpretation of Seasat SAR imagery near the Rio Lacantum, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, PH.; Dixon, T.

    1984-01-01

    A mosaic of the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) optically processed images over Central America is presented. A SAR image of the Rio Lacantum area (southeastern Mexico) has been digitally processed and its interpretation is presented. The region is characterized by low relief and a dense vegetation canopy. Surface is believed to be indicative of subsurface structural features. The Seasat-SAR system had a steep imaging geometry (incidence angle 23 + or - 3 deg off-nadir) which is favorable for detection of subtle topographic variations. Subtle textural features in the image corresponding to surface topography were enhanced by image processing techniques. A structural and lithologic interpretation of the processed images is presented. Lineaments oriented NE-SW dominate and intersect broad folds trending NW-SE. Distinctive karst topography characterizes one high relief area

  3. [Chromosome instability induced by agrochemicals among farm workers in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Adil de Oliveira; Hackel, Christine

    2002-01-01

    A major share of the grain farming (wheat and soybeans) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul is in the Passo Fundo area. For crop pest control, large amounts of agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides) are used. To evaluate the genotoxicity of these products, the micronucleus test was performed in farm workers directly exposed to these chemicals. Heparinized blood samples were drawn by venipuncture from 30 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. Micronuclei frequency was evaluated by counting 1,000 binucleated cells per individual in both groups. Smoking habits, age, and duration of exposure showed no effect on the frequency of micronuclei in both groups. However, statistical analysis showed significantly higher mean numbers of binucleated cells with micronuclei in exposed individuals (14.3/1,000 cells) as compared to controls (7.1/1,000 cells), allowing the authors to conclude that the micronucleus test is an efficient biological assay for monitoring population exposure to mixtures of agrochemicals.

  4. [Obstetric care during childbirth in Rio de Janeiro: hospital practices and user access].

    PubMed

    Campos, T P; Carvalho, M S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe Rio de Janeiro maternity hospital profiles and the route between the mother's place of residence and the hospital. Data sources were: the State Live Birth Information System (1995) and the National Survey on Medical Care (1992). Two groups of maternity hospitals were identified using multivariate cluster analysis. Group A had an extremely high cesarean rate (81%), with mothers and neonates presenting good health conditions. Cesarean rates were lower in Group B, although still high (32%), and other variables reflected worse neonatal conditions. Cesarean rate was the indicator which best discriminated between the groups, followed by proportion of adolescent mothers and mothers with a high school education. The uneven spatial distribution of maternity hospitals, which were concentrated in the richest area of the city, was a factor in the long routes used by women to reach medical care for childbirth.

  5. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Lopes, Juarez Silva; Noal, Janaína; Finkelsztejn, Juliana M

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the leading causes of neurologic deficits in young adults and can lead to physical, intellectual and emotional problems. Approved treatments are expensive and are among the 10 highest budgets of the Brazilian Health Ministry. Given the diverse prevalence of MS among Brazilian regions, it is important to determine prevalence rates across the country. Seven studies have assessed MS in Brazil and reported rates ranging from 15 cases to 18 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It has been hypothesized that this rate is even higher in southern Brazil, which has a high proportion of European heritage (mostly German and Italian) immigrants. Here, we report that the prevalence of MS in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is 27.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants.

  6. [Humors and odors: body order and social order in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Lima, T A

    Archeological diggings in household garbage deposits from nineteenth-century Rio have uncovered an abundance of equipment used in the elimination of fecal material and phlegm. These findings formed the basis for an analysis and interpretation of the era's attitudes regarding body fluids, as adopted when the mentalities of the new 'bourgeois' segments - then undergoing a process of rise and consolidation - were impregnated by Hippocratic humoralism. The text shows how the introduction of a 'body order' was fundamental in building and keeping the social order in the nineteenth century. It likewise shows how the ideology of hygienization was one of the most important and efficacious strategies for underpinning the bourgeoisie's (victorious) project to achieve hegemony.

  7. [Adult obesity in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the association with socioeconomic status].

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Silvia, Macedo

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe obesity prevalence in a Brazilian city; (2) test the association between obesity and socio-demographic variables; and (3) compare results with a survey in the same city in 1994. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a random sample of 1,968 20-69-year-olds residing in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2). Age and sex-adjusted obesity prevalence was 19.4%. Schooling was not associated with obesity in men. Obesity prevalence was higher in middle-income men. Women with more schooling had lower obesity rates. There was a non-statistically significant reduction in obesity rates compared to a similar study from 1994.

  8. From the Earth Summit to Rio+20: integration of health and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Alleyne, George; Kickbusch, Ilona; Dora, Carlos

    2012-06-09

    In 2012, world leaders will meet at the Rio+20 conference to advance sustainable development--20 years after the Earth Summit that resulted in agreement on important principles but insufficient action. Many of the development goals have not been achieved partly because social (including health), economic, and environmental priorities have not been addressed in an integrated manner. Adverse trends have been reported in many key environmental indicators that have worsened since the Earth Summit. Substantial economic growth has occurred in many regions but nevertheless has not benefited many populations of low income and those that have been marginalised, and has resulted in growing inequities. Variable progress in health has been made, and inequities are persistent. Improved health contributes to development and is underpinned by ecosystem stability and equitable economic progress. Implementation of policies that both improve health and promote sustainable development is urgently needed.

  9. Central and South West Services (CSWS) transmission system studies: (Rio Grande Valley FACTS studies). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arabi, S.; Hamadanizadeh, H.

    1998-12-01

    Stability limitations impose constraints on power imports into the Rio Grande Valley, the southern region of Central Power and Light`s (CPL) system. CPL`s parent company, Central and South West Services, sought to identify viable plans for eliminating these constraints to enable power transfers via two 345-kV transmission lines. This project conducted assessment studies of the CPL system, using applications from EPRI`s Power System Analysis Package, and identified two scenarios as the most likely remedial measures required. These consisted of the addition of generating units and the use of series compensation of the two transmission lines, in conjunction with shunt compensation. While Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices were not indicated in this study phase, the researchers indicated a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation device could be considered to address a potential subsynchronous resonance issue.

  10. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables. The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  11. Temporal and Climatic Analysis of the Rio Peñasco in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Streamflow research usually focuses on perennial streams due to the obvious impact on water budgets and flooding forecasts as well as the readily available data due a higher quantity of gages with longer and more complete data sets. Due to this, most streamflow metrics were derived by analyzing perennial streams and may not accurately characterize streams that have intermittent flow. Even standard metrics used for intermittent streams may not accurately characterize streams that are strongly ephemeral. This study uses statistical methods to analyze the Rio Peñasco near Artesia, NM. Traditional metrics were inadequate in describing the average or variance of this ephemeral stream. This stream has been rerouted or altered numerous times in order to be used for agriculture. In the 1980s, this anthropogenic influence resulted in a drastic decline in discharge rates. ENSO was shown to alter the onset and total volume of non-zero discharge during monsoon months.

  12. Introduction in New perspectives on Rio Grande rift basins: from tectonics to groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Basins of the Rio Grande rift have long been studied both for their record of rift development and for their potential as host of natural resources. Early workers described the basin geomorphology and the character of infilling sediments (e.g. Siebenthal, 1910; Bryan, 1938; Speigel and Baldwin, 1963), and subsequent research compilations provided general stratigraphic and tectonic overviews of rift basins and described their geophysical characteristics within the crust (Hawley, 1978; Riecker, 1979; Baldridge et al., 1984; Keller, 1986). Subsurface knowledge gained from hydrocarbon exploration activities coupled with detailed surface studies of basins and their flanking uplifts were presented in Geological Society of America (GSA) Special Paper 291, edited by Keller and Cather (1994a).

  13. A new age to an old site: the earliest Tupiguarani settlement in Rio de Janeiro State?

    PubMed

    Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Macario, Kita; Buarque, Angela; Anjos, Roberto M; Beauclair, Mariana

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents unexpectedly early dates for a Tupiguarani settlement in Southeastern Brazil. One radiocarbon dating of 1740 +/- 90 yr BP (1820-1390 cal yr BP) was already available for the Morro Grande site (Araruama, southeastern coast of Rio de Janeiro State). Two new dates, obtained from charcoal samples, are reported here. An age of 2920 +/- 70 yr BP (3220-2790 cal yr BP) was obtained from a specialized hearth, probably used for cooking ceramics; a funerary hearth at the same archaeological locus was dated at 2600 +/- 160 yr BP (3000-2150 cal yr BP). Both measurements were made independently, indifferent laboratories, arguing for their validity. These results considerably age the arrival time of Tupiguarani populations to the coastal region of Southeastern Brazil. They may have important implications to the hypotheses about the origin and dispersion of these populations from Amazonia, supporting the claim of recent authors who consider that their expansion must have begun well before 2000 yrs BP.

  14. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals.

  15. Use of a dynamic simulation model to understand nitrogen cycling in the middle Rio Grande, NM.

    SciTech Connect

    Meixner, Tom; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Oelsner, Gretchen; Brooks, Paul; Roach, Jesse D.

    2008-08-01

    Water quality often limits the potential uses of scarce water resources in semiarid and arid regions. To best manage water quality one must understand the sources and sinks of both solutes and water to the river system. Nutrient concentration patterns can identify source and sink locations, but cannot always determine biotic processes that affect nutrient concentrations. Modeling tools can provide insight into these large-scale processes. To address questions about large-scale nitrogen removal in the Middle Rio Grande, NM, we created a system dynamics nitrate model using an existing integrated surface water--groundwater model of the region to evaluate our conceptual models of uptake and denitrification as potential nitrate removal mechanisms. We modeled denitrification in groundwater as a first-order process dependent only on concentration and used a 5% denitrification rate. Uptake was assumed to be proportional to transpiration and was modeled as a percentage of the evapotranspiration calculated within the model multiplied by the nitrate concentration in the water being transpired. We modeled riparian uptake as 90% and agricultural uptake as 50% of the respective evapotranspiration rates. Using these removal rates, our model results suggest that riparian uptake, agricultural uptake and denitrification in groundwater are all needed to produce the observed nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, conveyance channels, and river as well as the seasonal concentration patterns. The model results indicate that a total of 497 metric tons of nitrate-N are removed from the Middle Rio Grande annually. Where river nitrate concentrations are low and there are no large nitrate sources, nitrate behaves nearly conservatively and riparian and agricultural uptake are the most important removal mechanisms. Downstream of a large wastewater nitrate source, denitrification and agricultural uptake were responsible for approximately 90% of the nitrogen removal.

  16. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Miocene Rio Azul section, Precordillera thrust belt, San Juan Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, T.E.; Beer, J.A. ); Rutty, P.M. Stanford Univ., CA ); McRae, L.E.; Tabbutt, K. ); Damanti, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    The chronostratigraphy of synorogenic strata of Rio Azul in the Bermejo foreland basin, Argentine Andes, reveals details of Miocene tectonic activity and deposition. Chronostratigraphic interpretations are based on magnetic polarity stratigraphy and zircon fission-track dates of interbedded volcanic ashes. The Rio Azul section is located within the Precordillera thrust belt, uplifted and rotated by motion on subjacent faults. The 3,200 m thick section coarsens upward, from sandstone and mudstone (Cuculi Formation) to conglomerate (El Corral Formation). The radiometric ages indicate the entire section is of middle to late Miocene age, and the authors correlate the magnetic polarity pattern of each fault block to the magnetic polarity time scale. The lower 500 m of the section apparently ranges from approximately 16 to 12 Ma, although the age of the lowest 100 m is quite uncertain. The fault-bounded block from 500 to 1,000 m probably correlates to approximately 13.5-12.5 Ma. The block from 1,000 to 2,000 m correlates to approximately 12.5-10 Ma. Given the lack of unconformities in the coarse uppermost 1,200 m of section and a zircon fission track age within the conglomerates, the authors speculate that the upper part of the section was deposited very rapidly; the top of the section is probably no younger than about 8 to 9 Ma. These correlations and similarities of facies, paleocurrents, and provenance imply that the Cuculi Formation represents the proximal facies correlative to the Jarillal Formation of Sierra de Huaco, and that the El Corral conglomerates are the up-dip equivalent of the Huachipampa Formation of Huaco. These results are consistent with a paleogeographic model of a major drainage reorganization in the Bermejo foreland basin at about 10 Ma. It is clear, however, that thrusting in the Precordillera began more than 2 m.y. prior to the drainage reorganization.

  17. Forest Cover Change and Soil Erosion in Toledo's Rio Grande Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicas, S.; Omine, K.

    2015-04-01

    Toledo, the southernmost district, is the hub of Belize's Mayan population, descendants of the ancient Mayan civilization. The Toledo District is primarily inhibited by Kekchi and Mopan Mayans whose subsistence needs are met by the Milpa slash-and-burn agricultural system and the extraction of forest resources. The poverty assessment in the country indicates that Toledo is the district with the highest percentage of household an individual indigence of 37.5 % and 49.7 % respectively. Forest cover change in the area can be attributed to rapid population growth among the Maya, together with increase in immigration from neighboring countries, logging, oil exploration and improvement and construction of roads. The forest cover change analysis show that from 2001 to 2011 there was a decrease of Lowland broad-leaved wet forest of 7.53 km sq, Shrubland of 4.66 km sq, and Wetland of 0.08 km sq. Forest cover change has resulted in soil erosion which is causing the deterioration of soils. The land cover types that are contributing the most to total erosion in the Rio Grande watershed are no-forest, lowland broad-leaved wet forest and submontane broad-leaved wet forest. In this study the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was employed in a GIS platform to quantify and assess forest cover change and soil erosion. Soil erosion vulnerability maps in Toledo's Rio Grande watershed were also created. This study provides scientifically sound information in order to understand and respond effectively to the impacts of soil erosion in the study site.

  18. Environmental and socio-demographic factors associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Alves da Cunha, Antônio José Ledo

    2007-03-01

    Although asthma is of frequent occurrence, little is known about the factors associated with this disease in Brazil. We studied the association between asthma, environmental and socio-demographic factors in adolescents in Nova lguacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Cross-sectional study using the questionnaires about asthma and environmental factors from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). We performed bivariate analyses between asthma and the factors studied using prevalence ratio (PR), confidence intervals of 95% (95% Cl) and Chi-squared test. Factors associated to asthma in a bivariate analysis were studied using logistic regression and odds ratio (OR). We included 3,033 students, aged 13-14 yrs, selected from 37 schools. The prevalence of asthma was 13.1%. Being female (OR = 1.40; 95%Cl:1.11-1.77), the presence of a mother who smokes (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.66), a cat in the domicile (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.69), being the firstborn (OR = 1.34; 95%Cl:1.07-1.68), frequent use of paracetamol (OR = 1.45; 95%Cl: 1.15-1.84), the presence of rhinitis (OR = 5.15; 95%:3.89-6.82) and eczema (OR = 2.35; 95%Cl:1.73-3.19) were independently associated to asthma. Environmental and socio-demographic factors were associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, irrespective of the presence of others allergic diseases. Interventions acting on these factors may decrease the occurrence of asthma in this population.

  19. Water-quality and ancillary data collected from the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roussel, Meghan C.; Canova, Michael G.; Asquith, William H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The Arroyo Colorado is in the lower Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas and extends from near Mission, Texas, eastward to the Laguna Madre estuarine and coastal marine system, which separates Padre Island from the Texas mainland. Streamflow in the Arroyo Colorado primarily is sustained by effluent from municipal wastewater-treatment plants along the stream banks. Since 1986, the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado from the port of Harlingen to the Laguna Madre has been designated by the State of Texas as an impaired water body because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Efforts to develop predictive water-quality models for the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado have been hampered by a lack of physical, biological, and biochemical data. Specifically, data on primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, sediment deposition rates, and the relations between these processes and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the stream have been inadequate to support water-quality modeling efforts. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a study in 2006 to collect data associated with primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the tidal segment (2201) of the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo. Specific objectives of the study were to (1) characterize water quality by measuring basic properties; (2) characterize the concentrations of carbon and nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids; (3) measure the seasonal differences of nutrient-dependent algal growth and algal production in the water column; (4) measure oxygen respiration or production rates; and (5) measure rates of sediment deposition.

  20. Zinc isotope and transition-element dynamics accompanying hydrozincite biomineralization in the Rio Naracauli, Sardinia, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; De Giudici, Giovanni; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2013-01-01

    The Rio Naracauli in SW Sardinia drains part of the Ingurtosu Zn–Pb mining district, and contains extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn at near-neutral pH. In the upper reaches of the stream, pH, alkalinity and Zn concentrations are such that hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] precipitates in a biologically mediated process facilitated by a microalga (Chlorella sp.) and a cyanobacterium (Scytonema sp.). Values of δ66Zn in water and solid samples ranged from − 0.35‰ to + 0.5‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard, and closely follow a mass-dependent fractionation line. Two composite samples of sphalerite, the primary ore mineral in the Ingurtosu deposits, had an average δ66Zn of + 0.15‰, similar to sphalerite measured elsewhere in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Zinc isotope measurements of the stream water and the hydrozincite forming in the stream show a consistent preference for the heavy isotope, 66Zn, in the hydrozincite relative to 64Zn. Synthetic hydrozincites produced without added bacteria have δ66Zn identical to the dissolved Zn, thus suggesting a biologically mediated mineralization process in Rio Naracauli. The average fractionation, Δhdz-water, is 0.35‰, the magnitude of which is consistent with other studies, and suggests an extracellular mechanism of the biomineralization process. Zinc concentration and dissolved δ66Zn steadily decrease in the reach of the stream where the biomineralization occurs. The biomineralization process also leads to the sequestration of Pb, Cu and Ni in the hydrozincite lattice, and the coeval precipitation of an amorphous CdCO3 solid, prompting the suggestion that if optimized, the biomineralization process might represent a feasible passive remediation strategy for streams with high Zn and other metals, and with near-neutral pH.

  1. Unpacking the concept of land degradation neutrality and addressing its operation through the Rio Conventions.

    PubMed

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Stringer, Lindsay C; Erlewein, Alexander; Metternicht, Graciela; Minelli, Sara; Safriel, Uriel; Sommer, Stefan

    2016-09-22

    The world's commitment towards land degradation neutrality (LDN) became enshrined in various international agreements and decisions throughout the year 2015. The challenge now becomes one of addressing its operation, in order to achieve these new policy goals and targets by the year 2030. Advancing LDN demands attention to what the concept seeks to achieve, as well as unravelling the perspectives of the key multi-lateral environmental agreements through which progress can be made. The three Rio Conventions (the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)) all play key roles in shaping the international LDN governance and implementation context. Their different but related foci create a number of challenges and opportunities for advancing LDN. In this paper we critically analyze the literature to elucidate potential challenges and opportunities in moving LDN towards implementation, considering the mandates and objectives of all three Rio Conventions. We first unpack the concept of LDN's aspirations. We highlight the importance of the definitions and terminology used, and the relationships between those definitions, terms and the actors using them, as well as their implications in framing the range of policy actions and synergies that could benefit progress towards multiple Sustainable Development Goals. We then examine the LDN pilot project spearheaded by the UNCCD to identify key lessons for LDN implementation. Synthesizing these lessons, we present a portfolio of blended interventions that seeks to address the aspirations of the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD in the LDN space, identifying synergistic options for national actions to move towards LDN. Overall, our analysis provides insights in advancing LDN from its current position as a policy target, towards synergetic action.

  2. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault.

  3. Preparedness for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: hospital treatment capacity in georeferenced areas.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carolina Figueiredo; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Shoaf, Kimberley Irene; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Miranda, Elaine Silva

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature. Source of data were Brazilian health databases and the Rio 2016 website. Sports venues for the Olympic Games and surrounding hospitals in a 10km radius were located by geoprocessing and designated a "health area" referring to the probable inflow of persons to be treated in case of hospital referral. Six different factors were used to calculate needs for surge and one was used to calculate needs in case of disasters (20/1,000). Hospital treatment capacity is defined by the coincidence of beds and life support equipment, namely the number of cardiac monitors (electrocardiographs) and ventilators in each hospital unit. Maracanã followed by the Olympic Stadium (Engenhão) and the Sambódromo would have the highest single demand for hospitalizations (1,572, 1,200 and 600, respectively). Hospital treatment capacity proved capable of accommodating surges, but insufficient in cases of mass casualties. In mass events most treatments involve easy clinical management, it is expected that the current capacity will not have negative consequences for participants.

  4. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Stone, B.D.; Shroba, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley. The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47-40 ka. Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90-98 ka (based on dated basalt flows). Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka). The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1.47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft (Primero Alto) above the modern flood-plain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  5. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  6. Quantifying the process-product relationship in the large sandy Rio Paraná

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, P. J.; Amsler, M.; Best, J.; Orfeo, O.; Parsons, D.; Reesink, A.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Szupiany, R.

    2010-12-01

    Whilst recent technological advances have enabled the measurement and modelling of alluvial processes and dynamics, arguably less progress has been made in relating the morphodynamics to the resulting sedimentary alluvial architecture. This paper will present data from the sandy, multi-channel Rio Paraná, Argentina, where the evolution of km-scale braid-bars is being related directly to the resultant sedimentary deposits. Bathymetric data from the Rio Paraná was collected from survey vessels using single and multi-beam echo-sounding located by RTK dGPS. Flow data at various flow stages was also collected using acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) surveys at key cross-sections. The subsurface architecture was characterised at low flow using 10s of km of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and ground-truthed using suction coring. GPR achieved penetration depths down to 10 m and reflections allowed quantification of the radar facies to within +/- 0.2 m in the vertical. These techniques, and the logistical considerations required in their deployment and integration in the field, will be discussed. The paper will also highlight how an integrated morphodynamic and GPR survey programme in one of the world’s largest rivers can provide high-resolution data that: (i) links blocks of sedimentation to specific, identifiable channel processes, (ii) quantifies the vertical and horizontal distribution of sedimentary facies in large rivers, and relates this to the temporal evolution of the channel, and (iii) is at sub-seismic resolution and therefore suitable for reservoir-scale lithofacies modelling.

  7. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the vaccine era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tuyama, Mari; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Schlackman, Jessica; Marsh, Jane W; Rebelo, Maria C; Cerqueira, Elaine O; Nehab, Márcio; Kegele, Fabíola; Carmo, Getúlio F; Thielmann, Dominique CA; Barroso, Paulo F; Harrison, Lee H; Barroso, David E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed. Hi isolates recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood from 1993 to 2014 were serotyped by slide agglutination, genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the capsule type evaluation, differentiation of serologically non-typeable isolates, and characterisation of the capsule (cap) locus was done by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using E-test. FINDINGS From 1986 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2014, 2580 and 197 (42% without serotype information) confirmed cases were reported, respectively. The case fatality rate was 17% and did not correlate with the strain. Hib and b- variant isolates belonged to ST-6, whereas serotype a isolates belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex. Serotype a appeared to emerge during the 2000s. Non-encapsulated isolates were non-clonal and distinct from the encapsulated isolates. Ampicillin-resistant isolates were either of serotype b or were non-encapsulated, and all of them were β-lactamase-positive but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Although Hi meningitis became a relatively rare disease in Rio de Janeiro after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the isolates recovered from patients have become more diverse. These results indicate the need to implement an enhanced surveillance system to continue monitoring the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine. PMID:28225904

  8. Prevalence and Concomitants of Arthritis in the Elderly in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Information on the prevalence and concomitants of arthritis in developing countries is sparse. It is unclear whether they are comparable to findings in developed countries. To ascertain the prevalence, demographic characteristics, and health-related concomitants of arthritis in older persons in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a middle income country. Methods The state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was subdivided into nine regions. Stratified random sampling was used to identify 880 community residents age ≥60 years in each region. One region with suspect data was excluded. Of 7040 community residents contacted in eight regions, 6963 participated (1.1% refusal rate). In 1995, trained, monitored interviewers, using structured questionnaires, conducted in-home interviews gathering information on demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, living arrangements, employment status), health behaviors (physical activity, tobacco use, social activity), functional limitations, depression, and 15 self-reported health conditions, including arthritis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results Arthritis, reported by 43% of the sample, was more prevalent in women, among the less educated, those with lower income, and higher age. Severity, but not prevalence, differed by race/ethnicity. Controlled analyses indicated significant association with female gender, lower education, and less social activity. Arthritis was associated with reduced odds of stroke, but increased odds of hypertension, varicosities, bronchitis, renal problems, headache, gastrointestinal disorders, and depression. Arthritis was not significantly associated with age or functional limitations, and associations did not differ by gender. Conclusions The prevalence, demographic and health characteristics associated with self-reported arthritis in this southern state in Brazil are similar to findings elsewhere in Brazil

  9. Characterization and dynamics of air pollutants in the Lower Rio Grande Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia-Velazquez, G.M.; Sheya, S.A.; Dworzanski, J.; Rodriguez-Gallegos, M.; Tejeda-Honstein, D.D.; Cardona-Carrizalez, J.M.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) has become a region of increasing interest because of its rapid economic development and the increased international border crossing traffic, as well as for its extensive agricultural activities. Over the past few years air pollution problems in the region have been reported by the population. However, very few air quality studies have been performed in the area. In this paper some results of a study to demonstrate the feasibility of a comprehensive (criteria pollutant + VOC/SVOC + PM{sub FINE}) air pollutant dynamics characterization and modeling study in the LRGV are presented and discussed. The study involved both sides of the US/Mexican border and used. A highly mobile monitoring station equipped with a broad array of physical and chemical samplers and sensors was used in the study in two periods in December, 1995 and March,1998. PM10/PM2.5 and NO{sub x} (the latter only in the March 1998 study) concentrations were measured in Reynosa, Rio Bravo and Matamoros, Mexico, as well as Hidalgo, Brownsville and along the Freeway between Brownsville and McAllen on Texas. The photochemical model predicted peak ozone concentrations that reached, and on some days exceeded, air quality standards. The concurrent PM10/PM2.5 study involved both physical (size distributed counting) and time-resolved (2-hourly) organic chemical (VOC/SVOC type PM{sub FINE} adsorbates) characterization methods. Recently completed multivariate data analysis results from a December 1995 study at one of the sites (Hidalgo international bridge) are being presented to illustrate the capabilities of the time-resolved PM{sub FINE} characterization approach. The results of this work show that the LRGV region does not appear to have grave air pollution problems yet. However, with the increase in traffic activities over the next few years, air quality is likely to deteriorate.

  10. Sublethal exposure from microcystins to renal insufficiency patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Raquel M; Yuan, Moucun; Servaites, Jerome C; Delgado, Alvimar; Magalhães, Valéria F; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Carmichael, Wayne W; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2006-04-01

    In November 2001, a cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis and Anabaena occurred in the Funil Reservoir and the Guandu River, both of which supply drinking water to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using ELISA, microcystins were detected at a concentration of 0.4 microg/L in the drinking water, whereas a concentration of 0.32 microg/L was detected in activated carbon column-treated water for use at the renal dialysis center of Clementino Fraga Filho Hospital (HUCFF) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 44 hemodialysis patients who received care at this center were believed to be exposed. Initial ELISA analyses confirmed the presence of serum microcystin concentrations > or = 0.16 ng/mL in 90% of serum samples collected from these patients. Twelve patients were selected for continued monitoring over the following 2-month period. Serum microcystin concentrations ranged from < 0.16 to 0.96 ng/mL during the 57 days after documented exposure. ELISA-positive samples were found throughout the monitoring period, with the highest values detected 1 month after initial exposure. ESI LC/MS analyses indicated microcystins in the serum; however, MS/MS fragmentation patterns typical of microcystins were not identified. LC/MS analyses of MMPB for control serum spiked with MCYST-LR. and patient sera revealed a peak at retention time of 8.4 min and a mass of 207 m/z. These peaks are equivalent to the peak observed in the MMPB standard analysis. Taken together ELISA, LC/MS, and MMPB results indicate that these renal dialysis patients were exposed to microcystins. This documents another incident of human microcystin exposure during hemodialysis treatment.

  11. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test (p < 0.05) all stations had a linear spatiotemporal trend. According to the clustering analysis, the first group (G1) contains stations located over the coastal lowlands and also over the ocean facing area of Serra do Mar (Sea ridge), a 1500 km long mountain range over the coastal Southeastern Brazil. The second group (G2) contains stations over all the state, from Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Mountains) and Costa Verde (Green coast), to the south, up to stations in the Northern parts of the state. Group 3 (G3) contains stations in the highlands over the state (Serrana region), while group 4 (G4) has stations over the northern areas and the continent-facing side of Serra do Mar. The last two groups were formed with stations around Paraíba River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  12. Water quality and amphibian health in the Big Bend region of the Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Hu, F.; Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Male and female Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) were collected in May 2005 from the main stem and tributaries of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas. Frogs were examined for (1) incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in males; (2) thyroid epithelial cell height, a potential index of exposure to thyroid-disrupting contaminants; and (3) incidence of liver melanomacrophage aggregates, a general index of exposure to contaminants. Standard parameters of surface water quality and concentrations of selected elements, including heavy metals, were determined at each frog collection site. Heavy metals also were measured in whole-frog composite extracts. Water cadmium concentrations in most sites and chloride concentrations in the main stem exceeded federal criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Mercury was detected in frogs from the two collection sites in Terlingua Creek. There was a seventeen percent incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in male frogs. Mean thyroid epithelial cell height was greater in frogs from one of the Terlingua Creek sites (Terlingua Abajo). No differences were observed in the incidence of hepatic macrophage aggregates among sites. In conclusion, although potential cause-effect relationships between indices of habitat quality and amphibian health could not be established, the results of this study raise concerns about the general quality of the aquatic habitat and the potential long-term consequences to the aquatic biota of the Big Bend region. The presence of ovarian follicles in male frogs is noteworthy but further study is necessary to determine whether this phenomenon is natural or anthropogenically induced.

  13. Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Eastern Flank of the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, N. W.; Pulliam, J.

    2015-12-01

    Shear wave splitting was measured across the eastern flank of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) to investigate mechanisms of upper mantle anisotropy. Earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances of 90°-130° from EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) and SIEDCAR (SC) broadband seismic stations were examined comprehensively, via the Matlab program "Splitlab", to determine whether SKS and SKKS phases indicated anisotropic properties. Splitlab allows waveforms to be rotated, filtered, and windowed interactively and splitting measurements are made on a user-specified waveform segment via three independent methods simultaneously. To improve signal-to-noise and improve reliability, we stacked the error surfaces that resulted from grid searches in the measurements for each station location. Fast polarization directions near the Rio Grande Rift tend to be sub-parallel to the RGR but then change to angles that are consistent with North America's average plate motion, to the east. The surface erosional depression of the Pecos Valley coincides with fast polarization directions that are aligned in a more northerly direction than their neighbors, whereas the topographic high to the east coincides with an easterly change of the fast axis.The area above a mantle high velocity anomaly discovered separately via seismic tomography which may indicate thickened lithosphere, corresponds to unusually large delay times and fast polarization directions that are more closely aligned to a north-south orientation. The area of southeastern New Mexico that falls between the mantle fast anomaly and the Great Plains craton displays dramatically smaller delay times, as well as changes in fast axis directions toward the northeast. Changes in fast axis directions may indicate flow around the mantle anomaly; small delay times could indicate vertical or attenuated flow.

  14. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  15. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Mahan, Shannon; Stone, Byron D.; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley . The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47–40 ka . Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90–98 ka (based on dated basalt flows) . Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka) . The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1 .47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft. (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft. (Primero Alto) above the modern floodplain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  16. Urinary Dysfunction in Women with Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of 61 Patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Camila Rodrigues; Carneiro, Kennedy; Fiorelli, Rossano; Orsini, Marco; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the type and frequency of bladder dysfunction in a series of female patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from Rio de Janeiro, and analyze the role of the urologist in the multidisciplinary team. A team of urologists and a neurologist from the Hospital da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed female patients with MS about illness onset, urologic follow-up since diagnosis, current stage of the disease and current urological symptoms. The interview was followed by an urodynamic testing, ultrasound of the urinary tract and urinalysis. Data resulting from the interviews and exam results were gathered and submitted to statistical evaluation. Sixty one patients were evaluated, with average age of 41.4 years. Urinary symptoms such as urinary incontinence, urinary hesitancy, urinary retention, urinary urgency and incomplete bladder emptying were reported in 44% of patients as initial signs of MS disease. Mean disease duration was 8 years and all patients (100%) with the primary progressive form of the disease and 63.5% with the relapsingremitting presentation had urological symptoms. Analysis of complementary exams showed that 37.7% of urinalysis, 8.2% of the urinary tract ultrasound exams and 66.7% of the urodynamic evaluations were abnormal and the most frequent abnormality were overactive neurogenic bladder. Only 4 patients (6.6%) had seen an urologist during the course of their disease and only 1.6% had performed an urodynamic evaluation. This study shows a high prevalence (68%) of urinary dysfunction in a female population with MS. Urologic care should be part of the multidisciplinary team since the beginning of the disease. An urodynamic evaluation and simple urinalysis should be included in the routine testing during disease follow-up due to the high incidence of neurogenic bladder and other urologic complications. PMID:24416487

  17. The decompensative gravity anomaly and deep structure of the region of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Cordell, L. ); Zorin, Y.A. ); Keller, G.R. )

    1991-04-10

    An isostatic correction is commonly made to Bouguer anomaly gravity data to remove the gravity effect of isostatic compensation of topographic loads. In the USSR a decompensative correction has then been made to the isostatic gravity anomaly to remove the gravity effect of isostatic compensation of geologic loads as well. The authors employ here calculations in the wave number domain, leading to an efficient and exact solution. In a 1,200 {times} 1,200 km region centered on the Rio Grande rift the decompensative correction ranges from about {minus}35 to +25 mGal. The decompensative anomaly, highlights an arcuate gravity low and a system of gravity highs inferred to reflect prerift welts of mass concentration which have indirectly influenced the position of the rift and its segmentation and zones of accommodation. Under the assumptions made, if the decompensative anomaly is subtracted from the Bouguer anomaly, then the residual is the gravity anomaly field of deep structure, without gravity effects of shallow sources in the upper crust. Using available seismic data to (weakly) constrain the Moho surface, they invert the residual gravity field for topography of the base of the lithosphere. Lithosphere is found to be 200 km thick in the High Plains; 40-50 km in the eastern Great Basin; 75-100 km in the Colorado Plateau, and as thin as 40 km in the southern Rio Grande rift. In the area studied, the thickness of the lithospere is everwhere greater than that of the crust. The separation of gravity effects made possible by the decompensative correction shows how the rift is fundamentally controlled by thinning of the lithosphere, yet in detail is deflected by long-lived tectonic welts in the shallow, brittle crust.

  18. Assessing climate change impacts on water availability of snowmelt-dominated basins of the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study Region- Upper Rio Grande, Colorado and New Mexico, USA: Climate change is predicted to further limit the water availability of the arid southwestern U.S. In this study, the Snowmelt Runoff Model is used to evaluate impacts of increased temperature and altered precipitation on snow covered are...

  19. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  20. Molecular analysis of the iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in rio grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; Einsfeldt, Karen; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes; da Costa, Marisa; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2008-01-01

    The polymorphic region sequences in the iap gene were analyzed in 25 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and compared with reference strains. This investigation distinguished two clusters of L. monocytogenes: I (20 strains) and II (5 strains). PMID:24031198

  1. Climate and lake-level history of the northern Altiplano, Bolivia, as recorded in Holocene sediments of the Rio Desaguadero

    SciTech Connect

    Baucom, P.C.; Rigsby, C.A.

    1999-05-01

    Strata exposed in terraces and modern cutbanks along the Rio Desaguadero contain a variety of lithofacies that were deposited in four distinct facies associations. These facies associations document a history of aggradation and downcutting that is linked to Holocene climate change on the Altiplano. Braided-stream, meandering-stream, deltaic and shoreline, and lacustrine sediments preserved in multi-level terraces in the northern Rio Desaguadero valley record two high-water intervals: one between 4,500 and 3,900 yr BP and another between 2,000 and 2,200 yr BP. These wet periods were interrupted by three periods of fluvial downcutting, centered at approximately 4,000 yr BP, 3,600 yr BP, and after 2,000 yr BP. Braided-river sediments preserved in a single terrace level in the southern Rio Desaguadero valley record a history of nearly continuous fluvial sedimentation from at least 7,000 yr BP until approximately 3,200 yr BP that was followed by a single episode (post-3,210 yr BP) of down-cutting and lateral migration. The deposition and subsequent fluvial downcutting of the northern strata was controlled by changes in effective moisture that can be correlated to Holocene water-level fluctuations of Lake Titicaca. The deposition and dissection of braided-stream sediments to the south are more likely controlled by a combination of base-level change and sediment input from the Rio Mauri.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Penna, B.; Thomé, S.; Martins, R.; Martins, G.; Lilenbaum, W.

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:24031774

  3. To Be "Cool" or Not to Be "Cool": Young People's Insights on Consumption and Social Issues in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrozo, Sueila

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of material goods consumption to young people and the perception that to be "cool" is fundamental to identity construction, this study investigates consumption in relation to social, economic and cultural inequalities. Qualitative individual interviews took place in November 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, with 14 high…

  4. Estimated natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose upstream from the pueblos of Acoma and Laguna, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of surface and ground water, which began about 1870 in the upper Rio San Jose drainage basin, has decreased the flow of the Rio San Jose on the Pueblo of Acoma and the Pueblo of Laguna. The purpose of this study was to estimate the natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose that would have entered the pueblos if no upstream water development had taken place. Estimates of natural flow were based upon streamflow and precipitation records, historical accounts of streamflow, records of irrigated acreage, and empirically-derived estimates of the effects on streamflow of Bluewater Lake, groundwater withdrawals, and irrigation diversions. Natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose at the western boundary of the Pueblo of Acoma is estimated to be between 13,000 and 15,000 acre-feet per year, based on 55 years of recorded and reconstructed streamflow data from water years 1913 to 1972. Natural streamflow at the western boundary of the Pueblo of Laguna is estimated to be between 17 ,000 and 19,000 acre-feet per year for the same period. The error in these estimates of natural streamflow is difficult to assess accurately, but it probably is less than 25 percent. (USGS)

  5. Kluyveromyces aestuarii, a potential environmental quality indicator yeast for mangroves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F.V.; Hagler, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Kluyveromyces aestuarii was found in sediments from 7 of 8 mangroves in Rio de Janeiro; and absent only at one site with heavy plastic bag pollution. Its presence suggests influence in other habitats from a mangrove and its absence in a mangrove suggests some non- fecal pollution or other habitat alteration. PMID:24031711

  6. Mexican Migrations to the U.S., 1900-1920, with a Focus on the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Hubert J.

    Migrations from 1900-1920 were analyzed, focusing on the overall pattern of Mexican migrations to the United States during the two decades; migrations to Texas, the major recipient of migrants during the period; and migrations into the lower Rio Grande Valley. Data were based on official registrations either entering the United States or leaving…

  7. Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research. Fall 2004 Student Profile. Based upon First Census Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    2004-01-01

    This annual summary provides one in a series of semester-based reports that presents a profile of Los Rios Community College District students enrolled at First Census (taken at the 4th week of classes). The Fall 2004 Student Profile provides the District and its colleges-American River College, Cosumnes River College, Folsom Lake College and…

  8. 76 FR 21855 - Rio Grande National Forest, Divide Ranger District; Mineral County, CO; Village at Wolf Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Forest Service Rio Grande National Forest, Divide Ranger District; Mineral County, CO; Village at Wolf... totaling approximately 204 acres. The non-Federal parcel is located in T37N., R2E., NMPM, Mineral County..., Mineral County, CO, Sections 3, 4, 5, and 9. DATES: Formal scoping on this project begins on April...

  9. Species richness, relative abundance, and habitat associations of nocturnal birds along the rio grande in Southern texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Blacklock, G.

    2009-01-01

    The segment of the Rio Grande between International Falcon Reservoir and Del Rio, Texas (distance ca. 350 km), remains largely unexplored ornithologically. We surveyed nocturnal birds monthly during February-June 1998 at 19 stations along the Rio Grande (n = 6) and at upland stock ponds (n = 13) in Webb County, Texas. We conducted 10-min point counts (n = 89) after sunset and before moonset. Four species of owls and five species of nightjars were detected. Nightjars, as a group, were nearly five limes more abundant (mean number/count = 2.63) than owls (mean number = 0.55). The most, common owl, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), had a mean number of 0.25/point count. The mean for elf owls (Micrathene whitneyi) was 0.16/point count. The most common nightjars were the common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii; 1.21/point count) and lesser nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennir, 1.16/point count). Survey sites on the river supported more species (mean = 2.2) than did upland stock ponds (mean = 1.4). However, only one species (common pauraque, Nyctidromus albicollis) showed a preference for the river sites. Our results establish this segment of the Rio Grande in southern Texas as an area of high diversity of nightjars in the United States, matched (in numbers of species) only by southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.

  10. Characterization of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Massive Sulfide Deposit At Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications For Extant Life On Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Aguilera, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Dunagan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of abundant sulfate minerals, particularly Jarosite by the Opportunity Rover at Sinus Merdiani on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for an acidic lake or sea on ancient Mars [1,2], since the mineral Jarosite is soluble in liquid water at pH above 4. The most likely mechanism to produce sufficient protons to acidify a large body of liquid water is near surface oxidation of pyrite rich deposits [3]. The acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, and the associated deposits of Hematite, Goethite, and Jarosite have been recognized as an important chemical analog to the Sinus Merdiani site on Mars [4]. The Rio Tinto is a river in southern Spain that flows 100 km from its source in the Iberian pyrite belt, one of the Earth's largest Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide (VHMS) provinces, into the Atlantic ocean. The river originates in artesian springs emanating from ground water that is acidified by the interaction with subsurface pyrite ore deposits. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has been investigating the hypothesis that a subsurface biosphere exists at Rio Tinto living within the VHMS deposit living on chemical energy derived from sulfur and iron minerals. Reduced iron and sulfur might provide electron donors for microbial metabolism while in situ oxidized iron or oxidants entrained in recharge water might provide electron acceptors.

  11. Characterization of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Massive Sulfide Deposits at Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications for Extant Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriquez, N.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Aguilera, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Dunagan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of abundant sulfate minerals, particularly Jarosite by the Opportunity Rover at Sinus Merdiani on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for an acidic lake or sea on ancient Mars [1,2], since the mineral Jarosite is soluble in liquid water at pH above 4. The most likely mechanism to produce sufficient protons to acidify a large body of liquid water is near surface oxidation of pyrite rich deposits [3]. The acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, and the associated deposits of Hematite, Goethite, and Jarosite have been recognized as an important chemical analog to the Sinus Merdiani site on Mars [4]. The Rio Tinto is a river in southern Spain that flows 100 km from its source in the Iberian pyrite belt, one of the Earth s largest Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide (VHMS) provinces, into the Atlantic ocean. The river originates in artesian springs emanating from ground water that is acidified by the interaction with subsurface pyrite ore deposits. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has been investigating the hypothesis that a subsurface biosphere exists at Rio Tinto living within the VHMS deposit living on chemical energy derived from sulfur and iron minerals. Reduced iron and sulfur might provide electron donors for microbial metabolism while in situ oxidized iron or oxidants entrained in recharge water might provide electron acceptors.

  12. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  13. Using aerial photography for mapping giant reed infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and...

  14. 78 FR 1763 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 906 Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  15. Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista, California, November 1983 through November 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ota, Allan Y.; Schemel, L.E.; Hager, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista , California, for the period of November 1983 through November 1984 are presented in this report. Measurements include specific conductance, alkalinity, suspended particulate matter, and the dissolved inorganic nutrients: nitrite, nitrate + nitrite, ammonium, dissolved silica, and ortho-phosphate. Numerical results are tabulated and details of the methods are described. (USGS)

  16. Observatório da Educação: An Investigation of Teacher Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Silva, Angélica F.; Campos, Tania Maria M.; Pietropaolo, Ruy Cesar

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present the results of an investigation regarding the professional development of teachers who worked in the early years of basic education. The qualitative research involved teachers who participated in the "Observatório da Educação" project (MEC/CAPES). Because of the data amount, we choose to present the data…

  17. Freedom, Revolt and "Citizenship": Three Pillars of Identity for Youngsters Living on the Streets of Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Udi Mandel

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the experiences, identities and aspirations of children and adolescents living on the streets of Rio de Janeiro, formed as they are around the conditions of exclusion, violence and discrimination. Significant here are experiences of "revolta"--revolt or rage--the aspiration for freedom through life on the street…

  18. DIETARY CHARACTERIZATIONS IN A STUDY OF HUMAN EXPOSURES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY:II. HOUSEHOLD WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Environmental Study (LRGVES) was designed to evaluate multiple forms of exposure to Valley residents because of community concerns of possible adverse health effects from environmental conditions. This is the second of two papers that describe the diet...

  19. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    PubMed Central

    Prediger, Karoline deCampos; Pereira, Renata da Silva; Winckler Neto, Carlos Hugo Del Priore; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia Maria Telles; Vizzotto, Bruno Stefanello

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7%) of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:24031914

  20. Hisonotus acuen, a new and phenotypically variable cascudinho (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae) from the upper rio Xingu basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the headwaters of the rio Xingu. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having a functional V-shaped spinelet, odontodes not forming longitudinal aligned rows on the head and trunk, lower counts of the lateral and median series of abdominal figs, presence of a single rostral fig at the tip of the snout, absence of the unpaired figlets at typical adipose fin position, yellowish-tipped teeth, absence of conspicuous dark saddles and stripe on the body and higher number of teeth on the premaxillary and dentary. The new species, Hisonotus acuen, is restricted to headwaters of the rio Xingu basin, and is the first species of the genus Hisonotus described from the rio Xingu basin. Hisonotus acuen is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including body depth, snout length, and abdomen length. This variation is partly distributed within and among populations, and is not strongly correlated with body size. PCA of 83 adult specimens from six allopatric populations indicates the presence of continuous variation. Therefore, the available morphological data suggest that the individuals inhabiting the six localities of rio Xingu represent different populations of a single species. Low intraspecific variation in mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) provides corroborative evidence. PMID:25349492

  1. Obtenga más información sobre la etiqueta Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Entérese más acerca del programa EPA Diseño para el medio ambiente, incluyendo información sobre su historia, proyectos anteriores y otros programas de la EPA que están relacionados con este programa.

  2. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  3. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  4. First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Thiara Manuele Alves; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Badolato-Corrêa, Jessica; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Santos, Carla; Petitinga-Paiva, Fabienne; Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Barbosa, Luciana Santos; Cipitelli, Márcio Costa; Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues Costa; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The cases analyzed in this study were collected at a private Hospital, from April 2016 to May 2016, during the chikungunya outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All cases were submitted to the Real Time RT-PCR for CHIKV genome detection and to anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA. Chikungunya infection was laboratorially confirmed by at least one diagnostic method and, randomly selected positive cases (n=10), were partially sequenced (CHIKV E1 gene) and analyzed. Results: The results showed that all the samples grouped in ECSA genotype branch and the molecular characterization of the fragment did not reveal the A226V mutation in the Rio de Janeiro strains analyzed, but a K211T amino acid substitution was observed for the first time in all samples and a V156A substitution in two of ten samples. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization reveals the circulation of the ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and two amino acids substitutions (K211T and V156A) exclusive to the CHIKV strains obtained during the 2016 epidemic, were reported. PMID:28286701

  5. Streamflow gains and losses and selected water-quality observations in five subreaches of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte from near Presidio to Langtry, Texas, Big Bend area, United States and Mexico, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Turco, Michael J.; Connor, Patrick J.; Bennett, Jeffery B.

    2012-01-01

    Few historical streamflow and water-quality data are available to characterize the segment of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (hereinafter Rio Grande) extending from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality and streamflow data from the Rio Grande from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas, to characterize the streamflow gain and loss and selected constituent concentrations in a 336.3-mile reach of the Rio Grande from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas. Streamflow was measured at 38 sites and water-quality samples were collected at 20 sites along the Rio Grande in February, March, and June 2006. Streamflow gains and losses over the course of the stream were measured indirectly by computing the differences in measured streamflow between sites along the stream. Water-quality data were collected and analyzed for salinity, dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and stable isotopes. Selected properties and constituents were compared to available Texas Commission on Environmental Quality general use protection criteria or screening levels. Summary statistics of selected water-quality data were computed for each of the five designated subreaches. Streamflow gain and loss and water-quality constituent concentration were compared for each subreach, rather than the entire segment because of the temporal variation in sample collection caused by controlled releases upstream. Subreach A was determined to be a losing reach, and subreaches B, C, D, and E were determined to be gaining reaches. Compared to concentrations measured in upstream subreaches, downstream subreaches exhibited evidence of dilution of selected constituent concentrations. Subreaches A and B had measured total dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate exceeding the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality general use protection criteria

  6. Memory effect triggered by exceptional event: the Rio Cordon study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Mao, Luca; Picco, Lorenzo; Garcia-Rama, Adriana; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    In the mountain environment, the steep channels play a key-role in the drainage networks. Notably, the sediment transport processes that here occur, can affect aspects as the geomorphic changes, channel evolution, reservoir management, infrastructure design and hazard assessment. Due to the complex and changeable hydraulic and morphological features that characterize the mountain environment, the steep channels can exhibit fluvial and/or debris-flow transport with magnitude of sediment delivery that, in the same basin, may strongly vary from event to event. In the light of these challenging conditions, appears clear as an accurate monitoring and investigation of sediment dynamics is of critical importance in the steep mountain channels. Such monitoring has even more significance if it is maintained over long-period, enabling to investigate even the role of high magnitude/low frequency events. Using a dataset 29 years-wide, this work aims to investigate the temporal trend of sediment dynamic in the Rio Cordon (Eastern Italian Alps). The Rio Cordon is a steep mountain channel (mean slope = 13%) characterized by step-pool and riffle-pool morphology. The basin (5 km2)exhibits a prevalent nivo-pluvial runoff regime. Since 1986, the catchment is equipped with a monitoring station, that continuously records water discharge, bedload and suspended load (at 1 hr intervals, and 5 min intervals during floods). In September 1994 an exceptional event (RI > 100 years) occurred in the study site, mobilizing about 4000 tons of material. Currently, the structure is managed by ARPA Veneto - Regional Department for Land Safety. In terms of magnitude, the 31 floods recorded by the monitoring station show a wide range of hydraulic forcing (i.e. peak discharge and effective runoff) and amount transported. Specifically, Qpeak ranges within one order of magnitude (1.02 - 10.42 m3 s-1), while the amount of bedload and suspended load varies by more than 3 orders (i.e. 0.9 t < BL < 1541.7 t

  7. Correlating field and laboratory rates of particle abrasion, Rio Medio, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, P. J.; Sklar, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    River bed sediments commonly fine downstream due to a combination of particle abrasion, selective transport of finer grains, and fining of the local sediment supply from hillslopes and tributaries. Particle abrasion rates can be directly measured in the laboratory using tumbling barrels and annular flumes, however, scaling experimental particle abrasion rates to the field has proven difficult due to the confounding effects of selective transport and local supply variations. Here we attempt to correlate laboratory and field rates of particle abrasion in a field setting where these confounding effects can be controlled. The Rio Medio, which flows westward from the crest of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north central New Mexico, is one of several streams studied by John P. Miller in the early 1960's. Several kilometers downstream of its headwaters, the river crosses the Picuris-Pecos fault. Upstream of the fault the river receives quartzite, sandstone and shale clasts from the Ortega Formation, while downstream sediments are supplied by the Embudo Granite. Because the upstream lithologies are not resupplied downstream of the fault, any observed fining of these clasts should be due only to abrasion and selective transport. We hypothesize that we can account for the effects of selective transport by comparing relative fining rates for the different upstream lithologies from both the field and a laboratory tumbler. By correlating laboratory abrasion rates with rock strength, we can predict the relative fining rates due solely to abrasion expected in the field; differences between the predicted and observed fining rates could then be attributed to selective transport. We used point counts to measure bed surface sediment grain size distributions at 15 locations along a 25 kilometer reach of the Rio Medio, beginning just downstream of the fault and ending upstream of a developed area with disturbed channel conditions. We recorded intermediate particle diameter as well

  8. Sustainable Groundwater and Surface Water Management in the Rio Yaqui Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Hernandez, A.; Mayer, A. S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to focus on a coastal basin located primarily in Northwest Mexico, the Rio Yaqui Basin. The basin has roughly 72,000 square kilometers of land and it is classified as a semi-arid climate with an average rainfall of 527 mm per year. The water to meet user demands comes from three reservoirs, in series, constructed along the river. Agriculture is the main user of water in the basin. The farmers use groundwater as a buffer when the surface water is insufficient to meet irrigation demands. However, if the extractions become greater than the natural recharge, the aquifer could suffer irreversible damage caused by overexploitation and salt water intrusion. A rainfall-runoff model for the Rio Yaqui Basin has been created and calibrated on a monthly basis for a period of thirty years. A node link network that includes the main reservoirs and the river reaches is the conceptual basis for the surface water model. A MATLAB code was developed to estimate the monthly storage in the reservoirs by solving a water balance. The program reproduces the water allocation within the basin based on water rights and also includes the maximum groundwater usage allowed to the farmers. The rainfall-runoff model was coupled with a groundwater model of the Yaqui Valley developed by Addams (2004) and modified by Schoups (2006). This model includes flow in the main canals and infiltration to the aquifer. The impacts of climate change and climate variability on the surface water and groundwater storage are assessed. A sensitivity analysis was explored in order to assess the sustainability of the basin under various water management practices. Addams L. 2004. Water resource policy evaluation using a combined hydrologic-economic-agronomic modeling framework: Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Ph.D.dissertation, Stanford University. Schoups G., C.L.Addams, J.L.Minjares, and S.M.Gorelick. 2006. Sustainable conjunctive water management in irrigated agriculture: Model formulation

  9. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  10. Mantle Evolution Associated With the Rio Grande Rift: Geochemistry of Upper Mantle Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Y.; Wendlandt, R. F.

    2001-12-01

    Upper mantle xenoliths from three locales associated with the southern Rio Grande Rift have been investigated to determine lithosphere composition, chemical processes, and pre-eruptive pressure and temperature conditions. Sample locations, Potrillo and Elephant Butte within the rift axis and Adam's Diggings, located 50 km west of the rift axis, were specifically selected to evaluate spatial differences in mantle evolution. Xenolith suites from all locations included spinel lherzolites, harzburgites, and pyroxenites hosted in basanite and alkali basalt. Thin section, electron microprobe, and LA-ICPMS analyses were used to obtain detailed textural information, mineral compositions, and whole rock geochemistry. Xenoliths are classified as protogranular, porphyroclastic, or equigranular texture types. Equigranular texture types occur in the off-axis site. Recrystallized olivine grains are larger in xenoliths from sites along the rift axis than from the rift shoulder. Geothermal gradients based on mineral compositions, utilizing two-pyroxene and olivine-spinel geothermometers and the Ca-in olivine geothermobarometer, indicate temperatures off the rift axis at Adam's Diggings that are 75o-100oC cooler for a given pressure than under the rift axis. Whole rock chemical data and mineral modes support an early depletion event affecting xenoliths from all locations: Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, TiO2, V, Sc, Yb, and clinopyroxene content decrease with increasing MgO. The average (La/Yb)n of clinopyroxenes are 12.37, 0.95, and 1.14 for Adam's Diggings, Elephant Butte, and Potrillo xenoliths, respectively. This LREE enrichment and the occurrence of phlogopite that is interpreted to be primary in xenoliths from the off-axis site indicate both cryptic and modal metasomatic events. Both LREE-enriched and -depleted lherzolites are present at rift axis sites. Differences in recrystallized olivine size, xenolith textures, composition, and pre-eruptive pressure-temperature conditions between rift

  11. ``Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler'' and its Institutional Pedagogical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Calil, M. R.; Perez, E. R.; Kanashiro, M.; Silva, L. C. P.; Calipo, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work relates the reception of schools, started on August 2012, in the astronomic laboratory of the "Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler", located in the "Sabina - Escola Parque do Conhecimento" in Santo André, São Paulo. The idealization of this project, authorship of Marcos Calil, PhD, consists in four apprenticeship environments disposed around the planetary dome. They make reference to the System Sun - Earth - Moon (Tellurium), Solar System, Astronautic and Stars. On Tuesdays and Wednesdays the astronomic laboratory is used by Santo André municipal schools for focused lessons, being possible on Thursdays scheduling for private and public schools. On weekends and holidays is opened for the visitors. Since the inauguration to the beginning of activities with students, the monitor team was guided and trained on contents of Astronomy and Aeronautic to execute the schools service. This is done in four stages, which are: reception, course trough the astronomic laboratory, dome session and activities closure. During the reception the acquaintance rules are passed on for a better visit. Before starting the course the monitors do a survey about the previous knowledge of the students. On the astronomic laboratory resources of the environment are used to explain the contents of Astronomy and Astronautic, always considering the age group and the curriculum developed in classroom. After the course the students watch a planetary session supporting the contents seen on the astronomic laboratory. At the end a feedback is done with the students about the subject discussed. During the visit the teachers fulfill an evaluation about the place and the service. From August 2012 to November 2012 were attended between municipal, public and private schools. From the 4932 students attended, 92% belonged to the municipal network, 5% to the private network and 3% to the public network. From the 189 evaluations done by the teachers, 97.8% were satisfied, 2.1% partially

  12. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  13. Horizontal and Vertical Velocities across the Rio Grande Rift and Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, C.; Nerem, R.; Sheehan, A. F.; Blewitt, G.; Murray, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze over 5 years of continuous GPS measurements from 26 GPS sites across the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) and Southern Rocky Mountains in New Mexico and Colorado. Over 40 Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS sites in adjoining eastern Colorado Plateau and western Great Plains are also included in the analysis. Surface velocities for the GPS sites are computed by JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software in the NA12 reference frame - a 300-station IGS08 North America-fixed reference frame developed by the University of Nevada (Blewitt et al., 2012 Fall AGU abstract). The horizontal velocities over the RGR generally agree with previous analysis performed by Berglund et al. (2012) using MIT's GAMIT software although the latter results are represented in an IGS05 North America-fixed reference frame. The GPS time series are also examined to assess RGR site vertical displacement rates. An attempt is made to estimate the surface loading correction due to hydrology from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements by fitting a linear trend simultaneously with the annual and semiannual terms over the same time period as the GPS measurements. This correction is applied to the GPS vertical displacement time series to better model seasonal vertical displacement and to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of vertical velocity. A post-glacial rebound model developed by Paulson et al. (2007) is taken into account for both GPS vertical time series and GRACE gravity time series. The resultant vertical displacement rate shows predominantly negative rates over the northern RGR and much smaller yet positive rates over the southern RGR. The comparison of PBO vertical displacement rates over the RGR to those provided by UNAVCO's PBO Analysis Centers shows a similar pattern. Paulson, A., S. Zhong, and J. Wahr (2007), Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data, Geophys. J. Int., 171, 497-508, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03556.x Berglund, H. T., A. F

  14. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Interpretations of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to the late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigated using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chiron. Alternating field demagnetization, aided by principal component analysis, yields 55 sites with stable directions representing both normal and reversed polarities, and five sites indicating transitional fields. Mean direction of the normal and inverted reversed sites is I=49.3 deg. and D=356.7 deg. (alpha(sub 95)=3.6 deg). Angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is 16.3 deg, which is consistent with paleosecular variation model G, fit to data from the past 5 m.y. Comparison with the expected direction indicates no azimuthal rotation of the Taos Plateau volcanic field; inclination flattening for the southern part of the plateau is 8.3 deg +/- 5.3 deg. Previous paleomagnelic data indicate 10 deg- 15 deg counterclockwise rotation of die Espanola block to the south over the past 5 m.y. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern

  15. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; de Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Romero, Carolina; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Methodology / Principal Findings The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9%) were tested and 119 (45.4%) were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype. Conclusions / Significance This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364) and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119). We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added

  16. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  17. A Decision Support System for Demand Management of the Rio Conchos Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S.; Valdes, J.; Gastelum, J.; Brookshire, D.; Aparicio, J.; Hidalgo, J.; Velazco, I.

    2003-12-01

    There is a need for integrated models of transboundary watersheds such as that of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo (RGRB) along the US/Mexico border. We present the first stage an interdisciplinary effort to develop a semi-distributed regional dynamic simulation model (DSM) for examining water issues in the Lower RGRB basin. The RGRB serves as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. We focus first on the Conchos River basin, which contributes approximately 70-80% of the surface flow in the lower RGRB basin. Irrigated agriculture has historically been the major user of water and irrigated acreage continues to expand, but it faces increasing competition from industrial development, maquiladoras, and increasing residential water demand. International agreements such as the Treaty of 1944 between the US and Mexico stipulate that the flows in the RGRB are equally split. Yet uncertainties remain due to vagaries in the legislation. For example, Mexico is required to provide an average of 350,000 AF/yr over a five-year cycle, unless "extraordinary drought" occurs, although the Treaty does not define extraordinary. The characterization of droughts poses a significant problem for hydrometeorologists and water resource engineers. Our simulation model incorporates drought indices developed to characterize droughts in semi-arid and arid regions and statistical approaches to examine the spatial influence of droughts. To examine the effects of various structural and institutional changes to water use in the basin to meet the requirements of the Treaty and simulate climactic issues, we model agricultural, municipal, and industrial water demands that are directly linked to sectors of the regional economy using input output (IO) models. IO models can be used to examine how changes in water deliveries to the agricultural or manufacturing sectors affect the level of output, employment, and wages in the regional economy. All model outputs will be incorporated into a decision support system

  18. An Integrated Model for a Water Leasing System on the Middle Rio Grand, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, D. S.; Coursey, D. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Broadbent, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Since 1950 demand for water has more than doubled in the United States. Virtually all water supplies are allocated, leading to the question, where will water come from? The concept of water leasing has gained considerable attention as a volunteer, market-mediated system for transferring water between competing uses. For a water leasing system to be truly effective, detailed knowledge of the available water supply and the factors that affect water demand is critical. Improving understating of the factors that determine residential, industrial, and agricultural demand for water using experimental economics and then integrating with a hydrological model will allow for better understanding of market-based mechanisms potential to allocate water resources effectively. Currently we have three case studies underway, a generalized water leasing system on the Middle Rio Grande, a sophisticated farmer decision process and a study in the Mimbres basin in southern New Mexico. The developed market model utilizes an open market trading system known as a double auction, where buyers and sellers declare their bids and offers to the market. The developed hydrological model utilizes the Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model (URGWOM) system structure and data for the generalized water leasing system and the farmer decision process, with a different hydrological model being developed for the Mimbres basin. A key coupling between the hydrologic and market models involves tracking the difference in river losses for trades that move water up or down the river. In the experiments the hydrological model runs before the market-trading period to establish water rights, the trading period occurs and the hydrological model then runs a second time to report flows to each reach of the river. Participants in the experiment represent the interests of specific users, including farmers, Native American interests, urban interests and environmental interests. Participants in the experiments are

  19. Analysis of an ordinary bedload transport event in a mountain torrent (Rio Vanti, Verona, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, Roberta; D'Agostino, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The correct simulation of the sediment-transport response of mountain torrents both for extreme and ordinary flood events is a fundamental step to understand the process, but also to drive proper decisions on the protection works. The objective of this research contribution is to reconstruct the 'ordinary' flood event with the associated sediment-graph of a flood that caused on the 14th of October, 2014 the formation of a little debris cone (about 200-210 m3) at the junction between the 'Rio Vanti' torrent catchment and the 'Selva di Progno' torrent (Veneto Region, Prealps, Verona, Italy). To this purpose, it is important to notice that a great part of equations developed for the computation of the bedload transport capacity, like for example that of Schoklitsch (1962) or Smart and Jaeggi (1983), are focused on extraordinary events heavily affecting the river-bed armour. These formulas do not provide reliable results if used on events, like the one under analysis, not too far from the bankfull conditions. The Rio Vanti event was characterized by a total rainfall depth of 36.2 mm and a back-calculated peak discharge of 6.12 m3/s with a return period of 1-2 years. The classical equations to assess the sediment transport capacity overestimate the total volume of the event of several orders of magnitude. By the consequence, the following experimental bedload transport equation has been applied (D'Agostino and Lenzi, 1999), which is valid for ordinary flood events (q: unit water discharge; qc: unit discharge of bedload transport initiation; qs: unit bedload rate; S: thalweg slope): -qs-˜= 0,04ṡ(q- qc) S3/2 In particular, starting from the real rainfall data, the hydrograph and the sediment-graph have been reconstructed. Then, comparing the total volume calculated via the above cited equation to the real volume estimated using DoD techniques on post-event photogrammetric survey, a very satisfactory agreement has been obtained. The result further supports the thesis

  20. Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of