Science.gov

Sample records for riou mort watershed

  1. Long-term survey of heavy-metal pollution, biofilm contamination and diatom community structure in the Riou Mort watershed, South-West France.

    PubMed

    Morin, S; Duong, T T; Dabrin, A; Coynel, A; Herlory, O; Baudrimont, M; Delmas, F; Durrieu, G; Schäfer, J; Winterton, P; Blanc, G; Coste, M

    2008-02-01

    In a metal-polluted stream in the Riou Mort watershed in SW France, periphytic biofilm was analyzed for diatom cell densities and taxonomic composition, dry weight and metal bio-accumulation (cadmium and zinc). Periphytic diatom communities were affected by the metal but displayed induced tolerance, seen through structural impact (dominance of small, adnate species) as well as morphological abnormalities particularly in the genera Ulnaria and Fragilaria. Species assemblages were characterized by taxa known to occur in metal-polluted environments, and shifts in the community structure expressed seasonal patterns: high numbers of Eolimna minima, Nitzschia palea and Pinnularia parvulissima were recorded in Summer and Autumn, whereas the species Surirella brebissonii, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Navicula lanceolata and Surirella angusta were dominant in Winter and Spring. Commonly used indices such as the Shannon diversity index and Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index reflected the level of pollution and suggest seasonal periodicity, the lowest diversities being observed in Summer.

  2. Assessment of metal contamination in a small mining- and smelting-affected watershed: high resolution monitoring coupled with spatial analysis by GIS.

    PubMed

    Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Marache, Antoine; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Maneux, Eric; Bossy, Cécile; Masson, Matthieu; Lavaux, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Riou Mort River watershed (SW France), representative of a heavily polluted, small, heterogeneous watershed, represents a major source for the polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system due to former mining and ore-treatment activities. In order to assess spatial distribution of the metal/metalloid contamination in the watershed, a high resolution hydrological and geochemical monitoring were performed during one year at four permanent observation stations. Additionally, thirty-five stream sediment samples were collected at representative key sites and analyzed for metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Mo, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Th, U and Hg) concentrations. The particulate concentrations in water and stream sediments show high spatial differences for most of the studied elements suggesting strong anthropogenic and/or lithogenic influences; for stream sediments, the sequence of the highest variability, ranging from 100% to 300%, is the following: Mo < Cu < Hg < As < Sb < Cd < Zn < Pb. Multidimensional statistical analyses combined with metal/metalloid maps generated by GIS tool were used to establish relationships between elements, to identify metal/metalloid sources and localize geochemical anomalies attributed to local geochemical background, urban and industrial activities. Finally, this study presents an approach to assess anthropogenic trace metal inputs within this watershed by combining lithology-dependent geochemical background values, metal/metalloid concentrations in stream sediments and mass balances of element fluxes at four key sites. The strongest anthropogenic contributions to particulate element fluxes are 90-95% for Cd, Zn and Hg in downstream sub-catchments. The localisation of anthropogenic metal/metalloid sources in restricted areas offers a great opportunity to further significantly reduce metal emissions and restore the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine ecosystem.

  3. Remediation of a watershed contaminated by heavy metals: a 2-year field biomonitoring of periphytic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Arini, Adeline; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnès; Morin, Soizic; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Coste, Michel; Delmas, François

    2012-05-15

    This study focuses on an industrial contamination site subjected to remediation processes since 2007 in the Riou-Mort watershed (southwest France). The purpose was to assess the first impacts of remediation on periphytic biofilms, and was performed during two years of biomonitoring. Periphytic biofilms were collected on glass slides immersed 24 days at different sites along the contamination gradient for 12 colonisation cycles. Metal contaminations (Cd and Zn) were analysed in biofilms and the evolution of diatom communities was assessed, integrating teratology quantifications. Despite remediation work initiated at the industrial site, this study demonstrated the persistence of metal contamination in water, as well as in biofilms. In addition, our data, showed that the remediation process was initially marked by an increase in metal contamination in the river, with increasing diatom community shifts. Metal-contaminated biofilms presented decreasing species diversities and were dominated by metal-resistant species such as Eolimna minima, whom abundances increased in 2010 reaching 57.2±10%. No significant decrease in metal accumulation was observed and total Cd content in biofilms collected downstream the industrial site ranged from 772.7±88 in July 2009 to 636.9±20 μg/gDW in July 2010. Results obtained on artificial substrates were compared with those of natural substrates and showed similar diatom communities and abundances of deformed diatoms but lower diversities. This ensured that glass slide subtrates gave a good representation of periphytic biofilm health. Finally, results were compared to studies performed before the remediation process and this did not reveal a decrease of metal accumulation in biofilms nor shifts in taxonomic composition of the communities, rather the remaining dominance of metal resistant species such as E. minima was confirmed.

  4. Watershed analysis

    Treesearch

    Alan Gallegos

    2002-01-01

    Watershed analyses and assessments for the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project were done on about 33,000 acres of the 45,500-acre Big Creek watershed and 32,000 acres of the 85,100-acre Dinkey Creek watershed. Following procedures developed for analysis of cumulative watershed effects (CWE) in the Pacific Northwest Region of the USDA Forest Service, the...

  5. Watershed Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna

    2007-01-01

    All schools are located in "watersheds," land that drains into bodies of water. Some watersheds, like the one which encompasses the school discussed in this article, include bodies of water that are walking distance from the school. The watershed cited in this article has a brook and wetland within a several-block walk from the school. This…

  6. Watershed Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna

    2007-01-01

    All schools are located in "watersheds," land that drains into bodies of water. Some watersheds, like the one which encompasses the school discussed in this article, include bodies of water that are walking distance from the school. The watershed cited in this article has a brook and wetland within a several-block walk from the school. This…

  7. [Historical necessity and human action in Morte e vida severina].

    PubMed

    Filho, D A

    Using the essential elements of tragic action described in Aristotles Poetics, the text compares João Cabral de Melo Neto's Morte e vida severina to Sophocles Oedipus rex with the purpose of bringing to light the tension that exists between human necessity and human action. It is an eminently epidemiological fact that draws a link between these two works. In Morte e vida severina, the causa efficiens behind Severino's decision to migrate is a famine; in Oedipus rex, a plague afflicting the inhabitants of Thebes is the event that hastens discovery of king Laiuss true assassin. It is a reflection on the finalis and formalis causes behind Severino's and Oedipus's movements and on the essential elements of tragic action that allows a transitory falsification or, better put, a rejection of the hypothesis that Morte e vida severina is a tragedy, at least not in Aristotelian terms.

  8. [The Les Morts de la Rue collective, strong social commitment].

    PubMed

    Rocca, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    The problems faced by homeless people are varied and complex. They require numerous qualities on the part of professionals. Living on the streets often means dying on the streets. Professionals are thereby confronted with practical and ethical questions. They have a key role both in listening and providing support. This article shows the example of the Les Morts de la Rue collective.

  9. Watershed management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watershed management is aimed at land and water resources, and is applied to an area of land that drains to a defined location along a stream or river. Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while sup...

  10. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  11. Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  12. Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  13. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  14. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  15. Watersheds: Where We Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Presents information about watersheds including water quantity, water quality, floods and floodplains. Lists resources for learning more about watersheds as well as Internet resources. Includes a foldout that can be used to teach children about watersheds and floodplains. (JRH)

  16. Watersheds: Where We Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Presents information about watersheds including water quantity, water quality, floods and floodplains. Lists resources for learning more about watersheds as well as Internet resources. Includes a foldout that can be used to teach children about watersheds and floodplains. (JRH)

  17. Mort User's Manual: For use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  18. Seismic Investigation of the Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Lindner, Fabian; Walter, Fabian; Krage, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Glacier de la Plaine Morte is a plateau glacier along the border between Valais and Berne cantons. It covers a narrow elevation range and is extremely vulnerable to climate change. During snow melt, it feeds three marginal lakes that have experienced sudden subglacial drainage in recent years, thereby causing flooding in the Simme Valley below. Of greatest concern is Lac des Faverges at the southeastern end of the glacier that has drained near the end of July in recent years, with flood levels reaching capacity of flood control systems downstream. The lake levels are carefully monitored but precise prediction has not yet been achieved. In the search for precursory ice fracturing to the lake drainage to improve forecast, four seismic arrays comprised of five short-period borehole seismometers provided by Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich as well as fifteen 3-component geophones from the Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP) collected continuous seismic data for about seven weeks during the summer of 2016. We present initial results on discharge dynamics as well as changing noise levels and seismicity before, during and after the drainage of Lac des Faverges. Compared to previous recent years, the 2016 drainage of Lac des Faverges occurred unusually late on August 28. With an aperture between 100 and 200 m, the small arrays recorded many hundred ice quakes per day. A majority of the events exhibits clearly dispersed, high-frequency Rayleigh waves at about 10 Hz and higher. A wide distribution of events allows us to study azimuthal anisotropy and its relationship with the orientation of glacial crevasses.

  19. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  20. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  1. Managing Watersheds with WMOST

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) allows water-resource managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices for cost-effectiveness in achieving watershed or water utilities management goals.

  2. Guam Pago Watershed Conservation

    Treesearch

    Maria Lynn Cruz; Laura F. Biggs

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore water science methodologies in determining the source of sedimentation in the Guam Pago Watershed. Watersheds provide drinking water, an agricultural water source, and forms of recreation.

  3. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  4. Watershed Management Partnership Agreement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On November 19, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Watershed Management Partnership Agreement to promote watershed health, economic sustainability and community vitality through effective manageme

  5. What's in a Watershed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Discusses watersheds and floods. Includes an insert that provides a visual example of many different watersheds, illustrates a flood and different ways that flood plains are developed, and contains activities designed to assist students in learning about watersheds and floods. Lists water resources available on the World Wide Web. (JRH)

  6. Groundwater contributions to metal transport in a small river affected by mining and smelting waste.

    PubMed

    Coynel, Alexandra; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Girardot, Naïg; Blanc, Gérard

    2007-08-01

    The Riou Mort watershed, strongly affected by former coal mining and Zn ore treatment, has been the major source of the historical polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system. Two decades after the end of ore treatment, the former industrial area still contributes important amounts of metals/metalloids from various, partly unidentified, sources to the downstream river system. This study presents the high spatial variability of metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, As, Sb, U, V) concentrations in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from eight observation sites during a short, intense flood event. Despite important dilution effects, the observed concentration levels at the different sites suggested additional Cd and Zn inputs, probably from polluted groundwater. This formerly unknown metal source was then localized and characterized by sampling water and SPM along two longitudinal profiles during different hydrological situations. Groundwater inputs of "truly dissolved" (<0.02 microm) Cd and Zn occurred along approximately 200 m, contributing 43% and 28% to the total annual (2004) Cd and Zn fluxes in the Riou Mort River. The estimated groundwater concentrations of Cd and Zn (2500-6700 and 83,000-170,000 microg l(-1), respectively) in the source zone were consistent with values measured in samples from the near aquifer (5400-13,000 and 200,000-400,000 microg l(-1)). The present work induced concrete remediation actions (pumping and treatment of the polluted groundwater), that are expected to strongly reduce dissolved Cd and Zn emissions into the Riou Mort River.

  7. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  8. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  9. Watersheds: where we live

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  10. Master Watershed Stewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Gary L.

    The Master Watershed Stewards (MWS) Program is a pilot project (developed through the cooperation of the Ohio State University Extension Logan and Hardin County Offices and the Indian Lake Watershed Project) offering the opportunity for communities to get involved at the local level to protect their water quality. The program grew out of the…

  11. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  12. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  13. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  14. Discover a Watershed: The Watershed Manager Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains 19 science-based, multidisciplinary activities that teach what a watershed is, how it works and why we must all consider ourselves watershed managers. An extensive background section introduces readers to fundamental watershed concepts. Each activity adapts to local watersheds, contains e-links for further Internet research and…

  15. Watersheds in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Joséi, Jr.; Araújo, Nuno; Herrmann, Hans; Schrenk, Julian

    2015-02-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  16. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  17. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  18. Merrimack River Watershed Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Listing of all communities included in each of the hydrologic unit code (HUC) 8, 10, and 12 boundaries for the Merrimack River Watershed and city locations for the EPA water quality monitoring stations.

  19. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Watershed Needs Survey is a national assessment of the future capital cost for publicly owned wastewater collection and treatment facilities to meet the Clean Water Act's water quality goals.

  20. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  1. Mystic River Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Mystic River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Mystic River.

  2. La mort subite de l’adulte, particularités en Afrique, à propos de 476 cas

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Kanikomo, Drissa; Ndiaye, Mor; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2013-01-01

    La mort subite est une mort instantanée ou rapide, d’origine naturelle, inattendue ou inopinée. Chez l’adulte les causes cardiovasculaires, pulmonaires et cérébrales prédominent. Son mode de survenue est dramatique. L’objectif était ici de déterminer les circonstances de survenue de ces morts subites, les facteurs de risque, d’identifier les causes de mort subite chez l’adulte à l’autopsie, en vue d’améliorer la prévention. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas de morts subites ayant fait l’objet d’une autopsie au service d’anatomie pathologique de l’Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec (HALD) de Dakar du 1er janvier 2003 au 31 décembre 2005. Durant cette période 476 cas de morts subites chez l’adulte sur 1936 autopsies ont été enregistrés. Le sexe ratio est de 2,9 avec 356 hommes (74,8%) et 120 femmes (25,2%). Les cardiopathies ont été la première cause de décès dans notre série avec 177cas sur 476 soit 37,2%. La prévention de la mort subite reste primordiale, surtout dans le contexte africain, où la prise en charge pré hospitalière est souvent défaillante. PMID:24839533

  3. Watershed Central: Dynamic Collaboration for Improving Watershed Management (Philadelphia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Central web and wiki pages will be presented and demonstrated real-time as part of the overview of Web 2.0 collaboration tools for watershed management. The presentation portion will discuss how EPA worked with watershed practitioners and within the Agency to deter...

  4. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  5. Watershed Central: Dynamic Collaboration for Improving Watershed Management (Philadelphia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Central web and wiki pages will be presented and demonstrated real-time as part of the overview of Web 2.0 collaboration tools for watershed management. The presentation portion will discuss how EPA worked with watershed practitioners and within the Agency to deter...

  6. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  7. Arizona watershed framework in the Verde River watershed

    Treesearch

    Ren Northrup

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division drafted a six-step approach to guide its staff and local participants in developing and implementing watershed management plans. From January 1999 through June 2000, the draft Arizona Statewide Watershed Framework will be tested in Arizona's Verde River watershed. This concept proofing...

  8. Entering the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Doppelt, B.; Scurlock, M.; Frissell, C.; Karr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological integrity of a river is a direct function of the health of its watershed. Riverine pollution, habitat degradation, and extinction of aquatic biodiversity are all issues that must be addressed at the ecosystem level. The product of a two-year project established by The Pacific Rivers Council to develop new federal riverine protection and restoration policy alternatives, this book recommends a comprehensive new approach to river protection: a nationwide, strategic community- and ecosystem-based watershed restoration initiative founded upon principles of watershed dynamics, ecosystem function, and conservation biology. The book describes in detail the existing level of damage of rivers and species. A new, intensified national emphasis on rivers is presented. The flaws and gaps in existing policy are analyzed. The scientific underpinnings and management strategies needed in new policy are outlined. Specific policy proposals are made.

  9. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is written as a resource for state and local watershed managers who have the responsibility of managing pathogen contamination in urban watersheds. In addition it can be an information source for members of the public interested in watershed mitigation efforts aime...

  10. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is written as a resource for state and local watershed managers who have the responsibility of managing pathogen contamination in urban watersheds. In addition it can be an information source for members of the public interested in watershed mitigation efforts aime...

  11. Watershed assessment-watershed analysis: What are the limits and what must be considered

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2000-01-01

    Watershed assessment or watershed analysis describes processes and interactions that influence ecosystems and resources in a watershed. Objectives and methods differ because issues and opportunities differ.

  12. Watershed geomorphological characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes commonly used geomorphological characteristics that are useful for analyzing watershed-scale hydrology and sediment dynamics. It includes calculations and measurements for stream network features and areal basin characteristics that cover a range of spatial and temporal scales and dimensions of watersheds. Construction and application of longitudinal profiles are described in terms of understanding the three-dimensional development of stream networks. A brief discussion of outstanding problems and directions for future work, particularly as they relate to water-resources management, is provided. Notations with preferred units are given.

  13. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  14. USEPA WATERSHED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...

  15. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  16. Aquatic systems and watersheds

    Treesearch

    Rick Kattelmann; Fraser Shilling

    2004-01-01

    Water is often at the heart of contentious debates over natural resource policy in the Sierra Nevada. Besides the obvious issues of dams, diversions, fish, wetlands, and pollution, connections abound with other resources within the waterways and their watersheds. Whether an argument is over logging, roads, wildfire, endangered species, wilderness, sprawl of foothill...

  17. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  18. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Treesearch

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  19. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  20. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  1. USEPA WATERSHED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...

  2. Water and watershed

    Treesearch

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen dominates several million acres on mountainous watersheds in the West. The sites occupied receive enough precipitation to yield water to lower elevations. Most aspen areas receive 16 inches (40 cm) or more precipitation annually; many receive more than 39 inches (100 cm) (see the CLIMATES chapter), well in excess of on-site loss from evapotranspiration....

  3. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  4. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  5. Standardization guide for construction and use of MORT-type analytic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Buys, J.R.

    1992-02-01

    Since the introduction of MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) technology as a tool for evaluating the success or failure of safety management systems, there has been a proliferation of analytic trees throughout US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor organizations. Standard fault tree'' symbols have generally been used in logic diagram or tree construction, but new or revised symbols have also been adopted by various analysts. Additionally, a variety of numbering systems have been used for event identification. The consequent lack of standardization has caused some difficulties in interpreting the trees and following their logic. This guide seeks to correct this problem by providing a standardized system for construction and use of analytic trees. Future publications of the DOE System Safety Development Center (SSDC) will adhere to this guide. It is recommended that other DOE organizations and contractors also adopt this system to achieve intra-DOE uniformity in analytic tree construction.

  6. Ghana watershed prototype products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  7. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  8. EPA'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed management presumes that community groups can best solve many water quality and ecosystem problems at the watershed level rather than at the individual site, receiving waterbody, or discharger level. After assessing and ranking watershed problems, and setting environ...

  9. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed research has historically focused on physical and biological processes, stressor-response, and effects research, providing valuable understanding of the effects of human activity and natural disturbances on watershed ecosystems. Continued research to support watershed ...

  10. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed research has historically focused on physical and biological processes, stressor-response, and effects research, providing valuable understanding of the effects of human activity and natural disturbances on watershed ecosystems. Continued research to support watershed ...

  11. EPA'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed management presumes that community groups can best solve many water quality and ecosystem problems at the watershed level rather than at the individual site, receiving waterbody, or discharger level. After assessing and ranking watershed problems, and setting environ...

  12. Watershed councils: it takes a community to restore a watershed

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Rebecca Flitcroft

    2011-01-01

    Regulation alone cannot solve complex ecological problems on private lands that are managed for diverse uses. Executing coordinated restoration projects at the watershed scale is only possible with the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders. Locally organized, nonregulatory watershed councils have proven to be a powerful method of engaging citizens from all...

  13. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  14. INTEGRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the filters through which society views the values produced by watersheds is key to developing effective and adaptable watershed plans, and ultimately a measure of how well policy makers are likely to meet a sustainability, or any other, intent. Many natural resour...

  15. Estimating uncertainties in watershed studies

    Treesearch

    John Campbell; Ruth Yanai; Mark. Green

    2011-01-01

    Small watersheds have been used widely to quantify chemical fluxes and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems for about the past half century. The small watershed approach has been valuable in characterizing hydrologic and nutrient budgets, for instance, in estimating the net gain or loss of solutes in response to disturbance. However, the uncertainty in these ecosystem...

  16. Global perspective of watershed management

    Treesearch

    Kenneth N. Brooks; Karlyn Eckman

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of watershed management in moving towards sustainable natural resource and agricultural development. Examples from 30 field projects and six training projects involving over 25 countries are presented to illustrate watershed management initiatives that have been implemented over the last half of the 20th century. The level of success has...

  17. Research and cumulative watershed effects

    Treesearch

    L. M. Reid

    1993-01-01

    The mandate for land managers to address cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) requires that planners evaluate the potential impacts of their activities on multiple beneficial uses within the context of other coexisting activities in a watershed. Types of CWEs vary with the types of land-use activities and their modes of interaction, but published studies illustrate...

  18. Watershed Education for Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), which is a global communication system for analyzing watershed usage and monitoring the quality and quantity of river water. Describes GREEN's watershed educational model and strategies and international development. (Contains 67 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. INTEGRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the filters through which society views the values produced by watersheds is key to developing effective and adaptable watershed plans, and ultimately a measure of how well policy makers are likely to meet a sustainability, or any other, intent. Many natural resour...

  20. Watershed Education for Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), which is a global communication system for analyzing watershed usage and monitoring the quality and quantity of river water. Describes GREEN's watershed educational model and strategies and international development. (Contains 67 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. MORT User's Manual for use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1,500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  2. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2005-01-01

    This manual is one in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry. This part also presents new methods for the watershed planner or forester to systematically measure watershed...

  3. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  4. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  5. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  6. Part 1: Principles of Urban Watershed Forestry

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2005-01-01

    Conserving forests in a watershed? This manual introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry and presents new methods for systematically measuring watershed forest cover and techniques for maintaining or increasing this cover. The audience for this manual includes the local watershed planner or forester.

  7. Watershed-based survey designs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  8. Watershed-based survey designs.

    PubMed

    Detenbeck, Naomi E; Cincotta, Dan; Denver, Judith M; Greenlee, Susan K; Olsen, Anthony R; Pitchford, Ann M

    2005-04-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  9. Wellspring characteristics in Rawapening watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidah, A. D.; Damayanti, A.; Waryono, T.

    2017-07-01

    Rawapening watershed is formed in a volcanic region and is the headwater of Tuntang River that disembogues into Rawa Pening Lake. Rawa Pening Lake was formed due to gravitational tectonic events that form many faults and folds. Those events result in aquifers that create many wellsprings in Rawapening watershed. This research is conducted to determine the wellsprings distribution based on physical characteristics of the discharge area and the types of wellsprings in Rawapening watershed. Associative and descriptive analysis are used to explain the wellsprings' condition based on height, slopeness, geological formation, and the soil utilization.

  10. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TWO DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO A SMALL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed watershed models are beneficial tools for assessment of management practices on runoff and water-induced erosion. This paper evaluates, by application to an experimental watershed, two promising distributed watershed-scale sediment models in detail: The Kinematic Runo...

  11. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  12. Teaching Practical Watershed Science to non-Watershed Science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Laituri, M.; Layden, P.; Coleman, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR) at Colorado State University (CSU) has had a long tradition of integrating field measurements into the classroom, dating back to the first forestry summer camp held in 1917 at the CSU Pingree Park mountain campus. In the early 1960s, the Cooperative Watershed Management Unit coordinated efforts to understand and analyse the basic resources of the area, with an emphasis on the geology, hydrology, and climate. Much of this understand is now used as the Abiotic (Geology and Watershed) component of a five-credit, four-week course offered twice each summer at Pingree Park. With the exception of Geology students who have their own field course, this Natural Resources Ecology and Measurements course (NR 220) is required for all WCNR undergraduate students. These majors include Watershed Science, Forestry, Rangeland Ecology, Fisheries, Wildlife Biology, Conservation Biology, and Recreation and Tourism. Since most of these are students are much better trained in biological and/or social sciences rather than physical sciences, a challenge for the Watershed professor is to teaching practical Watershed Science to non-Watershed Science majors. This presentation describes how this challenge is met and how this course helps broaden the knowledge base of Natural Resources students.

  13. Watershed models for instructional films

    Treesearch

    Peter E. Black; Raymond E. Leonard

    1970-01-01

    Watershed models, with a special sponge material that simulates soil drainage, were used to make an instructional film on subsurface flow and stream flow. Construction of the models and filming techniques are described.

  14. Accomplishments of South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Accomplishments of the South Platte Watershed of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  15. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  16. Working at a Watershed Level

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A short course that provides a basic, but very broad foundation for the use of ecological, social and organizational management principles to guide activities to restore and sustain watershed conditions.

  17. Watershed Simulation of Nutrient Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, nitrogen processes simulated in watershed models were reviewed and compared. Furthermore, current researches on nitrogen losses from agricultural fields were also reviewed. Finally, applications with those models were reviewed and selected successful and u...

  18. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities in watersheds affect aquatic organisms, riparian vegetation, and their ability to support avian populations. Our objective was to compare indicators of stream and riparian condition with the composition of breeding bird populations in six Rhode Island s...

  19. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  20. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities in watersheds affect aquatic organisms, riparian vegetation, and their ability to support avian populations. Our objective was to compare indicators of stream and riparian condition with the composition of breeding bird populations in six Rhode Island s...

  1. Watershed Simulation of Nutrient Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, nitrogen processes simulated in watershed models were reviewed and compared. Furthermore, current researches on nitrogen losses from agricultural fields were also reviewed. Finally, applications with those models were reviewed and selected successful and u...

  2. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events

    Treesearch

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  3. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K. Van; Clair, Michael G.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  4. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  5. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  6. Automated watershed subdivision for simulations using multi-objective optimization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of watershed management plans to evaluate placement of conservation practices typically involves application of watershed models. Incorporating spatially variable watershed characteristics into a model often requires subdividing the watershed into small areas to accurately account f...

  7. Watershed approach: the EPRI Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, A.H.; Goldstein, R.A.; Chen, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the philosophy and organization of the Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS). These data are used for detailed watershed budgets and to establish a benchmark for future ecological effects studies in the Adirondacks. An intensive, integrated, five-year study of three forested watersheds was established to determine how lake waters become acidified and to quantify the train of events occurring as acid precipitation becomes lake water. The study integrated management questions into the scientific research at the planning stage. The total system was divided into compartments for detailed scientific analysis with a model being developed to reassemble the data from each subsection to represent the overall behavior of the system.

  8. Application of Watershed Scale Models to Predict Nitrogen Loading From Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Treesearch

    George M. Chescheir; Glenn P Fernandez; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    DRAINMOD-based watershed models have been developed and tested using data collected from an intensively instrumented research site on Kendricks Creek watershed near Plymouth. NC. These models were applied to simulate the hydrology and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) loading from two other watersheds in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the 11600 ha Chicod Creek watershed...

  9. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  10. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...

  11. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green i...

  12. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  13. Watershed Management in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A watershed approach provides an effective framework for dealing with water resources challenges. Watersheds provide drinking water, recreation, and ecological habitat, as well as a place for waste disposal, a source of industrial cooling water, and navigable inland water transpo...

  14. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  15. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...

  16. Watershed Management in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A watershed approach provides an effective framework for dealing with water resources challenges. Watersheds provide drinking water, recreation, and ecological habitat, as well as a place for waste disposal, a source of industrial cooling water, and navigable inland water transpo...

  17. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  18. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  19. Emerging tools and technologies in watershed management

    Treesearch

    D. Phillip Guertin; Scott N. Miller; David C. Goodrich

    2000-01-01

    The field of watershed management is highly dependent on spatially distributed data. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made toward the capture, storage, and use of spatial data. Emerging tools and technologies hold great promise for improving the scientific understanding of watershed processes and are already revolutionizing watershed research....

  20. 69 FR 29688 - Watershed Forestry Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-05-25

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC18 Watershed Forestry Assistance Program AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... involvement of the public, for the implementation of the Watershed Forestry Assistance Program, as authorized... Watershed Forestry Assistance Program (WFAP) is administered by the Forest Service and implemented by the...

  1. Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-...

  2. Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-...

  3. Rural watershed partnerships: lessons from West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Steve W. Selin; Alan Collins; Susan Hunter

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the efforts by one state government (West Virginia) to facilitate collaborative, watershed-based planning. This paper provides an overview of the state watershed planning process and includes a summary of a baseline study of rural watershed partnerships operating within West Virginia. Implication of the study for state policies and...

  4. Ionizing Radiation and Chemotherapeutic Drugs Induce Apoptosis in Lymphocytes in the Absence of FAS or Fadd/Mort1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Kim; Strasser, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs used in the treatment of cancer induce apoptosis in many cell types, including tumor cells. It has been reported that tumor cells treated with anticancer drugs increase surface expression of Fas ligand (FasL) and are killed by autocrine or paracrine apoptosis signaling through Fas (Friesen, C., I. Herr, P.H. Krammer, and K.-M. Debatin. 1996. Nat. Med. 2:574–577). We show that lymphocytes that cannot be killed by FasL, such as those from Fas-deficient lpr mice or transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative mutant of Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD/MORT1), are as sensitive as normal lymphocytes to killing by gamma radiation or the cytotoxic drugs cis-platin, doxorubicin, and etoposide. In contrast, p53 deficiency or constitutive expression of Bcl-2 markedly increased the resistance of lymphocytes to gamma radiation or anticancer drugs but had no effect on killing by FasL. Consistent with these observations, lpr and wild-type T cells both had a reduced capacity for mitogen-induced proliferation after drug treatment, whereas bcl-2 transgenic or p53-deficient T cells retained significant clonogenic potential. These results demonstrate that apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation or anticancer drugs requires p53 and is regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family but does not require signals transduced by Fas and FADD/MORT1. PMID:10620618

  5. Autre cause de mort subite du nourrisson: à propos d'un cas clinique de syndrome du QT long congenital

    PubMed Central

    Seka, Zena; Mols, Pierre; Gobin, Eric; Ngatchou, William

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome du QT long congénital est une maladie rythmique liée à une mutation génétique et caractérisée par un espace QT allongé sur l’électrocardiogramme, des arythmies malignes type torsade de pointe et fibrillation ventriculaire entraînant une mort subite. Les gènes impliqués dans ces mutations codent pour des sous unités des canaux ioniques responsables de l'activité électrique cardiaque. Le diagnostic est basé sur l’électrocardiogramme, une enquête familiale et l’étude génétique. Le traitement repose sur les bêtabloquants, la sympathectomie et le stimulateur cardiaque. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 2 ans retrouvé en état de mort apparente. Nous discutons de sa prise en charge initiale, de l'enquête familiale et de son suivi ultérieur. PMID:25667708

  6. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  7. Chapter 19. Cumulative watershed effects and watershed analysis

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative watershed effects are environmental changes that are affected by more than.one land-use activity and that are influenced by.processes involving the generation or transport.of water. Almost all environmental changes are.cumulative effects, and almost all land-use.activities contribute to cumulative effects

  8. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  9. Fréquence et facteurs de risque maternels de la mort fœtale in utero à Kamina, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; A'Nkoy, Albert Mwembo Tambwe; Lumbule, John Ngoy; Umba, Elie Kilolo Ngoy; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La mort fœtale in utero constitue un problème fréquent dans la pratique obstétricale. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient de déterminer la fréquence et d'identifier les facteurs de risque de la mort fœtale in utero à l'Hôpital Général de Référence de Kamina. Méthodes L’étude était effectuée en deux temps. En premier lieu, une étude descriptive transversale sur 379 accouchements qui avait permis de déterminer la fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero. La détermination des facteurs de risque était faite à l'aide d'une étude cas-témoins dans laquelle les caractéristiques de 53 morts in utero ont été comparées à 106 témoins constitués des naissances vivantes et à terme. Résultats La fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero à l'Hôpital Général de Référence de Kamina était de 13,9%. Après ajustement, l’âge maternel de plus de 35 ans (OR = 6,23; IC= (1,30-29,80)), l'antécédent de mort fœtale in utero (OR = 3,13; IC= (1,06-9,27)) et la maladie au cours de la grossesse (OR = 31,6, IC= (7,66-130,71)) ont été retenus comme facteurs significativement associés à l'augmentation de la survenue de la mort fœtale. L'instruction élevée de la mère (OR = 0,11; IC= IC= [0,03-0,42]) et la résidence à Kamina (OR = 0,23; IC= (0,08-0,62)) diminuaient ce risque. Conclusion La fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero était de 13,9%. L’âge maternel avancé l'antécédent de mort in utero et la maladie au cours de la grossesse étaient associés à la mort fœtale in utero mais par contre, l'instruction élevée de la femme et la résidence à Kamina diminuaient le risque. La surveillance des gestantes à risque, le dépistage et la prise en charge des maladies pendant la grossesse s'avèrent nécessaires dans la perspective de réduire la fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero dans notre milieu. PMID:27279941

  10. "First aid" for burned watersheds

    Treesearch

    J. S. Krammes; L. W. Hill

    1963-01-01

    Most of the vegetative cover on the San Dimas Experimental Forest was destroyed by a wildfire in 1960. Following the fire an emergency research program was initiated to test several "first -aid" treatments aimed at reducing flood and erosion damage from burned watersheds. This paper summarizes first - and second-year results of the research program.

  11. WATERSHED-BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...

  12. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  13. Runoff from small peatland watersheds

    Treesearch

    Roger R. Bay

    1969-01-01

    Runoff was measured on four forested bog watersheds in northern Minnesota for 5 years. The experimental basins ranged in size from 24 to 130 acres and included both organic and mineral soils. Annual runoff was not evenly distributed. Spring runoff, from the beginning of flow in late March to the 1 st of June, accounted for 66 % of total annual water yield. Summer and...

  14. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a summary of the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) publication entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination, EPA/600/R-03/111 (September 2003). It is available on the internet at http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/water...

  15. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  16. MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory



    Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

  17. Evapotranspiration from two peatland watersheds

    Treesearch

    Roger R. Bay

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of precipitation, runoff, and bog water table levels have provided data for the calculation of evapotranspiration from two forested peatland watersheds near Grand Rapids, Minnesota (ca. 47? 32'N, 93? 28'W). Continuous hydrologie records were collected on one experimental bog for 6 years (1961-1966) and on the other for the past 2 years (1965-1966...

  18. WATERSHED-BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...

  19. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a summary of the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) publication entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination, EPA/600/R-03/111 (September 2003). It is available on the internet at http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/water...

  20. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN WATERSHEDS AND ECOREGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to adopt more holistic ecosystem approaches to resource assessment and management, many state and federal agencies have begun using watershed or ecoregion frameworks. Although few would question the need to make this move from dealing with problems and issues on a ca...

  1. Some references on watershed management.

    Treesearch

    W.E. Bullard

    1950-01-01

    Several of you in the field administrative jobs have asked for a summary of available information from forest influences studies relating to watershed management practices. This paper hits some of the high spots, giving a brief survey of European and American studies and recommendations that may be applicable within our region. Further, it contains a few pertinent...

  2. Geophysic data interperetation of Passo della Morte landslide: Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe', G.; Costa, G.; Marcato, G.; Forte, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Passo della Morte block-slide covers a relative large area in the Carnic Alps, along the left side of the Tagliamento River, between Forni di Sotto and Ampezzo (N-E of Italy). The high seismicity and the presence of the landslide increase the risk associated to the interest area. Moreover the large volume of material involved in the landslide (a few million of cubic meters), the presence of important infrastructure such as the road and two tunnels which cross the landslide, as well as the presence of the Tagliamento River that flow at the foot of the landslide, make the area very vulnerable. This study concerns with the western part of the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). It focuses on the potential instability of a rock slope (crossed by road tunnels) and its connection with the DSGSD activity. The main objectives of this study are: monitoring the rock mass movement, studying the seismic site effect and defining the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of involved materials. Two vibration sensors have been installed inside the potential landslide: a short-period seismometer and a piezoelectric transducer. The microseismic activity recorded by the sensors has been analyzed, with particular regard to periods characterized by rapid changes in recorded seismic signals, and then correlated with the precipitation trend to evaluate the existence of a possible correlation between these phenomena. The microseismic activity study has highlighted the existence of a close link between microseisms and acoustic emissions recorded respectively by the seismometer and by the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, the comparison with the rainfall pattern has shown a direct relationship between different rainfall events and the sharp increase of microseismic activity detected by the two instruments. The correlation is good, even if acoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive than microseisms to short duration and low intensity rainfall events. The

  3. A Statistical Comparison of the Strayer-Haig-Mort and the Local Composite Index Public School Finance Formula in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; And Others

    This study examined the state funding basis as evidenced in both the old Strayer-Haig-Mort formula and the local composite index formula in order to determine if the new formula has made any significant progress toward fiscal equalization. The results were not at all convincing in support of either formula. The new formula was conceived as a…

  4. Distribution and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls in Little Lake Butte des Morts, Fox River, Wisconsin, April 1987-October 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The mass of PCB's transported from the lake in streamflow during 1987-88 was calculated to be 110 kilograms annually. The PCB's transport rate decreased 50 percent from 1987 to 1988, for the period April through September. Transport of PCB's was greatest during April and May of each year. The average flux rate of PCB's into the water column from the bottom sediment in the lake was estimated to be 1.2 milligrams per square meter per day. The PCB's load seems to increase at river discharges greater than 212 cubic meters per second. This increase in PCB's load might be caused by resuspension of PCB's-contaminated bottom-sediment deposits. There was little variation in PCB's load at flows less than 170 cubic meters per second. The bottom sediments are a continuing source of PCB's to Little Lake Butte des Morts and the lower Fox River.

  5. Sustainable watershed management: an international multi-watershed case study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Walter; Gawel, James; Furuma, Hiroak; De Souza, Marcelo Pereira; Teixeira, Denilson; Rios, Leonardo; Ohgaki, Shinichiro; Zehnder, Alexander J B; Hemond, Harold F

    2002-02-01

    Global freshwater resources are being increasingly polluted and depleted, threatening sustainable development and human and ecosystem health. Utilizing case studies from 4 different watersheds in the United States, Japan, Switzerland, and Brazil, this paper identifies the most relevant sustainability deficits and derives general vectors for more sustainable water management. As a consequence of the demographic and economic developments experienced in the last few decades, each watershed has suffered declines in water quality, streamflow and biotic resources. However, the extent and the cultural perception of these water-related problems vary substantially in the different watersheds, leading to specific water-management strategies. In industrialized countries, exemplified by the US, Switzerland, and Japan, these strategies have primarily consisted of finance- and energy-intensive technologies, allowing these countries to meet water requirements while minimizing human health risks. But, from a sustainability point of view, such strategies, relying on limited natural resources, are not long-term solutions. For newly industrialized countries such as Brazil, expensive technologies for water management are often not economically feasible, thus limiting the extent to which newly industrialized and developing countries can utilize the expertise offered by the industrialized world. Sustainable water management has to be achieved by a common learning process involving industrialized, newly industrialized, and developing countries, following general sustainability guidelines as exemplified in this paper.

  6. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  7. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  8. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  9. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  10. Channel processes and watershed function

    Treesearch

    Tom Lisle

    1999-01-01

    Purpose of this presentation is to put channel monitoring in context of channel processes and dispel the myth of the learned sage walking up the stream channel observing changes in the channel and extrapolating how these changes came about without looking at the rest of the watershed. The message I want to convey is it is not only O.K.to peek at the rest of the...

  11. Landscape characterization for watershed management

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Jackson, B.L.; Schwartz, P.M.

    1996-07-01

    Streams and rivers serve as integrators of terrestrial landscape characteristics and as recipients of pollutants from both the atmosphere and the land; thus, large rivers are especially good indicators of cumulative impacts. Landscape ecologists seek to better understand the relationships between landscape structure and ecosystem processes at various spatial scales. Understanding how scale, both data resolution and geographic extent, influences landscape characterization and how terrestrial processes affect water quality are critically important for model development and translation of research results from experimental watersheds to management of large drainage basins. Measures of landscape structure are useful to monitor change and assess the risks it poses to ecological resources. Many studies have shown that the proportion of different land uses within a watershed can account for some of the variability in surface water quality. Hunsaker and Levine showed that both proportion of land uses and the spatial pattern of land uses is important for characterizing and modeling water quality; however, proportion consistently accounted for the most variance (40% to 86%) across a range of watershed sizes (1000 to 1.35 million ha). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is performing a demonstration of its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) for the Mid-Atlantic Region. One activity, the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment, is designed as a collaborative initiative between EPA`s Office of Research and Development and EPA`s Region III.

  12. A TEST OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate extrapolation among watersheds, ecological risk assessments should be based on a model of underlying factors influencing watershed response, particularly vulnerability. We propose a conceptual model of landscape vulnerability to serve as a basis for watershed classi...

  13. A TEST OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate extrapolation among watersheds, ecological risk assessments should be based on a model of underlying factors influencing watershed response, particularly vulnerability. We propose a conceptual model of landscape vulnerability to serve as a basis for watershed classi...

  14. AN INTEGRATED COASTAL-WATERSHED MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach for watershed classification in support of assessments, disgnosis of biological impairment, and prioritization of watershed restorations has been tested in coastal watersheds surrounding the western arm of Lake Superior and is currently being assessed for a series of ...

  15. AN INTEGRATED COASTAL-WATERSHED MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach for watershed classification in support of assessments, disgnosis of biological impairment, and prioritization of watershed restorations has been tested in coastal watersheds surrounding the western arm of Lake Superior and is currently being assessed for a series of ...

  16. Watershed Stewardship Education Program--A Multidisciplinary Extension Education Program for Oregon's Watershed Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Flaxen D. L.; Godwin, Derek; Cloughesy, Mike; Nierenberg, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Stewardship Education Program (WSEP) is a multidisciplinary Oregon Extension designed to help watershed councils, landowners, and others work effectively together on water management. Components include practical, easy-to-use educational materials, training in effective collaboration, a Master Watershed Stewards program, and advanced…

  17. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  18. WATERSHED SCALE RAINFALL INTERCEPTION ON TWO FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN THE LUQUILLO MOUNTAINS OF PUERTO RICO

    Treesearch

    F.N. SCATENA

    1990-01-01

    Interception losses were monitored for one year and related to vegetation characteristics in two forested watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. Total watershed interception was then modeled by weighting values of throughfall measured in representative areas of different vegetation types by the total watershed area of that vegetation group....

  19. Introduction to the Watershed Central Web Site and Watershed Wiki Mini-Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to include in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new web site called "Watershed Central,” a “one-stop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protec...

  20. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  1. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  2. Watershed Stewardship Education Program--A Multidisciplinary Extension Education Program for Oregon's Watershed Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Flaxen D. L.; Godwin, Derek; Cloughesy, Mike; Nierenberg, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Stewardship Education Program (WSEP) is a multidisciplinary Oregon Extension designed to help watershed councils, landowners, and others work effectively together on water management. Components include practical, easy-to-use educational materials, training in effective collaboration, a Master Watershed Stewards program, and advanced…

  3. Introduction to the Watershed Central Web Site and Watershed Wiki Mini-Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to include in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new web site called "Watershed Central,” a “one-stop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protec...

  4. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  5. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  6. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, calculated historical seasonality indexes of monthly nitrate loading for both watersheds exhibited significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends according to the non-seasonal Mann-Kendall test. The identified differences in seasonal nitrate export from the two watersheds were mainly attributed to their distinct nitrogen sources, physical and biogeochemical settings. The declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the agricultural watershed could be partially caused by historical climate change in the study region, especially increased temperature during winter. Urbanization could be one key factor contributing to the declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the urbanized watershed. Information derived from this study have practical implications for developing proper management practices to mitigate nitrate pollution in Midwestern United States.

  7. DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

  8. Tree response to experimental watershed acidification

    Treesearch

    N.K. Jensen; E.J. Holzmueller; P.J. Edwards; M. Thomas-Van Gundy; D.R. DeWalle; K.W.J. Williard

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Eastern USA are threatened by acid deposition rates that have increased dramatically since industrialization. We utilized two watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to examine long-term effects of acidification on ecological processes. One watershed has been treated with ammonium sulfate (approximately twice the ambient...

  9. Uncertainty Consideration in Watershed Scale Models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watershed scale hydrologic and water quality models have been used with increasing frequency to devise alternative pollution control strategies. With recent reenactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act’s TMDL (total maximum daily load) component, some of the watershed scale models are being recommended ...

  10. Comparison of Drainmod Based Watershed Scale Models

    Treesearch

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    Watershed scale hydrology and water quality models (DRAINMOD-DUFLOW, DRAINMOD-W, DRAINMOD-GIS and WATGIS) that describe the nitrogen loadings at the outlet of poorly drained watersheds were examined with respect to their accuracy and uncertainty in model predictions. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was applied to determine the impact of uncertainty in estimating field...

  11. Improving watershed management practices in humid regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the basic hydrology and erosion is vital for effective management and utilization of water resources and soil conservation planning. To improve the understanding we used watershed studies on three continents. The results show that in well vegetated (sub) humid and temperate watersheds ...

  12. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Baltimore County, MD, Montgomery County, MD, and Washington, DC, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The watershed scale impact of SGI was evaluated by assessing how increased spatial density of SGI correlates with stream hydrology and nitrogen exports over space and time. The most common SGI types were detention ponds (58%), followed by marshes (12%), sand filters (9%), wet ponds (7%), infiltration trenches (4%), and rain gardens (2%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI (>10% SGI) have 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff than watersheds with lower SGI. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3− and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. Based on specific SGI types, infiltration trenches (R2 = 0.35) showed the strongest correlation with hydrologic metrics, likely due to their ability to attenuate flow, while bioretention (R2 = 0.19) and wet ponds (R2 = 0.12) showed stronger

  13. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  14. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  15. Draft Maumee River Watershed Restoration Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A draft of the Maumee River AOC Watershed Restoration Plan was completed in January 2006. The plan was created to meet requirements for the stage II RAP as well as Ohio EPA’s and ODNR’s Watershed Coordinator Program.

  16. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet presents an overview of six selected watershed modeling studies by the USGS and partners that address a variety of water-resource issues in south Texas. These studies provide examples of modeling applications and demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of watershed models in aiding the understanding of hydrologic systems.

  17. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  18. Sustaining flows of crucial watershed resources

    Treesearch

    J. E. de Steiguer

    2000-01-01

    Watersheds are the source of a number of resources which are of benefit to society. These resources include water, timber, grazing, recreation, wildlife and others, often described as multiple-use resources. In addition, however, watersheds also produce a number of less tangible resources and uses, which are also socially important. These include amenity, option values...

  19. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  20. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  1. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  2. Watershed Deposition Tool for air quality impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The WDT is a software tool for mapping deposition estimates from the CMAQ model to watersheds. It provides users with the linkage of air and water needed for the total maximum daily load (TMDL) and related nonpoint-source watershed analyses.

  3. Overview of the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Treesearch

    Norm Henry

    1998-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) and the Pacific Southwest Research Station, Redwood Sciences Laboratory (PSW) have been conducting watershed research within the Caspar Creek watershed on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, in northern California, since 1962. A concrete broad-crested weir with a 120 degree low-flow V-notch was...

  4. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  5. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Treesearch

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  6. WATERSHED LANDSCAPE INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do land use/cover characteristics of watersheds associated with small estuaries exhibit a strong enough signal to make landscape metrics useful for identifying degraded bottom communities? We tested this idea with 58 pairs of small estuaries (<260 km2) and watersheds in the U.S. ...

  7. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  8. WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION: LINKING MONITORING, LISTING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This describes a watershed classification approach that helps to link activities under CWA sections 305(b) and 303(d), using a case study developed with the state of West Virginia as an example. The watershed classification approach can help Regions, States, and Tribes provide th...

  9. Watershed: A Successful Voyage into Integrative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Mark

    This book describes a "whole learning" approach to education called the Watershed Program, which stresses integrated curriculum and experiential learning. Each chapter begins with an episode from the history of eastern Pennsylvania along the Brandywine River, used as an analogy to problems faced by the teachers in the Watershed program.…

  10. WATERSHED LANDSCAPE INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do land use/cover characteristics of watersheds associated with small estuaries exhibit a strong enough signal to make landscape metrics useful for identifying degraded bottom communities? We tested this idea with 58 pairs of small estuaries (<260 km2) and watersheds in the U.S. ...

  11. Turbidity Threshold sampling in watershed research

    Treesearch

    Rand Eads; Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - When monitoring suspended sediment for watershed research, reliable and accurate results may be a higher priority than in other settings. Timing and frequency of data collection are the most important factors influencing the accuracy of suspended sediment load estimates, and, in most watersheds, suspended sediment transport is dominated by a few, large...

  12. Role of adaptive management for watershed councils.

    PubMed

    Habron, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Recent findings in the Umpqua River Basin in southwestern Oregon illustrate a tension in the rise of both community-based and watershed-based approaches to aquatic resource management. While community-based institutions such as watershed councils offer relief from the government control landowners dislike, community-based approaches impinge on landowners' strong belief in independence and private property rights. Watershed councils do offer the local control landowners advocate; however, institutional success hinges on watershed councils' ability to reduce bureaucracy, foster productive discussion and understanding among stakeholders, and provide financial, technical, and coordination support. Yet, to accomplish these tasks current watershed councils rely on the fiscal and technical capital of the very governmental entities that landowners distrust. Adaptive management provides a basis for addressing the apparent tension by incorporating landowners' belief in environmental resilience and acceptance of experimentation that rejects "one size fits all solutions." Therefore community-based adaptive watershed management provides watershed councils a framework that balances landowners' independence and fear of government intrusion, acknowledges the benefits of community cooperation through watershed councils, and enables ecological assessment of landowner-preferred practices. Community-based adaptive management integrates social and ecological suitability to achieve conservation outcomes by providing landowners the flexibility to use a diverse set of conservation practices to achieve desired ecological outcomes, instead of imposing regulations or specific practices.

  13. Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

    2017-03-01

    Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

  14. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  15. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  16. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. ); Stewart, E.H. )

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

  17. Integrated assessment of water quality of the Costa da Morte (Galicia, NW Spain) by means of mussel chemical, biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Albentosa, Marina; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; González, Juan J; Campillo, Juan A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental quality at some of the sites most severely affected by the Prestige oil spill off 2 years after the spillage (April and November 2004). For this purpose analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and several biochemical (antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and DT-diaphorase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological [scope for growth (SFG)] biomarkers were determined on wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at four points along the Costa da Morte and compared with those of a reference site not affected by the oil spill. Results showed that PAH contents had markedly decreased 17 months after the accident, although they were higher in April than in November, when they showed values similar to background levels reported for this area. Nevertheless, the predominance of chrysene on PAH profiles, similarly to findings obtained immediately after the spill, indicated the Prestige as their main source. In spite of the low PAH levels recorded, antioxidant activity levels (explained through the integrated antioxidant response-IAR) were higher in the Costa da Morte than at the reference site either in April and November. In April IAR seems to be related to PAH levels found 3 months after the accident (February 2003), suggesting the persistence in the environment of oxidative stress-producing components from the spill. However, evidence of oxidative stress was not reflected at physiological level by scope for growth, with only very slight differences being observed between values from the reference site and those from Costa da Morte sites. In conclusion, although 2 years after the spill PAHs bioaccumulated by mussels from the Costa da Morte had decreased to background levels, biochemical parameters showed signals of oxidative stress in mussels from this area. However, SFG reflected a good health status for the mussel populations studied

  18. Hydrologic research on instrumented watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1970-01-01

    The successful research man is the one who asks himself the right question. Research must go on primarily in the mind and only secondarily in the physical and biological world. It is only too easy to confuse the choice of a proper tool and the choice of a proper question. Some tools are quite unsuited to certain questions and some questions cannot be answered without the appropriate tool.There has been in recent years a large amount of discussion about whether the high costs and the extensive time period required for experimental watershed* research is really worth the investment. Recent discussions of this matter have cited as major criticisms of the instrumented basin that they are expensive, they leak water, they are unrepresentative, they produce changes too small for detection, and it is difficult to transfer the results. (See Hewlett, Lull, and Reinhart, 1969.) These are all questions worth talking about, but in one sense they tend to obscure the main issue. The main issue is what do we want to learn? If we can decide what it is we want to know, then we can logically ask ourselves what is the best way of going about obtaining that knowledge. It is in this context that we are most likely to place the experimental watershed in a useful and logical position in a classification of research methods.

  19. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  20. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  1. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  2. Delphi Research Methodology Applied to Place-Based Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallor, Rosanna R.; Yates, Kimberly A.; Brody, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the results of the Flathead Watershed Delphi survey, a consensus-building methodology used to establish foundational knowledge, skills and dispositions for the Flathead Watershed Educators Guide, a place-based watershed curriculum for middle school grades based on the Flathead Watershed Sourcebook. Survey participants (n =…

  3. Studying Watersheds: A Confluence of Important Ideas. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how the study of watersheds can serve to connect concept and skill development across subject areas and grade levels for curriculum reform and standards-based assessment. Specific resources are organized into watersheds in the curriculum, connections to National Standards, watershed concepts and activities, watershed education…

  4. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  5. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  6. Effect of climate change on watershed runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, D.M.; Ayers, M.A.; Hay, L.E.; McCabe, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines forecasts of changes in watershed runoff in the Delaware River basin that result from a range of predicted effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on future precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance of plants. A deterministic hydrologic model, TOPMODEL, was driven with stochastic inputs of temperature and precipitation to derive the forecasts. Results indicate that the direction and magnitude of the changes in watershed runoff are dependent on the relative magnitudes of the induced changes in precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance. Natural variability in temperature and precipitation obscured the changes in watershed runoff even when the simulated changes in precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance were substantial.

  7. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green infrastructure), wastewater, drinking water, and land conservation programs to find the least cost solutions. The pdf version of these presentations accompany the recorded webinar with closed captions to be posted on the WMOST web page. The webinar was recorded at the time a training workshop took place for EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST, v2).

  8. Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  9. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  10. Monitoring and Evaluating Nonpoint Source Watershed Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is written primarily for those who develop and implement monitoring plans for watershed management projects. it can also be used evaluate the technical merits of monitoring proposals they might sponsor. It is an update to the 1997 Guide.

  11. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  12. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  13. Watersheds: Connecting Weather to the Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This course provides broadcast meteorologists with information to help them understand watersheds as our environmental home and to help their viewers understand the relationship between the weather and the environment.

  14. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  15. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  16. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of Watershed Implementation Plans (WIP) and how they play an important role in restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The page also provides links to each jurisdiction's Phase I, II, and III WIP.

  17. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  18. Clean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQPClean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project: Implementing the PCB TMDL, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. National Interest Shown in Watershed Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The State of Maryland is able to identify prime locations for watershed restoration and preservation using an interactive mapping tool developed by a partnership of agencies led by EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Water Protection Division.

  20. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  1. Photo Gallery for South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  2. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  3. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  4. Update on the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Treesearch

    Peter Cafferata

    1987-01-01

    Readers of this Newsletter are aware that CDF and the USFS, through its Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Stationa at Arcata (PSW), are carrying out a long term cooperative watershed experiment in JDSF's Caspar Creek drainage.

  5. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  6. Links from South Platte Watershed Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  7. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  8. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  9. Patapsco Watershed/Baltimore Region (Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Patapsco Watershed / Baltimore Area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  10. APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR WATERSHED INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental isotopes include naturally-occurring nuclides that can be applied as tracers within watersheds (Sidle, 1998). Recent advances in mass spectroscopy may supplant many traditional and costly hydrometric techniques. It is now possible, for example, to utilize isotopes a...

  11. Meetings and Events about South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  12. Bacterial Communities from Shoreline Environments (Costa da Morte, Northwestern Spain) Affected by the Prestige Oil Spill▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  13. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models.

    PubMed

    Yen, Haw; Bailey, Ryan T; Arabi, Mazdak; Ahmadi, Mehdi; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the large number of parameters at the disposal of these models, circumstances may arise in which excellent global results are achieved using inaccurate magnitudes of these "intra-watershed" responses. When used for scenario analysis, a given model hence may inaccurately predict the global, in-stream effect of implementing land-use practices at the interior of the watershed. In this study, data regarding internal watershed behavior are used to constrain parameter estimation to maintain realistic intra-watershed responses while also matching available in-stream monitoring data. The methodology is demonstrated for the Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana. Streamflow and nitrate (NO) loading are used as global in-stream comparisons, with two process responses, the annual mass of denitrification and the ratio of NO losses from subsurface and surface flow, used to constrain parameter estimation. Results show that imposing these constraints not only yields realistic internal watershed behavior but also provides good in-stream comparisons. Results further demonstrate that in the absence of incorporating intra-watershed constraints, evaluation of nutrient abatement strategies could be misleading, even though typical performance criteria are satisfied. Incorporating intra-watershed responses yields a watershed model that more accurately represents the observed behavior of the system and hence a tool that can be used with confidence in scenario evaluation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  15. The Urban Watershed Continuum: Biogeochemistry of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; Smith, C.; Newcomb, K.; Newcomer, T. A.; Smith, R.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time. We explore the relationship between infrastructure and ecosystem function relevant to the inorganic and organic carbon cycle along urban watersheds across spatial and temporal dimensions. We provide examples from watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological (LTER) and Washington D.C. Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA EX) sites with varying land use and contrasting sanitary sewer systems. At a stream and river network scale, there are distinct longitudinal patterns in dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate carbon concentrations from suburban headwaters to progressively urbanized receiving waters. There are also distinct changes in stable isotopic signatures of organic carbon and inorganic carbon suggesting shifts in carbon sources and processing throughout urban stream and river networks. Longitudinal patterns appear to be related to in-stream transformations, as suggested by high frequency sensor measurements, mass balances, and diurnal sampling. We suggest that stream and river networks act as "transformers" of watershed nitrogen and phosphorus pollution to increasingly generate carbon throughout the urban watershed continuum via biological processes. Additionally, sources and quality of carbon may vary with watershed inputs from suburban headwaters to progressively urbanized downstream reaches. The role of the urban watershed continuum as a "transporter" and "transformer" of organic matter has important implications for anticipating changes in the forms and reactivity of carbon delivered to receiving waters and coastal zones.

  16. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  17. Using four capitals to assess watershed sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  18. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  19. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  20. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale watershed management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir i...

  1. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation in Maine is a paired watershed experiment. Monitoring of the paired catchments (East Bear Brook - reference; West Bear Brook - experimental) began in early 1987. Chemical manipulation of West Bear Brook catchment began in November 1989. Proce...

  2. Climate change and watershed mercury export in a Coastal Plain watershed

    Treesearch

    Heather Golden; Christopher D. Knightes; Paul A. Conrads; Toby D. Feaster; Gary M. Davis; Stephen T. Benedict; Paul M. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in climatic conditions may affect variations in watershed processes (e.g., hydrological, biogeochemical) and surface water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such climatic shifts will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern.

  3. Developing stressor-watershed function relationships to refine the national maps of watershed integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract ESA 2017Developing stressor-watershed function relationships to refine the national maps of watershed integrityJohnson, Z.C., S.G. Leibowitz, and R.A. Hill. To be submitted to the Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Portland, OR. August 2017.Human-induced ecolo...

  4. Application of a DRAINMOD-based watershed model to a lower coastal plain watershed

    Treesearch

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2003-01-01

    This is a case study for applying DRAINMOD-GIS, a DRAINMOD based lumped parameter watershed model to Chicod Creek, a 11300 ha coastal plain watershed in North Carolina which is not intensively instrumented or documented. The study utilized the current database of land-use, topography, stream network, soil, and weather data available to the State and Federal agencies....

  5. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale watershed management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir i...

  6. Partitioning the contribution of light absorbing impurities to albedo reductions on Plaine Morte Glacier, Swiss Alps using a novel Hysperspectral Microscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Farra, Anna; Schwikowski, Margit; Kaspari, Susan

    2017-04-01

    The presence of light absorbing impurities (LAI) plays an important role in reducing a glacier's surface albedo, contributing to accelerated glacier melt. LAI include black carbon, mineral dust and organic (humic) substances. We investigated the role of LAI on glacier melt of Glacier de la Plaine Morte (7.88 km2 area) in the Swiss Alps. More than 90% of the Plaine Morte surface lies between 2650 and 2800 m a.s.l.; the low and narrow elevation range results in the glacier being particularly susceptible to melt. The glacier melt over the last 10 years (-1.7 mw.e. yr-1 on average) was almost double compared to the Alpine average. Plaine Morte has been almost entirely snow free in summer for the last 8 years, and has consequently accumulated a layer of LAI on the exposed surface after snow melt. The aim of this project is to: determine the relative abundances of the three classes of LAI, their spatial distribution on the glacier's surface, and to identify the relative contribution of each LAI to albedo reductions. Snow samples were collected at 110 sites that were spatially distributed on the glacier's surface. Relative quantities of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and mineral dust were determined for all samples collected with a thermal optical analyser; which combusts the sample separating OC and EC in the combustion process by their temperature (what is not combusted is considered mineral dust). The mineral composition, examined with X-ray diffractometry, indicated that local rock is the major source of mineral dust. Through an innovative hyperspectral imaging spectrometric technique developed for this purpose, a characteristic reflectance spectrum was defined for each of the three classes of LAI. Comparing the characteristic spectra, we determined to what extent black carbon, humic substances and minerals might be able to contribute to a lower albedo. Taking into account the average relative abundances on the glacier, we obtained that in the case of

  7. Advances in Watershed Models and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, G. T.; Zhang, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of watershed models and their applications to real-world problems has evolved significantly since 1960's. Watershed models can be classified based on what media are included, what processes are dealt with, and what approaches are taken. In term of media, a watershed may include segregated overland regime, river-canal-open channel networks, ponds-reservoirs-small lakes, and subsurface media. It may also include integrated media of all these or a partial set of these as well as man-made control structures. In term of processes, a watershed model may deal with coupled or decoupled hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. These processes include fluid flow, thermal transport, salinity transport, sediment transport, reactive transport, and biota and microbe kinetics. In terms of approaches, either parametric or physics-based approach can be taken. This talk discusses the evolution of watershed models in the past sixty years. The advances of watershed models center around their increasing design capability to foster these segregated or integrated media and coupled or decoupled processes. Widely used models developed by academia, research institutes, government agencies, and private industries will be reviewed in terms of the media and processes included as well as approaches taken. Many types of potential benchmark problems in general can be proposed and will be discussed. This presentation will focus on three benchmark problems of biogeochemical cycles. These three problems, dealing with water quality transport, will be formulated in terms of reactive transport. Simulation results will be illustrated using WASH123D, a watershed model developed and continuously updated by the author and his PhD graduates. Keywords: Hydrological Cycles, Biogeochemical Cycles, Biota Kinetics, Parametric Approach, Physics-based Approach, Reactive Transport.

  8. Pine Hollow Watershed Project : FY 2000 Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District

    2001-06-01

    The Pine Hollow Project (1999-010-00) is an on-going watershed restoration effort administered by Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District and spearheaded by Pine Hollow/Jackknife Watershed Council. The headwaters are located near Shaniko in Wasco County, and the mouth is in Sherman County on the John Day River. Pine Hollow provides more than 20 miles of potential summer steelhead spawning and rearing habitat. The watershed is 92,000 acres. Land use is mostly range, with some dryland grain. There are no water rights on Pine Hollow. Due to shallow soils, the watershed is prone to rapid runoff events which scour out the streambed and the riparian vegetation. This project seeks to improve the quality of upland, riparian and in-stream habitat by restoring the natural hydrologic function of the entire watershed. Project implementation to date has consisted of construction of water/sediment control basins, gradient terraces on croplands, pasture cross-fences, upland water sources, and grass seeding on degraded sites, many of which were crop fields in the early part of the century. The project is expected to continue through about 2007. From March 2000 to June 2001, the Pine Hollow Project built 6 sediment basins, 1 cross-fence, 2 spring developments, 1 well development, 1 solar pump, 50 acres of native range seeding and 1 livestock waterline. FY2000 projects were funded by BPA, Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, US Fish and Wildlife Service and landowners. In-kind services were provided by Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pine Hollow/Jackknife Watershed Council, landowners and Wasco County Soil and Water Conservation District.

  9. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  10. Community DECISIONS: stakeholder focused watershed planning.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Darrell; Pease, James; Wolfe, Mary Leigh; Zobel, Christopher; Osorio, Javier; Cobb, Tanya Denckla; Evanylo, Greg

    2012-12-15

    Successful watershed planning can be enhanced by stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing plans that reflect community goals and resource limitations. Community DECISIONS (Community Decision Support for Integrated, On-the-ground Nutrient Reduction Strategies) is a structured decision process to help stakeholders evaluate strategies that reduce watershed nutrient imbalances. A nutrient accounting algorithm and nutrient treatment database provide information on nutrient loadings and costs of alternative strategies to reduce loadings. Stakeholders were asked to formulate goals for the North Fork Shenandoah River Watershed in Virginia and select among strategies to achieve those goals. The Vector Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to rank strategies. Stakeholders preferred a Maximum strategy that included point source upgrades, riparian buffers, no-till corn silage, wheat cover, and bioretention filters in developed areas. Participants generally agreed that the process helped improve communication among stakeholders, was helpful for watershed planning, and should be used for TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) planning. Participants suggested more attention be paid to ensuring that all relevant issues are addressed and all information needed to make decisions is available. Watershed planning should provide stakeholders with clear scientific information about physical and socioeconomic processes. However, planning processes must give stakeholders adequate time to consider issues that may not have been addressed by existing scientific models and datasets.

  11. Watershed processing of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl inputs.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Amy A; Totten, Lisa A; Cavallo, Gregory I; Yagecic, John R

    2007-04-01

    Indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs was examined in subwatersheds of the Delaware River Estuary. Tributary PCB loads and atmospheric PCB concentrations were used to understand the pass-through efficiencies for nine rivers/ creeks for which PCB inputs appeared to be dominated by atmospheric deposition. The pass-through efficiency, E, was calculated from tributary loads and atmospheric deposition fluxes. Unfortunately, uncertainties in the gaseous and dry particle deposition velocities, vg and vd, respectively, render the calculated atmospheric deposition fluxes highly uncertain. In order to circumvent this problem, export of PCBs from the watershed was related directly to atmospheric PCB concentrations via a new mass transfer coefficient, the watershed delivery rate or vws, which describes the process by which the watershed transfers PCBs from the airto the River's main stem. vws increases with increasing chlorination and is significantly correlated with vapor pressure. This trend suggests that the transfer of PCBs from the atmosphere to the River via the watershed is more efficient for high molecular weight PCBs than for low molecular weight PCBs. This may indicate that the selected watersheds are at or close to equilibrium with respect to gaseous exchange of PCBs, such that lower molecular weight congeners undergo substantial revolatilization after deposition. The magnitude of the pass-through efficiency, E, depends on the deposition velocities used to calculate the atmospheric deposition flux, but when congener-specific deposition velocities are used, E is independent of vapor pressure and is relatively constant at about 3%.

  12. Model investigation overthrows assumptions of watershed research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 study revealed serious flaws in a standard technique used by hydrological researchers to understand how changes in watershed land use affect stream flow behaviors, such as peak flows. The study caused academics and government agencies alike to rethink decades of watershed research and prompted Kuraś et al. to reinvestigate a number of long-standing assumptions in watershed research using a complex and well-validated computer model that accounts for a range of internal watershed dynamics and hydrologic processes. For the test site at 241 Creek in British Columbia, Canada, the authors found not only that deforestation increased the severity of floods but also that it had a scaling influence on both the magnitudes and frequencies of the floods. The model showed that the larger the flood, the more its magnitude was amplified by deforestation, with 10-to 100-year-return-period floods increasing in size by 9%-25%. Following a simulated removal of half of the watershed's trees, the authors found that 10-year-return-period floods occurred twice as often, while 100-year-return-period events became 5-6.7 times more frequent. This proportional relationship between the increase in flood magnitudes and frequencies following deforestation and the size of the flood runs counter to the prevailing wisdom in hydrological science.

  13. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), forwards a resilience-focused approach for Western Balkan communities in the Drini and Drina river watersheds with the goal of safeguarding public health and the environment. The initial phases of this project give a contextualized example of how to advance resilience-driven environmental health goals in Western Balkan communities, and experience within the region has garnered several theme areas that require focus in order to promote a holistic watershed management program. In this paper, using CRESSIDA as a case study, we show (1) how watershed projects designed with resilience-driven environmental health goals can work in context, (2) provide data surrounding contextualized problems with resilience and suggest tools and strategies for the implementation of projects to address these problems, and (3) explore how cross-boundary foci are central to the success of these approaches in watersheds that comprise several countries. Published in the journal, Reviews on Environmental Health.

  14. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  15. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices ...

  16. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices ...

  17. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  18. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    ScienceCinema

    Williams, Ken

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  19. USING WATERSHED COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many researchers examining relationships between water quality and the surrounding watershed have focused on landscape metrics associated with composition (e.g., % of the whole watershed in agriculture) often excluding measures of landscape structure. In addition, little work ha...

  20. The Mystic River Watershed Initiative Steering Committee Purpose and Structure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mystic River Watershed Initiative (MRWI) works to improve water quality and public access to open spaces in the Mystic River watershed. The MRWI Steering Committee meets regularly to discuss key issues and priority actions related to this initiative.

  1. RESTORING SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS USING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mixed-use, suburban watersheds, stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on both public and private property impairs stream ecosystems. Decentralized stormwater management, which distributes stormwater infiltration and retention devices throughout watersheds, is more effect...

  2. Watershed Modeling Recommendation Report for Lake Champlain TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the recommended modeling approach for watershed modeling component of the Lake Champlain TMDL project. The report was prepared by Tetra Tech, with input from the Lake Champlain watershed analysis workgroup. (TetraTech, 2012a)

  3. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  4. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  5. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ken

    2015-01-23

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  6. RESTORING SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS USING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mixed-use, suburban watersheds, stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on both public and private property impairs stream ecosystems. Decentralized stormwater management, which distributes stormwater infiltration and retention devices throughout watersheds, is more effect...

  7. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  8. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    PubMed

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  9. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-01-01

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world. PMID:28273834

  10. Watershed modeling and monitoring for assessing nutrient ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation for the American Water Works Association Water Sustainability Conference. The presentation highlights latest results from water quality trading research conducted by ORD using the East Fork Watershed in Southwestern Ohio as a case study. The watershed has a nutrient enrichment problem that is creating harmful algal blooms in a reservoir used for drinking water and recreation. Innovative modeling and monitoring is combined to understand how to best manage this water quality problem and costs associated with this endeavor. The presentation will provide an overview of the water quality trading feasibility research. The research includes the development and evaluation of innovative modeling and monitoring approaches to manage watersheds for nutrient pollution using a whole systems approach.

  11. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States. HUC 12 polygons were selected from the source based on interactively comparing these HUC 12s in our GIS with images of the New York City's Water Supply System Map found at http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/drinking_water/wsmaps_wide.shtml. The 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) are a subset of the National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD), downloaded from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Geospatial Gateway and imported into the EPA Region 2 Oracle/SDE database. This layer reflects 2009 updates to the WBD that included new boundary data for New York and New Jersey.

  12. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO): Facilitating Discovery, Evaluation and Integration through the Sharing of Watershed Modeling Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) is a system of information technologies designed to publish watershed modeling studies for reuse. WEDO facilitates three aspects of interoperability: discovery, evaluation and integration of data. This increased level of interop...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATERSHED-BASED MERCURY POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate total mercury loadings to streams in a watershed, we have developed a watershed-based source quantification model ? Watershed Mercury Characterization System. The system uses the grid-based GIS modeling technology to calculate total soil mercury concentrations and ...

  14. Mapping Watershed Integrity for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is partially a function of the degree to which watersheds are altered by human activities. In a recent manuscript, Flotemersch and others (in preparation), defined watershed integr...

  15. Artificial watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest, USA

    Treesearch

    M.B. Adams; P.J. Edwards; F. Wood; J.N. Kochenderfer

    1993-01-01

    A whole-watershed manipulation project was begun on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, USA, in 1987, with the objective of increasing understanding of the effects of acidic deposition on forest ecosystems. Two treatment watersheds (WS9 and WS3) and one control watershed (WS4) were included. Treatments were twice-ambient N and S deposition, applied via NH...

  16. Upper South Platte Watershed Protection and Restoration Project

    Treesearch

    Steve Culver; Cindy Dean; Fred Patten; Jim Thinnes

    2001-01-01

    The Upper South Platte Basin is a critical watershed in Colorado. Nearly 80 percent of the water used by the 1.5 million Denver metropolitan residents comes from or is transmitted through this river drainage. The Colorado Unified Watershed Assessment identified the Upper South Platte River as a Category 1 watershed in need of restoration. Most of the river basin is...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATERSHED-BASED MERCURY POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate total mercury loadings to streams in a watershed, we have developed a watershed-based source quantification model ? Watershed Mercury Characterization System. The system uses the grid-based GIS modeling technology to calculate total soil mercury concentrations and ...

  18. 69 FR 29687 - Tribal Watershed Forestry Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-05-25

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC19 Tribal Watershed Forestry Assistance Program AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Tribal Watershed Forestry Assistance Program, as authorized by Title III, Section 303, of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 (Pub. L. 108-148). The Tribal Watershed Forestry Assistance Program (TWFAP...

  19. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  20. Compatability of timber salvage operations with watershed values

    Treesearch

    Roger J. Poff

    1989-01-01

    Timber salvage on the Indian Burn was carried out without compromising watershed values. In some cases watershed condition was actually improved by providing ground cover, by removing trees that were a source of erosive water droplets, and by breaking up hydrophobic soil layers. Negative impacts of timber salvage on watersheds were minimized by using an...

  1. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  2. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  3. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  4. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…

  5. Understanding human uses and values in watershed analysis.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; Linda E. Kruger; Christopher Hansen-Murray; Arnold Holden; Dale. Bays

    2000-01-01

    Watershed analysis is used as a tool to understand the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and to assess opportunities to restore or improve those processes and associated watershed conditions. Assessing those opportunities correctly requires an understanding of how humans have interacted with the watershed in the past and...

  6. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  7. Mapping Watershed Integrity for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is partially a function of the degree to which watersheds are altered by human activities. In a recent manuscript, Flotemersch and others (in preparation), defined watershed integr...

  8. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  9. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…

  10. My life in the watershed: then, now, and beyond

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "My Life in the Watershed" tells the first-hand account of a young girl growing up in southwestern Oklahoma, the impact growing up in a watershed had on her life, and the vision she sees for her children and her children's children, so they will continue to benefit from the USDA Small Watershed Prog...

  11. Guiding principles for management of forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard

    2015-01-01

    Human actions must be well planned and include consideration of their potential influences on water and aquatic ecosystems - such consideration is the foundation of watershed management. Watersheds are the ideal land unit for managing and protecting water resources and aquatic health because watersheds integrate the physical, biological and chemical processes within...

  12. Water balance of drained plantation watersheds in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; R. W. Skaggs

    2006-01-01

    A 3-year study to evaluate the effect of thinning on the hydrology of a drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation was conducted in eastern North Carolina. The study utilized a paired watershed design with a 40-ha thinned watershed (WS5) and a 16-ha control watershed (WS2). Data from the field experiment conducted from 1999-2002 was used to...

  13. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  14. Understanding the watershed hydrology of tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Y. P.; Strauch, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Streams systems in Hawaii is unique comparing to systems in other places in the worlds. Besides its volcanic geology, its steep topography contributes to the flashiness of stream flow. The prevalent trade wind results in wet (windward) and dry (leeward) sides of island, which receive unequal amount of moisture for cloud formation. To better understand and describe the mechanism of forming stream flow in Hawaii, a series of hydrologic model, from simple to complex, were used to simulate stream flow on two pilot watershed. We first used a lumped-model, Thornthwaite Monthly Water Balance Model, to describe water budget of each watershed. Second, we used a non-spatial explicit model, topographic index model (TOPMODEL), to describe the surface and subsurface components that contribute to stream flow. Finally, we used a semi-distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to understand the different land use effect on stream flow. In particular, rainfall coverage was obtained from dynamic downscaling model and validated with observation. The spatial distribution of rainfall data were served as input for all models. Through these processes, we strategically dissected the components in contributing to stream flow within a watershed, and revealed the dominate mechanism and drivers of stream flow in the watersheds. We then compared the processes in forming stream flow in watersheds of windward and leeward side. The difference in the two watershed were presented and described. Ultimately, the successful building of flow models allows us to further describe the nutrient and sediment transport that affects both instream habitats and downstream estuarine and coastal system.

  15. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  16. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  18. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  19. Watershed Characteristics and Land Management in the Nonpoint-Source Evaluation Monitoring Watersheds in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rappold, K.F.; Wierl, J.A.; Amerson, F.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, began a land-use inventory to identify sources of contaminants and track the land-management changes for eight evaluation monitoring watersheds in Wisconsin. An important component of the land-use inventory has been developing descriptions and preliminary assessments for the eight watersheds. These descriptions establish a baseline for future data analysis. The watershed descriptions include sections on location, reference watersheds, climate, land use, soils and topography, and surface-water resources. The land-management descriptions include sections on objectives, sources of nonpoint contamination and goals of contaminant reduction, and implementation of best-management practices. This information was compiled primarily from the nonpoint-source control plans, county soil surveys, farm conservation plans, Federal and State agency data reports, and data collected through the land-use inventory.

  20. Watershed Effects on Streamflow Quantity and Quality in Six Watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; McFadden, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Watershed management is critical for the protection and enhancement of streams that provide multiple benefits for Gwinnett County, Georgia, and downstream communities. Successful watershed management requires an understanding of how stream quality is affected by watershed characteristics. The influence of watershed characteristics on stream quality is complex, particularly for the nonpoint sources of pollutants that affect urban watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources (formerly known as Public Utilities), established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. Between 1996 and 2003, more than 10,000 analyses were made for more than 430 water-quality samples. Continuous-flow and water-quality data have been collected since 1998. Loads have been computed for selected constituents from 1998 to 2003. Changing stream hydrology is a primary driver for many other water-quality and aquatic habitat effects. Primary factors affecting stream hydrology (after watershed size and climate) within Gwinnett County are watershed slope and land uses. For the six study watersheds in Gwinnett County, watershedwide imperviousness up to 12 percent does not have a well-defined influence on stream hydrology, whereas two watersheds with 21- and 35-percent impervious area are clearly impacted. In the stream corridor, however, imperviousness from 1.6 to 4.4 percent appears to affect baseflow and stormflow for all six watersheds. Relations of concentrations to discharge are used to develop regression models to compute constituent loads using the USGS LOAD ESTimator model. A unique method developed in this study is used to calibrate the model using separate baseflow and stormflow sample datasets. The method reduced model error and provided estimates of the load associated with the baseflow and stormflow parts of the hydrograph

  1. Spectral Measurement of Watershed Coefficients in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Bausch, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was apparent that the spectra calibration of runoff curve numbers cannot be achieved on watersheds where significant areas of timber were within the drainage area. The absorption of light by wet soil conditions restricts differentiation of watersheds with regard to watershed runoff curve numbers. It appeared that the predominant factor influencing the classification of watershed runoff curve numbers was the difference in soil color and its associated reflectance when dry. In regions where vegetation grown throughout the year, where wet surface conditions prevail or where watersheds are timbered, there is little hope of classifying runoff potential with visible light alone.

  2. Groundwater-transported dissolved organic nitrogen exports from coastal watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroeger, K.D.; Cole, Marci L.; Valiela, I.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed groundwater-transported nitrogen (N) exports from 41 watershed segments that comprised 10 Cape Cod, Massachusetts watersheds to test the hypotheses that chemical form of N exports is related to land use and to length of flow paths through watersheds. In the absence of human habitation, these glacial outwash-plain watersheds exported largely dissolved organic N (DON) but at relatively low annual rate. Addition of people to watersheds increased rates of both total dissolved N (TDN) and DON export through groundwater. Percent of TDN as DON in groundwater was negatively related to path length of groundwater through aquifers, but %DON was not significantly related to population density on the watersheds. DON was often the dominant form of N exported from the watersheds, even at high population densities. Our results suggest that natural sources are not entirely responsible for organic N exports from watersheds, but, instead, a substantial portion of anthropogenic N introduced to watersheds is exported as DON. This finding is in disagreement with previous results, which suggest that anthropogenic N is exported from watersheds largely as NO 3- and that DON exported from watersheds is from natural sources. ?? 2006, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  3. Lake Tahoe watershed assessment: volume II.

    Treesearch

    Dennis D. Murphy; Christopher M. Knopp

    2000-01-01

    This watershed assessment of the Lake Tahoe basin in northern California and Nevada is the first attempt to collate, synthesize, and interpret available scientific information with a comprehensive view toward management and policy outcomes. The seven-chapter report presents new and existing information in subject areas pertinent to policy development and land and...

  4. Lake Tahoe watershed assessment: volume I

    Treesearch

    Dennis D. Murphy; Christopher M. Knopp

    2000-01-01

    This watershed assessment of the Lake Tahoe basin in northern California and Nevada is the first attempt to collate, synthesize, and interpret available scientific information with a comprehensive view toward management and policy outcomes. The seven-chapter report presents new and existing information in subject areas pertinent to policy development and land and...

  5. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  6. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  7. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  8. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  9. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  10. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  11. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  12. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), were also analyzed. Seasonal BRT models at two spatial scales (watershed and riparian buffered area [RBA]) for nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) and annual models for the IBI score were developed. Two primary factors — location within the watershed (i.e., geographic position, stream order, and distance to a downstream confluence) and percentage of urban land cover (both scales) — emerged as important predictor variables. Latitude and longitude interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores. BRT results also suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover), runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors), and processes not easily represented by spatial data indicators. Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrological Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. The results from our BRT approach can help prioritize areas for nutrient management in mixed-use and heavily impacted watershed

  13. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University ...

  14. Discover a Watershed: The Colorado Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This engaging, informative "Educators Guide" provides detailed background information about the Colorado Watershed. Its reference section contains 25 science-based, multidisciplinary, hands-on activities that teach about hydrology, geography, geology, ecology, tribes, history, cultures, economics, management issues and resource…

  15. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices (BMPs) for restoring ecosystem services such as provisioning of clean water, food and fiber, and habitat for fish and wildlife. VELMA has been applied to agricultural, forest, rangeland and arctic watersheds across North America. Urban applications are under development. This seminar will discuss how VELMA is being used to help inform (1) salmon recovery planning in Puget Sound, and (2) water quality protection in Chesapeake Bay agricultural landscapes. These examples highlight the importance of model validation; how VELMA is being linked with additional models to aid BMP identification; and how the model is being transferred to community groups, tribes, and state and federal agencies engaged in environmental decision making. This invited seminar for the Washington State Department of Ecology will provide an overview of EPA’s VELMA watershed simulator and its applications for identifying best management practices for protecting and restoring vital ecosystem services, such as provisioning of clean water, food and fiber, and habitat for fish and wildlife. After the seminar, the presenter will meet with Department of Ecology staff to discuss the feasibility of including VELMA in their Puget Sound

  16. Recovery of central Appalachian forested watershed

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochendenfer [sic

    2014-01-01

    The Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) was established to conduct research in forest and watershed management in the central Appalachians. The 1868-ha FEF, located south of Parsons, West Virginia, is administered by the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service and provides a valuable point of comparison with the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), located in...

  17. LINKING WATERSHED MANAGEMENT WITH STREAM ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing the loading of ’stressors‚ (pollutants) from watershed lands to streams and lakes is the concern of a broad range of environmental stakeholders—including local and state governments, utilities, farm collectives, construction firms—and even homeowners. Their adoption of E...

  18. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona...

  19. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  20. Cumulative watershed effects: Caspar Creek and beyond

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative effects are the combined effects of multiple activities, and watershed effects are those which involve processes of water transport. Almost all impacts are influenced by multiple activities, so almost all impacts must be evaluated as cumulative impacts rather than as individual impacts. Existing definitions suggest that to be significant, an impact must be...

  1. Improving southwestern riparian areas through watershed management

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano; Larry J. Schmidt

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews opportunities and watershed restoration techniques available for rehabilitating and enhancing riparian ecosystems in southwest environments. As such, it is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art report on riparian hydrology and improvement in both naturally occurring and man-made riparian areas throughout the Southwest.

  2. Engaging Pennsylvania Teachers in Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua; Luloff, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Water-resource scientists have become increasingly concerned about global water quality and quantity issues. Water and watershed education are now mandated topics for school-aged youth. Pennsylvania teachers lack consistent and accessible curricula to teach students about water quality and quantity. A mail survey administered in 2004 determined…

  3. Engaging Pennsylvania Teachers in Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua; Luloff, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Water-resource scientists have become increasingly concerned about global water quality and quantity issues. Water and watershed education are now mandated topics for school-aged youth. Pennsylvania teachers lack consistent and accessible curricula to teach students about water quality and quantity. A mail survey administered in 2004 determined…

  4. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) supported the development of the Watersh...

  5. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., but not exclusive, consideration to producers' applications in the following river basins: Susquehanna River, Shenandoah River, Potomac River (including North and South), and the Patuxent River. The... restore, enhance, and conserve soil, air, and related resources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  6. LINKING WATERSHED MANAGEMENT WITH STREAM ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing the loading of ’stressors‚ (pollutants) from watershed lands to streams and lakes is the concern of a broad range of environmental stakeholders—including local and state governments, utilities, farm collectives, construction firms—and even homeowners. Their adoption of E...

  7. Cumulative watershed effects: Then and now

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - Cumulative effects are the combined effects of multiple activities, and watershed effects are those which involve processes of water transport. Almost all impacts are influenced by multiple activities, so almost all impacts must be evaluated as cumulative impacts rather than as individual impacts. Existing definitions suggest that to be significant, an...

  8. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  9. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Proceedings

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Healthy Watershed Integrated Assessment Workshop was held in Estes Park, Colorado in November 2010. Attendees were selected to represent interests and expertise of EPA’s Office of Water, EPA’s Office of Research and Development, EPA Regions, States, other Federal, State, and...

  10. Curve Numbers for Golf Course Watersheds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storm event runoff is a critical component to the environmental and structural design related to hydrology. The curve number (CN) method is a robust and accepted method for determining excess rainfall. Measured CNs for golf course watersheds and for that matter hydrologic data from golf course wate...

  11. Discover a Watershed: The Colorado Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This engaging, informative "Educators Guide" provides detailed background information about the Colorado Watershed. Its reference section contains 25 science-based, multidisciplinary, hands-on activities that teach about hydrology, geography, geology, ecology, tribes, history, cultures, economics, management issues and resource…

  12. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona...

  13. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  14. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: sediment database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-C; Garbrecht, J D; Steiner, J L; Blazs, R L

    2014-07-01

    One main objective for studying sediment in the Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds was to improve the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures in controlling floods and soil erosion in southwest Oklahoma. This paper summarizes the sediment data collection program in the watersheds during the 1961 to 2012 time period. Gaging sites, record lengths, sampling procedures, data processing, and instrumentation are described. Examples of data use and analyses are presented to illustrate the potential use and relevance of the sediment data and to highlight past research findings. The sediment data, especially the breakpoint data from the unit source watersheds, are of great importance in understanding erosion processes, assessing the effectiveness of conservation practices, and evaluating and validating process-based soil erosion models. Data formats and availability are discussed, and the download URLs for accessing the data are specified. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) supported the development of the Watersh...

  16. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  17. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

  18. A program of watershed-management research

    Treesearch

    Howard W. Lull; Irvin C. Reigner

    1957-01-01

    This is a proposed 5-point, 5-year program for watershed-management research at the Kingston Research Center. This Center's area embraces 5 counties in southern New York and 18 counties in northeastern Pennsylvania, an aggregate of 10,247,000 acres or about 16,000 square miles. Its long axis (northeast to southwest) is about 250 miles long, and its breadth...

  19. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  20. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  1. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  2. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated

  3. Streamflow simulation by a watershed model using stochastically generated weather in New York City watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, R.; Acharya, N.; Gelda, R.; Owens, E. M.; Frei, A.; Schneiderman, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have reported increasing trends in total precipitation, and in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events in the West of Hudson (WOH) watersheds of the New York City (NYC) water supply. The potential effects of these changes may pose challenges for both water quality (such as increased sediment and nutrient loading) and quantity (such as reservoir storage and management). The NYC Dept. of Environmental Protection Climate Change Integrated Modeling Project (CCIMP) is using "bottom-up" or vulnerability based methods to explore climate impacts on water resources. Stochastic weather generators (SWGs) are an integral component of the bottom-up approach. Previous work has identified and evaluated the skill of alternative stochastic weather generators of varying complexity for simulating the statistical characteristics of observed minimum and maximum daily air temperature and occurrence and amount of precipitation. This evaluation focused on the skill in representing extreme streamflow event probabilities across NYC West of Hudson (WOH) watersheds. Synthetic weather time series from the selected (skewed normal) SWG were used to drive the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) watershed model for a 600 year long period to simulate daily streamflows for WOH watersheds under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Long-term average daily streamflows generated using the synthetic weather time series were comparable to values generated using observed long-term (1950-2009) weather time series. This study demonstrates the ability of the selected weather generator to adequately represent the hydrologic response in WOH watersheds with respect to the total, peak, and seasonality in streamflows. Future application of SWGs in NYC watersheds will include generating multiple scenarios of changing climate to evaluate water supply system vulnerability and selection of appropriate adaptation measures.

  4. Topographic effects on soil organic carbon in louisiana watersheds.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Biao; Xu, Y Jun

    2009-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon storage is influenced by a number of environmental factors, among which topographic and geomorphological features are of special significance. This study was designed to examine the relationships of soil organic carbon (SOC) density to various terrain parameters and watershed characteristics across Louisiana, USA. A polygon data set of 484 watersheds and 12 river drainage basins for Louisiana was used to form the landscape units. SOC densities were calculated for each soil map unit using the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database. Average drainage densities and average slopes at watershed and basin scales were quantified with the 1:24 K Digital Elevation Models (DEM) data, and the Louisiana hydrographic water features. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to determine relationships among drainage density, slope, elevation, and SOC. The study found an average watershed drainage density of 1.6 km/km(2) and an average watershed slope of 2.9 degrees in Louisiana. The results revealed that SOC density at both watershed and basin scales was closely related to drainage density, slope, and elevation. SOC density was positively correlated with watershed drainage density, but negatively correlated with watershed slope gradient and elevation. Regression models were developed for predicting SOC density at watershed and basin scales, obtaining regression coefficients (r (2)) ranging from 0.43 to 0.83. The study showed that estimation of SOC at watershed and drainage basin scales combining DEM data can be a feasible approach to improve the understanding of the relationships among SOC, topographic, and geomorphological features.

  5. Watershed characteristics and water-quality trends and loads in 12 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, John K.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Landers, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a Long-Term Trend Monitoring (LTTM) program in 1996. The LTTM program is a comprehensive, long-term, water-quantity and water-quality monitoring program designed to document and analyze the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of selected watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia. Water-quality monitoring initially began in six watersheds and was expanded to another six watersheds in 2001. As part of the LTTM program, streamflow, precipitation, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were measured continuously at the 12 watershed monitoring stations for water years 2004–09. In addition, discrete water-quality samples were collected seasonally from May through October (summer) and November through April (winter), including one base-flow and three stormflow event composite samples, during the study period. Samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total organic carbon, trace elements (total lead and total zinc), total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations). The sampling scheme was designed to identify variations in water quality both hydrologically and seasonally. The 12 watersheds were characterized for basin slope, population density, land use for 2009, and the percentage of impervious area from 2000 to 2009. Precipitation in water years 2004–09 was about 18 percent below average, and the county experienced exceptional drought conditions and below average runoff in water years 2007 and 2008. Watershed water yields, the percentage of precipitation that results in runoff, typically are lower in low precipitation years and are higher for watersheds with the highest percentages of impervious areas. A comparison of base-flow and stormflow water-quality samples indicates that turbidity and concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total

  6. DEM time series of an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineux, Nathalie; Lisein, Jonathan; Swerts, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural landscape soil surface evolves notably due to erosion and deposition phenomenon. Even if most of the field data come from plot scale studies, the watershed scale seems to be more appropriate to understand them. Currently, small unmanned aircraft systems and images treatments are improving. In this way, 3D models are built from multiple covering shots. When techniques for large areas would be to expensive for a watershed level study or techniques for small areas would be too time consumer, the unmanned aerial system seems to be a promising solution to quantify the erosion and deposition patterns. The increasing technical improvements in this growth field allow us to obtain a really good quality of data and a very high spatial resolution with a high Z accuracy. In the center of Belgium, we equipped an agricultural watershed of 124 ha. For three years (2011-2013), we have been monitoring weather (including rainfall erosivity using a spectropluviograph), discharge at three different locations, sediment in runoff water, and watershed microtopography through unmanned airborne imagery (Gatewing X100). We also collected all available historical data to try to capture the "long-term" changes in watershed morphology during the last decades: old topography maps, soil historical descriptions, etc. An erosion model (LANDSOIL) is also used to assess the evolution of the relief. Short-term evolution of the surface are now observed through flights done at 200m height. The pictures are taken with a side overlap equal to 80%. To precisely georeference the DEM produced, ground control points are placed on the study site and surveyed using a Leica GPS1200 (accuracy of 1cm for x and y coordinates and 1.5cm for the z coordinate). Flights are done each year in December to have an as bare as possible ground surface. Specific treatments are developed to counteract vegetation effect because it is know as key sources of error in the DEM produced by small unmanned aircraft

  7. Watershed storage and riverine particulate organic radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, N. E.; Leithold, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Lateral movement of carbon and other materials across landscapes is punctuated with periods of storage and reaction. Though we understand basic principles concerning transport and storage effects on the nature of some materials, an adequate understanding is lacking of the cumulative impacts of those processes as material migrates across the biogeochemical landscape. This is essential to the interpretation of geochemical soil and sedimentary records of the past as well as to predicting future responses of systems to perturbations in climate or landuse. Sources of organic carbon exported from watersheds can be broadly defined as those recently derived for extant ecosystems, those derived from materials aged and altered in storage (aged soil OC), and fossil material associated with sedimentary bedrock. Separately, these materials are easy to recognize based on isotopic and molecular compositions and each could in principle be linked to specific mass transport processes such as sheet wash, shallow landsliding or gullying. The blending and alteration of original source signatures during storage appear to attenuate the variability of the exported signal within a system and complicate source identification. Riverine particulate organic carbon 14C-compositions reveal robust relationships between radiocarbon content, suspended load concentrations and % organic C. These are explained as a result of mixing of the 14C-free fossil C from sedimentary rocks with 14C-containing material derived from extant ecosystems and soils. In essence, the 14C-content of riverine POC inversely correlates with the muddiness of the system. Whereas one might predict that POC radiocarbon content might decrease with increased storage or residence time in watersheds, no obvious relationship exists between bulk 14C-content observations and watershed size. Instead, the hypothetical watershed size effect is obscured by precipitation- and discharge-driven variations in the mixture of the fossil and non

  8. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  9. Comprehensive biological effects of a complex field poly-metallic pollution gradient on the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray).

    PubMed

    Gust, M; Buronfosse, T; Geffard, O; Coquery, M; Mons, R; Abbaci, K; Giamberini, L; Garric, J

    2011-01-17

    The Lot River is known to be contaminated by metals, mainly cadmium and zinc, due to a former Zn ore treatment plant in the watershed of the Riou-Mort, a tributary of the Lot River. Many studies have been performed to characterize contamination, but few have assessed its consequences on the biological responses of organisms along the gradient. We exposed adult and juvenile New Zealand freshwater mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum at several sites along the gradient of metal contamination for 28 days. Biological responses were monitored at different levels: individual (survival, growth and fecundity), tissue and biochemical (energy status and vertebrate-like sex steroid levels) to better understand the toxicity mechanisms involved. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was high during exposure. Most of the biological effects observed could be linked to this contamination and were concentration-dependent. Histological lesions of the digestive gland were observed, with hypertrophy of calcium cells and vacuolization of digestive cells. Such effects are likely to explain the decrease of energy status (triglycerides and proteins), juvenile growth and adult fecundity observed at the most polluted site. However the magnitude of the fall in fecundity cannot be attributed only to these tissular effects, indicating another mode of action of Cd or possible confounding factors. Steroid accumulation in snails indicated only organic pollution. Histopathological effects proved the most sensitive endpoint to metal (Cd and Zn) contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  11. Watershed-wide trend analysis of temperature characteristics in Karun-Dez watershed, southwestern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marofi, Safar; Soleymani, Samere; Salarijazi, Meysam; Marofi, Hossein

    2012-10-01

    Trend estimation of climatic characteristics for a watershed is required to determine developing compatible strategies related to design, development, and management of water resources. In this study, the trends of the annual maximum ( T max), minimum ( T min), and mean ( T mean) air temperature; temperature anomaly ( T anomaly); and diurnal temperature range (DTR) time series at 13 meteorological stations located in the Karun-Dez watershed were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall and linear regression trend tests. The pre-whitening method was used to eliminate the influence of serial correlation on the Mann-Kendall test. The result showed increasing trends in the T min, T mean, and T anomaly series at the majority of stations and decreasing trend in the T max and DTR series. A geographical analysis of the trends revealed a broad warming trend in most of the watershed, and the cooling trends were observed only in the southern parts. Furthermore, the geographical pattern of the trends in the T mean and T anomaly series was similar, and the T max data did not show any dominant trend for the whole watershed. This study provides temperature change scenarios that may be used for the design of future water resource projects in the watershed.

  12. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  13. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  14. Sediment calibration strategies of Phase 5 Chesapeake Bay watershed model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, J.; Shenk, G.W.; Raffensperger, J.; Moyer, D.; Linker, L.C.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Sediment is a primary constituent of concern for Chesapeake Bay due to its effect on water clarity. Accurate representation of sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed model is critical for developing sound load reduction strategies. Sediment calibration remains one of the most difficult components of watershed-scale assessment. This is especially true for Chesapeake Bay watershed model given the size of the watershed being modeled and complexity involved in land and stream simulation processes. To obtain the best calibration, the Chesapeake Bay program has developed four different strategies for sediment calibration of Phase 5 watershed model, including 1) comparing observed and simulated sediment rating curves for different parts of the hydrograph; 2) analyzing change of bed depth over time; 3) relating deposition/scour to total annual sediment loads; and 4) calculating "goodness-of-fit' statistics. These strategies allow a more accurate sediment calibration, and also provide some insightful information on sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  15. Storm flow export of metolachlor from a coastal plain watershed.

    PubMed

    Watts, D W; Novak, J M; Johnson, M H; Stone, K C

    2000-03-01

    During an 18-month (1994-1995) survey of the surface water in an Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed, metolachlor was most frequently detected during storm flow events. Therefore, a sampling procedure, focused on storm flow, was implemented in June of 1996. During 1996, three tropical cyclones made landfall within 150 km of the watershed. These storms, as well as several summer thunderstorms, produced six distinct storm flow events within the watershed. Metolachlor was detected leaving the watershed during each event. In early September, Hurricane Fran produced the largest storm flow event and accounted for the majority of the metolachlor exports. During the storm event triggered by Hurricane Fran, the highest daily average flow (7.5 m2 s-1) and highest concentration (5.1 micrograms L-1) ever measured at the watershed outlet were recorded. Storm flow exports leaving the watershed represented 0.1 g ha-1 or about 0.04% of active ingredient applied.

  16. Challenges in assessing nitrogen losses in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groffman, P. M.; Band, L. E.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    Urban and suburban watersheds are an increasingly important source of nitrogen delivery to coastal waters worldwide. Understanding and managing nitrogen dynamics in these watersheds is a huge basic and applied science challenge due to the presence of multiple sources and sinks and the significant physical, chemical and biological alteration associated with urban and suburban land use change. In the National Science Foundation funded urban Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in Baltimore, we are using watershed scale monitoring of nitrogen inputs and outputs as a platform for investigating detailed nitrogen dynamics in urban watersheds. Detailed studies have focused on nitrogen retention in lawns, riparian zones, stormwater detention features and streams. Results suggest that urban watersheds have a surprisingly high capacity for nitrogen retention that is amenable to management. Urban studies contribute new basic science knowledge to watershed science and help improve the environmental performance of an increasingly common and important land use.

  17. Multiple stressors in the Sacramento River watershed.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D E

    1998-01-01

    Aquatic biota in the Sacramento River watershed are stressed by diversion of river flows, by historical mining resulting in cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, and, more recently, contamination by agricultural and urban chemical runoff. In addition, the proposed redirection of drainage of saline waters--containing selenium--from the western slope of the San Joaquin River into the Delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers could add to the stress on resident organisms. These combined stressors have led to deterioration in surface water quality and the aquatic habitat. The potential interaction of these stressors, coupled with invasions of foreign species and the export of juvenile fish into aqueducts, has driven several species of fish to near extinction in the system. Effects of historical contamination by heavy metals are potentially exacerbated by presence of organophosphate pesticides, at concentrations exceeding National Academy of Sciences recommendations, throughout the lower watershed and the San Francisco Bay. The Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, an introduced non-indigenous species has apparently become a preferred food item of the sturgeon, Accipenser transmontanus, an important sport and aquaculture species. Since this introduction, sturgeon body burdens for selenium have increased dramatically and analytical chemistry of P. amurensis indicates that these organisms are effective bioaccumulators of selenium. This review examines potential ecotoxicity associated with multiple stressors in the watershed. Data from field monitoring, laboratory toxicity assays with ambient water, and ecotoxicologic investigations are reviewed. Potential designs for multiple stressor investigations are discussed. The information presented on this watershed illustrates the challenge to investigators seeking to evaluate multiple stressor effects on riverine and estuarine organisms.

  18. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Vache, Kellie

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  19. Sediment Management at the Watershed Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    James R. Leech and David Biedenharn PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is an approach to analyze and manage...States (U.S.). The magnitude of this problem is illustrated in the Corps of Engineers ’ final report to Congress for the Streambank Erosion Control...of riverine habitats and ecosystems. This complexity has led some engineers to conclude that treatment of sediment sources at the watershed level

  20. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  1. The establishment of experimental watershed in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Tsung, Shun-Chung; Wang, Hau-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Chang, Ya-Chi; Ho, Jui-Yi; Lee, Shih-Chiang; Hong, Jian-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The rainfall distribution in Taiwan is non-uniform in space and unsteady in time. The water level in the river usually rises rapidly due to the steep slope gradient in the upland area of the watershed. In addition, urbanization and high rainfall intensity result in an increase in surface runoff and decrease the time of concentration. All of these lead to flooding-related disasters and influence people's lives. Thus, the establishment of a more complete hydro-information will increase our understanding of the characteristics of watersheds, prevent disasters, and mitigate damages. To overcome these deficiencies, the Water Resources Agency (WRA), Ministry of Economic Affairs has identified Yilan and Dianbao River Basin to develop a long-term monitoring, then Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute is responsible for this project. The monitoring sites had been installed in 2012. The sensors for monitoring include rainfall gauge, water level sensor, water surface velocity sensor and pressure-type water depth sensor. Totally, there are 73 sites in the experimental watershed, including the sites installed by the Central Weather Bureau and the Water Resources Agency. Over 30 million data have been collected and validated. Most of data have been passed the processes and considered reliable data. Then, three types of models are applied including rainfall-runoff, river routing and two-dimensional flood models. The simulation results can properly fit the monitored data in these selected events and indicates these models are proper for the experimental watersheds and suitable used for real-time warning. Finally, for purpose of hydrological monitoring and disaster mitigation, a website has been created to show the monitoring data. The users can login and browse the real time monitoring data and figure of temporal data in the past 24 hours and get the information for flood mitigation and emergent evacuation.

  2. Modeling rock weathering in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.

    2014-05-01

    Many mountainous watersheds are conceived as aquifer media where multiple groundwater flow systems have developed (Tóth, 1963), and as bimodal landscapes where differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock has occurred (Wahrhaftig, 1965). The results of a weathering algorithm (Pacheco and Van der Weijden, 2012a, 2014), which integrates topographic, hydrologic, rock structure and chemical data to calculate weathering rates at the watershed scale, validated the conceptual models in the River Sordo basin, a small watershed located in the Marão cordillera (North of Portugal). The coupling of weathering, groundwater flow and landscape evolution analyses, as accomplished in this study, is innovative and represents a remarkable achievement towards regionalization of rock weathering at the watershed scale. The River Sordo basin occupies an area of approximately 51.2 km2 and was shaped on granite and metassediment terrains between the altitudes 185-1300 m. The groundwater flow system is composed of recharge areas located at elevations >700 m, identified on the basis of δ18O data. Discharge cells comprehend terminations of local, intermediate and regional flow systems, identified on the basis of spring density patterns, infiltration depth estimates based on 87Sr/86Sr data, and spatial distributions of groundwater pH and natural mineralization. Intermediate and regional flow systems, defined where infiltration depths >125 m, develop solely along the contact zone between granites and metassediments, because fractures in this region are profound and their density is very large. Weathering is accelerated where rocks are covered by thick soils, being five times faster relative to sectors of the basin where rocks are covered by thin soils. Differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock is also revealed by the spatial distribution of calculated aquifer hydraulic diffusivities and groundwater travel times.

  3. Nitrogen transport from tallgrass prairie watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodds, W.K.; Blair, J.M.; Henebry, G.M.; Koelliker, J.K.; Ramundo, R.; Tate, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Discharge and N content of surface water flowing from four Karat watersheds on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas, managed with different burn frequencies, were monitored from 1986 to 1992. The goal was to establish the influence of natural processes (climate, fire, and bison grazing) on N transport and concentration in streams. Streams were characterized by variable flow, under conditions that included an extreme flood and a drought during which all channels were dry for over a year. The estimated groundwater/stream water discharge ratio varied between 0.15 to 6.41. Annual N transport by streams, averaged across all watersheds and years, was 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Annual N transport per unit area also increased as the watershed area increased and as precipitation increased. Total annual transport of N horn the prairie via streams ranged from 0.01 to 6.0% of the N input from precipitation. Nitrate and total N concentrations in surface water decreased (P < 0.001, r values ranged from 0.140.26) as length of time since last fire increased. Increased watershed area was correlated negatively (P < 0.0001) to stream water concentrations of NO3-N and total N (r values = -0.43 and -0.20, respectively). Low N concentration is typical of these streams, with NH4/+-N concentrations below 1.0 ??g L-1, NO3-N ranging from below 1.4 to 392 ??g L-1, and total N from 3.0 to 714 ??g L-1. These data provide an important baseline for evaluating N transport and stream water quality from unfertilized grasslands.

  4. Integrating wetland connectivity into models for watershed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIW), or wetlands embedded in uplands, exist along a spatial and temporal hydrologic connectivity continuum to downstream waters. Via these connections and disconnections, GIWs provide numerous hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological functions linked to human health and watershed-scale ecosystem services. Often, a clear demonstration of these functions and the individual and cumulative effects of GIWs on downstream waters is required for their protection or restoration. Measurements alone are typically too resource intensive to do this. In this presentation, we discuss the use of various modeling approaches to quantify the hydrologic connectivity of GIWs and their associated watershed-scale cumulative effects. Our goal is to improve the science behind understanding the functions and connectivity of GIWs via models that are complemented with various types of novel data. We synthesize what is meant by GIW connectivity and its broad significance to science and decision-making. We further discuss case studies that provide insights to diverse modeling approaches, with varying levels of complexity, for how to estimate GIW connectivity and associated watershed-scale impacts to hydrology. We finally provide insights to the key opportunities and priorities for integrating GIW connectivity into the next generation of models. Geographically isolated wetlands (GIW), or wetlands embedded in uplands, exist along a spatial and temporal h

  5. Watershed characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  6. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: physiography data.

    PubMed

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Starks, Patrick J; Steiner, Jean L; Guzman, Jorge A; Allen, Paul B; Naney, James W

    2014-07-01

    Physiographic data such as digital elevation models (DEMs), soils, geology, stream channel network characteristics, channel stability, and land use data are essential for understanding the complex hydrologic cycle and chemical transport processes of any given study area. We describe the physiographic data available in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW) in Oklahoma. Specifically, we describe (i) available raw and post-processed DEM products (), (ii) available soils data ( and ) and associated error analysis based on limited measured data, (iii) geologic formations in the LWREW and FCREW ( and ), and (iv) available rapid geomorphic assessment measurements () and their uses. Data collection is a collaborative effort among USGS, NRCS, and ARS. These data sets have been used for several research applications by USDA-ARS scientists and researchers from other institutions and agencies. Plans for detailed geomorphic assessment of stream channel networks in the FCREW are underway in collaboration with Oklahoma State University in Stillwater. The collected data will enable updating of the channel stability stage condition since there have been several major rainfall events in the watershed since the last geomorphic assessment.

  7. Citizen Participation in Collaborative Watershed Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  8. Multiyear Estimates of Evaporation from a Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesely, M. L.; Song, J.

    2002-12-01

    Estimates of the evaporative losses from the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas were made with the parameterized subgrid scale (PASS) model and applied in an evaluation of the hydrological balance for the five-year period 1996-2000. The PASS model uses routine, spatially sparse surface meteorological data and satellite remote sensing data to calculate surface evapotranspiration rates over extended areas. The PASS model is observationally driven, makes use of extensive parameterizations of surface properties and processes, and does not rely on mesoscale meteorological models. Heteorogeneities in surface conditions are spatially resolved to an extent determined primarily by the satellite data pixel size. For the period of the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study field experiment at the Walnut River Watershed, estimates of vertical moisture fluxes from PASS agreed well with surface-based and aircraft-based eddy covariance measurements. Current work focuses on simulation of the water balance over the Watershed area of about 5000 square kilometers for a period of five years, in part to evaluate and study interannual variability. Surface vegetative conditions were described by analysis of biweekly, composite, 1-km-resolution NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data products. Radar-based estimates of precipitation estimates were obtained from the regional forecast center. Preliminary results indicate that estimates of accumulated soil moisture loss by evapotranspiration match fairly well with the soil moisture loss inferred roughly from precipitation and stream gauge measurements.

  9. Automated storm water sampling on small watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmel, R.D.; King, K.W.; Slade, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Few guidelines are currently available to assist in designing appropriate automated storm water sampling strategies for small watersheds. Therefore, guidance is needed to develop strategies that achieve an appropriate balance between accurate characterization of storm water quality and loads and limitations of budget, equipment, and personnel. In this article, we explore the important sampling strategy components (minimum flow threshold, sampling interval, and discrete versus composite sampling) and project-specific considerations (sampling goal, sampling and analysis resources, and watershed characteristics) based on personal experiences and pertinent field and analytical studies. These components and considerations are important in achieving the balance between sampling goals and limitations because they determine how and when samples are taken and the potential sampling error. Several general recommendations are made, including: setting low minimum flow thresholds, using flow-interval or variable time-interval sampling, and using composite sampling to limit the number of samples collected. Guidelines are presented to aid in selection of an appropriate sampling strategy based on user's project-specific considerations. Our experiences suggest these recommendations should allow implementation of a successful sampling strategy for most small watershed sampling projects with common sampling goals.

  10. Hydro power benefits of cooperative watershed management

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lindquist, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the efforts of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) in cooperation with a number of agencies and public and private land managers to reduce erosion and restore the health of the East Branch North Fork Feather River (EBNFFR) watershed in Plumas County, California. Erosion of the 2600 square kilometer watershed has been identified as a major contributor of sediments to PG&E`s Rock Creek and Cresta hydroelectric reservoirs which have collected more than 5.4 million cubic meters of sediment over the past 45 years. PG&E and the 17 other participants of the cooperative erosion control program are joined by a {open_quotes}Memorandum of Agreement{close_quotes} (MOA) and are applying {open_quotes}Coordinated Resource Management{close_quotes} (CRM). To date, more than 33 individual watershed improvement projects and a comprehensive erosion control strategy document have been completed. It is anticipated that over the long term, the erosion control program may reduce the water-borne sediment delivery to Rock Creek and Cresta reservoirs by as much as 50 percent. PG&E benefits from the program through reduced sediment deposition in the reservoirs, reduced sediment wear on the power turbines, and potential increases in base flow during summer months when water power is of greatest value.

  11. Box Canyon Model Watershed Project : Annual Report 1997/1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Box Canyon Watershed Project. This project will concentrate on watershed protection and enhancement from an upland perspective and will complement current instream restoration efforts implemented through the Kalispel Resident Fish Project. Primary focus of this project is the Cee Cee Ah Creek watershed due to its proximity to the Reservation, importance as a traditional fishery, and potential for bull trout and west-slope cutthroat trout recovery.

  12. Saint Regis Indian Reservation: Potential Drainage Improvements for Three Watersheds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    AD-A203 335 St. Regis Indian Reservation Potential Drainage Improvements for Three Watersheds Prepared for the Department of the Interior, Bureau of...Dat .aE -place until residential or agricultural development of Watershed no. 3 requires improved drainage . SECURITlY CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAGE(Wh...Final Drainage Improvements for Three Watersheds. PERORING O REPORT 7. AUT4OR ( sI) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERI,) P jRFORMING ORGANIZATION 46ME AND

  13. Water resources of the St. Louis River watershed, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Ericson, D.W.; Broussard, W.L.; Hult, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    The watershed is sparsely settled except for its northern and south-eastern parts. About 80 percent of the urban population lives on the Iron Range. Most of the suburban and rural residents alro live on or near the range or in the southeastern part of the watershed. Total population (1970), exclusive of those in the city of Duluth, which is included in the Lake Superior watershed (Olcott and others, 1976), was about 117,000.

  14. Watershed analysis with GIS: The watershed characterization and modeling system software application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strager, Michael P.; Fletcher, Jerald J.; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Yuill, Charles B.; Eli, Robert N.; Todd Petty, J.; Lamont, Samuel J.

    2010-07-01

    The watershed characterization and modeling system (WCMS) was developed to support decision making and the management of water resources at a statewide level in West Virginia. Specific hydrological analysis functions were combined within a customized GIS interface to provide decision support capabilities to both technical and non-technical users. Components of the current system include: an overland flow path model that indicates optimum water quality sampling locations, flow estimation for all streams in an identified area, an instream water quality and loading model for pollutant levels, and a ranking model to prioritize treatment alternatives based on user defined criteria and preferences. The primary goals of this system are to provide consistent technical information related to natural watershed processes and to predict the impacts of alternative management scenarios for decision makers. WCMS is currently used by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) to guide policy development and management decisions that address watershed and water quality issues throughout the state.

  15. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  16. THE ROLE OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION IN DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmention with a gewographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  17. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  18. Input-output budgets of selected nutrients on an experimental watershed near Parsons, West Virginia

    Treesearch

    J. D. Helvey; Samuel H. Kunkle; Samuel H. Kunkle

    1986-01-01

    A control watershed at the Fernow Experimental Watershed effectively neutralizes acids received in precipitation. However, sulfate input by precipitation greatly exceeds sulfate losses as streamflow and watershed acidification is a real concern.

  19. THE ROLE OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION IN DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmention with a gewographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  20. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  1. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  2. Veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in mixed land use watersheds: from agricultural headwater to water monitoring watershed.

    PubMed

    Jaffrézic, A; Jardé, E; Soulier, A; Carrera, L; Marengue, E; Cailleau, A; Le Bot, B

    2017-12-31

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals, widely used in intensive livestock production, may contaminate surface waters. Identifying their sources and pathways in watersheds is difficult because i) most veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in human medicine as well and ii) septic or sewer wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can release pharmaceuticals into surface water, even in agricultural headwater watersheds. This study aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of animal-specific, mixed-use, and human-specific pharmaceuticals, from agricultural headwaters with intensive livestock production and a WWTP to a watershed used for Water Framework Directive monitoring. Grab sampling was performed during one hydrological year upstream and downstream from a WWTP and at three dates in seven nested watersheds with areas of 1.9-84.1km(2). Twenty pharmaceuticals were analyzed. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected at all sampling dates upstream and downstream from the WWTP and at concentrations higher than those of human-specific pharmaceuticals. The predominance of animal-specific and mixed-use pharmaceuticals vs. human-specific pharmaceuticals observed at these sampling points was confirmed at the other sampling points. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected mainly during runoff events and periods of manure spreading. A large percentage of mixed-use pharmaceuticals could come from animal sources, but it was difficult to determine. Mixed-use and human-specific pharmaceuticals predominated in the largest watersheds when runoff decreased. In areas of intensive livestock production, mitigation actions should focus on agricultural headwater watersheds to decrease the number of pathways and the transfer volume of veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can be the main contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photo Gallery for Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  4. Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in the Macatawa Watershed, Michigan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The project supports MACC outreach and implementation efforts of the watershed management plan by facilitating communication with local municipal staff and educating local decision makers about green infrastructure.

  5. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  6. Initial Ecosystem Development in an Artificial Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettl, R.; Koegel-Knabner, I.; Zeyer, J.

    2008-12-01

    Watersheds are often used as a base for ecosystem research. However, boundaries and inner structures of natural watersheds are often insufficiently known and have to be explored indirectly e.g. by means of geophysical methods. Therefore, important parts of the system often remain 'black boxes'. In addition, natural systems are characterized by huge complexity and heterogeneity. To overcome these disadvantages artificially created watersheds may play an important role in ecosystem research. They offer the chance to investigate systems with well defined boundary conditions and inner structures. Furthermore, artificial watersheds might be an important link between lysimeter research and investigations at the landscape scale. The artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" ('Huehnerwasser') is one of the world's largest man-made catchments for scientific purposes. It was established in 2005 with an area of 6 ha (450 m x 150 m) including a small lake. The site is located in the Eastern German lignite mining district near Cottbus, about 150 km southeast of Berlin. The watershed was constructed by Vattenfall Europe Mining AG as the operator of the still active lignite open-cast mine Welzow-South. Construction work was done by means of large mining machines in co-operation with the Brandenburg University of Technology at Cottbus. The inner structure of this new landscape element is relatively simple: A clay layer was dumped as a barrier for seepage water overlaid by a 3 m sandy layer consisting of Quaternary substrate from Pleistocene sediments. The surface of the site has been flattened and the area was fenced to prevent disturbances. Neither amelioration nor any reclamation measures were carried out afterwards. The site has been left for an unrestricted natural succession. In 2007 the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre (SFB/TRR 38) as a joint project between 3 Universities (BTU Cottbus, TU Munich and ETH Zurich) was launched and is funded by the German Research

  7. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  8. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  9. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  10. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (Rel), resilience (Res) and vulnerability (Vul) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and Rel ResVul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented Rel ResVul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-Rel ResVul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-Rel ResVul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014.

  11. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  12. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  13. Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groffman, P.M.; Law, N.L.; Belt, K.T.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Although the watershed approach has long been used to study whole-ecosystem function, it has seldom been applied to study human-dominated systems, especially those dominated by urban and suburban land uses. Here we present 3 years of data on nitrogen (N) losses from one completely forested, one agricultural, and six urban/suburban watersheds, and input-output N budgets for suburban, forested, and agricultural watersheds. The work is a product of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a long-term study of urban and suburban ecosystems, and a component of the US National Science Foundation's long-term ecological research (LTER) network. As expected, urban and suburban watersheds had much higher N losses than did the completely forested watershed, with N yields ranging from 2.9 to 7.9 kg N ha-1 y-1 in the urban and suburban watersheds compared with less than 1 kg N ha-1 y -1 in the completely forested watershed. Yields from urban and suburban watersheds were lower than those from an agricultural watershed (13-19.8 kg N ha-1 y-1). Retention of N in the suburban watershed was surprisingly high, 75% of inputs, which were dominated by home lawn fertilizer (14.4 kg N ha-1 y-1) and atmospheric deposition (11.2 kg N ha-1 y-1). Detailed analysis of mechanisms of N retention, which must occur in the significant amounts of pervious surface present in urban and suburban watersheds, and which include storage in soils and vegetation and gaseous loss, is clearly warranted.

  14. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED TOOL FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execu...

  15. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED TOOL FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execu...

  16. GATHERING INFORMATION FOR WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF TEN WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document outlines and reviews the various types of information used in 10 different watershed assessments. Data tables that describe the data types, sources of data, data reliability, and study contacts as well as other information used in each of the 10 assessments are incl...

  17. Linking plot, field, and watershed runoff and water quality in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most water quality studies are conducted at the plot, field, or watershed scale; however, studies that integrate the three scales provide information to scale results obtained at one scale to a greater area. The objective of this study was to analyze runoff and water quality measured (1997-2001) fr...

  18. GATHERING INFORMATION FOR WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF TEN WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document outlines and reviews the various types of information used in 10 different watershed assessments. Data tables that describe the data types, sources of data, data reliability, and study contacts as well as other information used in each of the 10 assessments are incl...

  19. Assessing the vulnerability of watersheds to climate change: results of national forest watershed vulnerability pilot assessments

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Furniss; Ken B. Roby; Dan Cenderelli; John Chatel; Caty F. Clifton; Alan Clingenpeel; Polly E. Hays; Dale Higgins; Ken Hodges; Carol Howe; Laura Jungst; Joan Louie; Christine Mai; Ralph Martinez; Kerry Overton; Brian P. Staab; Rory Steinke; Mark. Weinhold

    2013-01-01

    Existing models and predictions project serious changes to worldwide hydrologic processes as a result of global climate change. Projections indicate that significant change may threaten National Forest System watersheds that are an important source of water used to support people, economies, and ecosystems.Wildland managers are expected to anticipate and...

  20. Cryptosporidium Source Tracking in the Potomac River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize the presence of Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as t...

  1. Cryptosporidium source tracking in the Potomac River watershed - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as three upstream si...

  2. Cryptosporidium source tracking in the Potomac River watershed - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as three upstream si...

  3. Applying online WEPP to assess forest watershed hydrology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new version of the online Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) GIS interface has been developed to assist in evaluating sediment sources associated with forests and forest management within the Great Lakes Basin. WEPP watershed structure and topographical inputs for each watershed element are g...

  4. Effects of conservation practices on fishes within agricultural watersheds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watersheds in the United States without documentation of their impacts. The goal of the ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Project Watershed Assessment Study is to quantify the effect of conservation practices within 14 agri...

  5. Sediment dynamics and sources in a grazed hardwood rangeland watershed

    Treesearch

    Melvin R. George; Neil K. McDougald; Kenneth W. Tate; Royce Larsen

    2002-01-01

    From 1994 to 1998 we documented sediment transport dynamics and sources in a 137 ha grazed hardwood rangeland watershed on granitic soils at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County. Sediment transport for this watershed was determined by measuring total suspended solids, bedload and flow at an H-flume installed in 1994. Sediment movement as bedload is the...

  6. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrological modelling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier for the Little Miami River (LMR) and Las Vegas Wash (LVW) watersheds were used for detail sensitivity analyses. To compare the...

  7. Applying online WEPP to assess forest watershed hydrology

    Treesearch

    S. Dun; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot; J. R. Frankenberger; D. C. Flanagan; D. K. McCool

    2013-01-01

    A new version of the online Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) GIS interface has been developed to assist in evaluating sediment sources associated with forests and forest management within the Great Lakes basin. WEPP watershed structure and topographical inputs for each watershed element are generated from the USGS 30 m National Elevation Dataset (NED), soil...

  8. US EPA’s Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are prim...

  9. Nutrient losses from an irrigated watershed in southern Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water, sediment and nutrients flowing into and out of the 82,000 ha Twin Falls, ID irrigation tract were measured from 2005 to 2008. Approximately 80% of the water flowing into the watershed was irrigation water diverted from the Snake River. About 40% of the watershed inflow returned to the Snake R...

  10. Large woody debris budgets in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds

    Treesearch

    Sue Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of large woody debris (LWD) in the two mainstem channels of the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds since 1998, combined with older data from other work in the watersheds, gives estimates of channel wood input rates, survival, and outputs in intermediate-sized channels in coastal redwood forests. Input rates from standing trees for the two reaches over a 15...

  11. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrological modelling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier for the Little Miami River (LMR) and Las Vegas Wash (LVW) watersheds were used for detail sensitivity analyses. To compare the...

  12. Integrated landscape/hydrologic modeling tool for semiarid watersheds

    Treesearch

    Mariano Hernandez; Scott N. Miller

    2000-01-01

    An integrated hydrologic modeling/watershed assessment tool is being developed to aid in determining the susceptibility of semiarid landscapes to natural and human-induced changes across a range of scales. Watershed processes are by definition spatially distributed and are highly variable through time, and this approach is designed to account for their spatial and...

  13. How to sow mustard in burned watersheds of southern California

    Treesearch

    Clark H. Gleason

    1944-01-01

    After the chaparral cover of the mountain watersheds in southern California is burned, damage is usually done during winter storms by increased runoff and erosion debris from the denuded area. The damage is done not only to the works of man, but to the watershed itself. Improvements that most often suffer tangible damage include water storage and diversion structures;...

  14. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 3: Urban Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright; Jennifer Tomlinson

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a three-manual series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 3. Urban Tree Planting Guide provides detailed guidance on urban tree planting that is applicable at both the development site and the watershed scales. Topics covered include site assessment, planting design, site...

  15. Reconciling fisheries with conservation in watersheds: tools for informed decisions.

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Bisson; Timothy J. Beechie; George R. Pess

    2007-01-01

    Watersheds capture and deliver fresh water to streams, rivers, wetlands and lakes. They are fundamental landscape units for freshwater fisheries because they govern the characteristics of the annual hydrograph, the configuration and physical features of stream channels, and the input of organic matter and nutrients. Watersheds are also where we live, grow crops, and...

  16. Geomorphic predictors of riparian vegetation in small mountain watersheds

    Treesearch

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Jeanne C. Chambers; Peter J. Weisberg

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogeomorphic processes operating at watershed, process zone and site scales influence the distribution of riparian vegetation. However, most studies examining the relationships between hydrogeomorphic processes and riparian vegetation are conducted at site scales. We quantified the relative importance of watershed, process zone and site geomorphic characteristics...

  17. Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure

    Treesearch

    Joe Scott; Don Helmbrecht; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin; Kate Marcille

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfires within municipal watersheds can result in significant impacts to water quality and ultimately human health and safety. In this paper, we illustrate the application of geospatial analysis and burn probability modeling to assess the exposure of municipal watersheds to wildfire. Our assessment of wildfire exposure consists of two primary...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENT SOURCE AREAS WITHIN A WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two methods, one using a travel time approach and the other based on optimization techniques, were developed to identify sediment generating areas within a watershed. Both methods rely on hydrograph and sedimentograph data collected at the mouth of the watershed. Data from severa...

  19. Developing Landscape Level Indicators for Predicting Watershed Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drainage basins (watersheds) exert a strong influence on the condition of water bodies such as streams and lakes. Watersheds and associated aquatic systems respond differently to stressors (e.g., land use change) or restoration activities depending on the climatic setting, bedroc...

  20. Frequency of floods from a burned chaparral watershed

    Treesearch

    Iraj Nasseri

    1989-01-01

    Effects of brush fire on hydrologic characteristics of chaparral watersheds were analyzed. An unburned chaparral produces moderate surface runoff. The vegetation promotes infiltration by retarding the runoff and providing temporary storage during intense rainfall. The hydrologic characteristics of chaparral watershed, however, are drastically changed by fires. The high...

  1. Tracking nonpoint nitrogen pollution from urbanizing watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Band, L. E.; Elliott, E. M.; Shields, C. A.; Kendall, C.

    2010-12-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor of water quality impairments including coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Improved identification of nonpoint N sources will be critical in prioritizing strategies for watershed N reductions. We combined long-term monitoring, watershed mass balances, and stable isotope source identification methods to investigate impacts of land use and hydrology on transport and transformation of nonpoint source N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized catchments at the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site in Baltimore, Maryland. Human population and wastewater N in residential and suburban areas has doubled over a 50 year period in this region of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and represents an emerging challenge for nonpoint N sources. Mass balances suggested that a substantial proportion of N entering watersheds is retained and transformed based on annual runoff patterns, but that nonpoint sources showed differential susceptibility to watershed N exports in response to climate variability. Isotope data suggested that denitrification in watersheds was removing septic system and agriculturally-derived N, but N from leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. Efforts to reduce nonpoint N sources should enhance watershed denitrification sinks across climatic conditions, and repair of aging urban infrastructure and leaking sewer lines should be a priority. Managing N inputs near streams and below the rooting zone may play a disproportionately large role in regulating N exports in human-dominated watersheds.

  2. Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest: Past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker; Vicente L. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest have been, are, and will be reflected by the nature of watershed management practices. Past perspectives evolved from considerations of increasing water yields and water quality concerns. Present perspectives are centered on minimizing adverse impacts to soil and water resources, sustaining high-quality water flows,...

  3. AN ARCGIS TOOL FOR CREATING POPULATIONS OF WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the Landscape Investigations for Pesticides Study in the Midwest, the goal is to sample a representative subset of watersheds selected statistically from a target population of watersheds within the glaciated corn belt. This area stretches from Ohio to Iowa and includes parts...

  4. AmeriFlux US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cook, David [Argonne National Laboratory; Coulter, Richard L. [Argonne National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg). Site Description - The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land is leased on a year-to-year basis.

  5. Developing Landscape Level Indicators for Predicting Watershed Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drainage basins (watersheds) exert a strong influence on the condition of water bodies such as streams and lakes. Watersheds and associated aquatic systems respond differently to stressors (e.g., land use change) or restoration activities depending on the climatic setting, bedroc...

  6. AN ARCGIS TOOL FOR CREATING POPULATIONS OF WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the Landscape Investigations for Pesticides Study in the Midwest, the goal is to sample a representative subset of watersheds selected statistically from a target population of watersheds within the glaciated corn belt. This area stretches from Ohio to Iowa and includes parts...

  7. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    Treesearch

    H. Ssegane; Devendra Amatya; A. Muwamba; G. M. Chescheir; T. Appelboom; E. W. Tollner; J. E. Nettles; M. A. Youssef; F. Birgand; R. W. Skaggs

    2015-01-01

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the...

  8. Consistency of Hydrologic Relationships of a Paired Watershed Approach

    Treesearch

    Herbert Ssegane; Devendra M. Amatya; George M. Chescheir; Wayne R. Skaggs; Ernest W. Tollner; Jami E.. Nettles

    2013-01-01

    Paired watershed studies are used around the world to evaluate and quantify effects of forest and water management practices on hydrology and water quality. The basic concept uses two neighboring watersheds (one as a control and another as a treatment), which are concurrently monitored during calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. A statistically...

  9. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  10. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  11. Assessing the Value of the Enviroscape Watershed Learning Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Warren Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The researcher's evaluation of the West Atlanta Watershed Alliance's (WAWA) programs highlighted that few if any of the offered educational programs included a program evaluation, especially the most promising, the Enviroscape® Watershed learning module. The education programs that were customized and developed by the…

  12. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Fiscal Year 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Runyon, John; Davis-Born, Renee

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments made by the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 1998. Coordination and administration consists of tasks associated with Focus Watershed Council staffing, project management, and public outreach.

  13. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  14. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  15. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a screening model that is spatially lumped with options for a daily or monthly time step. It is specifically focused on modeling the effect of management decisions on the watershed. The model considers water flows and ...

  16. Mercury budget of an upland-peatland watershed

    Treesearch

    D. F. Grigal; Randy K. Kolka; J. A. Fleck; E. A. Nater

    2000-01-01

    Inputs, outputs, and pool sizes of total mercury (Hg) were measured in a forested 10 ha,watershed consisting of a 7 ha hardwood-dominated upland surrounding a 3 ha coniferdominated peatland. Hydrologic inputs via throughfall and stemflow, 13 +/- 0.4/ug m-2 yr-1 over the entire watershed, were about double precipitation...

  17. Development of a distributed hydrologic model to facilitate watershed management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precise and cost-effective watershed management is challenging since nutrient and pollutant mobility varies greatly with source areas as well as flow pathways, which calls for detailed representation of hydrological processes. To facilitate watershed management, a simple yet spatially and temporally...

  18. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Treesearch

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  19. Framework for Placements of BMPs in Urban Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework to select, design, and place BMPs in urban watersheds to protect source waters and meet water quality goals...design requirements include: GIS interface; Watershed simulation module; Cost-optimization module. Intended users are those with a fundamental under...

  20. Framework for Placements of BMPs in Urban Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework to select, design, and place BMPs in urban watersheds to protect source waters and meet water quality goals...design requirements include: GIS interface; Watershed simulation module; Cost-optimization module. Intended users are those with a fundamental under...

  1. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  2. Cibecue watershed projects: Then, now, and in the future

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    The White Mountain Apache Tribe has undertaken a watershed analysis and various demonstration projects in the Cibecue watershed in east-central Arizona. The results support an adaptive management strategy to promote ecological health, enhance economic opportunities, and protect cultural values. Some of the problems faced by today’s program are similar to those faced by...

  3. WATERSHED LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory



    The distribution of different types of land cover across a watershed is a principal factor in controlling the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous exported from a watershed. A well developed literature of nutrient export coefficients by land-cover class was used to model t...

  4. Cryptosporidium Source Tracking in the Potomac River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize the presence of Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as t...

  5. Watershed management contributions to land stewardship: A literature review

    Treesearch

    Malchus B. Baker; Peter F. Folliott; Carleton B. Edminster; Karen L. Mora; Madelyn C. Dillon

    2000-01-01

    An international conference to increase people's awareness of the contributions that watershed management can make to future land stewardship was held in Tucson, Arizona, March 13-16, 2000. This bibliography is a compilation of the synthesis and poster papers presented at the conference along with the literature cited in these papers on watershed research projects...

  6. Framework for Placement of BMPs in Urban Watersheds (2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily a...

  7. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  8. Watershed health: An evaluation index for New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Bill Fleming

    1999-01-01

    Although watersheds are not equally healthy, there are no generally accepted criteria for evaluating and comparing them. This paper suggests several criteria which numerically evaluate watersheds in four ways: (1) riparian health, (2) aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity, (3) hillslope soil loss and (4) upland land use/flood peak potential. Each criterion is...

  9. WATERSHED LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory



    The distribution of different types of land cover across a watershed is a principal factor in controlling the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous exported from a watershed. A well developed literature of nutrient export coefficients by land-cover class was used to model t...

  10. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  11. Assessing the Value of the Enviroscape Watershed Learning Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Warren Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The researcher's evaluation of the West Atlanta Watershed Alliance's (WAWA) programs highlighted that few if any of the offered educational programs included a program evaluation, especially the most promising, the Enviroscape® Watershed learning module. The education programs that were customized and developed by the…

  12. Watershed Models for Predicting Nitrogen Loads from Artificially Drained Lands

    Treesearch

    R. Wayne Skaggs; George M. Chescheir; Glenn Fernandez; Devendra M. Amatya

    2003-01-01

    Non-point sources of pollutants originate at the field scale but water quality problems usually occur at the watershed or basin scale. This paper describes a series of models developed for poorly drained watersheds. The models use DRAINMOD to predict hydrology at the field scale and a range of methods to predict channel hydraulics and nitrogen transport. In-stream...

  13. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING SCIENCE TO DECISION MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes some of the challenges and benefits of taking an integrated watershed approach to achieving Clean Water Act (CWA) and Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) goals, and some of the activities in EPA to facilitate watershed management decision making.

  14. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  15. Watershed-Scale Fate and Transport of Bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The added dimensionality provided by using multiple models to predict the fate and transport of bacteria at the watershed scale were investigated. Both HSPF and SWAT were applied to the 15.6 km2 catchment K of the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) in Georgia. Over the 7-year period from 19...

  16. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a screening model that is spatially lumped with options for a daily or monthly time step. It is specifically focused on modeling the effect of management decisions on the watershed. The model considers water flows and ...

  17. U.S. EPA's Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  18. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA

    Treesearch

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra

    2016-01-01

    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  19. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING SCIENCE TO DECISION MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes some of the challenges and benefits of taking an integrated watershed approach to achieving Clean Water Act (CWA) and Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) goals, and some of the activities in EPA to facilitate watershed management decision making.

  20. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed approaches to water quality management have become popular, because they can address multiple point and non-point sources and the influences of land use. Developing technically-sound watershed management strategies can be challenging due to the need to 1) account for mu...

  1. OPTIMIZING BMP PLACEMENT AT WATERSHED-SCALE USING SUSTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  2. FROM LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY OF WATERSHEDS TO BENTHIC ECOLOGY OF ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do land use/cover characteristics of watersheds associated with small estuaries (<260 km2) have a strong enough signal to make landscape metrics useful for finding impaired bottom communities? We tested this idea with 58 pairs of small estuaries and watersheds from Delaware Bay t...

  3. Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Peter M. Groffman; Neely L. Law; Kenneth T. Belt; Lawrence E. Band; Gary T. Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Although the watershed approach has long been used to study whole-ecosystem function, it has seldom been applied to study human-dominated systems, especially those dominated by urban and suburban land uses. Here we present 3 years of data on nitrogen (N) losses from one completely forested, one agricultural, and six urban/suburban watersheds, and input--output N...

  4. AmeriFlux US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed. Site Description - The stand is over 50 years old, having regenerated from agricultural land.This site is located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee near the Walker Branch Watershed.

  5. Framework for Placement of BMPs in Urban Watersheds (2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily a...

  6. US EPA’s Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are prim...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENT SOURCE AREAS WITHIN A WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two methods, one using a travel time approach and the other based on optimization techniques, were developed to identify sediment generating areas within a watershed. Both methods rely on hydrograph and sedimentograph data collected at the mouth of the watershed. Data from severa...

  8. Modeling the cumulative watershed effects of forest management strategies

    Treesearch

    R. R. Ziemer; J. Lewis; R. M. Rice; T. E. Lisle

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - There is increasing concern over the possibility of adverse cumulative watershed effects from intensive forest management. It is impractical to address many aspects of the problem experimentally because to do so would require studying large watersheds for 100 yr or more. One such aspect is the long-term effect of forest management strategies on erosion and...

  9. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed approaches to water quality management have become popular, because they can address multiple point and non-point sources and the influences of land use. Developing technically-sound watershed management strategies can be challenging due to the need to 1) account for mu...

  10. Geographically isolated wetlands and watershed hydrology: A modified

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data for An improved representation of geographically isolated wetlands in a watershed-scale hydrologic modelThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Evenson, G., H. Golden, C. Lane, and E. D'Amico. An improved representation of geographically isolated wetlands in a watershed-scale hydrologic model. Hydrological Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis, IN, USA, online, (2016).

  11. USDA-ARS support of the USDA small watershed program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) has had a rich history supporting the USDA Small Watershed Program. The Small Watershed Program was established by the passage of legislation that allowed the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service to provide financial and technical suppo...

  12. Watershed geomorphology modifies the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Schindler, D.

    2015-12-01

    How carbon cycles are regulated by temperature remains a substantial uncertainty in our understanding of how watersheds will respond to ongoing climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are significant components of carbon flux to the atmosphere and ocean, yet we have limited understanding of how changing thermal regimes will alter rates of ecosystem metabolic processes, and, therefore, aquatic contributions to carbon cycles at watershed to global scales. Watershed geomorphology controls the landscape-scale distribution of organic material that can form the metabolic base of aquatic ecosystems, which will likely affect the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Across 23 streams in a boreal river basin, we estimated how temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (ER), an important component of the aquatic C cycle, varied among streams with different watershed characteristics. We found that geomorphic conditions imposed strong ultimate controls on temperature sensitivity: ER in streams draining flat watersheds was much more sensitive to temperature than streams draining steeper watersheds. Further, we show that the link between watershed geomorphology and temperature sensitivity was related to changes in the quality of carbon substrates across the gradient in watershed slope. These results suggest that geomorphic conditions will ultimately control how carbon processing responds to warming climate, thereby affecting carbon transport and storage, and likely food web responses, in river networks.

  13. U.S. EPA's Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  14. OPTIMIZING BMP PLACEMENT AT WATERSHED-SCALE USING SUSTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  15. East Fork Watershed Cooperative Meeting: Local Representatives Briefing

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA research in the East Fork of the Little Miami River Watershed takes a whole system approach to determining how to best manage water quality in this large multi-use watershed. The success of the research relies on effective partnerships with other stakeholders of water quali...

  16. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier for the Little Miami River (LMR) and Las Vegas Wash (LVW) watersheds were used for detail sensitivity analyses. To compare the...

  17. Watershed management implications of agroforestry expansion on Minnesota's farmlands

    Treesearch

    C. Hobart Perry; Ryan C. Miller; Anthony R. Kaster; Kenneth N. Brooks

    2000-01-01

    Minnesota’s agricultural landscape is changing. The increasing use of woody perennials in agricultural fields, living snow fences, windbreaks, and riparian areas has important watershed management implications for agricultural watersheds in northwestern Minnesota. These changes in land use could lead to reductions in annual water yield, annual flood peaks, and dry...

  18. The role of watersheds in reconciling fisheries with conservation.

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Bisson

    2007-01-01

    Several keynote speakers at the fourth World Fisheries Congress emphasized the importance of understanding ecosystem processes if we are to effectively reconcile fisheries with conservation. Nowhere is this more important than in watershed management. Watershed processes determine the properties of freshwater ecosystems and thereby regulate the productivity of local...

  19. Lessons learned in watershed management: A retrospective view

    Treesearch

    Walter F. Megahan; Jim Hornbeck

    2000-01-01

    Forest watershed management research is mandated by over 100 years of legislation, from the Organic Act and Weeks Law enacted around the beginning of the 20th century, to a variety of environmental protection acts passed over the past several decades. Research results have come primarily from studies of a multitude of gaged watersheds selected to represent a variety of...

  20. On regreening and degradation in Sahelian watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Kaptué, Armel T.; Prihodko, Lara; Hanan, Niall P.

    2015-01-01

    Over many decades our understanding of the impacts of intermittent drought in water-limited environments like the West African Sahel has been influenced by a narrative of overgrazing and human-induced desertification. The desertification narrative has persisted in both scientific and popular conception, such that recent regional-scale recovery (“regreening”) and local success stories (community-led conservation efforts) in the Sahel, following the severe droughts of the 1970s–1980s, are sometimes ignored. Here we report a study of watershed-scale vegetation dynamics in 260 watersheds, sampled in four regions of Senegal, Mali, and Niger from 1983–2012, using satellite-derived vegetation indices as a proxy for net primary production. In response to earlier controversy, we first examine the shape of the rainfall–net primary production relationship and how it impacts conclusions regarding greening or degradation. We conclude that the choice of functional relationship has little quantitative impact on our ability to infer greening or degradation trends. We then present an approach to analyze changes in long-term (decade-scale) average rain-use efficiency (an indicator of slowly responding vegetation structural changes) relative to changes in interannual-scale rainfall sensitivity (an indicator of landscape ability to respond rapidly to rainfall variability) to infer trends in greening/degradation of the watersheds in our sample regions. The predominance of increasing rain-use efficiency in our data supports earlier reports of a “greening” trend across the Sahel. However, there are strong regional differences in the extent and direction of change, and in the apparent role of changing woody and herbaceous components in driving those temporal trends. PMID:26371296

  1. On regreening and degradation in Sahelian watersheds.

    PubMed

    Kaptué, Armel T; Prihodko, Lara; Hanan, Niall P

    2015-09-29

    Over many decades our understanding of the impacts of intermittent drought in water-limited environments like the West African Sahel has been influenced by a narrative of overgrazing and human-induced desertification. The desertification narrative has persisted in both scientific and popular conception, such that recent regional-scale recovery ("regreening") and local success stories (community-led conservation efforts) in the Sahel, following the severe droughts of the 1970s-1980s, are sometimes ignored. Here we report a study of watershed-scale vegetation dynamics in 260 watersheds, sampled in four regions of Senegal, Mali, and Niger from 1983-2012, using satellite-derived vegetation indices as a proxy for net primary production. In response to earlier controversy, we first examine the shape of the rainfall-net primary production relationship and how it impacts conclusions regarding greening or degradation. We conclude that the choice of functional relationship has little quantitative impact on our ability to infer greening or degradation trends. We then present an approach to analyze changes in long-term (decade-scale) average rain-use efficiency (an indicator of slowly responding vegetation structural changes) relative to changes in interannual-scale rainfall sensitivity (an indicator of landscape ability to respond rapidly to rainfall variability) to infer trends in greening/degradation of the watersheds in our sample regions. The predominance of increasing rain-use efficiency in our data supports earlier reports of a "greening" trend across the Sahel. However, there are strong regional differences in the extent and direction of change, and in the apparent role of changing woody and herbaceous components in driving those temporal trends.

  2. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  3. Predictability of Biogeochemical Responses in Engineered Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Voepel, H. E.; Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Donner, S. D.; Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Examining the impacts of large-scale human modifications of watersheds (e.g., land-use intensification for food production; hydrologic modification through extensive tile-drainage, etc.) on the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses, and ecological impacts at various scales has been the focus of monitoring and modeling studies over the past two decades. Complex interactions between hydrology and biogeochemistry and the need to predict responses across scales has led to the development of detailed process-based models that are computationally intensive and calibration-dependent. Our overall hypothesis is that human modifications and intensive management of these watersheds have led to more predictable responses, which are typical of engineered, less-complex systems rather than natural, complex systems. We examined monitoring data for nitrogen, phosphorous, silica and chloride in 25 large watersheds (10,000 km2 to 500,000 km2) in the Mississippi River Basin. This sparse dataset was complemented with nitrogen cycling and hydrology output from a whole-basin terrestrial and aquatic modeling system (IBIS-THMB). These sub-basins have diverse land uses, although agriculture still dominates (from ~30% to ~80%). Despite diversity in soils, geology, rainfall patterns, and land use, a linear relationship was observed between the annual cumulative discharge (Q; m3/yr) and the measured nitrate load (L; kg/yr). The slopes of these linear L-Q plots represent the flow-weighted annual average concentrations (Cf), and a linear L-Q relationship indicates an apparent “chemostatic” response of these large watersheds. Analysis of Mississippi River monitoring data for nitrate and IBIS-THMB simulations revealed that Cf is a strong function of land-use (eg, percent corn) that defines the chemical input function. The scatter around the L-Q plots was small for “endogenous” (generated from internal sources) solutes (eg, silica), intermediate for “hybrid” (contributions from both

  4. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  5. Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    EPA's Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds (OWOW) was created in April 1991. OWOW combines EPA's responsibilities for addressing nonpoint source pollution, restoring and protecting wetlands, lakes, rivers, coastal and marine environments, and coordinating surface water monitoring and water quality assessment activities. The publications in this list are divided into seven topic areas. Each topic, except Bulletins, has two sections: General and Technical. General publications can be easily understood by the lay reader. Technical publications are scientific or regulatory in nature and require an understanding of the program area.

  6. Predicting risk from multiple stressors in watershed ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Marcy, S.K.M.

    1995-12-31

    Watersheds provide a definable geomorphological boundary where the influence of diverse human activities on land and in water are naturally combined within waters flowing through a watershed. The combined risk of multiple impacts have been essentially ignored in risk estimates in the past. Although significant effort is currently directed toward developing management plans to protect ecological resources within watersheds, success will be difficult to achieve without systematic evaluation of the individual, combined and cumulative impacts of chemical, physical and biological stressors normally impacting watershed ecosystems. Watershed level ecological risk assessment methodology, now being developed through case studies, provides a format for predicting the combined risk of diverse stressors on one system. Discussion will focus on the appropriate selection of assessment endpoints, development of three levels of conceptual models and a format for analysis plans as the basis for predicting the relative and combined risk of diverse stressors.

  7. Long-term Watershed Database for the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province: Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding agricultural effects on water quality in rivers and estuaries requires understanding of hydrometeorology and geochemical cycling at various scales over time. The USDA-ARS initiated a hydrologic research program at the Mahantango Creek Watershed (MCW) in 1968, a research watershed at t...

  8. Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management - Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds

    Treesearch

    Christina E. Stringer; Ken W. Krauss; James S. Latimer

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds—Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management, held at the Trident Technical College Conference Center in North Charleston, South Carolina, March 3-5, 2015. The conference was hosted...

  9. Modeling Peak Discharge within the Marengo River Watershed: Lessons for Restoration in the Saint Louis River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To more fully understand the hydrologic condition of the Marengo River Watershed, and to map specific locations most likely to have increased discharge and flow velocity (leading to more erosion and higher sediment loads) we modeled peak discharge for 35 different sub-watersheds ...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF TWO PHYSICALLY BASED WATERSHED MODELS BASED ON THEIR PERFORMANCES OF SIMULATING SEDIMENT MOVEMENT OVER SMALL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Abstract: Two physically based and deterministic models, CASC2-D and KINEROS are evaluated and compared for their performances on modeling sediment movement on a small agricultural watershed over several events. Each model has different conceptualization of a watershed. CASC...

  11. Phosphorus losses from an irrigated watershed in the Northwestern U.S.: Case study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watersheds utilizing surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000 ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 s...

  12. It's all about Balance: Using a watershed model to evaluate costs, benefits and tradeoffs for Monponsett Ponds watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an EPA Region 1 RARE project, EPA Region 1 reached out to towns in the Taunton River watershed to identify those interested in testing new version of EPA watershed management tool (WMOST version 2)and found Halifax, MA in need of assistance in dealing with a suite of w...

  13. WATERSHED HEALTH ASSESSMENT TOOLS-INVESTIGATING FISHERIES (WHAT-IF): A MODELING TOOLKIT FOR WATERSHED AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Health Assessment Tools-Investigating Fisheries (WHAT-IF) is a decision-analysis modeling toolkit for personal computers that supports watershed and fisheries management. The WHAT-IF toolkit includes a relational database, help-system functions and documentation, a...

  14. WATERSHED HEALTH ASSESSMENT TOOLS-INVESTIGATING FISHERIES (WHAT-IF): A MODELING TOOLKIT FOR WATERSHED AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Health Assessment Tools-Investigating Fisheries (WHAT-IF) is a decision-analysis modeling toolkit for personal computers that supports watershed and fisheries management. The WHAT-IF toolkit includes a relational database, help-system functions and documentation, a...

  15. It's all about Balance: Using a watershed model to evaluate costs, benefits and tradeoffs for Monponsett Ponds watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an EPA Region 1 RARE project, EPA Region 1 reached out to towns in the Taunton River watershed to identify those interested in testing new version of EPA watershed management tool (WMOST version 2)and found Halifax, MA in need of assistance in dealing with a suite of w...

  16. Modeling Peak Discharge within the Marengo River Watershed: Lessons for Restoration in the Saint Louis River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To more fully understand the hydrologic condition of the Marengo River Watershed, and to map specific locations most likely to have increased discharge and flow velocity (leading to more erosion and higher sediment loads) we modeled peak discharge for 35 different sub-watersheds ...

  17. Connectivity of cultivated areas in bocage watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, V.; Douvinet, J.; Delahaye, D.; Le Gouee, P.

    2009-04-01

    In bocage watersheds, the relationships between runoff producting areas and suspended sediments measurements are generally more difficult to assess than in openfield areas. Land use organisation and connectivity are the major controlling factors because man-made linear structures like hedges, roads or ditches networks strongly impact runoff pathways on slopes. These structures can block runoff or connect areas localized at an important distance to the river. In order to highlight such influence, we study three catchments of same size (fifteen square kilometres) with same lithological characteristics (shist) but with various hedge, road and drainage network densities in Normandy (France). Results underline that the cultivated areas directly connected to the fluvial system are preferentially localized on watersheds of 1st Strahler order classification, but the percentage remains weak at the global scale (less than 5 percent). Therefore, percents of cultivated areas indirectly connected ranged from 6 to 10 percent are more important. Locally, the spatial organisation of roads and ditches aggravate the degree of connectivity. As a consequence, localising areas indirectly connected within the catchments is a fundamental step to better understand slopes contribution to the global sedimentary budget.

  18. Hydroelectricity production and forest conservation in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhongwei; Li, Yiming; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Lin; Gan, Yaling

    2007-09-01

    Globally, particularly in developing countries, hydroelectricity production and economic growth occur together with ecosystem/biodiversity conservation in watersheds. There is a relationship between hydroelectricity production and ecosystem/biodiversity conservation in watersheds, centering on the supply and demand for ecosystem services of river water flow regulation and sediment retention. Here we show that, in the upper reach of the Yangtze River, hydroelectricity production of Three Gorges Hydroelectric Power Plant can form a beneficial relationship with forest conservation through the paid use (compensating residents for their cooperation in the conservation) of ecosystem services launched by the National Natural Forest Protection Project. This interaction can provide additional incentives to encourage local communities' long-term cooperation in conserving and protecting the restored forest ecosystems. Hydroelectricity plants also obtain benefits from this interaction. The industrialization of ecosystem services supply provides an operational framework for this beneficial interaction. Sustainable forest ecosystem conservation will require developing new institutions and policies and must involve local communities in the conservation and protection of their local forests.

  19. Hydrometric network evaluation for Canadian watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Coulibaly, P.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn recent years, climate change impacts on water resources sectors have been extensively documented. Anticipated changes range from more severe storms to more frequent floods and drought at regional scale. Pressure on water resources and hence on the environment will probably increase with the need of quality data for sustainable design of water resources projects. Therefore, for an optimal network design, hydrometric networks are to be reviewed periodically based on the information needs of the various end users and the perspective for future water resources development. This paper evaluates hydrometric networks to identify essential streamflow stations and critical areas (highly poor network density) within major watersheds across the different provinces of Canada using entropy theory. The method is applied to daily streamflow data and information coefficients such as marginal entropy, joint entropy and transinformation index are used for the identification of important stations as well as critical areas in the basin. The analysis results show that almost all Canadian main watersheds contain deficient hydrometric networks. The most deficient streamflow networks are identified in Alberta (North Saskatchewan, Oldman, and Red Deer basins), Northern Ontario (Hudson Bay basin), and the Northwest Territories. The information might prove to be helpful for decision makers to undertake cost-benefit analyses for hydrometric network updating in each region.

  20. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.