Science.gov

Sample records for riou mort watershed

  1. Long-term survey of heavy-metal pollution, biofilm contamination and diatom community structure in the Riou Mort watershed, South-West France.

    PubMed

    Morin, S; Duong, T T; Dabrin, A; Coynel, A; Herlory, O; Baudrimont, M; Delmas, F; Durrieu, G; Schäfer, J; Winterton, P; Blanc, G; Coste, M

    2008-02-01

    In a metal-polluted stream in the Riou Mort watershed in SW France, periphytic biofilm was analyzed for diatom cell densities and taxonomic composition, dry weight and metal bio-accumulation (cadmium and zinc). Periphytic diatom communities were affected by the metal but displayed induced tolerance, seen through structural impact (dominance of small, adnate species) as well as morphological abnormalities particularly in the genera Ulnaria and Fragilaria. Species assemblages were characterized by taxa known to occur in metal-polluted environments, and shifts in the community structure expressed seasonal patterns: high numbers of Eolimna minima, Nitzschia palea and Pinnularia parvulissima were recorded in Summer and Autumn, whereas the species Surirella brebissonii, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Navicula lanceolata and Surirella angusta were dominant in Winter and Spring. Commonly used indices such as the Shannon diversity index and Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index reflected the level of pollution and suggest seasonal periodicity, the lowest diversities being observed in Summer.

  2. Assessment of metal contamination in a small mining- and smelting-affected watershed: high resolution monitoring coupled with spatial analysis by GIS.

    PubMed

    Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Marache, Antoine; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Maneux, Eric; Bossy, Cécile; Masson, Matthieu; Lavaux, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Riou Mort River watershed (SW France), representative of a heavily polluted, small, heterogeneous watershed, represents a major source for the polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system due to former mining and ore-treatment activities. In order to assess spatial distribution of the metal/metalloid contamination in the watershed, a high resolution hydrological and geochemical monitoring were performed during one year at four permanent observation stations. Additionally, thirty-five stream sediment samples were collected at representative key sites and analyzed for metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Mo, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Th, U and Hg) concentrations. The particulate concentrations in water and stream sediments show high spatial differences for most of the studied elements suggesting strong anthropogenic and/or lithogenic influences; for stream sediments, the sequence of the highest variability, ranging from 100% to 300%, is the following: Mo < Cu < Hg < As < Sb < Cd < Zn < Pb. Multidimensional statistical analyses combined with metal/metalloid maps generated by GIS tool were used to establish relationships between elements, to identify metal/metalloid sources and localize geochemical anomalies attributed to local geochemical background, urban and industrial activities. Finally, this study presents an approach to assess anthropogenic trace metal inputs within this watershed by combining lithology-dependent geochemical background values, metal/metalloid concentrations in stream sediments and mass balances of element fluxes at four key sites. The strongest anthropogenic contributions to particulate element fluxes are 90-95% for Cd, Zn and Hg in downstream sub-catchments. The localisation of anthropogenic metal/metalloid sources in restricted areas offers a great opportunity to further significantly reduce metal emissions and restore the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine ecosystem.

  3. Remediation of a watershed contaminated by heavy metals: a 2-year field biomonitoring of periphytic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Arini, Adeline; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnès; Morin, Soizic; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Coste, Michel; Delmas, François

    2012-05-15

    This study focuses on an industrial contamination site subjected to remediation processes since 2007 in the Riou-Mort watershed (southwest France). The purpose was to assess the first impacts of remediation on periphytic biofilms, and was performed during two years of biomonitoring. Periphytic biofilms were collected on glass slides immersed 24 days at different sites along the contamination gradient for 12 colonisation cycles. Metal contaminations (Cd and Zn) were analysed in biofilms and the evolution of diatom communities was assessed, integrating teratology quantifications. Despite remediation work initiated at the industrial site, this study demonstrated the persistence of metal contamination in water, as well as in biofilms. In addition, our data, showed that the remediation process was initially marked by an increase in metal contamination in the river, with increasing diatom community shifts. Metal-contaminated biofilms presented decreasing species diversities and were dominated by metal-resistant species such as Eolimna minima, whom abundances increased in 2010 reaching 57.2±10%. No significant decrease in metal accumulation was observed and total Cd content in biofilms collected downstream the industrial site ranged from 772.7±88 in July 2009 to 636.9±20 μg/gDW in July 2010. Results obtained on artificial substrates were compared with those of natural substrates and showed similar diatom communities and abundances of deformed diatoms but lower diversities. This ensured that glass slide subtrates gave a good representation of periphytic biofilm health. Finally, results were compared to studies performed before the remediation process and this did not reveal a decrease of metal accumulation in biofilms nor shifts in taxonomic composition of the communities, rather the remaining dominance of metal resistant species such as E. minima was confirmed.

  4. Watershed Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna

    2007-01-01

    All schools are located in "watersheds," land that drains into bodies of water. Some watersheds, like the one which encompasses the school discussed in this article, include bodies of water that are walking distance from the school. The watershed cited in this article has a brook and wetland within a several-block walk from the school. This…

  5. [Historical necessity and human action in Morte e vida severina].

    PubMed

    Filho, D A

    Using the essential elements of tragic action described in Aristotles Poetics, the text compares João Cabral de Melo Neto's Morte e vida severina to Sophocles Oedipus rex with the purpose of bringing to light the tension that exists between human necessity and human action. It is an eminently epidemiological fact that draws a link between these two works. In Morte e vida severina, the causa efficiens behind Severino's decision to migrate is a famine; in Oedipus rex, a plague afflicting the inhabitants of Thebes is the event that hastens discovery of king Laiuss true assassin. It is a reflection on the finalis and formalis causes behind Severino's and Oedipus's movements and on the essential elements of tragic action that allows a transitory falsification or, better put, a rejection of the hypothesis that Morte e vida severina is a tragedy, at least not in Aristotelian terms.

  6. Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  7. [The Les Morts de la Rue collective, strong social commitment].

    PubMed

    Rocca, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    The problems faced by homeless people are varied and complex. They require numerous qualities on the part of professionals. Living on the streets often means dying on the streets. Professionals are thereby confronted with practical and ethical questions. They have a key role both in listening and providing support. This article shows the example of the Les Morts de la Rue collective.

  8. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  9. Watersheds: Where We Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Presents information about watersheds including water quantity, water quality, floods and floodplains. Lists resources for learning more about watersheds as well as Internet resources. Includes a foldout that can be used to teach children about watersheds and floodplains. (JRH)

  10. Managing Watersheds with WMOST

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) allows water-resource managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices for cost-effectiveness in achieving watershed or water utilities management goals.

  11. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  12. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  13. Mort User's Manual: For use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  14. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  15. Watersheds: where we live

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  16. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  17. Master Watershed Stewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Gary L.

    The Master Watershed Stewards (MWS) Program is a pilot project (developed through the cooperation of the Ohio State University Extension Logan and Hardin County Offices and the Indian Lake Watershed Project) offering the opportunity for communities to get involved at the local level to protect their water quality. The program grew out of the…

  18. Watersheds in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Joséi, Jr.; Araújo, Nuno; Herrmann, Hans; Schrenk, Julian

    2015-02-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  19. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  20. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  1. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Watershed Needs Survey is a national assessment of the future capital cost for publicly owned wastewater collection and treatment facilities to meet the Clean Water Act's water quality goals.

  2. Merrimack River Watershed Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Listing of all communities included in each of the hydrologic unit code (HUC) 8, 10, and 12 boundaries for the Merrimack River Watershed and city locations for the EPA water quality monitoring stations.

  3. Mystic River Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Mystic River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Mystic River.

  4. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  5. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern Appalachians ( ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species, and climate change. Top of Page How is a Healthy Watershed ...

  6. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  7. Watershed Central: Dynamic Collaboration for Improving Watershed Management (Philadelphia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Central web and wiki pages will be presented and demonstrated real-time as part of the overview of Web 2.0 collaboration tools for watershed management. The presentation portion will discuss how EPA worked with watershed practitioners and within the Agency to deter...

  8. Entering the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Doppelt, B.; Scurlock, M.; Frissell, C.; Karr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological integrity of a river is a direct function of the health of its watershed. Riverine pollution, habitat degradation, and extinction of aquatic biodiversity are all issues that must be addressed at the ecosystem level. The product of a two-year project established by The Pacific Rivers Council to develop new federal riverine protection and restoration policy alternatives, this book recommends a comprehensive new approach to river protection: a nationwide, strategic community- and ecosystem-based watershed restoration initiative founded upon principles of watershed dynamics, ecosystem function, and conservation biology. The book describes in detail the existing level of damage of rivers and species. A new, intensified national emphasis on rivers is presented. The flaws and gaps in existing policy are analyzed. The scientific underpinnings and management strategies needed in new policy are outlined. Specific policy proposals are made.

  9. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is written as a resource for state and local watershed managers who have the responsibility of managing pathogen contamination in urban watersheds. In addition it can be an information source for members of the public interested in watershed mitigation efforts aime...

  10. Watershed geomorphological characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes commonly used geomorphological characteristics that are useful for analyzing watershed-scale hydrology and sediment dynamics. It includes calculations and measurements for stream network features and areal basin characteristics that cover a range of spatial and temporal scales and dimensions of watersheds. Construction and application of longitudinal profiles are described in terms of understanding the three-dimensional development of stream networks. A brief discussion of outstanding problems and directions for future work, particularly as they relate to water-resources management, is provided. Notations with preferred units are given.

  11. USEPA WATERSHED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...

  12. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  13. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  14. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  15. La mort subite de l’adulte, particularités en Afrique, à propos de 476 cas

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Kanikomo, Drissa; Ndiaye, Mor; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2013-01-01

    La mort subite est une mort instantanée ou rapide, d’origine naturelle, inattendue ou inopinée. Chez l’adulte les causes cardiovasculaires, pulmonaires et cérébrales prédominent. Son mode de survenue est dramatique. L’objectif était ici de déterminer les circonstances de survenue de ces morts subites, les facteurs de risque, d’identifier les causes de mort subite chez l’adulte à l’autopsie, en vue d’améliorer la prévention. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas de morts subites ayant fait l’objet d’une autopsie au service d’anatomie pathologique de l’Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec (HALD) de Dakar du 1er janvier 2003 au 31 décembre 2005. Durant cette période 476 cas de morts subites chez l’adulte sur 1936 autopsies ont été enregistrés. Le sexe ratio est de 2,9 avec 356 hommes (74,8%) et 120 femmes (25,2%). Les cardiopathies ont été la première cause de décès dans notre série avec 177cas sur 476 soit 37,2%. La prévention de la mort subite reste primordiale, surtout dans le contexte africain, où la prise en charge pré hospitalière est souvent défaillante. PMID:24839533

  16. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  17. Ghana watershed prototype products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  18. EPA'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed management presumes that community groups can best solve many water quality and ecosystem problems at the watershed level rather than at the individual site, receiving waterbody, or discharger level. After assessing and ranking watershed problems, and setting environ...

  19. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed research has historically focused on physical and biological processes, stressor-response, and effects research, providing valuable understanding of the effects of human activity and natural disturbances on watershed ecosystems. Continued research to support watershed ...

  20. INTEGRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the filters through which society views the values produced by watersheds is key to developing effective and adaptable watershed plans, and ultimately a measure of how well policy makers are likely to meet a sustainability, or any other, intent. Many natural resour...

  1. Watershed Education for Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), which is a global communication system for analyzing watershed usage and monitoring the quality and quantity of river water. Describes GREEN's watershed educational model and strategies and international development. (Contains 67 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Watershed-based survey designs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  3. Watershed-based survey designs.

    PubMed

    Detenbeck, Naomi E; Cincotta, Dan; Denver, Judith M; Greenlee, Susan K; Olsen, Anthony R; Pitchford, Ann M

    2005-04-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  4. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  5. STEWARDS: A watershed data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive, long-term data from watersheds across diverse environments are needed for hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and for model development, calibration and validation. To support the Agricultural Research Service's Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing impacts of USDA...

  6. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  7. Accomplishments of South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Accomplishments of the South Platte Watershed of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  8. Watershed Simulation of Nutrient Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, nitrogen processes simulated in watershed models were reviewed and compared. Furthermore, current researches on nitrogen losses from agricultural fields were also reviewed. Finally, applications with those models were reviewed and selected successful and u...

  9. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities in watersheds affect aquatic organisms, riparian vegetation, and their ability to support avian populations. Our objective was to compare indicators of stream and riparian condition with the composition of breeding bird populations in six Rhode Island s...

  10. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  11. Working at a Watershed Level

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A short course that provides a basic, but very broad foundation for the use of ecological, social and organizational management principles to guide activities to restore and sustain watershed conditions.

  12. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K. Van; Clair, Michael G.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  13. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  14. MORT User's Manual for use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1,500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  15. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  16. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  17. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...

  18. Watershed Management in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A watershed approach provides an effective framework for dealing with water resources challenges. Watersheds provide drinking water, recreation, and ecological habitat, as well as a place for waste disposal, a source of industrial cooling water, and navigable inland water transpo...

  19. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  20. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  1. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  2. MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory



    Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

  3. WATERSHED-BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...

  4. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a summary of the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) publication entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination, EPA/600/R-03/111 (September 2003). It is available on the internet at http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/water...

  5. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  6. Sustainable watershed management: an international multi-watershed case study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Walter; Gawel, James; Furuma, Hiroak; De Souza, Marcelo Pereira; Teixeira, Denilson; Rios, Leonardo; Ohgaki, Shinichiro; Zehnder, Alexander J B; Hemond, Harold F

    2002-02-01

    Global freshwater resources are being increasingly polluted and depleted, threatening sustainable development and human and ecosystem health. Utilizing case studies from 4 different watersheds in the United States, Japan, Switzerland, and Brazil, this paper identifies the most relevant sustainability deficits and derives general vectors for more sustainable water management. As a consequence of the demographic and economic developments experienced in the last few decades, each watershed has suffered declines in water quality, streamflow and biotic resources. However, the extent and the cultural perception of these water-related problems vary substantially in the different watersheds, leading to specific water-management strategies. In industrialized countries, exemplified by the US, Switzerland, and Japan, these strategies have primarily consisted of finance- and energy-intensive technologies, allowing these countries to meet water requirements while minimizing human health risks. But, from a sustainability point of view, such strategies, relying on limited natural resources, are not long-term solutions. For newly industrialized countries such as Brazil, expensive technologies for water management are often not economically feasible, thus limiting the extent to which newly industrialized and developing countries can utilize the expertise offered by the industrialized world. Sustainable water management has to be achieved by a common learning process involving industrialized, newly industrialized, and developing countries, following general sustainability guidelines as exemplified in this paper.

  7. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  10. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  11. Autre cause de mort subite du nourrisson: à propos d'un cas clinique de syndrome du QT long congenital

    PubMed Central

    Seka, Zena; Mols, Pierre; Gobin, Eric; Ngatchou, William

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome du QT long congénital est une maladie rythmique liée à une mutation génétique et caractérisée par un espace QT allongé sur l’électrocardiogramme, des arythmies malignes type torsade de pointe et fibrillation ventriculaire entraînant une mort subite. Les gènes impliqués dans ces mutations codent pour des sous unités des canaux ioniques responsables de l'activité électrique cardiaque. Le diagnostic est basé sur l’électrocardiogramme, une enquête familiale et l’étude génétique. Le traitement repose sur les bêtabloquants, la sympathectomie et le stimulateur cardiaque. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 2 ans retrouvé en état de mort apparente. Nous discutons de sa prise en charge initiale, de l'enquête familiale et de son suivi ultérieur. PMID:25667708

  12. Ionizing Radiation and Chemotherapeutic Drugs Induce Apoptosis in Lymphocytes in the Absence of FAS or Fadd/Mort1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Kim; Strasser, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs used in the treatment of cancer induce apoptosis in many cell types, including tumor cells. It has been reported that tumor cells treated with anticancer drugs increase surface expression of Fas ligand (FasL) and are killed by autocrine or paracrine apoptosis signaling through Fas (Friesen, C., I. Herr, P.H. Krammer, and K.-M. Debatin. 1996. Nat. Med. 2:574–577). We show that lymphocytes that cannot be killed by FasL, such as those from Fas-deficient lpr mice or transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative mutant of Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD/MORT1), are as sensitive as normal lymphocytes to killing by gamma radiation or the cytotoxic drugs cis-platin, doxorubicin, and etoposide. In contrast, p53 deficiency or constitutive expression of Bcl-2 markedly increased the resistance of lymphocytes to gamma radiation or anticancer drugs but had no effect on killing by FasL. Consistent with these observations, lpr and wild-type T cells both had a reduced capacity for mitogen-induced proliferation after drug treatment, whereas bcl-2 transgenic or p53-deficient T cells retained significant clonogenic potential. These results demonstrate that apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation or anticancer drugs requires p53 and is regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family but does not require signals transduced by Fas and FADD/MORT1. PMID:10620618

  13. Introduction to the Watershed Central Web Site and Watershed Wiki Mini-Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to include in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new web site called "Watershed Central,” a “one-stop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protec...

  14. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  15. Watershed Stewardship Education Program--A Multidisciplinary Extension Education Program for Oregon's Watershed Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Flaxen D. L.; Godwin, Derek; Cloughesy, Mike; Nierenberg, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Stewardship Education Program (WSEP) is a multidisciplinary Oregon Extension designed to help watershed councils, landowners, and others work effectively together on water management. Components include practical, easy-to-use educational materials, training in effective collaboration, a Master Watershed Stewards program, and advanced…

  16. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  17. A TEST OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate extrapolation among watersheds, ecological risk assessments should be based on a model of underlying factors influencing watershed response, particularly vulnerability. We propose a conceptual model of landscape vulnerability to serve as a basis for watershed classi...

  18. AN INTEGRATED COASTAL-WATERSHED MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach for watershed classification in support of assessments, disgnosis of biological impairment, and prioritization of watershed restorations has been tested in coastal watersheds surrounding the western arm of Lake Superior and is currently being assessed for a series of ...

  19. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  20. Fréquence et facteurs de risque maternels de la mort fœtale in utero à Kamina, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; A'Nkoy, Albert Mwembo Tambwe; Lumbule, John Ngoy; Umba, Elie Kilolo Ngoy; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La mort fœtale in utero constitue un problème fréquent dans la pratique obstétricale. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient de déterminer la fréquence et d'identifier les facteurs de risque de la mort fœtale in utero à l'Hôpital Général de Référence de Kamina. Méthodes L’étude était effectuée en deux temps. En premier lieu, une étude descriptive transversale sur 379 accouchements qui avait permis de déterminer la fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero. La détermination des facteurs de risque était faite à l'aide d'une étude cas-témoins dans laquelle les caractéristiques de 53 morts in utero ont été comparées à 106 témoins constitués des naissances vivantes et à terme. Résultats La fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero à l'Hôpital Général de Référence de Kamina était de 13,9%. Après ajustement, l’âge maternel de plus de 35 ans (OR = 6,23; IC= (1,30-29,80)), l'antécédent de mort fœtale in utero (OR = 3,13; IC= (1,06-9,27)) et la maladie au cours de la grossesse (OR = 31,6, IC= (7,66-130,71)) ont été retenus comme facteurs significativement associés à l'augmentation de la survenue de la mort fœtale. L'instruction élevée de la mère (OR = 0,11; IC= IC= [0,03-0,42]) et la résidence à Kamina (OR = 0,23; IC= (0,08-0,62)) diminuaient ce risque. Conclusion La fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero était de 13,9%. L’âge maternel avancé l'antécédent de mort in utero et la maladie au cours de la grossesse étaient associés à la mort fœtale in utero mais par contre, l'instruction élevée de la femme et la résidence à Kamina diminuaient le risque. La surveillance des gestantes à risque, le dépistage et la prise en charge des maladies pendant la grossesse s'avèrent nécessaires dans la perspective de réduire la fréquence de la mort fœtale in utero dans notre milieu. PMID:27279941

  1. Geophysic data interperetation of Passo della Morte landslide: Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe', G.; Costa, G.; Marcato, G.; Forte, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Passo della Morte block-slide covers a relative large area in the Carnic Alps, along the left side of the Tagliamento River, between Forni di Sotto and Ampezzo (N-E of Italy). The high seismicity and the presence of the landslide increase the risk associated to the interest area. Moreover the large volume of material involved in the landslide (a few million of cubic meters), the presence of important infrastructure such as the road and two tunnels which cross the landslide, as well as the presence of the Tagliamento River that flow at the foot of the landslide, make the area very vulnerable. This study concerns with the western part of the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). It focuses on the potential instability of a rock slope (crossed by road tunnels) and its connection with the DSGSD activity. The main objectives of this study are: monitoring the rock mass movement, studying the seismic site effect and defining the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of involved materials. Two vibration sensors have been installed inside the potential landslide: a short-period seismometer and a piezoelectric transducer. The microseismic activity recorded by the sensors has been analyzed, with particular regard to periods characterized by rapid changes in recorded seismic signals, and then correlated with the precipitation trend to evaluate the existence of a possible correlation between these phenomena. The microseismic activity study has highlighted the existence of a close link between microseisms and acoustic emissions recorded respectively by the seismometer and by the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, the comparison with the rainfall pattern has shown a direct relationship between different rainfall events and the sharp increase of microseismic activity detected by the two instruments. The correlation is good, even if acoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive than microseisms to short duration and low intensity rainfall events. The

  2. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, calculated historical seasonality indexes of monthly nitrate loading for both watersheds exhibited significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends according to the non-seasonal Mann-Kendall test. The identified differences in seasonal nitrate export from the two watersheds were mainly attributed to their distinct nitrogen sources, physical and biogeochemical settings. The declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the agricultural watershed could be partially caused by historical climate change in the study region, especially increased temperature during winter. Urbanization could be one key factor contributing to the declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the urbanized watershed. Information derived from this study have practical implications for developing proper management practices to mitigate nitrate pollution in Midwestern United States.

  3. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  4. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  5. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  6. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  7. WATERSHED LANDSCAPE INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do land use/cover characteristics of watersheds associated with small estuaries exhibit a strong enough signal to make landscape metrics useful for identifying degraded bottom communities? We tested this idea with 58 pairs of small estuaries (<260 km2) and watersheds in the U.S. ...

  8. Watershed: A Successful Voyage into Integrative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Mark

    This book describes a "whole learning" approach to education called the Watershed Program, which stresses integrated curriculum and experiential learning. Each chapter begins with an episode from the history of eastern Pennsylvania along the Brandywine River, used as an analogy to problems faced by the teachers in the Watershed program.…

  9. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  10. Draft Maumee River Watershed Restoration Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A draft of the Maumee River AOC Watershed Restoration Plan was completed in January 2006. The plan was created to meet requirements for the stage II RAP as well as Ohio EPA’s and ODNR’s Watershed Coordinator Program.

  11. Watershed Deposition Tool for air quality impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The WDT is a software tool for mapping deposition estimates from the CMAQ model to watersheds. It provides users with the linkage of air and water needed for the total maximum daily load (TMDL) and related nonpoint-source watershed analyses.

  12. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Baltimore County, MD, Montgomery County, MD, and Washington, DC, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The watershed scale impact of SGI was evaluated by assessing how increased spatial density of SGI correlates with stream hydrology and nitrogen exports over space and time. The most common SGI types were detention ponds (58%), followed by marshes (12%), sand filters (9%), wet ponds (7%), infiltration trenches (4%), and rain gardens (2%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI (>10% SGI) have 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff than watersheds with lower SGI. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3− and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. Based on specific SGI types, infiltration trenches (R2 = 0.35) showed the strongest correlation with hydrologic metrics, likely due to their ability to attenuate flow, while bioretention (R2 = 0.19) and wet ponds (R2 = 0.12) showed stronger

  13. Uncertainty Consideration in Watershed Scale Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed scale hydrologic and water quality models have been used with increasing frequency to devise alternative pollution control strategies. With recent reenactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act’s TMDL (total maximum daily load) component, some of the watershed scale models are being recommended ...

  14. Role of adaptive management for watershed councils.

    PubMed

    Habron, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Recent findings in the Umpqua River Basin in southwestern Oregon illustrate a tension in the rise of both community-based and watershed-based approaches to aquatic resource management. While community-based institutions such as watershed councils offer relief from the government control landowners dislike, community-based approaches impinge on landowners' strong belief in independence and private property rights. Watershed councils do offer the local control landowners advocate; however, institutional success hinges on watershed councils' ability to reduce bureaucracy, foster productive discussion and understanding among stakeholders, and provide financial, technical, and coordination support. Yet, to accomplish these tasks current watershed councils rely on the fiscal and technical capital of the very governmental entities that landowners distrust. Adaptive management provides a basis for addressing the apparent tension by incorporating landowners' belief in environmental resilience and acceptance of experimentation that rejects "one size fits all solutions." Therefore community-based adaptive watershed management provides watershed councils a framework that balances landowners' independence and fear of government intrusion, acknowledges the benefits of community cooperation through watershed councils, and enables ecological assessment of landowner-preferred practices. Community-based adaptive management integrates social and ecological suitability to achieve conservation outcomes by providing landowners the flexibility to use a diverse set of conservation practices to achieve desired ecological outcomes, instead of imposing regulations or specific practices.

  15. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet presents an overview of six selected watershed modeling studies by the USGS and partners that address a variety of water-resource issues in south Texas. These studies provide examples of modeling applications and demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of watershed models in aiding the understanding of hydrologic systems.

  16. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  17. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. ); Stewart, E.H. )

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

  18. Distribution and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls in Little Lake Butte des Morts, Fox River, Wisconsin, April 1987-October 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The mass of PCB's transported from the lake in streamflow during 1987-88 was calculated to be 110 kilograms annually. The PCB's transport rate decreased 50 percent from 1987 to 1988, for the period April through September. Transport of PCB's was greatest during April and May of each year. The average flux rate of PCB's into the water column from the bottom sediment in the lake was estimated to be 1.2 milligrams per square meter per day. The PCB's load seems to increase at river discharges greater than 212 cubic meters per second. This increase in PCB's load might be caused by resuspension of PCB's-contaminated bottom-sediment deposits. There was little variation in PCB's load at flows less than 170 cubic meters per second. The bottom sediments are a continuing source of PCB's to Little Lake Butte des Morts and the lower Fox River.

  19. Hydrologic research on instrumented watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1970-01-01

    The successful research man is the one who asks himself the right question. Research must go on primarily in the mind and only secondarily in the physical and biological world. It is only too easy to confuse the choice of a proper tool and the choice of a proper question. Some tools are quite unsuited to certain questions and some questions cannot be answered without the appropriate tool.There has been in recent years a large amount of discussion about whether the high costs and the extensive time period required for experimental watershed* research is really worth the investment. Recent discussions of this matter have cited as major criticisms of the instrumented basin that they are expensive, they leak water, they are unrepresentative, they produce changes too small for detection, and it is difficult to transfer the results. (See Hewlett, Lull, and Reinhart, 1969.) These are all questions worth talking about, but in one sense they tend to obscure the main issue. The main issue is what do we want to learn? If we can decide what it is we want to know, then we can logically ask ourselves what is the best way of going about obtaining that knowledge. It is in this context that we are most likely to place the experimental watershed in a useful and logical position in a classification of research methods.

  20. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  1. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  2. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  3. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  4. Effect of climate change on watershed runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, D.M.; Ayers, M.A.; Hay, L.E.; McCabe, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines forecasts of changes in watershed runoff in the Delaware River basin that result from a range of predicted effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on future precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance of plants. A deterministic hydrologic model, TOPMODEL, was driven with stochastic inputs of temperature and precipitation to derive the forecasts. Results indicate that the direction and magnitude of the changes in watershed runoff are dependent on the relative magnitudes of the induced changes in precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance. Natural variability in temperature and precipitation obscured the changes in watershed runoff even when the simulated changes in precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance were substantial.

  5. Patapsco Watershed/Baltimore Region (Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Patapsco Watershed / Baltimore Area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  6. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of Watershed Implementation Plans (WIP) and how they play an important role in restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The page also provides links to each jurisdiction's Phase I, II, and III WIP.

  7. Clean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQPClean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project: Implementing the PCB TMDL, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  8. Meetings and Events about South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  9. Photo Gallery for South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  10. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  11. Monitoring and Evaluating Nonpoint Source Watershed Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is written primarily for those who develop and implement monitoring plans for watershed management projects. it can also be used evaluate the technical merits of monitoring proposals they might sponsor. It is an update to the 1997 Guide.

  12. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  13. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  14. Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  15. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  16. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  17. Watersheds: Connecting Weather to the Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This course provides broadcast meteorologists with information to help them understand watersheds as our environmental home and to help their viewers understand the relationship between the weather and the environment.

  18. National Interest Shown in Watershed Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The State of Maryland is able to identify prime locations for watershed restoration and preservation using an interactive mapping tool developed by a partnership of agencies led by EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Water Protection Division.

  19. Links from South Platte Watershed Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  20. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  1. APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR WATERSHED INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental isotopes include naturally-occurring nuclides that can be applied as tracers within watersheds (Sidle, 1998). Recent advances in mass spectroscopy may supplant many traditional and costly hydrometric techniques. It is now possible, for example, to utilize isotopes a...

  2. Using four capitals to assess watershed sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  3. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  4. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  5. Integrated assessment of water quality of the Costa da Morte (Galicia, NW Spain) by means of mussel chemical, biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Albentosa, Marina; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; González, Juan J; Campillo, Juan A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental quality at some of the sites most severely affected by the Prestige oil spill off 2 years after the spillage (April and November 2004). For this purpose analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and several biochemical (antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and DT-diaphorase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological [scope for growth (SFG)] biomarkers were determined on wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at four points along the Costa da Morte and compared with those of a reference site not affected by the oil spill. Results showed that PAH contents had markedly decreased 17 months after the accident, although they were higher in April than in November, when they showed values similar to background levels reported for this area. Nevertheless, the predominance of chrysene on PAH profiles, similarly to findings obtained immediately after the spill, indicated the Prestige as their main source. In spite of the low PAH levels recorded, antioxidant activity levels (explained through the integrated antioxidant response-IAR) were higher in the Costa da Morte than at the reference site either in April and November. In April IAR seems to be related to PAH levels found 3 months after the accident (February 2003), suggesting the persistence in the environment of oxidative stress-producing components from the spill. However, evidence of oxidative stress was not reflected at physiological level by scope for growth, with only very slight differences being observed between values from the reference site and those from Costa da Morte sites. In conclusion, although 2 years after the spill PAHs bioaccumulated by mussels from the Costa da Morte had decreased to background levels, biochemical parameters showed signals of oxidative stress in mussels from this area. However, SFG reflected a good health status for the mussel populations studied

  6. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  7. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale watershed management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir i...

  8. Advances in Watershed Models and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, G. T.; Zhang, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of watershed models and their applications to real-world problems has evolved significantly since 1960's. Watershed models can be classified based on what media are included, what processes are dealt with, and what approaches are taken. In term of media, a watershed may include segregated overland regime, river-canal-open channel networks, ponds-reservoirs-small lakes, and subsurface media. It may also include integrated media of all these or a partial set of these as well as man-made control structures. In term of processes, a watershed model may deal with coupled or decoupled hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. These processes include fluid flow, thermal transport, salinity transport, sediment transport, reactive transport, and biota and microbe kinetics. In terms of approaches, either parametric or physics-based approach can be taken. This talk discusses the evolution of watershed models in the past sixty years. The advances of watershed models center around their increasing design capability to foster these segregated or integrated media and coupled or decoupled processes. Widely used models developed by academia, research institutes, government agencies, and private industries will be reviewed in terms of the media and processes included as well as approaches taken. Many types of potential benchmark problems in general can be proposed and will be discussed. This presentation will focus on three benchmark problems of biogeochemical cycles. These three problems, dealing with water quality transport, will be formulated in terms of reactive transport. Simulation results will be illustrated using WASH123D, a watershed model developed and continuously updated by the author and his PhD graduates. Keywords: Hydrological Cycles, Biogeochemical Cycles, Biota Kinetics, Parametric Approach, Physics-based Approach, Reactive Transport.

  9. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  10. Model investigation overthrows assumptions of watershed research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 study revealed serious flaws in a standard technique used by hydrological researchers to understand how changes in watershed land use affect stream flow behaviors, such as peak flows. The study caused academics and government agencies alike to rethink decades of watershed research and prompted Kuraś et al. to reinvestigate a number of long-standing assumptions in watershed research using a complex and well-validated computer model that accounts for a range of internal watershed dynamics and hydrologic processes. For the test site at 241 Creek in British Columbia, Canada, the authors found not only that deforestation increased the severity of floods but also that it had a scaling influence on both the magnitudes and frequencies of the floods. The model showed that the larger the flood, the more its magnitude was amplified by deforestation, with 10-to 100-year-return-period floods increasing in size by 9%-25%. Following a simulated removal of half of the watershed's trees, the authors found that 10-year-return-period floods occurred twice as often, while 100-year-return-period events became 5-6.7 times more frequent. This proportional relationship between the increase in flood magnitudes and frequencies following deforestation and the size of the flood runs counter to the prevailing wisdom in hydrological science.

  11. Community DECISIONS: stakeholder focused watershed planning.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Darrell; Pease, James; Wolfe, Mary Leigh; Zobel, Christopher; Osorio, Javier; Cobb, Tanya Denckla; Evanylo, Greg

    2012-12-15

    Successful watershed planning can be enhanced by stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing plans that reflect community goals and resource limitations. Community DECISIONS (Community Decision Support for Integrated, On-the-ground Nutrient Reduction Strategies) is a structured decision process to help stakeholders evaluate strategies that reduce watershed nutrient imbalances. A nutrient accounting algorithm and nutrient treatment database provide information on nutrient loadings and costs of alternative strategies to reduce loadings. Stakeholders were asked to formulate goals for the North Fork Shenandoah River Watershed in Virginia and select among strategies to achieve those goals. The Vector Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to rank strategies. Stakeholders preferred a Maximum strategy that included point source upgrades, riparian buffers, no-till corn silage, wheat cover, and bioretention filters in developed areas. Participants generally agreed that the process helped improve communication among stakeholders, was helpful for watershed planning, and should be used for TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) planning. Participants suggested more attention be paid to ensuring that all relevant issues are addressed and all information needed to make decisions is available. Watershed planning should provide stakeholders with clear scientific information about physical and socioeconomic processes. However, planning processes must give stakeholders adequate time to consider issues that may not have been addressed by existing scientific models and datasets.

  12. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  13. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  14. RESTORING SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS USING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mixed-use, suburban watersheds, stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on both public and private property impairs stream ecosystems. Decentralized stormwater management, which distributes stormwater infiltration and retention devices throughout watersheds, is more effect...

  15. Watershed Modeling Recommendation Report for Lake Champlain TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the recommended modeling approach for watershed modeling component of the Lake Champlain TMDL project. The report was prepared by Tetra Tech, with input from the Lake Champlain watershed analysis workgroup. (TetraTech, 2012a)

  16. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  17. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices ...

  18. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ken

    2015-01-23

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  19. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    ScienceCinema

    Williams, Ken

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  20. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    PubMed

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  1. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-01-01

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world. PMID:28273834

  2. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States. HUC 12 polygons were selected from the source based on interactively comparing these HUC 12s in our GIS with images of the New York City's Water Supply System Map found at http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/drinking_water/wsmaps_wide.shtml. The 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) are a subset of the National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD), downloaded from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Geospatial Gateway and imported into the EPA Region 2 Oracle/SDE database. This layer reflects 2009 updates to the WBD that included new boundary data for New York and New Jersey.

  3. Watershed modeling and monitoring for assessing nutrient ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation for the American Water Works Association Water Sustainability Conference. The presentation highlights latest results from water quality trading research conducted by ORD using the East Fork Watershed in Southwestern Ohio as a case study. The watershed has a nutrient enrichment problem that is creating harmful algal blooms in a reservoir used for drinking water and recreation. Innovative modeling and monitoring is combined to understand how to best manage this water quality problem and costs associated with this endeavor. The presentation will provide an overview of the water quality trading feasibility research. The research includes the development and evaluation of innovative modeling and monitoring approaches to manage watersheds for nutrient pollution using a whole systems approach.

  4. Bacterial Communities from Shoreline Environments (Costa da Morte, Northwestern Spain) Affected by the Prestige Oil Spill▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATERSHED-BASED MERCURY POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate total mercury loadings to streams in a watershed, we have developed a watershed-based source quantification model ? Watershed Mercury Characterization System. The system uses the grid-based GIS modeling technology to calculate total soil mercury concentrations and ...

  6. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…

  7. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  8. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  9. Mapping Watershed Integrity for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is partially a function of the degree to which watersheds are altered by human activities. In a recent manuscript, Flotemersch and others (in preparation), defined watershed integr...

  10. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  11. Understanding the watershed hydrology of tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Y. P.; Strauch, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Streams systems in Hawaii is unique comparing to systems in other places in the worlds. Besides its volcanic geology, its steep topography contributes to the flashiness of stream flow. The prevalent trade wind results in wet (windward) and dry (leeward) sides of island, which receive unequal amount of moisture for cloud formation. To better understand and describe the mechanism of forming stream flow in Hawaii, a series of hydrologic model, from simple to complex, were used to simulate stream flow on two pilot watershed. We first used a lumped-model, Thornthwaite Monthly Water Balance Model, to describe water budget of each watershed. Second, we used a non-spatial explicit model, topographic index model (TOPMODEL), to describe the surface and subsurface components that contribute to stream flow. Finally, we used a semi-distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to understand the different land use effect on stream flow. In particular, rainfall coverage was obtained from dynamic downscaling model and validated with observation. The spatial distribution of rainfall data were served as input for all models. Through these processes, we strategically dissected the components in contributing to stream flow within a watershed, and revealed the dominate mechanism and drivers of stream flow in the watersheds. We then compared the processes in forming stream flow in watersheds of windward and leeward side. The difference in the two watershed were presented and described. Ultimately, the successful building of flow models allows us to further describe the nutrient and sediment transport that affects both instream habitats and downstream estuarine and coastal system.

  12. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  13. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  15. Watershed Characteristics and Land Management in the Nonpoint-Source Evaluation Monitoring Watersheds in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rappold, K.F.; Wierl, J.A.; Amerson, F.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, began a land-use inventory to identify sources of contaminants and track the land-management changes for eight evaluation monitoring watersheds in Wisconsin. An important component of the land-use inventory has been developing descriptions and preliminary assessments for the eight watersheds. These descriptions establish a baseline for future data analysis. The watershed descriptions include sections on location, reference watersheds, climate, land use, soils and topography, and surface-water resources. The land-management descriptions include sections on objectives, sources of nonpoint contamination and goals of contaminant reduction, and implementation of best-management practices. This information was compiled primarily from the nonpoint-source control plans, county soil surveys, farm conservation plans, Federal and State agency data reports, and data collected through the land-use inventory.

  16. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  17. Watershed Effects on Streamflow Quantity and Quality in Six Watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; McFadden, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Watershed management is critical for the protection and enhancement of streams that provide multiple benefits for Gwinnett County, Georgia, and downstream communities. Successful watershed management requires an understanding of how stream quality is affected by watershed characteristics. The influence of watershed characteristics on stream quality is complex, particularly for the nonpoint sources of pollutants that affect urban watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources (formerly known as Public Utilities), established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. Between 1996 and 2003, more than 10,000 analyses were made for more than 430 water-quality samples. Continuous-flow and water-quality data have been collected since 1998. Loads have been computed for selected constituents from 1998 to 2003. Changing stream hydrology is a primary driver for many other water-quality and aquatic habitat effects. Primary factors affecting stream hydrology (after watershed size and climate) within Gwinnett County are watershed slope and land uses. For the six study watersheds in Gwinnett County, watershedwide imperviousness up to 12 percent does not have a well-defined influence on stream hydrology, whereas two watersheds with 21- and 35-percent impervious area are clearly impacted. In the stream corridor, however, imperviousness from 1.6 to 4.4 percent appears to affect baseflow and stormflow for all six watersheds. Relations of concentrations to discharge are used to develop regression models to compute constituent loads using the USGS LOAD ESTimator model. A unique method developed in this study is used to calibrate the model using separate baseflow and stormflow sample datasets. The method reduced model error and provided estimates of the load associated with the baseflow and stormflow parts of the hydrograph

  18. Spectral Measurement of Watershed Coefficients in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Bausch, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was apparent that the spectra calibration of runoff curve numbers cannot be achieved on watersheds where significant areas of timber were within the drainage area. The absorption of light by wet soil conditions restricts differentiation of watersheds with regard to watershed runoff curve numbers. It appeared that the predominant factor influencing the classification of watershed runoff curve numbers was the difference in soil color and its associated reflectance when dry. In regions where vegetation grown throughout the year, where wet surface conditions prevail or where watersheds are timbered, there is little hope of classifying runoff potential with visible light alone.

  19. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  20. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) supported the development of the Watersh...

  1. Engaging Pennsylvania Teachers in Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua; Luloff, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Water-resource scientists have become increasingly concerned about global water quality and quantity issues. Water and watershed education are now mandated topics for school-aged youth. Pennsylvania teachers lack consistent and accessible curricula to teach students about water quality and quantity. A mail survey administered in 2004 determined…

  2. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., but not exclusive, consideration to producers' applications in the following river basins: Susquehanna River, Shenandoah River, Potomac River (including North and South), and the Patuxent River. The... restore, enhance, and conserve soil, air, and related resources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  3. Discover a Watershed: The Colorado Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This engaging, informative "Educators Guide" provides detailed background information about the Colorado Watershed. Its reference section contains 25 science-based, multidisciplinary, hands-on activities that teach about hydrology, geography, geology, ecology, tribes, history, cultures, economics, management issues and resource…

  4. The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    of the Chena River Watershed located in central Alaska is described. The flow in the Chena River is controlled by the Moose Creek Dam project... Moose Creek Dam Pro- ject and determine the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) hydrograph. The Chena River water- shed covers 2115 mi2. It is characterized...2  2.1  The Moose Creek Dam

  5. LINKING WATERSHED MANAGEMENT WITH STREAM ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing the loading of ’stressors‚ (pollutants) from watershed lands to streams and lakes is the concern of a broad range of environmental stakeholders—including local and state governments, utilities, farm collectives, construction firms—and even homeowners. Their adoption of E...

  6. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  7. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), were also analyzed. Seasonal BRT models at two spatial scales (watershed and riparian buffered area [RBA]) for nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) and annual models for the IBI score were developed. Two primary factors — location within the watershed (i.e., geographic position, stream order, and distance to a downstream confluence) and percentage of urban land cover (both scales) — emerged as important predictor variables. Latitude and longitude interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores. BRT results also suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover), runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors), and processes not easily represented by spatial data indicators. Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrological Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. The results from our BRT approach can help prioritize areas for nutrient management in mixed-use and heavily impacted watershed

  8. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  9. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University ...

  10. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  11. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  12. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  13. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  14. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  15. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona...

  16. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

  17. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  18. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  19. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  20. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated

  1. Watershed characteristics and water-quality trends and loads in 12 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, John K.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Landers, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a Long-Term Trend Monitoring (LTTM) program in 1996. The LTTM program is a comprehensive, long-term, water-quantity and water-quality monitoring program designed to document and analyze the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of selected watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia. Water-quality monitoring initially began in six watersheds and was expanded to another six watersheds in 2001. As part of the LTTM program, streamflow, precipitation, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were measured continuously at the 12 watershed monitoring stations for water years 2004–09. In addition, discrete water-quality samples were collected seasonally from May through October (summer) and November through April (winter), including one base-flow and three stormflow event composite samples, during the study period. Samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total organic carbon, trace elements (total lead and total zinc), total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations). The sampling scheme was designed to identify variations in water quality both hydrologically and seasonally. The 12 watersheds were characterized for basin slope, population density, land use for 2009, and the percentage of impervious area from 2000 to 2009. Precipitation in water years 2004–09 was about 18 percent below average, and the county experienced exceptional drought conditions and below average runoff in water years 2007 and 2008. Watershed water yields, the percentage of precipitation that results in runoff, typically are lower in low precipitation years and are higher for watersheds with the highest percentages of impervious areas. A comparison of base-flow and stormflow water-quality samples indicates that turbidity and concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total

  2. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  3. Watershed storage and riverine particulate organic radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, N. E.; Leithold, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Lateral movement of carbon and other materials across landscapes is punctuated with periods of storage and reaction. Though we understand basic principles concerning transport and storage effects on the nature of some materials, an adequate understanding is lacking of the cumulative impacts of those processes as material migrates across the biogeochemical landscape. This is essential to the interpretation of geochemical soil and sedimentary records of the past as well as to predicting future responses of systems to perturbations in climate or landuse. Sources of organic carbon exported from watersheds can be broadly defined as those recently derived for extant ecosystems, those derived from materials aged and altered in storage (aged soil OC), and fossil material associated with sedimentary bedrock. Separately, these materials are easy to recognize based on isotopic and molecular compositions and each could in principle be linked to specific mass transport processes such as sheet wash, shallow landsliding or gullying. The blending and alteration of original source signatures during storage appear to attenuate the variability of the exported signal within a system and complicate source identification. Riverine particulate organic carbon 14C-compositions reveal robust relationships between radiocarbon content, suspended load concentrations and % organic C. These are explained as a result of mixing of the 14C-free fossil C from sedimentary rocks with 14C-containing material derived from extant ecosystems and soils. In essence, the 14C-content of riverine POC inversely correlates with the muddiness of the system. Whereas one might predict that POC radiocarbon content might decrease with increased storage or residence time in watersheds, no obvious relationship exists between bulk 14C-content observations and watershed size. Instead, the hypothetical watershed size effect is obscured by precipitation- and discharge-driven variations in the mixture of the fossil and non

  4. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  5. Watershed-wide trend analysis of temperature characteristics in Karun-Dez watershed, southwestern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marofi, Safar; Soleymani, Samere; Salarijazi, Meysam; Marofi, Hossein

    2012-10-01

    Trend estimation of climatic characteristics for a watershed is required to determine developing compatible strategies related to design, development, and management of water resources. In this study, the trends of the annual maximum ( T max), minimum ( T min), and mean ( T mean) air temperature; temperature anomaly ( T anomaly); and diurnal temperature range (DTR) time series at 13 meteorological stations located in the Karun-Dez watershed were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall and linear regression trend tests. The pre-whitening method was used to eliminate the influence of serial correlation on the Mann-Kendall test. The result showed increasing trends in the T min, T mean, and T anomaly series at the majority of stations and decreasing trend in the T max and DTR series. A geographical analysis of the trends revealed a broad warming trend in most of the watershed, and the cooling trends were observed only in the southern parts. Furthermore, the geographical pattern of the trends in the T mean and T anomaly series was similar, and the T max data did not show any dominant trend for the whole watershed. This study provides temperature change scenarios that may be used for the design of future water resource projects in the watershed.

  6. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  7. Modeling rock weathering in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.

    2014-05-01

    Many mountainous watersheds are conceived as aquifer media where multiple groundwater flow systems have developed (Tóth, 1963), and as bimodal landscapes where differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock has occurred (Wahrhaftig, 1965). The results of a weathering algorithm (Pacheco and Van der Weijden, 2012a, 2014), which integrates topographic, hydrologic, rock structure and chemical data to calculate weathering rates at the watershed scale, validated the conceptual models in the River Sordo basin, a small watershed located in the Marão cordillera (North of Portugal). The coupling of weathering, groundwater flow and landscape evolution analyses, as accomplished in this study, is innovative and represents a remarkable achievement towards regionalization of rock weathering at the watershed scale. The River Sordo basin occupies an area of approximately 51.2 km2 and was shaped on granite and metassediment terrains between the altitudes 185-1300 m. The groundwater flow system is composed of recharge areas located at elevations >700 m, identified on the basis of δ18O data. Discharge cells comprehend terminations of local, intermediate and regional flow systems, identified on the basis of spring density patterns, infiltration depth estimates based on 87Sr/86Sr data, and spatial distributions of groundwater pH and natural mineralization. Intermediate and regional flow systems, defined where infiltration depths >125 m, develop solely along the contact zone between granites and metassediments, because fractures in this region are profound and their density is very large. Weathering is accelerated where rocks are covered by thick soils, being five times faster relative to sectors of the basin where rocks are covered by thin soils. Differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock is also revealed by the spatial distribution of calculated aquifer hydraulic diffusivities and groundwater travel times.

  8. Multiple stressors in the Sacramento River watershed.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D E

    1998-01-01

    Aquatic biota in the Sacramento River watershed are stressed by diversion of river flows, by historical mining resulting in cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, and, more recently, contamination by agricultural and urban chemical runoff. In addition, the proposed redirection of drainage of saline waters--containing selenium--from the western slope of the San Joaquin River into the Delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers could add to the stress on resident organisms. These combined stressors have led to deterioration in surface water quality and the aquatic habitat. The potential interaction of these stressors, coupled with invasions of foreign species and the export of juvenile fish into aqueducts, has driven several species of fish to near extinction in the system. Effects of historical contamination by heavy metals are potentially exacerbated by presence of organophosphate pesticides, at concentrations exceeding National Academy of Sciences recommendations, throughout the lower watershed and the San Francisco Bay. The Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, an introduced non-indigenous species has apparently become a preferred food item of the sturgeon, Accipenser transmontanus, an important sport and aquaculture species. Since this introduction, sturgeon body burdens for selenium have increased dramatically and analytical chemistry of P. amurensis indicates that these organisms are effective bioaccumulators of selenium. This review examines potential ecotoxicity associated with multiple stressors in the watershed. Data from field monitoring, laboratory toxicity assays with ambient water, and ecotoxicologic investigations are reviewed. Potential designs for multiple stressor investigations are discussed. The information presented on this watershed illustrates the challenge to investigators seeking to evaluate multiple stressor effects on riverine and estuarine organisms.

  9. Nitrogen transport from tallgrass prairie watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodds, W.K.; Blair, J.M.; Henebry, G.M.; Koelliker, J.K.; Ramundo, R.; Tate, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Discharge and N content of surface water flowing from four Karat watersheds on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas, managed with different burn frequencies, were monitored from 1986 to 1992. The goal was to establish the influence of natural processes (climate, fire, and bison grazing) on N transport and concentration in streams. Streams were characterized by variable flow, under conditions that included an extreme flood and a drought during which all channels were dry for over a year. The estimated groundwater/stream water discharge ratio varied between 0.15 to 6.41. Annual N transport by streams, averaged across all watersheds and years, was 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Annual N transport per unit area also increased as the watershed area increased and as precipitation increased. Total annual transport of N horn the prairie via streams ranged from 0.01 to 6.0% of the N input from precipitation. Nitrate and total N concentrations in surface water decreased (P < 0.001, r values ranged from 0.140.26) as length of time since last fire increased. Increased watershed area was correlated negatively (P < 0.0001) to stream water concentrations of NO3-N and total N (r values = -0.43 and -0.20, respectively). Low N concentration is typical of these streams, with NH4/+-N concentrations below 1.0 ??g L-1, NO3-N ranging from below 1.4 to 392 ??g L-1, and total N from 3.0 to 714 ??g L-1. These data provide an important baseline for evaluating N transport and stream water quality from unfertilized grasslands.

  10. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  11. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Reconnaisance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    River, and sometimes from the American River via the Sacramento Weir. When the combined flow of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers and the Sutter Bypass...goods and services in the American River watershed will continue as currently projected. The population growth rate in the City of Sacramento and...Sacramento, El Dorado, and Placer Counties is projected to exceed the growth rate for the State of California through the year 2020. lable 6 shows the

  12. Sediment Management at the Watershed Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    James R. Leech and David Biedenharn PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is an approach to analyze and manage...States (U.S.). The magnitude of this problem is illustrated in the Corps of Engineers ’ final report to Congress for the Streambank Erosion Control...of riverine habitats and ecosystems. This complexity has led some engineers to conclude that treatment of sediment sources at the watershed level

  13. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Vache, Kellie

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  14. Storm flow export of metolachlor from a coastal plain watershed.

    PubMed

    Watts, D W; Novak, J M; Johnson, M H; Stone, K C

    2000-03-01

    During an 18-month (1994-1995) survey of the surface water in an Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed, metolachlor was most frequently detected during storm flow events. Therefore, a sampling procedure, focused on storm flow, was implemented in June of 1996. During 1996, three tropical cyclones made landfall within 150 km of the watershed. These storms, as well as several summer thunderstorms, produced six distinct storm flow events within the watershed. Metolachlor was detected leaving the watershed during each event. In early September, Hurricane Fran produced the largest storm flow event and accounted for the majority of the metolachlor exports. During the storm event triggered by Hurricane Fran, the highest daily average flow (7.5 m2 s-1) and highest concentration (5.1 micrograms L-1) ever measured at the watershed outlet were recorded. Storm flow exports leaving the watershed represented 0.1 g ha-1 or about 0.04% of active ingredient applied.

  15. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  16. Sediment calibration strategies of Phase 5 Chesapeake Bay watershed model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, J.; Shenk, G.W.; Raffensperger, J.; Moyer, D.; Linker, L.C.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Sediment is a primary constituent of concern for Chesapeake Bay due to its effect on water clarity. Accurate representation of sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed model is critical for developing sound load reduction strategies. Sediment calibration remains one of the most difficult components of watershed-scale assessment. This is especially true for Chesapeake Bay watershed model given the size of the watershed being modeled and complexity involved in land and stream simulation processes. To obtain the best calibration, the Chesapeake Bay program has developed four different strategies for sediment calibration of Phase 5 watershed model, including 1) comparing observed and simulated sediment rating curves for different parts of the hydrograph; 2) analyzing change of bed depth over time; 3) relating deposition/scour to total annual sediment loads; and 4) calculating "goodness-of-fit' statistics. These strategies allow a more accurate sediment calibration, and also provide some insightful information on sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  17. Citizen Participation in Collaborative Watershed Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  18. Watershed characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  19. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: physiography data.

    PubMed

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Starks, Patrick J; Steiner, Jean L; Guzman, Jorge A; Allen, Paul B; Naney, James W

    2014-07-01

    Physiographic data such as digital elevation models (DEMs), soils, geology, stream channel network characteristics, channel stability, and land use data are essential for understanding the complex hydrologic cycle and chemical transport processes of any given study area. We describe the physiographic data available in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW) in Oklahoma. Specifically, we describe (i) available raw and post-processed DEM products (), (ii) available soils data ( and ) and associated error analysis based on limited measured data, (iii) geologic formations in the LWREW and FCREW ( and ), and (iv) available rapid geomorphic assessment measurements () and their uses. Data collection is a collaborative effort among USGS, NRCS, and ARS. These data sets have been used for several research applications by USDA-ARS scientists and researchers from other institutions and agencies. Plans for detailed geomorphic assessment of stream channel networks in the FCREW are underway in collaboration with Oklahoma State University in Stillwater. The collected data will enable updating of the channel stability stage condition since there have been several major rainfall events in the watershed since the last geomorphic assessment.

  20. Hydro power benefits of cooperative watershed management

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lindquist, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the efforts of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) in cooperation with a number of agencies and public and private land managers to reduce erosion and restore the health of the East Branch North Fork Feather River (EBNFFR) watershed in Plumas County, California. Erosion of the 2600 square kilometer watershed has been identified as a major contributor of sediments to PG&E`s Rock Creek and Cresta hydroelectric reservoirs which have collected more than 5.4 million cubic meters of sediment over the past 45 years. PG&E and the 17 other participants of the cooperative erosion control program are joined by a {open_quotes}Memorandum of Agreement{close_quotes} (MOA) and are applying {open_quotes}Coordinated Resource Management{close_quotes} (CRM). To date, more than 33 individual watershed improvement projects and a comprehensive erosion control strategy document have been completed. It is anticipated that over the long term, the erosion control program may reduce the water-borne sediment delivery to Rock Creek and Cresta reservoirs by as much as 50 percent. PG&E benefits from the program through reduced sediment deposition in the reservoirs, reduced sediment wear on the power turbines, and potential increases in base flow during summer months when water power is of greatest value.

  1. Multiyear Estimates of Evaporation from a Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesely, M. L.; Song, J.

    2002-12-01

    Estimates of the evaporative losses from the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas were made with the parameterized subgrid scale (PASS) model and applied in an evaluation of the hydrological balance for the five-year period 1996-2000. The PASS model uses routine, spatially sparse surface meteorological data and satellite remote sensing data to calculate surface evapotranspiration rates over extended areas. The PASS model is observationally driven, makes use of extensive parameterizations of surface properties and processes, and does not rely on mesoscale meteorological models. Heteorogeneities in surface conditions are spatially resolved to an extent determined primarily by the satellite data pixel size. For the period of the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study field experiment at the Walnut River Watershed, estimates of vertical moisture fluxes from PASS agreed well with surface-based and aircraft-based eddy covariance measurements. Current work focuses on simulation of the water balance over the Watershed area of about 5000 square kilometers for a period of five years, in part to evaluate and study interannual variability. Surface vegetative conditions were described by analysis of biweekly, composite, 1-km-resolution NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data products. Radar-based estimates of precipitation estimates were obtained from the regional forecast center. Preliminary results indicate that estimates of accumulated soil moisture loss by evapotranspiration match fairly well with the soil moisture loss inferred roughly from precipitation and stream gauge measurements.

  2. Box Canyon Model Watershed Project : Annual Report 1997/1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Box Canyon Watershed Project. This project will concentrate on watershed protection and enhancement from an upland perspective and will complement current instream restoration efforts implemented through the Kalispel Resident Fish Project. Primary focus of this project is the Cee Cee Ah Creek watershed due to its proximity to the Reservation, importance as a traditional fishery, and potential for bull trout and west-slope cutthroat trout recovery.

  3. Water resources of the St. Louis River watershed, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Ericson, D.W.; Broussard, W.L.; Hult, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    The watershed is sparsely settled except for its northern and south-eastern parts. About 80 percent of the urban population lives on the Iron Range. Most of the suburban and rural residents alro live on or near the range or in the southeastern part of the watershed. Total population (1970), exclusive of those in the city of Duluth, which is included in the Lake Superior watershed (Olcott and others, 1976), was about 117,000.

  4. THE ROLE OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION IN DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmention with a gewographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  5. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  6. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  7. Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in the Macatawa Watershed, Michigan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The project supports MACC outreach and implementation efforts of the watershed management plan by facilitating communication with local municipal staff and educating local decision makers about green infrastructure.

  8. Photo Gallery for Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  9. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  10. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  11. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-03-25

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  12. Comprehensive biological effects of a complex field poly-metallic pollution gradient on the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray).

    PubMed

    Gust, M; Buronfosse, T; Geffard, O; Coquery, M; Mons, R; Abbaci, K; Giamberini, L; Garric, J

    2011-01-17

    The Lot River is known to be contaminated by metals, mainly cadmium and zinc, due to a former Zn ore treatment plant in the watershed of the Riou-Mort, a tributary of the Lot River. Many studies have been performed to characterize contamination, but few have assessed its consequences on the biological responses of organisms along the gradient. We exposed adult and juvenile New Zealand freshwater mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum at several sites along the gradient of metal contamination for 28 days. Biological responses were monitored at different levels: individual (survival, growth and fecundity), tissue and biochemical (energy status and vertebrate-like sex steroid levels) to better understand the toxicity mechanisms involved. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was high during exposure. Most of the biological effects observed could be linked to this contamination and were concentration-dependent. Histological lesions of the digestive gland were observed, with hypertrophy of calcium cells and vacuolization of digestive cells. Such effects are likely to explain the decrease of energy status (triglycerides and proteins), juvenile growth and adult fecundity observed at the most polluted site. However the magnitude of the fall in fecundity cannot be attributed only to these tissular effects, indicating another mode of action of Cd or possible confounding factors. Steroid accumulation in snails indicated only organic pollution. Histopathological effects proved the most sensitive endpoint to metal (Cd and Zn) contamination.

  13. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (Rel), resilience (Res) and vulnerability (Vul) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and Rel ResVul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented Rel ResVul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-Rel ResVul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-Rel ResVul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014.

  15. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  16. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  17. Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groffman, P.M.; Law, N.L.; Belt, K.T.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Although the watershed approach has long been used to study whole-ecosystem function, it has seldom been applied to study human-dominated systems, especially those dominated by urban and suburban land uses. Here we present 3 years of data on nitrogen (N) losses from one completely forested, one agricultural, and six urban/suburban watersheds, and input-output N budgets for suburban, forested, and agricultural watersheds. The work is a product of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a long-term study of urban and suburban ecosystems, and a component of the US National Science Foundation's long-term ecological research (LTER) network. As expected, urban and suburban watersheds had much higher N losses than did the completely forested watershed, with N yields ranging from 2.9 to 7.9 kg N ha-1 y-1 in the urban and suburban watersheds compared with less than 1 kg N ha-1 y -1 in the completely forested watershed. Yields from urban and suburban watersheds were lower than those from an agricultural watershed (13-19.8 kg N ha-1 y-1). Retention of N in the suburban watershed was surprisingly high, 75% of inputs, which were dominated by home lawn fertilizer (14.4 kg N ha-1 y-1) and atmospheric deposition (11.2 kg N ha-1 y-1). Detailed analysis of mechanisms of N retention, which must occur in the significant amounts of pervious surface present in urban and suburban watersheds, and which include storage in soils and vegetation and gaseous loss, is clearly warranted.

  18. GATHERING INFORMATION FOR WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF TEN WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document outlines and reviews the various types of information used in 10 different watershed assessments. Data tables that describe the data types, sources of data, data reliability, and study contacts as well as other information used in each of the 10 assessments are incl...

  19. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED TOOL FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execu...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENT SOURCE AREAS WITHIN A WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two methods, one using a travel time approach and the other based on optimization techniques, were developed to identify sediment generating areas within a watershed. Both methods rely on hydrograph and sedimentograph data collected at the mouth of the watershed. Data from severa...

  1. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Fiscal Year 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Runyon, John; Davis-Born, Renee

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments made by the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 1998. Coordination and administration consists of tasks associated with Focus Watershed Council staffing, project management, and public outreach.

  2. Cryptosporidium Source Tracking in the Potomac River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize the presence of Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as t...

  3. US EPA’s Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are prim...

  4. Framework for Placement of BMPs in Urban Watersheds (2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily a...

  5. STEWARDS: A web-based data system for watershed research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and assessments at a watershed scale require a multitude of data that are often available from diverse locations. When assessments are conducted across multiple watersheds, data compilation and management is even more complex. As part of the multi-agency Conservation Effects Assessment Pr...

  6. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  7. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING SCIENCE TO DECISION MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes some of the challenges and benefits of taking an integrated watershed approach to achieving Clean Water Act (CWA) and Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) goals, and some of the activities in EPA to facilitate watershed management decision making.

  8. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  9. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  10. WATERSHED LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory



    The distribution of different types of land cover across a watershed is a principal factor in controlling the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous exported from a watershed. A well developed literature of nutrient export coefficients by land-cover class was used to model t...

  11. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  12. Developing Landscape Level Indicators for Predicting Watershed Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drainage basins (watersheds) exert a strong influence on the condition of water bodies such as streams and lakes. Watersheds and associated aquatic systems respond differently to stressors (e.g., land use change) or restoration activities depending on the climatic setting, bedroc...

  13. AN ARCGIS TOOL FOR CREATING POPULATIONS OF WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the Landscape Investigations for Pesticides Study in the Midwest, the goal is to sample a representative subset of watersheds selected statistically from a target population of watersheds within the glaciated corn belt. This area stretches from Ohio to Iowa and includes parts...

  14. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrological modelling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier for the Little Miami River (LMR) and Las Vegas Wash (LVW) watersheds were used for detail sensitivity analyses. To compare the...

  15. Assessing the Value of the Enviroscape Watershed Learning Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Warren Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The researcher's evaluation of the West Atlanta Watershed Alliance's (WAWA) programs highlighted that few if any of the offered educational programs included a program evaluation, especially the most promising, the Enviroscape® Watershed learning module. The education programs that were customized and developed by the…

  16. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  17. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a screening model that is spatially lumped with options for a daily or monthly time step. It is specifically focused on modeling the effect of management decisions on the watershed. The model considers water flows and ...

  18. Framework for Placements of BMPs in Urban Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework to select, design, and place BMPs in urban watersheds to protect source waters and meet water quality goals...design requirements include: GIS interface; Watershed simulation module; Cost-optimization module. Intended users are those with a fundamental under...

  19. Nutrient losses from an irrigated watershed in southern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water, sediment and nutrients flowing into and out of the 82,000 ha Twin Falls, ID irrigation tract were measured from 2005 to 2008. Approximately 80% of the water flowing into the watershed was irrigation water diverted from the Snake River. About 40% of the watershed inflow returned to the Snake R...

  20. Cryptosporidium source tracking in the Potomac River watershed - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as three upstream si...

  1. AmeriFlux US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David; Coulter, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg). Site Description - The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land is leased on a year-to-year basis.

  2. Applying online WEPP to assess forest watershed hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new version of the online Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) GIS interface has been developed to assist in evaluating sediment sources associated with forests and forest management within the Great Lakes Basin. WEPP watershed structure and topographical inputs for each watershed element are g...

  3. Effects of conservation practices on fishes within agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watersheds in the United States without documentation of their impacts. The goal of the ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Project Watershed Assessment Study is to quantify the effect of conservation practices within 14 agri...

  4. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed approaches to water quality management have become popular, because they can address multiple point and non-point sources and the influences of land use. Developing technically-sound watershed management strategies can be challenging due to the need to 1) account for mu...

  5. Watershed geomorphology modifies the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Schindler, D.

    2015-12-01

    How carbon cycles are regulated by temperature remains a substantial uncertainty in our understanding of how watersheds will respond to ongoing climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are significant components of carbon flux to the atmosphere and ocean, yet we have limited understanding of how changing thermal regimes will alter rates of ecosystem metabolic processes, and, therefore, aquatic contributions to carbon cycles at watershed to global scales. Watershed geomorphology controls the landscape-scale distribution of organic material that can form the metabolic base of aquatic ecosystems, which will likely affect the temperature sensitivity of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Across 23 streams in a boreal river basin, we estimated how temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (ER), an important component of the aquatic C cycle, varied among streams with different watershed characteristics. We found that geomorphic conditions imposed strong ultimate controls on temperature sensitivity: ER in streams draining flat watersheds was much more sensitive to temperature than streams draining steeper watersheds. Further, we show that the link between watershed geomorphology and temperature sensitivity was related to changes in the quality of carbon substrates across the gradient in watershed slope. These results suggest that geomorphic conditions will ultimately control how carbon processing responds to warming climate, thereby affecting carbon transport and storage, and likely food web responses, in river networks.

  6. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier for the Little Miami River (LMR) and Las Vegas Wash (LVW) watersheds were used for detail sensitivity analyses. To compare the...

  7. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  8. USDA-ARS support of the USDA small watershed program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) has had a rich history supporting the USDA Small Watershed Program. The Small Watershed Program was established by the passage of legislation that allowed the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service to provide financial and technical suppo...

  9. AmeriFlux US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed. Site Description - The stand is over 50 years old, having regenerated from agricultural land.This site is located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee near the Walker Branch Watershed.

  10. U.S. EPA's Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  11. OPTIMIZING BMP PLACEMENT AT WATERSHED-SCALE USING SUSTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  12. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  13. Predictability of Biogeochemical Responses in Engineered Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Voepel, H. E.; Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Donner, S. D.; Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Examining the impacts of large-scale human modifications of watersheds (e.g., land-use intensification for food production; hydrologic modification through extensive tile-drainage, etc.) on the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses, and ecological impacts at various scales has been the focus of monitoring and modeling studies over the past two decades. Complex interactions between hydrology and biogeochemistry and the need to predict responses across scales has led to the development of detailed process-based models that are computationally intensive and calibration-dependent. Our overall hypothesis is that human modifications and intensive management of these watersheds have led to more predictable responses, which are typical of engineered, less-complex systems rather than natural, complex systems. We examined monitoring data for nitrogen, phosphorous, silica and chloride in 25 large watersheds (10,000 km2 to 500,000 km2) in the Mississippi River Basin. This sparse dataset was complemented with nitrogen cycling and hydrology output from a whole-basin terrestrial and aquatic modeling system (IBIS-THMB). These sub-basins have diverse land uses, although agriculture still dominates (from ~30% to ~80%). Despite diversity in soils, geology, rainfall patterns, and land use, a linear relationship was observed between the annual cumulative discharge (Q; m3/yr) and the measured nitrate load (L; kg/yr). The slopes of these linear L-Q plots represent the flow-weighted annual average concentrations (Cf), and a linear L-Q relationship indicates an apparent “chemostatic” response of these large watersheds. Analysis of Mississippi River monitoring data for nitrate and IBIS-THMB simulations revealed that Cf is a strong function of land-use (eg, percent corn) that defines the chemical input function. The scatter around the L-Q plots was small for “endogenous” (generated from internal sources) solutes (eg, silica), intermediate for “hybrid” (contributions from both

  14. WATERSHED HEALTH ASSESSMENT TOOLS-INVESTIGATING FISHERIES (WHAT-IF): A MODELING TOOLKIT FOR WATERSHED AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Health Assessment Tools-Investigating Fisheries (WHAT-IF) is a decision-analysis modeling toolkit for personal computers that supports watershed and fisheries management. The WHAT-IF toolkit includes a relational database, help-system functions and documentation, a...

  15. Modeling Peak Discharge within the Marengo River Watershed: Lessons for Restoration in the Saint Louis River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To more fully understand the hydrologic condition of the Marengo River Watershed, and to map specific locations most likely to have increased discharge and flow velocity (leading to more erosion and higher sediment loads) we modeled peak discharge for 35 different sub-watersheds ...

  16. It's all about Balance: Using a watershed model to evaluate costs, benefits and tradeoffs for Monponsett Ponds watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an EPA Region 1 RARE project, EPA Region 1 reached out to towns in the Taunton River watershed to identify those interested in testing new version of EPA watershed management tool (WMOST version 2)and found Halifax, MA in need of assistance in dealing with a suite of w...

  17. Phosphorus losses from an irrigated watershed in the Northwestern U.S.: Case study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watersheds utilizing surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000 ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 s...

  18. Long-term Watershed Database for the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province: Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding agricultural effects on water quality in rivers and estuaries requires understanding of hydrometeorology and geochemical cycling at various scales over time. The USDA-ARS initiated a hydrologic research program at the Mahantango Creek Watershed (MCW) in 1968, a research watershed at t...

  19. Hydrometric network evaluation for Canadian watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Coulibaly, P.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn recent years, climate change impacts on water resources sectors have been extensively documented. Anticipated changes range from more severe storms to more frequent floods and drought at regional scale. Pressure on water resources and hence on the environment will probably increase with the need of quality data for sustainable design of water resources projects. Therefore, for an optimal network design, hydrometric networks are to be reviewed periodically based on the information needs of the various end users and the perspective for future water resources development. This paper evaluates hydrometric networks to identify essential streamflow stations and critical areas (highly poor network density) within major watersheds across the different provinces of Canada using entropy theory. The method is applied to daily streamflow data and information coefficients such as marginal entropy, joint entropy and transinformation index are used for the identification of important stations as well as critical areas in the basin. The analysis results show that almost all Canadian main watersheds contain deficient hydrometric networks. The most deficient streamflow networks are identified in Alberta (North Saskatchewan, Oldman, and Red Deer basins), Northern Ontario (Hudson Bay basin), and the Northwest Territories. The information might prove to be helpful for decision makers to undertake cost-benefit analyses for hydrometric network updating in each region.

  20. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

  1. Aggregate Measures of Watershed Health from Reconstructed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Risk-based indices such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V), have the potential to serve as watershed health assessment tools. Recent research has demonstrated the applicability of such indices for water quality (WQ) constituents such as total suspended solids and nutrients on an individual basis. However, the calculations can become tedious when time-series data for several WQ constituents have to be evaluated individually. Also, comparisons between locations with different sets of constituent data can prove difficult. In this study, data reconstruction using relevance vector machine algorithm was combined with dimensionality reduction via variational Bayesian noisy principal component analysis to reconstruct and condense sparse multidimensional WQ data sets into a single time series. The methodology allows incorporation of uncertainty in both the reconstruction and dimensionality-reduction steps. The R-R-V values were calculated using the aggregate time series at multiple locations within two Indiana watersheds. Results showed that uncertainty present in the reconstructed WQ data set propagates to the aggregate time series and subsequently to the aggregate R-R-V values as well. serving as motivating examples. Locations with different WQ constituents and different standards for impairment were successfully combined to provide aggregate measures of R-R-V values. Comparisons with individual constituent R-R-V values showed that v

  2. Rocky River Watershed Based Curriculum Guide Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Phillip Howard

    Environmental education has the ability to increase cognitive ability, have a positive impact on group work skills, attitudes and self-efficacy, and increase student performance. Due to Federal "No Child Left Behind Act" legislation, increased standardized testing has resulted in the disenfranchisement of students from formal learning. The purpose of this project was to develop a curriculum guide based on the Rocky River watershed so teachers could use the Rocky River watershed as a means to satisfy the objectives of the NC Standard Course of Study and at the same time increase student environmental awareness, classroom engagement, sense of place and scores on the NC Earth/Environmental Final Exams. The project was developed to correlate with the newly revised North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Earth/Environmental Science. The curriculum guide was developed by utilizing the best practices suggested by scientific literature, the NC Standard Course of Study for Earth/Environmental Science, the North American Association for Environmental Education and the National Education Association.

  3. The watershed and river systems management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, S.L.; Frevert, D.; Leavesley, G.H.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Watershed and River System Management Program (WaRSMP), a joint effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is focused on research and development of decision support systems and their application to achieve an equitable balance among diverse water resource management demands. Considerations include: (1) legal and political constraints; (2) stake holder and consensus-building; (3) sound technical knowledge; (4) flood control, consumptive use, and hydropower; (5) water transfers; (6) irrigation return flows and water quality; (7) recreation; (8) habitat for endangered species; (9) water supply and proration; (10) near-surface groundwater; and (11) water ownership, accounting, and rights. To address the interdisciplinary and multi-stake holder needs of real-time watershed management, WaRSMP has developed a decision support system toolbox. The USGS Object User Interface facilitates the coupling of Reclamation's RiverWare reservoir operations model with the USGS Modular Modeling and Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems through a central database. This integration is accomplished through the use of Model and Data Management Interfaces. WaRSMP applications include Colorado River Main stem and Gunnison Basin, the Yakima Basin, the Middle Rio Grande Basin, the Truckee-Carson Basin, and the Umatilla Basin.

  4. SWAT ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ATRAZINE LOSS IN THE GOOD WATER CREEK EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwater Creek Watershed is a subwatershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed, an ARS-CEAP benchmark watershed in Northeast Missouri. This 7,250-ha watershed was selected for initial modeling because of its smaller size and the large hydrologic and climatologic dataset available. A SWAT model of ...

  5. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  6. River flow fluctuation analysis: Effect of watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirpa, Feyera A.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Over, Thomas M.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River Basin in Georgia in the southeastern United States with special focus on the effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 23 to 19,606 km2. The climatic and seasonal trends are removed using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique. Results show that (1) river flow fluctuations have two distinct scaling regimes, and the scaling break is delayed for large watershed areas; (2) large watersheds have more persistent river flow fluctuations and stronger long memory (i.e., for lag times beyond the scale break) than small watersheds do; (3) the long memory of river flow fluctuations does not come from the long memory of precipitation; (4) a linear reservoir unit hydrograph transfer function approach does not capture correctly the basin processes that convert short-memory precipitation to long-memory streamflow; and (5) the degree of multifractality of river flow fluctuations decreases with increasing watershed area. The results clearly indicate that watershed area is an important factor in the long-memory studies of streamflow such as streamflow prediction.

  7. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    PubMed

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  8. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hale, Rebecca L; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy; Riha, Krystin; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen A; Childers, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3-) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3- (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3- during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover--retention basins, pipes, and grass cover--dictated the sourcing of NO3- in runoff. Urban watersheds were strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on runoff, which in turn was inversely related to retention basin density and positively related to imperviousness and precipitation. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the time scale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  9. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir is experience harmful algal blooms. The system including the reservoir has become a significant case study for EPA ORD research and development. The Cooperative includes affiliates from the USACE, the OHIO EPA, the USGS, the USDA, and local Soil and Water Conservation districts as well as utility operators and water quality protection offices. The presentation includes a description of the water quality monitoring and modeling program in the watershed, followed by the results of using the watershed model to estimate the costs associated with nutrient reduction to Harsha Lake, and then ends with an explanation of temporal changes observed for important factors controlling harmful algae in Harsha Lake and how this lake relates to other reservoirs in the Ohio River Basin. This presentation is an invited contribution to the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Workshop sponsored by the US ACE and the US EPA. The presentation describes the activities of the East Fork Watershed Cooperative and the knowledge it has gained to help better manage a case study watershed system over the last few years. The East Fork of the Little Miami River is the focal watershed. It is a significant tributary to the Lit

  10. Slope spectrum variation in a simulated loess watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fayuan; Tang, Guoan; Wang, Chun; Cui, Lingzhou; Zhu, Rui

    2016-06-01

    A simulated loess watershed, where the loess material and relief properly represent the true loess surface, is adopted to investigate the variation in slope spectrum with loess watershed evolution. The evolution of the simulated loess watershed was driven by the exogenetic force of artificial rainfall. For a period of three months, twenty artificial rainfall events with different intensities and durations were carried out. In the process, nine DEM data sets, each with 10 mm grid resolution, were established by the method of close-range photogrammetry. The slope spectra were then extracted from these DEMs. Subsequent series of carefully designed quantitative analyses indicated a strong relationship between the slope spectrum and the evolution of the simulated loess watershed. Quantitative indices of the slope spectrum varied regularly following the evolution of the simulated loess watershed. Mean slope, slope spectrum information entropy ( H), terrain driving force ( T d ), Mean patch area ( AREA_MN), Contagion Index ( CONTAG), and Patch Cohesion Index ( COHESION) kept increasing following the evolution of the simulated watershed, while skewness ( S), Perimeter-Area Fractal Dimension ( PAFRAC), and Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index ( IJI) represented an opposite trend. All the indices changed actively in the early and active development periods, but slowly in the stable development periods. These experimental results indicate that the time series of slope spectra was able to effectively depict the slope distribution of the simulated loess watershed, thus presenting a potential method for modeling loess landforms.

  11. Sediment yields from small, steep coastal watersheds of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Melack, John M.; Goodridge, Blair M.

    2015-01-01

    Global inventories of sediment discharge to the ocean highlight the importance of small, steep watersheds (i.e., those having drainage areas less than 100,000 km2 and over 1000 m of relief) that collectively provide a dominant flux of sediment. The smallest of these coastal watersheds (e.g., those that have drainage areas less than 1000 km2) can represent a large portion of the drainage areas of active margin coasts, such as California’s coast, but remain almost universally unmonitored. Here we report on the suspended-sediment discharge of several small coastal watersheds (10-56 km2) of the Santa Ynez Mountains, California, that were found to have ephemeral discharge and suspended-sediment concentrations ranging between 1 and over 200,000 mgL-1. Sediment concentrations were weakly correlated with discharge (r2 = 0.10–0.25), and all types of hysteresis patterns were observed during high flows (clockwise, counterclockwise, no hysteresis, and complex). Sediment discharge varied strongly with time and was measurably elevated in one watershed following a wildfire. Although sediment yields varied by over 100-fold across the watersheds (e.g., 15 – 2100 tkm-2 yr -1during the relatively wet 2005 water year), the majority of sediment discharge (65-80%) occurred during only 1% of the time for all watersheds. Furthermore, sampling of dozens of high flow events provides evidence that sediment yields were generally related to peak discharge yields, although these relationships were not consistent across the watersheds. These results suggest that small watersheds of active margins can provide large fluxes of sediment to the coast, but that the rates and timing of this sediment discharge is more irregular in time – and thus more difficult to characterize – than the better monitored and studied watersheds that are 1000-100,000 km2.

  12. When Everything Changes: Mountaintop Mining Effects on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippgen, F.; Ross, M. R.; McGlynn, B. L.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mountaintop removal coal mining (MTM) in the Central Appalachians has expanded over the last 40 years to cover ~7% of this mountainous landscape. MTM operations remove mountaintops and ridges with explosives and machinery to access underlying coal seams. Much of this crushed rock overburden is subsequently deposited into nearby valleys, creating valley fills that often bury headwater streams. In contrast to other disturbances such as forest clear-cutting, perturbations from MTM can extend hundreds of meters deep into the critical zone and completely reshape landscapes. Despite the expansiveness and intensity of the disturbance, MTM has only recently begun to receive focused attention from the hydrologic community and the effect of MTM on the hydrology of impacted watersheds is still not well understood. We are using a two-pronged approach consisting of GIS analysis to quantify spoil volumes and landscape change, together with empirical analysis and modeling of rainfall and runoff data collected in two sets of paired watersheds. We seek to investigate how MTM affects basic hydrologic metrics, including storm peakflows, runoff response times, baseflow, statistics of flow duration curves, and longer-term water balances. Each pair consists of a mined and an unmined watershed; the first set contains headwater streams (size ~100ha), the second set consists of 3rd order streams, draining ~3500ha. Mining covers ~ 95% of the headwater watershed, and 40% of the 3rd-order watershed. Initial GIS analysis indicates that the overburden moved during the mining process could be up to three times greater than previously estimated. Storm runoff peaks in the mined watersheds were muted as compared to the unmined watersheds and runoff ratios were reduced by up to 75% during both wet and dry antecedent conditions. The natural reference watersheds were highly responsive while the additional storage in the mined watersheds led to decreased peak flows during storms and enhanced baseflow

  13. Effects of mountain agriculture on nutrient cycling at upstream watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Shaner, P. L.; Wang, L.-J.; Shih, Y.-T.; Wang, C.-P.; Huang, G.-H.; Huang, J.-C.

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture to rugged mountains can exacerbate negative impacts of agriculture activities on ecosystem function. In this study, we monitored streamwater chemistry of four watersheds with varying proportions of agricultural lands (0.4, 3, 17, 22%) and rainfall chemistry of two of the four watersheds at Feitsui Reservoir Watershed in northern Taiwan to examine the effects of agriculture on watershed nutrient cycling. We found that the greater the proportions of agricultural lands, the higher the ion concentrations, which is evident for fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) but not for ions that are rich in soils (SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+), suggesting that agriculture enriched fertilizer-associated nutrients in streamwater. The watershed with the highest proportion of agricultural lands had higher concentrations of ions in rainfall and lower nutrient retention capacity (i.e. higher output-input ratio of ions) compared to the relatively pristine watershed, suggesting that agriculture can influence atmospheric deposition of nutrients and a system's ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, we found that a forested watershed downstream of agricultural activities can dilute the concentrations of fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) in streamwater by more than 70%, indicating that specific landscape configurations help mitigate nutrient enrichment to aquatic systems. We estimated that agricultural lands at our study site contributed approximately 400 kg ha-1 yr-1 of NO3-N and 260 kg ha-1 yr-1 of PO4-P output via streamwater, an order of magnitude greater than previously reported around the globe and can only be matched by areas under intense fertilizer use. Furthermore, we re-constructed watershed nutrient fluxes to show that excessive leaching of N and P, and additional loss of N to the atmosphere via volatilization and denitrification, can occur under intense fertilizer use. In summary, this study demonstrated the pervasive impacts of agriculture activities

  14. Sediment storage and yield in an urbanized karst watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Evan A.; Schurger, Stephen G.

    2005-08-01

    In karst watersheds, sinkholes and other drainage features control the temporal and spatial pattern of sediment storage across the landscape. However, studies dealing with sedimentation in karst watersheds are scarce and the sediment storage function of sinkholes and caves has not been investigated using a sediment budget approach. In this study, we use estimates of channel erosion, sinkhole sedimentation, and suspended sediment yield to examine changes in sediment storage in the 9 km 2 Upper Pigeon Roost Creek fluviokarst watershed near Cookeville, TN. The study watershed has undergone urbanization over the last ˜ 50 years, and sinkholes and caves in the area show signs of recent sedimentation (buried tree roots, buried cultural artifacts, etc.). While sinkholes are generally considered to be sediment sinks, sinkholes examined in this study are shown to cycle between periods of net sediment storage and net sediment loss. Using copyright dates on trash items buried in sinkhole deposits, we estimated the residence time of sinkhole-stored sediment to range from 6 to 10 years. However, other evidence indicates that some sinkholes may store sediment for several centuries. We propose that sediment storage within sinkholes is controlled by several factors including sinkhole drainage area, sinkhole morphology, and basin sediment yield. In addition, changes in sediment storage in karst watersheds are contingent upon random events such as sinkhole collapses. Annual sediment yield was estimated to be 111 Mg km - 2 year - 1 for the entire study watershed and ranged from 11 to 128 Mg km - 2 year - 1 for 3 sub-watersheds. Sediment eroded from the watershed, perhaps during historic settlement of the area, is stored within a large cave system underlying the city. However, the results of a partial sediment budget indicate that the cave is presently a net sediment source. Overall, the findings indicate that the sediment storage function of caves and sinkholes varies spatially and

  15. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a

  16. Nutrient inputs to the Laurentian Great Lakes by source and watershed estimated using SPARROW watershed models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient input to the Laurentian Great Lakes continues to cause problems with eutrophication. To reduce the extent and severity of these problems, target nutrient loads were established and Total Maximum Daily Loads are being developed for many tributaries. Without detailed loading information it is difficult to determine if the targets are being met and how to prioritize rehabilitation efforts. To help address these issues, SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed for estimating loads and sources of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from the United States (U.S.) portion of the Great Lakes, Upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Red River Basins. Results indicated that recent U.S. loadings to Lakes Michigan and Ontario are similar to those in the 1980s, whereas loadings to Lakes Superior, Huron, and Erie decreased. Highest loads were from tributaries with the largest watersheds, whereas highest yields were from areas with intense agriculture and large point sources of nutrients. Tributaries were ranked based on their relative loads and yields to each lake. Input from agricultural areas was a significant source of nutrients, contributing ∼33-44% of the P and ∼33-58% of the N, except for areas around Superior with little agriculture. Point sources were also significant, contributing ∼14-44% of the P and 13-34% of the N. Watersheds around Lake Erie contributed nutrients at the highest rate (similar to intensively farmed areas in the Midwest) because they have the largest nutrient inputs and highest delivery ratio.

  17. Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed.

    PubMed

    Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

    2013-06-04

    Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially explicit model to evaluate the implications of reforestation both for water flows and for other services. We find that reforestation does not necessarily increase water supply, but does increase carbon sequestration and timber production.

  18. Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed

    PubMed Central

    Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially explicit model to evaluate the implications of reforestation both for water flows and for other services. We find that reforestation does not necessarily increase water supply, but does increase carbon sequestration and timber production. PMID:23690598

  19. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  20. Establishing aquatic restoration priorities using a watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Bohn, B A; Kershner, J L

    2002-04-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, the United States has made great strides to reduce the threats to its rivers, lakes, and wetlands from pollution. However, despite our obvious successes, nearly half of the nation's surface water resources remain incapable of supporting basic aquatic values or maintaining water quality adequate for recreational swimming. The Clean Water Act established a significant federal presence in water quality regulation by controlling point and non-point sources of pollution. Point-sources of pollution were the major emphasis of the Act, but Section 208 specifically addressed non-point sources of pollution and designated silviculture and livestock grazing as sources of non-point pollution. Non-point source pollutants include runoff from agriculture, municipalities, timber harvesting, mining, and livestock grazing. Non-point source pollution now accounts for more than half of the United States water quality impairments. To successfully improve water quality, restoration practitioners must start with an understanding of what ecosystem processes are operating in the watershed and how they have been affected by outside variables. A watershed-based analysis template developed in the Pacific Northwest can be a valuable aid in developing that level of understanding. The watershed analysis technique identifies four ecosystem scales useful to identify stream restoration priorities: region, basin, watershed, and site. The watershed analysis technique is based on a set of technically rigorous and defensible procedures designed to provide information on what processes are active at the watershed scale, how those processes are distributed in time and space. They help describe what the current upland and riparian conditions of the watershed are and how these conditions in turn influence aquatic habitat and other beneficial uses. The analysis is organized as a set of six steps that direct an interdisciplinary team of specialists to examine

  1. Conceptual model for transferring information between small watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    Stream and watershed management and restoration can be greatly facilitated through use of physiographic landform classification to organize and communicate natural resource, hazard, and environmental information at a broad scale (1:250,000) as illustrated by the Piedmont and Coastal Plain Provinces in Maryland, or at a small scale (1:24,000) as illustrated using divisions and zones combined with a conceptual model. The conceptual model brings together geology, surficial processes, landforms and land use change information at the small watershed scale and facilitates transfer of information from one small watershed to another with similar geology and landforms. Stream flow, sediment erosion, and water quality illustrate the use of the model.

  2. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  3. Application of the ReNuMa model in the Sha He river watershed: tools for watershed environmental management.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Liu, Min; Wang, Dong; Swaney, Dennis P; Wang, Yuqiu

    2013-07-30

    Models and related analytical methods are critical tools for use in modern watershed management. A modeling approach for quantifying the source apportionment of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and associated tools for examining the sensitivity and uncertainty of the model estimates were assessed for the Sha He River (SHR) watershed in China. The Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) was used to infer the primary sources of DN in the SHR watershed. This model is based on the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) and the Net Anthropogenic Nutrient Input (NANI) framework, modified to improve the characterization of subsurface hydrology and septic system loads. Hydrochemical processes of the SHR watershed, including streamflow, DN load fluxes, and corresponding DN concentration responses, were simulated following calibrations against observations of streamflow and DN fluxes. Uncertainty analyses were conducted with a Monte Carlo analysis to vary model parameters for assessing the associated variations in model outputs. The model performed accurately at the watershed scale and provided estimates of monthly streamflows and nutrient loads as well as DN source apportionments. The simulations identified the dominant contribution of agricultural land use and significant monthly variations. These results provide valuable support for science-based watershed management decisions and indicate the utility of ReNuMa for such applications.

  4. Impact of watershed topography on hyporheic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    Among the interactions between surface water bodies and aquifers, hyporheic exchange has been recognized as a key process for nutrient cycling and contaminant transport. Even though hyporheic exchange is strongly controlled by groundwater discharge, our understanding of the impact of the regional groundwater flow on hyporheic fluxes is still limited because of the complexity arising from the multi-scale nature of these interactions. In this work, we investigate the role of watershed topography on river-aquifer interactions by way of a semi-analytical model, in which the landscape topography is used to approximate the groundwater head distribution. The analysis of a case study shows how the complex topographic structure is the direct cause of a substantial spatial variability of the aquifer-river exchange. Groundwater upwelling along the river corridor is estimated and its influence on the hyporheic zone is discussed. In particular, the fragmentation of the hyporeic corridor induced by groundwater discharge at the basin scale is highlighted.

  5. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  6. Integrated watershed planning across jurisdictional boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. W.; Roseen, R.; Stacey, P.; Bourdeau, R.

    2014-12-01

    We will present the foundation for an Coastal Watershed Integrated Plan for three communities in southern New Hampshire. Small communities are often challenged by complex regulatory requirements and limited resources, but are wary of perceived risks in engaging in collaborative projects with other communities. Potential concerns include loss of control, lack of resources to engage in collaboration, technical complexity, and unclear benefits. This project explores a multi-town subwatershed application of integrated planning across jurisdictional boundaries that addresses some of today's highest priority water quality issues: wastewater treatment plant upgrades for nutrient removal; green infrastructure stormwater management for developing and re-developing areas; and regional monitoring of ecosystem indicators in support of adaptive management to achieve nutrient reduction and other water quality goals in local and downstream waters. The project outcome is a collaboratively-developed inter-municipal integrated plan, and a monitoring framework to support cross jurisdictional planning and assess attainment of water quality management goals. This research project has several primary components: 1) assessment of initial conditions, including both the pollutant load inputs and the political, economic and regulatory status within each community, 2) a pollutant load model for point and non-point sources, 3) multi-criteria evaluation of load reduction alternatives 4) a watershed management plan optimized for each community, and for Subwatersheds combining multiple communities. The final plan will quantify the financial and other benefits/drawbacks to each community for both inter municipal and individual pollution control approaches. We will discuss both the technical and collaborative aspects of the work, with lessons learned regarding science to action, incorporation of social, economic and water quality assessment parameters, and stakeholder/researcher interaction.

  7. EPA ’s ECOLOGICAL MODELS FOR INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecological populations and communities are affected by the nature and quality of the water in which they live. Specific factors that affect instream biota include chemical variables, biotic interactions, energy source, flow regime, and habitat structure. As watershed mana...

  8. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... benefits consistent with protecting the Nation's environment (for structural water resource projects... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible...

  9. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... benefits consistent with protecting the Nation's environment (for structural water resource projects... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible...

  10. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... benefits consistent with protecting the Nation's environment (for structural water resource projects... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible...

  11. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... benefits consistent with protecting the Nation's environment (for structural water resource projects... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible...

  12. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic modeling is essential for environmental, economic, and human health decision-making. However, sharing of modeling studies is limited within the watershed modeling community. Distribution of hydrologic modeling research typically involves publishing summarized data in p...

  13. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) System (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic modeling is essential for environmental, economic, and human health decision- making. However, sharing of modeling studies is limited within the watershed modeling community. Distribution of hydrologic modeling research typically involves publishing summarized data in ...

  14. Climate change effects on watershed hydrological and biogeochemical processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projected changes in climate are widely expected to alter watershed processes. However, the extent of these changes is difficult to predict because complex interactions among affected hydrological and biogeochemical processes will likely play out over many decades and spatial sc...

  15. Program Contacts for Patapsco Watershed/Baltimore Region (Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Patapsco Watershed/Baltimore Region (Maryland) Area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  16. Photo Gallery from the Los Angeles River Watershed (California)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Photo gallery of the Los Angeles River Watershed area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  17. Nutrient and Sediment TMDLs for the Indian Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents for nutrient and sediment TMDLS for the Indian Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania. This includes the original TMDLs established in 2008, reconsideration documents from March 2014, and a 2015 errata to the original TMDL.

  18. A simple empirical stream flow prediction model for ungauged watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of streamflow is important for estimating groundwater recharge rates, forecasting floods, and designing hydropower structures and irrigation systems. However, many watersheds throughout the developing world remain ungauged. This fact demands a simple hydrological model that requires minima...

  19. Planning Targets for Phase II Watershed Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On August 1, 2011, EPA provided planning targets for nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment for the Phase II Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs) of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. This page provides the letters containing those planning targets.

  20. Possible Climate Change Evidence in Ten Mexican Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, E.; Santana, S.; Montero, M.; Deeb, A.; Grunwaldt, A.

    2015-12-01

    This work suggests possible evidence of climate change in Mexico at the watershed level, based solely on historical data. The official Mexican climate dataset was used to find the best set of stations for each watershed. Maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall in ten watersheds are analyzed from 1970 to 2009. Maximum temperature trends show a significant increment in most of these watersheds. Furthermore, Daily Temperature Range (DTR) exhibits a positive trend (increments), thus implying an increase in temperature extremes. This study also shows that the difference between maximum and minimum monthly temperature trends is negatively correlated with monthly precipitation trends. As a result, land-use and land-cover changes could be the main drivers of climate change in the region.

  1. Watershed Academy Webcast: USDA's National Water Quality Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a description and documentation associated with the webcast on how USDA’s NWQI is working in priority watersheds to help farmers, ranchers and forest landowners improve water quality.

  2. SUSTAIN - A BMP PROCESS AND PLACEMENT TOOL FOR URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate how best to address environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. Significant investments are needed to protect and restore water quality, address total maximum daily loads ...

  3. SUSTAIN - A BMP PROCESS AND PLACEMENT TOOL FOR URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate how best to address environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. Significant investments are needed to protect and restore water quality, address total maximum daily loads (...

  4. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  5. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquat

  6. Removing Mercury in the Guadalupe River Watershed Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Removing Mercury in the Guadalupe River Watershed Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  7. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AT THE WATERSHED SCALE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from extensive impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and stream ecosystem impairment, triggering an interest in watershed-scale retrofit stormwater management. Such stormwater management is of multidisciplinary relevance, ...

  8. Mission, Goals and Workgroups of South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  9. Links Related to Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  10. Meetings & Events about Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anacostia Watershed (Washington, DC/Maryland) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  11. RETROFIT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: NAVIGATING MULTIDISCIPLINARY HURDLES AT THE WATERSHED SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from extensive impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and stream ecosystem impairment, triggering an interest in watershed-scale retrofit stormwater management. Such stormwater management is of multidisciplinary relevance, ...

  12. APPLYING ECOLOGICAL RISK PRINCIPLES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable progress in addressing point source (end of pipe) pollution problems has been made but it is now recognized that further substantial environmental improvements depend on controlling nonpoint source pollution. A watershed approach is being used more frequently to add...

  13. DECISION SUPPORT FRAMEWORK FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist stormwater management professionals in planning for best management practices (BMPs) implementation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is developing a decision support system for placement of BMPs at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This tool wil...

  14. Possible climate change evidence in ten Mexican watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Efrain; Santana, Julio-Sergio; Montero-Martínez, Martin J.; Deeb, Alejandro; Grunwaldt, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    This paper suggests possible evidence of climate change in Mexico at the watershed level, based solely on historical data. The official Mexican climate dataset was used to find the best set of stations for each watershed. Maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall in ten watersheds are analyzed from 1970 to 2009. Maximum temperature trends show a significant increment in most of these watersheds. Furthermore, Daily Temperature Range (DTR) exhibits a positive trend (increments), thus implying an increase in temperature extremes. This study also shows that the difference between maximum and minimum monthly temperature trends is negatively correlated with monthly precipitation trends. As a result, land-use and land-cover changes could be the main drivers of climate change in the region.

  15. REMOTE AND PROXIMATE SENSING IN SUPPORT OF SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-generationally prudent management of watershed resources will require attention to a complex array of interdependent variables. An interdisciplinary team of investigators from four national research laboratories in EPA's ORD are collaborating to develop stratagems for water...

  16. Multiple Watershed Scales Approach for Placement of BMPs in SUSTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate how best to address environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. Significant investments are needed to protect and restore water quality, address total maximum daily loads ...

  17. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2005-07-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2005 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN Watershed Coordination Program is coordinating projects and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. The KRN willingly shares its resources with these groups. The 2004-2005 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out by one half-time Watershed Coordinator position in Montana-Idaho (Nancy Zapotocki) and one half-time Watershed Coordination team in British Columbia (Laura and Jim Duncan). Nancy Zapotocki was hired as the KRN US Watershed Coordinator in July 2004. Her extensive work experience in outreach and education and watershed planning complements the Duncans in British Columbia. To continue rejuvenating and revitalizing the KRN, the Board conducted a second retreat in November 2004. The first retreat took place in November 2003. Board and staff members combined efforts to define KRN goals and ways of achieving them. An Education and Outreach Plan formulated by the Watershed Coordinators was used to guide much of the discussions. The conclusions reached during the retreat specified four ''flagship'' projects for 2005-2006, to: (1) Provide leadership and facilitation, and build on current work related to the TMDL plans and planning efforts on the United States side of the border. (2) Continue facilitating trans-boundary British Columbia projects building on established work and applying the KRN model of project facilitation to other areas of the Kootenai basin. (3) Finalize and implement the KRN Education and Outreach plan

  18. Spatial Scaling of Floods in Atlantic Coastal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and land use changes are altering global, regional and local hydrologic cycles. As a result, past events may not accurately represent the events that will occur in the future. Methods for hydrologic prediction, both statistical and deterministic, require adequate data for calibration. Streamflow gauges tend to be located on large rivers. As a result, statistical flood frequency analysis, which relies on gauge data, is biased towards large watersheds. Conversely, the complexity of parameterizing watershed processes in deterministic hydrological models limits these to small watersheds. Spatial scaling relationships between drainage basin area and discharge can be used to bridge these two methodologies and provide new approaches to hydrologic prediction. The relationship of discharge (Q) to drainage basin area (A) can be expressed as a power function: Q = αAθ. This study compares scaling exponents (θ) and coefficients (α) for floods of varying magnitude across a selection of major Atlantic Coast watersheds. Comparisons are made by normalizing flood discharges to a reference area bankfull discharge for each watershed. These watersheds capture the geologic and geomorphic transitions along the Atlantic Coast from narrow bedrock-dominated river valleys to wide coastal plain watersheds. Additionally, there is a range of hydrometeorological events that cause major floods in these basins including tropical storms, thunderstorm systems and winter-spring storms. The mix of flood-producing events changes along a gradient as well, with tropical storms and hurricanes increasing in dominance from north to south as a significant cause of major floods. Scaling exponents and coefficients were determined for both flood quantile estimates (e.g. 1.5-, 10-, 100-year floods) and selected hydrometeorological events (e.g. hurricanes, summer thunderstorms, winter-spring storms). Initial results indicate that southern coastal plain watersheds have lower scaling exponents (θ) than

  19. Hydrologic resilience of a Canadian Foothills watershed to forest harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbrand, Amy; Anderson, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations of long-term hydrometeorological, groundwater, and streamflow data from watersheds on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains showed the streamflow regime was resilient to forest harvest. These watersheds had low levels of harvest relative to their size and a large area of sparsely vegetated alpine talus slopes and exposed bedrock; an area shown to generate the majority of runoff for streamflow. In contrast, watersheds located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains are of lower relief and typically have harvestable timber throughout the watershed; therefore, these watersheds may be more sensitive to forest disturbance and have increased potential for streamflow response. This project assesses the hydrologic resilience of an Alberta Foothills watershed to forest harvest using a 23-year dataset from the Tri-Creeks Experimental Watershed (Tri-Creeks). Tri-Creeks has been the site of intensive streamflow, groundwater, snow accumulation, and precipitation observations from 1967 - 1990. During the early 1980s, forestry experiments were conducted to compare the effects of timber harvest and riparian buffers, and the effectiveness of timber harvesting ground rules in protecting fisheries and maintaining water resources within three sub-watersheds: Eunice (16.8 km2; control); Deerlick (15.2 km2; 36% streamside timber removal); and, Wampus (28.3 km2; 37% clear-cut). Statistical analyses were used to compare the pre-and post-harvest ratios of treatment to control sub-watershed runoff for: water year, monthly (April - October), snowmelt peak flow, and low flow (10th percentile streamflow) periods as an assessment of hydrologic resilience to forest harvest. The only significant post-harvest change was an increase in water yield during May at Wampus (Mann-Whitney (MW), p<0.05) and Deerlick (MW, p<0.1) Creeks. The lack of change in snowmelt peak flow timing or magnitude was not expected, particularly in Deerlick, which had 36% streamside timber

  20. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the amount of

  1. Trend analysis in a Brazilian watershed with high water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, Juliano; Cristaldo, Mariana; Pellegrino, Giampaollo

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades the development of urban, industrial and agricultural activities, has led to a significant increase in water demand and decrease in both water quantity and quality in worldwide. The "Paracatu Watershed" is located in Southeast Brazil, one of most developed region in Brazil. The irrigation is the main water use with more than 70% of total demand and the watershed already suffers with water availability and conflicts tend to increase. Trends analysis is an important for the environmental diagnosis in watersheds, allowing evaluate how water bodies are responding through the years the growing anthropogenic interventions. In this studied we analyzed the 6 streamflow and 12 rainfall stations of the "Paracatu Watershed", in the period from 1965 to 2011. The Mann Kendall and Pettitt test were used to trends analysis and abrupt changes in the mean, respectively. The methodology is divided in graphical analysis and application of trend tests, where initially an exploratory analysis of data is performed, followed by confirmation through statistical tests. The results showed negative trend but non-significant (95%) and non-significant abrupt change in rainfall and streamflow (minimum, maximum and mean). Despite no significant trends, the population and irrigation growth plus climate changes tends to decrease the water availability in the watershed. This watershed already suffer from the water problem, and if to keep increasing consumption in the watershed for urban supply and irrigation plus the possible impacts of climatic changes, without prior and appropriate planning, which can be obtained, the population could suffer more problems regarding of water in the future. The solutions must be proposed to help the watershed, with use crop resistant to decrease the irrigation and increase the efficiency of irrigation and population awareness. Appropriate planning and polices are essential to ensure water for future.

  2. Potlatch River Watershed Restoration, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Kenneth

    2003-09-01

    The project's goal is to improve instream fish habitat in the Potlatch River and the lower Clearwater River through comprehensive watershed planning, implementation of best management practices and expanded water quality and fish habitat monitoring. This proposal has two primary objectives: (1) complete the Potlatch River watershed implementation plan; and, (2) augment existing monitoring efforts in the Potlatch River to broaden the water quality and fish resource data baseline.

  3. Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Potential Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2013, EPA announced the release of the final report, Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Potential Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds.

    Watershed modeling was conducted in ...

  4. Development of the University of Delaware Experimental Watershed Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnini, J. L.; Kauffman, G. J.; Corrozi, M.; Bower, J.

    2001-05-01

    In 2000, a team of University of Delaware undergraduate and graduate students developed the University of Delaware Experimental Watershed Project with a grant from the Delaware Water Resources Center. The University of Delaware (UD) is a land- and sea-grant institution in Newark, Delaware and is perched along the Atlantic seaboard's fall line. A critical mass of UD faculty and students in water resources and related disciplines are interested in the development of an experimental watershed on campus to provide (1) interdisciplinary undergraduate, graduate and faculty research opportunities, and (2) an outdoor education laboratory. Using GIS and field reconnaissance techniques, the three students delineated two small experimental watershed regions respectively located in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain provinces of the White Clay Creek Wild and Scenic River Valley on the UD campus. The Piedmont watershed drains 416 acres of the northern area of campus while the Coastal Plain watershed drains 896 acres including the central and southern sections of campus. The students then developed an ArcView GIS atlas integrating geology, soils, topography, land use, and impervious cover layers with a rating system for water quality and habitat characteristics to issue a "report-card" assessing each watershed's overall health. The White Clay Creek Wild and Scenic River Valley is an ideal on campus location for an outdoor education and research laboratory because of its manageable scale, the diversity of its characteristic land uses and physical environment, and above all its accessibility for students, faculty, researchers, and the public.

  5. Development of a Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Wilson, K.; Clair, Michael G.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System, developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and drainage areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (hydrologic unit codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds and 12-digit subwatersheds - the exceptions are the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Plain (known locally as the Delta) and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were only subdivided into 10-digit watersheds. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, hydrologic unit codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database.

  6. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  7. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  8. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2000-10-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  9. Chemical transport from paired agricultural and restored prairie watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    A five-year record of streamflow and chemical sampling data was evaluated to assess the effects of large-scale prairie restoration on transport of NO3-N, Cl, and SO4 loads from paired 5000-ha watersheds located in Jasper County, Iowa. Water quality conditions monitored during land use conversion from row crop agriculture to native prairie in the Walnut Creek watershed were compared with a highly agricultural control watershed (Squaw Creek). Combining hydrograph separation with a load estimation program, baseflow and stormflow loads of NO3-N, Cl, and SO4 were estimated at upstream and downstream sites on Walnut Creek and a downstream site on Squaw Creek. Chemical export in both watersheds was found to occur primarily with baseflow, with baseflow transport greatest during the late summer and fall. Lower Walnut Creek watershed, which contained the restored prairie areas, exported less NO3-N and Cl compared with upper Walnut Creek and Squaw Creek watersheds. Average flow-weighted concentrations of NO3-N exceeded 10 mg/L in upper Walnut Creek and Squaw Creek, but were estimated to be 6.6 mg/L in lower Walnut Creek. Study results demonstrate the utility of partitioning loads into baseflow and stormflow components to identify sources of pollutant loading to streams.

  10. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M; Band, Lawrence; Elliott, Emily M.; Shields, Catherine A.; Kendall, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ15N-NO3–, and δ18O-NO3– indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

  11. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT ON THE PAJARITO PLATEAU: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect

    K. MULLEN; K. BITNER

    2001-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a draft watershed-management plan that pertains to the 43-mi{sup 2} area within the LANL boundaries. The watershed-management plan was started in 1996 with a number of overall goals: (1) to be a good steward of the natural resources entrusted to the laboratory, (2) to provide long-term evaluation regarding success of the Environmental Restoration Project in acceptably cleaning up sites, (3) compliance with the storm water National Pollution Discharge Elimination System program, and (4) upgrading the LANL environmental surveillance program that has been ongoing since the 1940s. LANL has an extensive network consisting of 53 surface-water-monitoring stations located in every major canyon, upstream and downstream of LANL, and at most confluences. Monitoring of the network has been ongoing for about 20 years. The stations are equipped with ultrasonic transducers that trip automated samplers to collect water samples from every flow event. These data have been reported every year in the report series Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos, but have not been used to analyze watershed health. The focus of the LANL watershed-management plan is to use water quality data to monitor watershed health and to implement management actions when LANL activities, past or present, adversely impact the health of the watershed.

  12. Applying ecological risk principles to watershed assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Serveiss, Victor B

    2002-02-01

    Considerable progress in addressing point source (end of pipe) pollution problems has been made, but it is now recognized that further substantial environmental improvements depend on controlling nonpoint source pollution. A watershed approach is being used more frequently to address these problems because traditional regulatory approaches do not focus on nonpoint sources. The watershed approach is organized around the guiding principles of partnerships, geographic focus, and management based on sound science and data. This helps to focus efforts on the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. Ecological risk assessment is a process to collect, organize, analyze, and present scientific information to improve decision making. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored three watershed assessments and found that integrating the watershed approach with ecological risk assessment increases the use of environmental monitoring and assessment data in decision making. This paper describes the basics of the watershed approach, the ecological risk assessment process, and how these two frameworks can be integrated. The three major principles of watershed ecological risk assessment found to be most useful for increasing the use of science in decision making are (1) using assessment endpoints and conceptual models, (2) holding regular interactions between scientists and managers, and (3) developing a focus for multiple stressor analysis. Examples are provided illustrating how these principles were implemented in these assessments.

  13. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Groffman, Peter M; Band, Lawrence E; Elliott, Emily M; Shields, Catherine A; Kendall, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ(15)N-NO(3)(-), and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

  14. Spatial assessment of conjunctive water harvesting potential in watershed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekar, I.; Randhir, T. O.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryWater harvesting can be used to minimize water loss and to augment water supplies in watershed systems. This effort is increasingly being recognized as critical in regions experiencing urbanization and facing uneven water supplies. Water harvesting requires a careful assessment of geographic locations in a watershed and evaluation of surface and groundwater hydrology. In this paper, we develop a spatially explicit method to evaluate costs of harvesting and potential benefits in water harvesting in the Taunton River Watershed in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. A spatial analysis is used to assess surface storage and groundwater recharge potentials in developed and undeveloped regions of the watershed. Distributed parameters used in the analysis include runoff coefficients, land use, soil properties, precipitation, aquifer, and land price. Prioritization maps were developed to characterize conjunctive harvesting potential that is based on benefits and costs. The results demonstrate that a spatially variable harvesting strategy can be used to minimize runoff loss and to augment water supplies. The potential harvest areas were clustered in specific locations that satisfy feasibility and economic criteria. In some subwatersheds, potential harvest locations were dispersed. A spatially variable approach that incorporates economic criteria to hydrologic assessment can be used to enhance efficiency related to water harvest and supply management. Given the increasing demand for clean water, a distributed and conjunctive harvesting strategy could be effective in several urbanizing watersheds. The model has potential for further extension into complex situations of biophysical and socioeconomic conditions at watershed level.

  15. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  16. Decoupling of DOC and DON at the watershed scale - what can it tell us about DOM and watershed function? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of interest in DOM, with considerable interest in the biogeochemical behavior and ecological function of both DOC and DON. Controls on DOC flux from watersheds have been examined in numerous studies, but much less is know about watershed-scale control on DON flux. Although DOC and DON are only different fractions of the same DOM pool, they can at times behave differently, and in that sense they are “decoupled.” In the suburban Lamprey River watershed in New Hampshire, for example, DOC concentrations do not show relationships with stream discharge, but DON concentrations do show a statistically significant relationship. Other previously published studies have noted the same decoupling of DOC and DON during storms. In the tropical Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, streamwater DOC/DON ranges from 12 to 25 among watersheds located within 10 kilometers of each other. Despite evident similarities in the vegetation, rainfall, and geology of these watersheds, large differences exist in the relative abundance of the carbon- and nitrogen-rich fraction of DOM generated in each watershed. Drivers for decoupling during storms could include differences in DOM sources during storms (e.g. more throughfall), or differential transport of DOC and DON due to differential sorption of each along high-flow and low-flow pathways. Potential drivers for spatial variability in stream DOC/DON ratio among watersheds include differences in soil C and N content or flow paths among watersheds. Evidence for the importance of these mechanisms, and a conceptual model for drivers of DOC/DON decoupling, will be presented.

  17. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  18. Applying Physically Representative Watershed Modelling to Assess Peak and Low Flow Response to Timber Harvest: Application for Watershed Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Anderson, A.; Silins, U.; Craig, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Forest harvesting, insects, disease, wildfire, and other disturbances can combine with climate change to cause unknown changes to the amount and timing of streamflow from critical forested watersheds. Southern Alberta forest and alpine areas provide downstream water supply for agriculture and water utilities that supply approximately two thirds of the Alberta population. This project uses datasets from intensely monitored study watersheds and hydrological model platforms to extend our understanding of how disturbances and climate change may impact various aspects of the streamflow regime that are of importance to downstream users. The objectives are 1) to use the model output of watershed response to disturbances to inform assessments of forested watersheds in the region, and 2) to investigate the use of a new flexible modelling platform as a tool for detailed watershed assessments and hypothesis testing. Here we applied the RAVEN hydrological modelling framework to quantify changes in key hydrological processes driving peak and low flows in a headwater catchment along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The model was applied to simulate the period from 2006 to 2011 using data from the Star Creek watershed in southwestern Alberta. The representation of relevant hydrological processes was verified using snow survey, meteorological, and vegetation data collected through the Southern Rockies Watershed Project. Timber harvest scenarios were developed to estimate the effects of cut levels ranging from 20 to 100% over a range of elevations, slopes, and aspects. We quantified changes in the timing and magnitude of low flow and high flow events during the 2006 to 2011 period. Future work will assess changes in the probability of low and high flow events using a long-term meteorological record. This modelling framework enables relevant processes at the watershed scale to be accounted in a physically robust and computational efficient manner. Hydrologic

  19. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  20. Influences of watershed, riparian-corridor, and reach-scale characteristics on aquatic biota in agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.S.; Wang, L.; Lyons, J.; Horwatich, J.A.; Bannerman, R.

    2001-01-01

    Multivariate analyses and correlations revealed strong relations between watershed and riparian-corridor land cover, and reach-scale habitat versus fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in 38 warmwater streams in eastern Wisconsin. Watersheds were dominated by agricultural use, and ranged in size from 9 to 71 km2. Watershed land cover was summarized from satellite-derived data for the area outside a 30-m buffer. Riparian land cover was interpreted from digital orthophotos within 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-m buffers. Reach-scale habitat, fish, and macroinvertebrates were collected in 1998 and biotic indices calculated. Correlations between land cover, habitat, and stream-quality indicators revealed significant relations at the watershed, riparian-corridor, and reach scales. At the watershed scale, fish diversity, intolerant fish and EPT species increased, and Hilsenhoff biotic index (HBI) decreased as percent forest increased. At the riparian-corridor scale, EPT species decreased and HBI increased as riparian vegetation became more fragmented. For the reach, EPT species decreased with embeddedness. Multivariate analyses further indicated that riparian (percent agriculture, grassland, urban and forest, and fragmentation of vegetation), watershed (percent forest) and reach-scale characteristics (embeddedness) were the most important variables influencing fish (IBI, density, diversity, number, and percent tolerant and insectivorous species) and macroinvertebrate (HBI and EPT) communities.

  1. Integrating operational watershed and coastal models for the Iberian Coast: Watershed model implementation - A first approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, David; Campuzano, F. J.; Sobrinho, J.; Fernandes, R.; Neves, R.

    2015-12-01

    River discharges and loads are essential inputs to coastal seas, and thus for coastal seas modelling, and their properties are the result of all activities and policies carried inland. For these reasons main rivers were object of intense monitoring programs having been generated some important amount of historical data. Due to the decline in the Portuguese hydrometric network and in order to quantify and forecast surface water streamflow and nutrients to coastal areas, the MOHID Land model was applied to the Western Iberia Region with a 2 km horizontal resolution and to the Iberian Peninsula with 10 km horizontal resolution. The domains were populated with land use and soil properties and forced with existing meteorological models. This approach also permits to understand how the flows and loads are generated and to forecast their values which are of utmost importance to perform coastal ocean and estuarine forecasts. The final purpose of the implementation is to obtain fresh water quantity and quality that could be used to support management decisions in the watershed, reservoirs and also to estuaries and coastal areas. A process oriented model as MOHID Land is essential to perform this type of simulations, as the model is independent of the number of river catchments. In this work, the Mohid Land model equations and parameterisations were described and an innovative methodology for watershed modelling is presented and validated for a large international river, the Tagus River, and the largest national river of Portugal, the Mondego River. Precipitation, streamflow and nutrients modelling results for these two rivers were compared with observations near their coastal outlet in order to evaluate the model capacity to represent the main watershed trends. Finally, an annual budget of fresh water and nutrient transported by the main twenty five rivers discharging in the Portuguese coast is presented.

  2. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  3. Advances in variable selection methods II: Effect of variable selection method on classification of hydrologically similar watersheds in three Mid-Atlantic ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrological flow predictions in ungauged and sparsely gauged watersheds use regionalization or classification of hydrologically similar watersheds to develop empirical relationships between hydrologic, climatic, and watershed variables. The watershed classifications may be based...

  4. FIELD TESTS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands...

  5. FIELD TESTS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SCHEMED IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1)Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  6. Test of APEX for nine forested watersheds in East Texas.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Saleh, A; McBroom, M W; Williams, J R; Yin, L

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic/water quality models are increasingly used to explore management and policy alternatives for managing water quality and quantity from intensive silvicultural practices with best management practices (BMPs) in forested watersheds due to the limited number of and cost of conducting watershed monitoring. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was field-tested using 6 yr of data for flow, sediment, nutrient, and herbicide losses collected from nine small (2.58 to 2.74 ha) forested watersheds located in southwest Cherokee County in East Texas. Simulated annual average stream flow for each of the nine watersheds was within +/- 7% of the corresponding observed values; simulated annual average sediment losses were within +/- 8% of measured values for eight out of nine watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (EF) values ranged from 0.68 to 0.94 based on annual stream flow comparison and from 0.60 to 0.99 based on annual sediment comparison. Similar to what was observed, simulated flow, sediment, organic N, and P were significantly increased on clear-cut watersheds compared with the control watersheds. APEX reasonably simulated herbicide losses, with an EF of 0.73 and R(2) of 0.74 for imazapyr, and EF of 0.65 and R(2) of 0.68 for hexazinone based on annual values. Overall, the results show that APEX was able to predict the effects of silvicultural practices with BMPs on water quantity and quality and that the model is a useful tool for simulating a variety of responses to forest conditions.

  7. Quantitative analysis of factors controlling sediment yield in mountainous watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. H.; Huang, X. D.; Ai, L.; Fang, N. F.; Wu, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment and turbidity are primary causes of impaired river ecosystems; remedial action for these impairments requires the identification of their sources and controlling factors. This paper examines the combined effects of watershed complexity in terms of land use and physiography on the specific sediment yield of the upper Du River watershed (8973 km2) in China. The land use composition, land use pattern, morphometric variables, and soil properties of the watershed were calculated at the subwatershed scale and considered to be potentially influential factors. Because these watershed characteristics are highly codependent, a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the linkages between the specific sediment yield and metrics composed of 19 selected watershed characteristics. The first-order factors were identified by calculating the variable importance for the projection (VIP). The results revealed that the land use composition and land use pattern exerted the largest effects on the specific sediment yield and explained 65.2% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. A set of physiographic indices was also found to have a large effect on the specific sediment yield and explained 17.7% of the observed variation in the specific sediment yield. The following are the dominant first-order factors of the specific sediment yield at the subwatershed scale: the areal percentages of agriculture and forest, patch density, value of the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, value of the hypsometric integral, and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. The watershed size exerted a substantial effect on the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). The VIP values also suggested that the Shannon's diversity index, contagion, and hypsometric integral are important factors in the SDR. With a readily available digital spatial database and rapid developments in geographic information system (GIS) technology, this practical and simple PLSR approach could be applied to

  8. Nitrate in watersheds: straight from soils to streams?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Perakis, Steven S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Human activities are rapidly increasing the global supply of reactive N and substantially altering the structure and hydrologic connectivity of managed ecosystems. There is long-standing recognition that N must be removed along hydrologic flowpaths from uplands to streams, yet it has proven difficult to assess the generality of this removal across ecosystem types, and whether these patterns are influenced by land-use change. To assess how well upland nitrate (NO3-) loss is reflected in stream export, we gathered information from >50 watershed biogeochemical studies that reported nitrate concentrations ([NO3-]) for stream water and for either upslope soil solution or groundwater NO3- to examine whether stream export of NO3- accurately reflects upland NO3- losses. In this dataset, soil solution and streamwater [NO3-] were correlated across 40 undisturbed forest watersheds, with streamwater [NO3-] typically half (median = 50%) soil solution [NO3-]. A similar relationship was seen in 10 disturbed forest watersheds. However, for 12 watersheds with significant agricultural or urban development, the intercept and slope were both significantly higher than the relationship seen in forest watersheds. Differences in concentration between soil solution or groundwater and stream water may be attributed to biological uptake, microbial processes including denitrification, and/or preferential flow routing. The results of this synthesis are consistent with the hypotheses that undisturbed watersheds have a significant capacity to remove nitrate after it passes below the rooting zone and that land use changes tend to alter the efficiency or the length of watershed flowpaths, leading to reductions in nitrate removal and increased stream nitrate concentrations.

  9. Optimizing conservation practices in watersheds: Do community preferences matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piemonti, Adriana D.; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Jane Luzar, E.

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on investigating (a) how landowner tenure and attitudes of farming communities affect the preference of individual conservation practices in agricultural watersheds, (b) how spatial distribution of landowner tenure affects the spatial optimization of conservation practices on a watershed scale, and (c) how the different attitudes and preferences of stakeholders can modify the effectiveness of alternatives obtained via classic optimization approaches that do not include the influence of existing social attitudes in a watershed during the search process. Results show that for Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana, USA, the most optimal alternatives (i.e., highest benefits for minimum economic costs) are for a scenario when the watershed consists of landowners who operate as farmers on their own land. When a different land-tenure scenario was used for the watershed (e.g., share renters and cash renters), the optimized alternatives had similar nitrate reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but at higher economic costs. Our experiments also demonstrated that social attitudes can lead to alteration of optimized alternatives found via typical optimization approaches. For example, when certain practices were rejected by landowner operators whose attitudes toward practices were driven by economic profits, removal of these practices from the optimized alternatives led to a setback of nitrates reduction by 2-50%, peak flow reductions by 11-98 %, and sediments reduction by 20-77%. In conclusion, this study reveals the potential loss in optimality of optimized alternatives possible, when socioeconomic data on farmer preferences and land tenure are not incorporated within watershed optimization investigations.

  10. The role of agency partnerships in collaborative watershed groups: lessons from the pacific northwest experience.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Mahler, Robert L; Wulfhorst, J D; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

  11. The Role of Agency Partnerships in Collaborative Watershed Groups: Lessons from the Pacific Northwest Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Mahler, Robert L.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

  12. Evaluation of a watershed model to simulate sediment transport in a small agricultural watershed in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    The streamflow and sediment components of the watershed model, ' Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran ', were evaluated using 2 years and 9 months of data from a 2.7-sq mi agricultural watershed in Indiana. Hydrographs of simulated sediment concentration generally have smaller peaks and longer recessions than do hydrographs of measured data. The attenuation of simulated peaks was partly caused by difficulties in designing a representative channel system. Simulated surface runoff during low-intensity rainfall was greater than measured surface runoff; this caused an overestimation of sediment concentration and discharge. Rainfalls of low intensity were mostly absorbed by the soil, but the model predicted that the amount of surface runoff from such storms would be large. The overly large volume of simulated surface runoff transported more sediment than actually occurred. The mean absolute error of mean sediment concentrations during storms is 45% of the measured average concentration. The error resulted from a combination of error in recording streamflow and rainfall, in simulating streamflows, and in simulating sedimentation processes. The largest percent errors are associated with simulated maximum streamflows and average sediment discharges. The root-mean-square errors are 93 and 102% of the measured maximum streamflow and average sediment discharges. (USGS)

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site is largely

  14. Classification of Watersheds for Bioassessment Based on Hydrological Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnayakanahalli, K. J.; Tarboton, D. G.; Hawkins, C. P.

    2007-12-01

    A procedure for the classification of watersheds for bioassessment based on their streamflow regime and prediction of hydrologic class from watershed attributes is presented. We first identified a set of stream flow regime variables relevant to biota for the purposes of characterizing the invertebrate population in a stream, that can be abstracted from long term streamflow data measured at gauged sites. The selection of these variables was based on the past literature and discussions with stream ecologists. The following variables were selected: 1) base flow index (BFI) 2) daily coefficient of variation (DAYCV) 3) average daily flow (QMEAN), 4) Number of zero flow days (ZERODAY) 5) bank full flow (Q1.67) 6) Colwell's index 7) seven day minimum (7Qmin) 8) seven day maximum (7Qmax) 9) number of flow reversals (NOR) and 10) flood frequency. These variables were computed at 543 minimally impacted stream gage stations in the thirteen states of Western US. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering analysis was then used to classify the watersheds into hydrologically different groups. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Random Forests (RF) models were then developed to predict the class of an ungauged watershed from watershed attributes (climate, geomorphic, geology and soil attributes). We developed a series of classifications (with K equal to 4 to 8 in K-means clustering) that showed a strong geographical structure. The classification is sensitive to the quantity of water present in the stream and it also identified streams that appear similar at monthly time scale but are significantly different at the daily time scale. These differences are important to identify the variation in the biota. For the prediction of watershed class from watershed attributes we found that the RF model was slightly better than the other modeling approaches evaluated (LDA, CART). The class characterized by high BFI was difficult

  15. Spatio-Temporal Mechanistic Watershed Modeling of Mercury, Carbon, and Nitrogen Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed (McTier Creek watershed, SC, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Golden, H. E.; Davis, G. M.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C.; Conrads, P. A.; Brigham, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Plain of the US is a hotspot of methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation due to the mix of high Hg deposition, widespread wetland coverage, and high DOC and/or acidic surface waters. However, research in mercury fate and transport is just recently emerging in this region. Although atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury to many aquatic ecosystems, there is little understanding and associated modeling representation of how atmospherically deposited mercury transports and transforms within the watershed on its way to receiving streams, particularly within watersheds with different drainage areas within similar physiographical provinces. In this study, we examine mercury and linked biogeochemical cycling (nitrogen (N) and carbon (C)) cycling at a variety of spatial scales within a set of nested sub-basins of the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina, which is located in the upper Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. Our goal is to advance current understanding of mercury dynamics in the Coastal Plain and discern important processes governing multi-scale transformation, fate, and transport of mercury. We apply a spatially-explicit, linked process-based watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment; VELMA) to predict daily flow and daily fluxes and concentrations of total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The modeling effort was performed in concert with a rigorous sampling effort as part of the USGS NAWQA Mercury in Stream Ecosystems Program. VELMA was applied at a series of different scales including a focused reach (0.11 km^2), two sub-watersheds (28 km^2, 24 km^2) and the full watershed (79.4 km^2). We scale VELMA parameterization and processes occurring within the focused study reach to the larger sub-watersheds to investigate how well the

  16. Hydrology of C-3 watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposed changes to watershed management practices near C-3 Pool at Seney National Wildlife Refuge will affect surface-water flow patterns, ground-water levels, and possibly local plant communities. Data were collected between fall 1998 and spring 2000 to document existing conditions and to assess potential changes in hydrology that might occur as a consequence of modifications to water management practices in C-3 watershed.Minimum and maximum measured inflows and outflows for the study period are presented in light of proposed management changes to C-3 watershed. Streamflows ranged from 0 to 8.61 cubic meters per second. Low or zero flow was generally measured in late summer and early fall, and highest flows were measured during spring runoff and winter rain events. Ground-water levels varied by about a half meter, with levels closest to or above the land surface during spring runoff into the early summer, and with levels generally below land surface during late fall into early winter.A series of optional management practices that could conserve and restore habitat of the C-3 watershed is described. Modifications to the existing system of a drainage ditch and control structures are examined, as are the possibilities of reconnecting streams to their historical channels and the construction of additional or larger control structures to further manage the distribution of water in the watershed. The options considered could reduce erosion, restore presettlement streamflow conditions, and modify the ground-water gradient.

  17. Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released for independent external peer review and public comment a draft report titled, Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Potential Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds. This is a draft document that intends to characterize the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading in different regions of the nation to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development scenarios. Watershed modeling was conducted in 20 large, U.S. watersheds to assess the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development scenarios in different regions of the nation. This draft report provides a summary of simulation results. The model simulations characterize the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development. Results show a high degree of variability in the response throughout the nation. Results also provide an improved understanding of methodological challenges associated with integrating existing tools and datasets to address these scientific questions. This provides guidance for improving how existing models and datasets can be used for assessing climate change impacts on watersheds. Projected changes in cli

  18. [Zoning of water environment protection in Three Gorges Reservoir watershed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-jing; Xi, Chun-yan; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2011-04-01

    Regional differences in socio-economic development, land use, vegetation cover, and relative location of water body within a watershed bring about significant effects on the water environment quality of the watershed. Concerning about the core demands of water body protection, it is important and necessary to carry out zoning water environment protection for whole watershed. With a view to the spatial differences in regional characteristics of eco-environment and water body pressure-respond features, this paper studied the zoning of water environment protection in the Three Gorges Reservoir watershed, based on the methods of ecological factors overlay and ecological sensitivity analysis. The factors considered included hydrothermal conditions, terrain topography, administrative unit, and ecological sensitivity. Three regions in the watershed were zoned, i. e., 1) red region, namely strictly protected region, with an area of 2924 km2 and occupying 5.1% of the total; 2) yellow region, namely first class protection region, with an area of 10477 km2 and occupying 18.4%; and 3) blue region, namely second class protection region, with an area of 43599 km2 and occupying 76.5%. The key environmental problems of the regions were identified, and the strategies for the regions' development and water environment protection were proposed.

  19. Emerald Lake Watershed study: Introduction and site description

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The Emerald Lake Watershed study was organized to investigate the effects of acidic deposition on high-elevation watersheds and surface waters of the Sierra Nevada, California. Some of the results of this comprehensive study of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at a small, headwater basin are presented in four papers in this series. The watershed study site is in Sequoia National Park, on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. This glacial cirque is located in the upper Marble Fork of the Kaweah River. This 120-ha watershed ranges from Alta Peak (3,416 m) down to Emerald Lake (2,400 m). Most of the watershed surface area is exposed granite and granodiorite rocks, with limited coverage (about 20%) by thin, acidic soils. The hydrology of the basin is dominated by snowmelt runoff during March-June. Emerald Lake, a glacial tarn, is 2.72 ha in area, with a maximum depth of 10.5 m. Surface waters are poorly buffered and dominated by calcium and bicarbonate. Most of the yearly precipitation falls as dilute snow (pH5.2-5.4), with acidic rain storms sampled during May-October.

  20. Virtual Sensors in a Web 2.0 Digital Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Hill, D. J.; Marini, L.; Kooper, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Myers, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The lack of rainfall data in many watersheds is one of the major barriers for modeling and studying many environmental and hydrological processes and supporting decision making. There are just not enough rain gages on the ground. To overcome this data scarcity issue, a Web 2.0 digital watershed is developed at NCSA(National Center for Supercomputing Applications), where users can point-and-click on a web-based google map interface and create new precipitation virtual sensors at any location within the same coverage region as a NEXRAD station. A set of scientific workflows are implemented to perform spatial, temporal and thematic transformations to the near-real-time NEXRAD Level II data. Such workflows can be triggered by the users' actions and generate either rainfall rate or rainfall accumulation streaming data at a user-specified time interval. We will discuss some underlying components of this digital watershed, which consists of a semantic content management middleware, a semantically enhanced streaming data toolkit, virtual sensor management functionality, and RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web service that can trigger the workflow execution. Such loosely coupled architecture presents a generic framework for constructing a Web 2.0 style digital watershed. An implementation of this architecture at the Upper Illinois Rive Basin will be presented. We will also discuss the implications of the virtual sensor concept for the broad environmental observatory community and how such concept will help us move towards a participatory digital watershed.

  1. Ecological risk assessments for watersheds: Lessons learned from case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marcy, S.K.M.

    1994-12-31

    The USEPA Office of Water and Risk Assessment Forum are co-sponsoring the development of watershed level ecological risk assessments in Big Darby Creek, OH, Clinch River, VA, Middle Platte River Wetlands, NE, Snake River, ID, and Waquoit Bay Estuary, MA. The case studies are testing the Agency`s Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment at a watershed scale for multiple stressors. During case study development much has been learned about how to apply and modify the principles in the Framework to landscape scale risk assessments. Insights include how to select appropriate assessment endpoints to drive the risk assessment, how to effectively increase involvement by risk management teams, and provide decision opportunities for managers throughout development. The case studies demonstrate diverse ways to conduct watershed risk assessments, and illustrate the importance of multiple risk hypotheses in conceptual models addressing the combined and relative risk of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Issues the case studies highlight include the need for a process to determine when watershed risk assessments are appropriate and at what level of complexity they should be performed, how to increase the use of the ecological risk assessments in management decision-making and how to determine the best risk reduction strategy. An update on the watershed case studies will be provided and the insights and issues stated above, discussed.

  2. [Decision support system for watershed management: a review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Yan, Jing

    2012-07-01

    Watershed management decision support system (DSS) is an intellectual system developed for the optimal allocation of water resources by watershed managers, and the simulation results of the system can directly affect the scientificity and practicability of watershed management. This paper summarized the related researches from the aspects of water quantity simulation and deployment systems, water quality monitoring and evaluation systems, and integrated watershed management systems. The main features and problems in existing DSS were analyzed, and the model structure and development status of the representative systems such as AQUA-Tool, Elbe-DSS, and HD were introduced. It was suggested that the accuracy and stability of simulated results, the succinctness of working process, and the high degree of user visualization would be the focuses in developing the DSS in the future, and the optimization of program-selecting models and 3D visualization tools, the research and development of inter-basin integrated management DSS, and the improvement of stakeholder participation would be the development trend for the future watershed management DSS.

  3. Sustainable Watersheds: Integrating Ecosystem Services and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Stephen J; Benson, William H

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable management of aquatic ecosystems is a worldwide priority; the integrity of these systems depends, in turn, on the integrity of the watersheds (catchments) in which they are embedded. In this article, we present the concepts, background, and scientific foundations for assessing, both nationally and at finer scales, the relationships between ecosystem services, human health, and socioeconomic values in the context of water quality, water quantity, landscapes, the condition of watersheds, and the connectivity of waters, from headwaters to estuaries and the coastal ocean. These assessments will be a foundation for what we have termed “watershed epidemiology,” through which the connections between ecosystems and human health can be explored over broad spatial and temporal scales. Understanding and communicating these relationships should lead to greater awareness of the roles watersheds play in human well-being, and hence to better management and stewardship of water resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing the research, models, and planning tools to support operational national assessments of watershed sustainability, building upon ongoing assessments of aquatic resources in streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands and estuaries. PMID:25987844

  4. Hydrological Modeling of the Jiaoyi Watershed (China) Using HSPF Model

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001–2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R2), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin. PMID:25013863

  5. WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR CONSOLIDATED ASSESSMENT AND LISTING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    With over 40,000 TMDLs scheduled for development, the states, tribes, and EPA Regions need efficient streamlined approaches for watershed level inventory, monitoring, condition assessment, diagnosis of impairment, and prioritization of watersheds for restoration and future load r...

  6. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watersh...

  7. Comparison of radar and gauge precipitation data in watershed models across varying spatial and temporal scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precipitation is a key control on watershed hydrologic modelling output, with errors in rainfall propagating through subsequent stages of water quantity and quality analysis. Most watershed models incorporate precipitation data from rain gauges; higher-resolution data sources are...

  8. Optimization Tool For Allocation Of Watershed Management Practices For Sediment And Nutrient Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from nonpoint source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Herein...

  9. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  10. 75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan... Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, Arizona. FOR FURTHER... needed for this project. The project proposes to rehabilitate the Magma FRS to provide for...

  11. Modeled Watershed Runoff Associated with Variations in Precipitation Data with Implications for Contaminant Fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed-scale fate and transport models are important tools for estimating the sources, transformation, and transport of contaminants to surface water systems. Precipitation is one of the primary inputs to watershed biogeochemical models, influencing changes in the water budge...

  12. CAN LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS HELP FIND IMPAIRED ESTUARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human alteration of watersheds and their landscapes often leads to undesirable effects in estuaries, such as excess nutrients, organic matter, and sediments, as well as increased levels of contaminants and pathogens. We hypothesized that alterations in watersheds associated wit...

  13. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  14. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  15. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. During the years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas of headwater streams to Lolo Creek. Inventory of culverts is an on-going practice, being completed by sub-drainage, and are being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage and 100-year flow events throughout the watershed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  16. A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING UNCERTAINTY OF A DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGIC MODEL: APPLICATION TO POCONO CREEK WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utility of distributed hydrologic and water quality models for watershed management and sustainability studies should be accompanied by rigorous model uncertainty analysis. However, the use of complex watershed models primarily follows the traditional {calibrate/validate/predict}...

  17. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  18. Watershed Assessment: Moving from Indicators to Better Process Understanding and Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed assessment is a critical approach to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on ecosystem components and humans. Cumulative effects of these stressors in both time and space represent an important challenge in watershed assessment. Many of the indicator approac...

  19. Flash Flood Nowcasting in an Urban Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H.; Yates, D.; Roberts, R.; Brandes, E.

    2003-04-01

    Flash floods occur when particular meteorological events are combined with certain hydrologic conditions. Several approaches to nowcast flash floods are being developed,> However, predictions of the magnitude and timing of flash flood events is a major challenge. Nowcasts of convective storm events need to be linked with robust hydrologic modeling and analysis in order to produce useful flash flood predictions in terms of timing, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the runoff. Advances in radar-rainfall estimation and two-dimensional physically based runoff modeling offer tools to improve flash flooding forecasting and to reduce the potential for loss of life and property damage in urban catchments. The ability to model extreme hydrologic events in detail was demonstrated using the physically based distributed-parameter hydrologic model GSSHA (Downer and Ogden, 2002) on an urban watershed in Denver, Colorado (Sharif et al., 2002). The study addressed the necessary detail in urban topography and drainage characteristics needed for accurate simulations of urban flood events. With this kind of detailed hydrologic model, accurate short-range meteorological nowcasts (30 60 minutes) would prove useful. Such a nowcast is available from the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s (NCAR) Autonowcaster, a data fusion system that combines several predictor fields with membership functions and weighting schemes to produce automated time and place specific nowcasts of convective rainfall. Predictor fields are derived from characteristics of boundary layer convergence regions, storm characteristics, and dynamic and kinematic attributes of the boundary layer. Simple extrapolations are also used as benchmark nowcasts. The GSSHA model was coupled with the Autonowcaster to produce distributed, physics-based hydrologic predictions in the urban setting. Flash flood predictions of the coupled system are compared to predictions computed using traditional approaches and

  20. Watershed hydrology, network allometry and ecosystem structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2003-04-01

    The lecture covers recent advances relevant to watershed hydrology, in particular derived from the realm of data now available, covering a wide range of scales and objectively collected and analyzed. It is intended to summarize results that are, in the lecturer's opinion, crucial to our current understanding of a variety of issues. Key among them, landscape evolution models, models of the hydrologic response and, indeed a scientific challenge, ecosystem structure. In particular, a new allometric scaling law for loopless networks, confirmed through studies on rivers, exact network results and computer simulations, offers unique insight on a variety of phenomena, ranging from the ubiquity of the 'quarter-power' law in biology to the origin of scaling size spectra in marine microbial ecosystems, to the proper geomorphological description of a river basin and its hydrological implications. In a sense, networks are a byproduct of the hydrologic dynamics, and indeed can be shown to be related to ecosystem structure. Si parva licet, I will provide evidence suggesting that ensemble averaging of the allometric property (where individual realizations are different networks) leads to results in excellent accord with the known limit scaling of efficient and compact networks with remarkably little scatter with implications of somewhat general character. Such results complement recent work suggesting that scaling features are quite robust to geometrical fluctuations of network properties. Finally, I shall gather from the morphological analysis on river networks the potential for predicting the main characters of the hydrologic response in ungauged basins - a task of practical nature with many social implications, possibly relevant to the Session's aims.

  1. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  2. Hydrological changes prints in subarctic watersheds discharge records: a case study in the Duke River watershed, Yukon, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, A.; Baraer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological changes from alpine glacierized watersheds have been reported from almost all the regions of the world. In most cases those changes have, or are foreseen to have, marked impacts on water resources with implications for downstream population and ecosystems. One of the ways to assess climate change impacts on glacierized watersheds is to conduct appropriate statistical analyses on historical hydrometric data where long and accurate time series exist. In the Yukon, Canada, a fair number of hydrometric time series are made accessible by institutions such as Environment Canada or the Yukon National Parks Organisation. Some of those time series have been studied previously at a regional scale in the territory. In the present study, focusing on the Duke River watershed area, we reanalyse these datasets based on a larger number of discharge characteristics and compare results with regional meteorological data analysis. We perform non-parametric trend analysis to assess long-term changes in watersheds response to climate-induced variability. Eight watersheds with varying glacierized area were chosen for this study. Main glaciers in the region are situated in St. Elias Mountains and are characterised by ubiquitous mass loss (Arendt et al., 2002; Barrand and Sharp, 2010). Historical hydrometric data analysis shows two distinct hydrological regimes in the area: (i) - snow fed rivers with peak runoff following spring snowmelt, and (ii) - glacier fed rivers with peak runoff following glacier ablation in July. While total discharge during ablation season does not vary significantly between watersheds with different regimes, the difference in late summer runoff is close to 50%. Moreover, trend analysis provides evidence of changes in hydrological regimes in the area. As a response to ubiquitous temperature increase, hydrologically active period for highly glacieized watershed (with glacierized area of 30%) has shifted from the beginning of August to the beginning of

  3. Characterizing response of total suspended solids and total phosphorus loading to weather and watershed characteristics for rainfall and snowmelt events in agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven; Brooks, Wesley R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the response of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) to influential weather and watershed variables is critical in the development of sediment and nutrient reduction plans. In this study, rainfall and snowmelt event loadings of TSS and TP were analyzed for eight agricultural watersheds in Wisconsin, with areas ranging from 14 to 110 km2 and having four to twelve years of data available. The data showed that a small number of rainfall and snowmelt runoff events accounted for the majority of total event loading. The largest 10% of the loading events for each watershed accounted for 73–97% of the total TSS load and 64–88% of the total TP load. More than half of the total annual TSS load was transported during a single event for each watershed at least one of the monitored years. Rainfall and snowmelt events were both influential contributors of TSS and TP loading. TSS loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at five watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds, and nearly equal at one watershed. The TP loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at three watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds and nearly equal at three watersheds. Stepwise multivariate regression models for TSS and TP event loadings were developed separately for rainfall and snowmelt runoff events for each individual watershed and for all watersheds combined by using a suite of precipitation, melt, temperature, seasonality, and watershed characteristics as predictors. All individual models and the combined model for rainfall events resulted in two common predictors as most influential for TSS and TP. These included rainfall depth and the antecedent baseflow. Using these two predictors alone resulted in an R2 greater than 0.7 in all but three individual models and 0.61 or greater for all individual models. The combined model yielded an R2 of 0.66 for TSS and 0.59 for TP. Neither the individual nor the combined models were

  4. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  5. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  6. Inventorying and monitoring wetland condition and restoration potential on a watershed basis with examples from spring creek watershed, Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Robert P; Wardrop, Denice Heller; Cole, Charles Andrew

    2006-10-01

    We developed an approach for inventorying wetland resources, assessing their condition, and determining restoration potential in a watershed context. This article outlines how this approach can be developed into a Wetland Monitoring Matrix (WMM) that can help resource management agencies make regulatory and nonregulatory decisions. The WMM can be embedded in a standard planning process (Wetlands, Wildlife, and Watershed Assessment Techniques for Evaluation and Restoration, or W3ATER) involving the setting of objectives, assessing the condition of the resource, prioritizing watersheds or sites, implementing projects, and evaluating progress. To that process we have added the concepts of reference, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification, and prioritization for protection and restoration by triage or adaptive management. Three levels of effort are possible, increasing in detail and diagnostic reliability as data collection shifts from remote sensing to intensive sampling on the ground. Of key importance is the use of a consistent set of monitoring protocols for conducting condition assessments, designing restoration and creation projects, and evaluating the performance of mitigation projects; the same variables are measured regardless of the intended use of the data. This approach can be tailored to any region by establishing a reference set of wetlands organized by HGM subclasses, prioritizing watersheds and individual wetlands, and implementing consistent monitoring protocols. Application of the approach is illustrated with examples from wetlands and streams of the Spring Creek Watershed in central Pennsylvania, USA.

  7. ERTS-1: Automated land-use mapping in lake watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E. (Principal Investigator); Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.; Smith, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 computer compatible tapes were used as a basis to generate land use maps in lake watersheds in southeastern Michigan. These maps, generated on a repetitive basis, provide information essential to governmental agencies concerned with planning and control of lake eutrophication. The ERTS mapping products included geometrically current land use map overlays at 1:250,000 and 1:48,000 scale and area measurement printouts. The printouts provide, within the watershed boundaries and by land use category, a quantitative measure of the amount of land, in square kilometers and acres. This quantitative measure of land use in watersheds is essential to the development and application of deterministic models, which compute nutrient flows into lakes and establish lake eutrophication rates.

  8. Investigation of use of space data in watershed hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital data from the ERTS multispectral scanner were used to investigate the feasibility of identifying differences in watershed runoff capability with spaceborne sensors. Linear combinations of the two visible light bands and a combination of the four visible and near infrared bands were related to a coefficient used in the Soil Conservation Service storm runoff equation. Good relationships were found in two scenes, both with dry surface conditions, over the same watersheds. The relationships defined by both combinations of digital data were tested on a independent set of 10 watersheds and on an additional 22 subwatersheds. Coefficients predicted with the ERTS data proved better than coefficients developed with conventional methods.

  9. A Hydrological Model of the Mobile River Watershed, Southeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, Vladimir J.; McAnally, William; Diaz-Ramirez, Jairo; Martin, James; Cartwright, John

    2009-08-01

    A hydrological model of the Mobile Bay watershed located in the northern Gulf of Mexico, (Alabama, USA) is presented. The modeling of hydrological processes is performed using the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). The project region was divided into two sectors for simplifying the modeling task: an upland watershed (that included streams not draining directly to the Mobile Estuary), and several watersheds of selected streams that drain directly to the Mobile estuary (namely: Fish River, Magnolia River, and Chickasaw Creek). The Better Assessment Science Integrating Point & Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) GIS system was used to perform most of the geospatial operations, although ArcGis and ArcInfo were also used to complement geospatial processing that was not available in BASINS.

  10. Hydrologic changes after logging in two small Oregon coastal watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, David Dell

    1977-01-01

    Effects of clearcut, cable logging on the hydrologic characteristics of a small coastal stream in Oregon indicate an average 181-percent increase in sediment yield over a 7-year postlogging period. Annual runoff and high-flow volumes increased 19 and 1.1 inches (480 and 28 mm), respectively, after logging in the watershed. Clearcutting in small, spaced patches in another watershed resulted in some increase in water and sediment yields, but the increase was not statistically significant. Average monthly April-October maximum water temperatures increased significantly in the principal stream of both the clearcut and 'patch-cut' watersheds. Hydrologic characteristics of both streams generally appear to be returning to prelogging conditions (19731.

  11. N-Sink: A Tool to Identify Nitrogen Sources and Sinks within aWatershed Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Sink is a customized ArcMap© program that provides maps of N sourcesand sinks within a watershed, and estimates the delivery efficiency of N movement from sources to the watershed outlet. The primary objective of N-Sink is to assist land use planners, watershed managers, and la...

  12. Conservation Practice Effects on Sediment Load in the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2132 ha (5266 acres) Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) has been in operation since October, 1981 to collect information to improve the understanding of the movement of water and sediment in a north Mississippi agricultural watershed. The primary environmental concerns of the watershed...

  13. A review of theoretical frameworks applicable for designing agricultural watershed restoration projects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural watershed restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of ecosystem structure and/or function within watersheds that have been degraded and damaged by agriculture. Unfortunately, agricultural watershed restoration is the rare exception within the Midwestern United States despit...

  14. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: User Manual and Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  16. Assessment of best management practice effects on metolachlor mitigation in an agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...

  17. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: User Manual and Case Study Examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is intended to be used as a screening tool as part of an integrated watershed management process such as that described in EPA’s watershed planning handbook (EPA 2008).1 The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-doma...

  18. A solar energy estimation procedure using remote sensing techniques. [watershed hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to design a remote sensing-aided procedure for daily location-specific estimation of solar radiation components over the watershed(s) of interest. This technique has been tested on the Spanish Creek Watershed, Northern California, with successful results.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF UNCERTAINTY ON ESTIMATING THE RELATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OF WATERSHEDS ACROSS A REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape ecologists may be faced with ranking the relative environmental quality of watersheds across a region. The results show that watersheds in the best and the worst condition have rankings that are robust to uncertainty but intermediate watersheds may be difficult or impo...

  20. Best Management Practices in the CEAP Goodwater Creek Watershed: What, Where, Why, and How Much?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuation of conservation funding may depend upon demonstration that past funded projects have contributed to improvement of water quality or reduction of pollutant loadings from agricultural sources. In the Goodwater Creek watershed, a 7,250 ha sub-watershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed in N...

  1. 76 FR 62758 - Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Forest Service Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans... of mining Plans of Operation in the Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis area on the Whitman... proposed mining Plans in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their administration. As...

  2. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  3. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    DOE PAGES

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managedmore » loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.« less

  4. Hydrologic data for the Obed River watershed, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Wolfe, William J.; Law, George S.

    2014-01-01

    The Obed River watershed drains a 520-square-mile area of the Cumberland Plateau physiographic region in the Tennessee River basin. The watershed is underlain by conglomerate, sandstone, and shale of Pennsylvanian age, which overlie Mississippian-age limestone. The larger creeks and rivers of the Obed River system have eroded gorges through the conglomerate and sandstone into the deeper shale. The largest gorges are up to 400 feet deep and are protected by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act as part of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, which is managed by the National Park Service. The growing communities of Crossville and Crab Orchard, Tennessee, are located upstream of the gorge areas of the Obed River watershed. The cities used about 5.8 million gallons of water per day for drinking water in 2010 from Lake Holiday and Stone Lake in the Obed River watershed and Meadow Park Lake in the Caney Fork River watershed. The city of Crossville operates a wastewater treatment plant that releases an annual average of about 2.2 million gallons per day of treated effluent to the Obed River, representing as much as 10 to 40 percent of the monthly average streamflow of the Obed River near Lancing about 35 miles downstream, during summer and fall. During the past 50 years (1960–2010), several dozen tributary impoundments and more than 2,000 small farm ponds have been constructed in the Obed River watershed. Synoptic streamflow measurements indicate a tendency towards dampened high flows and slightly increased low flows as the percentage of basin area controlled by impoundments increases.

  5. Searching for an Integrated Watershed Salmonid Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligon, F. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2005-05-01

    In proposing to restore a stream or watershed, we imply that we know what we are restoring and why. However, in many cases, restoration proceeds without having the tools to adequately assess the efficacy of a project-both in terms of its likely local success and what effects it may have at a larger watershed or regional scale. In salmonid ecology and restoration, our approach has been to "step back" and investigate the degree to which geology, tectonics, and climate determine the relative abundance and temporal variability of the species present in a watershed or reach. In other words, does the habitat provided by a landscape prior to European disturbance (the so-called historical reference condition) allow us to predict, using salmon life history theory, the historical population dynamics of all salmonid species for a watershed or region? Likewise, as changes in physical processes have occurred due to human disturbance, can we predict the differential effects on the abundance of different salmonid species historically present in the watershed? To explore these questions, we have developed the "reference model". The reference model is based on a set of desktop watershed analyses tools that estimate a number of landscape attributes including channel slope, drainage area, stream temperature, and shallow landslide sensitivity. The model uses these tools to predict the spatial distribution of habitat and its quality and quantity. Then, by relating the habitat to life stage specific survival, the model predicts population dynamics under reference and current conditions, and under proposed restoration scenarios. In applying the reference model, we explicitly link salmon restoration targets and plans to an understanding of the role of physical processes on the historical and current population dynamics. As is true with most models, the reference model's predictions have the greatest value when they can be treated as testable hypotheses. Ongoing restoration projects that

  6. Hydrologic processes controlling herbicide transport in a Missouri claypan watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Lerch, R.; Baffaut, C.; Yang, J.; Sadler, J.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrologic processes controlling herbicide transport are still poorly understood for claypan watersheds in the US Midwest. The presence of a near-surface claypan, a restrictive soil layer of smectitic mineralogy, may play a critical role in controlling herbicide transport to stream water. Data from Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) (area = 72.5 km2) in central Missouri indicate that atrazine concentrations in stream water peaked during spring storm events, but high concentrations persisted in the baseflow following these events for days to weeks. It is hypothesized that hydrologic pathways exert a major control on atrazine concentrations in stream water. The hypothesis is tested using a combination of a statistical hydrograph model developed by Washington University in Saint Louis using Darcy's law and the diffusion equation and orthogonal data such as electric conductivity (EC). The basin time constant, the single fitting parameter for the model, was approximately 600 minutes or 0.4 days for GCEW. This value is similar to those for other small, non-claypan watersheds in Missouri. Stream flows were simulated very well by the model during the rising limbs of hydrographs for GCEW. Unlike other Missouri watersheds without claypan soils, stream flows in this claypan watershed were always significantly over-predicted for the prolonged falling tails, indicating a possible strong evapotranspiration effect during baseflow. EC values in shallow subsurface water indeed became much higher during baseflow than during storm events, consistent with the evapotranspiration effect on shallow subsurface water. These results suggests that both hydrologic pathways and evapotranspiration exert a major control on stream water quality in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed.

  7. Coupled Dynamic Modeling to Assess Human Impact on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Bomblies, A.; Zia, A.

    2014-12-01

    Humans are intrinsic to the hydrologic system, both as agents of change and as beneficiaries of ecosystem services. This connection has been underappreciated in hydrology. We present a modeling linkage framework of an agent-based land use change model with a physical-based watershed model. The coupled model framework presented constitutes part of an integrated assessment model that is being developed to study human-ecosystem interaction in Missisquoi Bay, spanning Vermont and Québec, which is experiencing high concentrations of nutrients from the Missisquoi River watershed. The integrated assessment approach proposed is comprised of linking two simulation models: the Interactive Land-Use Transition Agent-Based Model (ILUTABM) and a physically based process model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM treats both landscape and landowners as agents and simulates annual land-use patterns resulting from landowners annual land-use decisions and Best Management Practices (BMPs) adaptations to landowners utilities, land productivity and perceived impacts of floods. The Missisquoi River at Swanton watershed RHESSys model (drainage area of 2,200 km2) driven by climate data was first calibrated to daily streamflows and water quality sensor data at the watershed outlet. Simulated land-use patterns were then processed to drive the calibrated RHESSys model to obtain streamflow nutrient loading realizations. Nutrients loading realizations are then examined and routed back to the ILUTAB model to obtain public polices needed to manage the Missisquoi watershed as well as the Lake Champlain in general. We infer that the applicability of this approach can be generalized to other similar watersheds. Index Terms: 0402: Agricultural systems; 1800: Hydrology; 1803: Anthropogenic effects; 1834 Human impacts; 6344: System operation and management; 6334: Regional Planning

  8. Representing Watersheds with Physics Based Distributed Hydrologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Ogden, F. L.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrologic models are useful tools for representing watershed response, helping to understand the dominant hydrologic processes in the watershed, and for estimating system response under different forcing, climatic, or physical conditions in the watershed. Model skill in predicting system response is most often demonstrated by history matching. Useful models for predicting system response under varying conditions must include the dominant processes controlling the system response. While many types of hydrologic models are capable of simulating watershed response, physics- based models are capable of simulating the actual physical conditions and responses within the watershed. There are a variety of physics-based hydrologic models available to the practicing community. Like simpler models, these models vary in formulation and complexity. Many of these models, such as the US Army of Corps of Engineers Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model, allow flexibility in terms of both processes simulated and the formulation used to approximate the process. This flexibility allows the user to build the model according to his or her understanding or conceptualization, of the system, including processes that are thought to be important to system response. This also allows the user to use more rigorous methods of simulating critical processes and less rigorous methods of simulating non-critical processes or when data limitations preclude the use of more rigorous methods. In this presentation we will discuss how physics based models can, and have, been used to describe various hydrologic systems to both represent the physical processes in the system and the system response. Using examples from a variety of applications we will demonstrate and discuss the utility of utilizing a flexible physics-based model design for realizing watershed conceptualizations for hydrologic analysis.

  9. 3D Clumped Cell Segmentation Using Curvature Based Seeded Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Atta-Fosu, Thomas; Guo, Weihong; Jeter, Dana; Mizutani, Claudia M.; Stopczynski, Nathan; Sousa-Neves, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation is an important process that separates objects from the background and also from each other. Applied to cells, the results can be used for cell counting which is very important in medical diagnosis and treatment, and biological research that is often used by scientists and medical practitioners. Segmenting 3D confocal microscopy images containing cells of different shapes and sizes is still challenging as the nuclei are closely packed. The watershed transform provides an efficient tool in segmenting such nuclei provided a reasonable set of markers can be found in the image. In the presence of low-contrast variation or excessive noise in the given image, the watershed transform leads to over-segmentation (a single object is overly split into multiple objects). The traditional watershed uses the local minima of the input image and will characteristically find multiple minima in one object unless they are specified (marker-controlled watershed). An alternative to using the local minima is by a supervised technique called seeded watershed, which supplies single seeds to replace the minima for the objects. Consequently, the accuracy of a seeded watershed algorithm relies on the accuracy of the predefined seeds. In this paper, we present a segmentation approach based on the geometric morphological properties of the ‘landscape’ using curvatures. The curvatures are computed as the eigenvalues of the Shape matrix, producing accurate seeds that also inherit the original shape of their respective cells. We compare with some popular approaches and show the advantage of the proposed method. PMID:28280723

  10. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  11. Hydrologic response to stormwater control measures in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Colin D.; McMillan, Sara K.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Jefferson, Anne J.

    2016-10-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are designed to mitigate deleterious effects of urbanization on river networks, but our ability to predict the cumulative effect of multiple SCMs at watershed scales is limited. The most widely used metric to quantify impacts of urban development, total imperviousness (TI), does not contain information about the extent of stormwater control. We analyzed the discharge records of 16 urban watersheds in Charlotte, NC spanning a range of TI (4.1-54%) and area mitigated with SCMs (1.3-89%). We then tested multiple watershed metrics that quantify the degree of urban impact and SCM mitigation to determine which best predicted hydrologic response across sites. At the event time scale, linear models showed TI to be the best predictor of both peak unit discharge and rainfall-runoff ratios across a range of storm sizes. TI was also a strong driver of both a watershed's capacity to buffer small (e.g., 1-10 mm) rain events, and the relationship between peak discharge and precipitation once that buffering capacity is exceeded. Metrics containing information about SCMs did not appear as primary predictors of event hydrologic response, suggesting that the level of SCM mitigation in many urban watersheds is insufficient to influence hydrologic response. Over annual timescales, impervious surfaces unmitigated by SCMs and tree coverage were best correlated with streamflow flashiness and water yield, respectively. The shift in controls from the event scale to the annual scale has important implications for water resource management, suggesting that overall limitation of watershed imperviousness rather than partial mitigation by SCMs may be necessary to alleviate the hydrologic impacts of urbanization.

  12. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2006-02-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN is coordinating activities and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. To this end, the KRN primarily focuses on maintaining communication networks among private and public watershed improvement groups in the Columbia River Basin. The KRN willing shares its resources with these groups. The 2003-2004 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out through Watershed Coordinator position. The highly successful Kootenai River Network Annual General Meeting in Bonners Ferry in May 2003 demonstrated the tremendous gains that the Kootenai River Network has made in trans-boundary networking of watershed issues and accomplishments. The Annual General Meeting included seventy five participants representing more than forty US and Canadian citizen groups, tribes, first nations, agencies, ministries, businesses and private land owners from Montana, British Columbia, Idaho and Alberta. The International Restoration Tour in July 2004 featured the Grave Creek and Therriault Wetlands restoration projects in Montana and the Sand Creek and Wolf Creek restoration projects in British Columbia. The tour was attended by more than thirty people representing US and Canadian Federal and State/Provincial agencies, schools, colleges, conservation groups, private land owners, consultants, tribes, first nations, and politicians. These exciting trans-boundary successes encouraged the KRN to establish half-time Watershed Coordinator positions in both the United

  13. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin; Lauridsen, Torben L; Bjerring, Rikke; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jeppesen, Erik

    2012-06-01

    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10-12% to 39-42% for deep lakes and from 10-12% to 21-23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a "delivery" mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes

  14. Future of Applied Watershed Science at Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Lanigan, Steve; Reeves, Gordon

    2009-05-01

    The Internet-driven evolution of communication and science technologies coincides with a parallel evolution in environmental policy and natural resource management. Resource managers must deal increasingly with land use and conservation plans applied at large spatial scales (watersheds, landscapes, states, regions) involving multiple interacting agencies and stakeholders. Many federal, state, and private organizations have similar objectives, questions, and data and analysis needs. This is motivating the development of community-supported watershed databases and analysis systems of common structure and function across large geographic areas. Numerous state and regional analysis systems are targeting natural resource issues involving management of forests, freshwater fishes, wildlife, and water quality and supply.

  15. Remote estimation of surface moisture over a watershed. M.S. Thesis; [Goodwater Creek Watershed, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocin, P. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Contoured analyses of moisture availability, moisture flux, sensible heat flux, thermal inertia, and day and nighttime temperatures over a Missouri watershed for a date in June and in September show that forests and creeks exhibit the highest values of moisture availability, whereas farmlands and villages are relatively dry. The distribution of moisture availability over agricultural districts differs significantly between the two cases. This difference is attributed to a change in the surface's vegetative canopy between June and September, with higher moisture availabilities found in the latter case. Horizontal variations of moisture, however, do indicate some relationship between moisture availability and both local rainfall accumulations and the nature of the terrain.

  16. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  17. Hydrological recovery in two large forested watersheds of southeastern China: the importance of watershed properties in determining hydrological responses to reforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenfei; Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qiang; Fan, Houbao; Duan, Honglang; Wu, Jianping; Giles-Hansen, Krysta; Zhang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Understanding hydrological responses to reforestation is an important subject in watershed management, particularly in large forested watersheds ( > 1000 km2). In this study, we selected two large forested watersheds (Pingjiang and Xiangshui) located in the upper reach of the Poyang Lake watershed, southeastern China (with an area of 3261.4 and 1458 km2, respectively), along with long-term data on climate and hydrology (1954-2006) to assess the effects of large-scale reforestation on streamflow. Both watersheds have similar climate and experienced comparable and dramatic forest changes during the past decades, but with different watershed properties (e.g., the topography is much steeper in Xiangshui than in Pingjiang), which provides us with a unique opportunity to compare the differences in hydrological recovery in two contrasted watersheds. Streamflow at different percentiles (e.g., 5, 10, 50 and 95 %) were compared using a combination of statistical analysis with a year-wise method for each watershed. The results showed that forest recovery had no significant effects on median flows (Q50%) in both watersheds. However, reforestation significantly reduced high flows in Pingjiang, but had limited influence in Xiangshui. Similarly, reforestation had significant and positive effects on low flows (Q95%) in Pingjiang, while it did not significantly change low flows in Xiangshui. Thus, hydrological recovery is limited and slower in the steeper Xiangshui watershed, highlighting that watershed properties are also important for determining hydrological responses to reforestation. This finding has important implications for designing reforestation and watershed management strategies in the context of hydrological recovery.

  18. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-159) - Pine Hollow Watershed Enhancement – Jackknife Watershed Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2004-07-15

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund watershed enhancement activities in the Pine Hollow and Jackknife Canyon Watersheds in conjunction with the Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District. Activities will include installation of offstream watering facilities and structural improvements for reducing sediment delivery to streams. Nine Water and Sediment Control Basins and 2,000 feet of diversion ditches will be utilized to reduce the erosive forces of water during storm events, effectively allowing sediment to settle out of suspension in the water column. Two wells, two spring developments, and two watering systems will be employed to provide better watering options to rangeland managers, reducing the need for cattle to utilize streams for water.

  19. Walnut Creek and Squaw Creek Watersheds, Iowa: National Institute of Food and Agriculture-Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Walnut Creek Watershed NIFA-CEAP Watershed project was designed to assess water quality benefits and economic costs from the adoption of a prairie ecosystem (conservation practice implementation) at a watershed scale. This chapter describes and summarizes the paired watershed (Walnut Creek and S...

  20. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) Poster Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona...

  1. METHODOLOGIES FOR CALIBRATION AND PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS OF A WATERSHED MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a fitted-parameter watershed model to address water quantity and quality management issues requires that it be calibrated under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, rarely does model calibration result in a unique parameter set. Parameter nonuniqueness can l...

  2. Watershed scale chloride storage across a gradient of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, C. C.; Oswald, C. J.; Oni, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sodium chloride is the main de-icing agent used during the winter in Canada and the northern United States. However, little is known about the long term fate, residence time, and ecological effects of chloride. This talk integrates work taking place across three sites in Southern Ontario, Canada: Hamilton Harbour, the Toronto lakeshore, and Lake Simcoe. We quantify chloride inputs, outputs, and changes in storage for a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. For the three winter months (January, February, March), we show that stream water chloride concentrations approach those of brackish waters for urban watersheds. Chloride is also highly persistent, with stream water chloride concentrations decreasing from the winter months and approaching baseline levels only in July. These baseline levels are greater than 100 mg Cl/l in the urban watersheds, suggesting high levels of chloride storage in soil and groundwater. Using road salt application rates and groundwater levels and chloride concentrations, we estimate the magnitude and residence time of the chloride pools in a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. Our results suggest that the magnitude and residence time of chloride storage varies with urbanization and other factors. We show that summer baseflow concentrations do approach the EPA's chronic exposure guideline of 230 mg Cl/l, implying more work is needed to understand the in stream and downstream ecological effects of chloride.

  3. STEWARDS watershed data system: system design and implementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A web-based, data retrieval application was developed (Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System, STEWARDS) as part of ARS’ Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) to increase availability and accessibility of scientific data to the research community. The STEWARDS...

  4. Framework for Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Urban Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts have been under way by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 2003 to develop a decision-support system for placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This system is called the System for Urban Stormwater Treatm...

  5. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier for the Little Miami River (LMR) and Las Vegas Wash (LVW) watersheds were used for detail sensitivity analyses. To compare the relative sensitivities of the hydrologic parameters of these two models, we used Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE). By combining the NRMSE index with the flow duration curve analysis, we derived an approach to measure parameter sensitivities under different flow regimes. Results show that the parameters related to groundwater are highly sensitive in the LMR watershed, whereas the LVW watershed is primarily sensitive to near surface and impervious parameters. The high and medium flows are more impacted by most of the parameters. Low flow regime was highly sensitive to groundwater related parameters. Moreover, our approach is found to be useful in facilitating model development and calibration. This journal article describes hydrological modeling of climate change and land use changes on stream hydrology, and elucidates the importance of hydrological model construction in generating valid modeling results.

  6. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  7. Statistical investigations into indicator bacteria concentrations in Houston metropolitan watersheds.

    PubMed

    Desai, Anuradha M; Rifai, Hanadi; Helfer, Emil; Moreno, Norma; Stein, Ron

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial pollution in the Houston metropolitan area (Texas) watersheds was studied using statistical methods to determine the Escherichia coli levels and causes of their spatial and temporal variability. Houston bayous generally exhibit elevated E. coli concentrations. The more urban watersheds had higher concentration ranges and geometric means and had more spatial variation with higher overall ranges at downstream monitoring stations. They also were less sensitive to temperature variations and more strongly influenced by rainfall events. The median flow in the more urban bayous is predominantly wastewater. Frequent rainfall in the region, combined with relatively long travel times in the bayous, results in elevated bacterial levels in the bayous. Multiple regression models using water quality parameters were more representative on the segment level and not at the watershed level and may not be useful for predictions that rely on conventional water quality measures, particularly in urban watersheds, such as those studied here. Cluster analysis for the segments resulted in two distinct clusters differentiated by their developed land-use, population density, domestic animal density, and grassy land-use.

  8. Imperial Contradictions: Is the Valley a Watershed, Region, or Cyborg?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Alan P.

    2005-01-01

    Is California's Imperial Valley a watershed? If so, at what level and by what topographic logic? Is it a region? If so, at what level and by what geographic logic? Are its boundaries natural, political, or multivalent on different scales? In short, this essay looks at the special (re)production of environmental conditions within a cyborg world.…

  9. Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most states in the U.S. have adopted P Indexing to guide P-based management of agricultural fields by identifying the relative risk of P loss at farm and watershed scales. To a large extent, this risk is based on hydrologic principles whereby frequently occurring storms have a given potential to in...

  10. Priority River Metrics for Residents of an Urbanized Arid Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    What indicators to use is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to the general public in an urbanized watershed of the Southwestern U.S. Transcriptions an...

  11. Watershed Dynamics. Student Edition. Cornell Scientific Inquiry Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, William S.; Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2004-01-01

    Whether you're a stream studies novice or a veteran aquatic monitor, "Watershed Dynamics" gives you abundant practical resources to extend your students' investigations into local water quality and land-use issues. This two-part set is ideal for teaching biological and ecological concepts and research techniques. It also shows how the interplay…

  12. Water resources of the Lake Superior watershed, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olcott, Perry G.; Ericson, D.W.; Felsheim, P.E.; Broussard, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Nemadji River and tributaries drain the Nemadji Basin, the southern detached part of the watershed. Topographically, the Nemadji Basin is roughly spoon shaped with maximum total relief in Minnesota of about 800 ft (244 m). More than half of the approximately 55-mi (88-km) long river flows northeastward through Wisconsin before reaching Lake Superior.

  13. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  14. A planning approach for agricultural watersheds using precision conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This brief article, written for a non-technical audience, discusses a recently-developed approach for watershed planning and nutrient reduction. The approach can help local stakeholders identify conservation practices that are locally preferred and determine how those practices can be distributed ac...

  15. Spatial distribution of pipe collapses in Goodwin Creek Watershed, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can induce pipe collapses that affect soil erosion process and landform evolution. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of pipe collapses in agricultural fields of Goodwin Creek watershed. Ground survey was carried out to detect pipe co...

  16. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  17. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capacity nor more than 25,000 acre-feet of total capacity. (4) Have significant land or water management..., irrigation, recreation, fish and wildlife, municipal or industrial water supply, or other water management..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible...

  18. Urban/rural connections: the New York City watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cannonsville Reservoir, which was placed in service in 1964, is a major component of the unfiltered New York City water supply system. This year, the Watershed Agricultural Program marks a 17-year history of collaboration among producers, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the De...

  19. Conservation and sediment yield on the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to about 1950, conservation practices on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma were few and mostly demonstration type projects. Extensive soil conservation measures were implemented in the second half of the 20th century. Fortuitously, the U.S. Geological Survey collecte...

  20. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  1. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorization to protect municipal water supplies, the authorized forest officer shall specify the types of uses... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of Municipal Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorization to protect municipal water supplies, the authorized forest officer shall specify the types of uses... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management of Municipal Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorization to protect municipal water supplies, the authorized forest officer shall specify the types of uses... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Management of Municipal Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. Prospects for hydrologic classification of landscapes and watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological functions of streams and associated riparian zones are strongly influenced by the hydrological attributes of watersheds and landscapes in which they occur. Oregon hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) have been defined based on four types of GIS data: 1) climate, 2) ...

  5. FECAL BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF A KARST WATERSHED IN CENTRAL MISSOURI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bonne Femme watershed of Boone County, Missouri has a varied surface geology that includes karst topography with losing streams that are an especially vulnerable setting for ground water contamination. The study objective was to compare fecal contamination and detection of specific pathogenic wa...

  6. Environmental Flow Modeling Challenges for Rapidly Urbanizing Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is a challenge for land use planners and water resource managers to balance water needs that support urban growth and economic development of a growing population and yet maintain ecological flow needs. Urban growth and the associated water resources development in a watershed...

  7. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    9 Figure 7. Snow density by day of year at Sault Ste Marie , Duluth, and in the Lake Superior watershed and vicinity in Ontario...Canada ....................................................................................11 Figure 8. Snow density histogram for Sault Ste Marie ... Marys River. The outflow from Lake Superior is controlled under stringent regulation plans agreed upon by Canada and the United States through the

  8. Water resources of the Roseau River Watershed, Northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Maclay, R.W.; Pike, G.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report is a general appraisal of the water resources in the Roseau River watershed unit. Detailed studies of water movement through the ground-water reservoir are needed for more exact determination of the amount of water immediately available and the specific effects of water-management practices.

  9. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) 3.0 Software Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool has been developed under an interagency research agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. AGWA i...

  10. Watershed morphology of highland and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark Highlands, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  11. Stream water nutrient enrichment in a mixed-use watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eutrophic conditions, in both saline and freshwater systems, result from nutrient export from upstream watersheds. The objective of this study was to quantify the surface runoff losses of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and total phosphorus (TP) r...

  12. Do upland conservation measures reduce watershed sediment yield?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of conservation measures do not always result in an immediate and measurable sediment yield reduction at the outlet of large watersheds. In this study, instantaneous suspended sediment and discharge measurements, taken in 1943-1948 and again in 2004-2008, in the Fort Cobb Reservoir wa...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF STREAM RESTORATION EFFECTIVENESS IN AN URBAN WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA ORD Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division has been conducting a before and after stream restoration evaluation of Mine Bank Run, a highly degraded stream in an urban watershed at Towson, MD. Mine Bank Run is being progressively restored from the headwaters d...

  14. A watershed approach for improving medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zanaty, E A; Afifi, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel watershed approach based on seed region growing and image entropy is presented which could improve the medical image segmentation. The proposed algorithm enables the prior information of seed region growing and image entropy in its calculation. The algorithm starts by partitioning the image into several levels of intensity using watershed multi-degree immersion process. The levels of intensity are the input to a computationally efficient seed region segmentation process which produces the initial partitioning of the image regions. These regions are fed to entropy procedure to carry out a suitable merging which produces the final segmentation. The latter process uses a region-based similarity representation of the image regions to decide whether regions can be merged. The region is isolated from the level and the residual pixels are uploaded to the next level and so on, we recall this process as multi-level process and the watershed is called multi-level watershed. The proposed algorithm is applied to challenging applications: grey matter-white matter segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The established methods and the proposed approach are experimented by these applications to a variety of simulating immersion, multi-degree, multi-level seed region growing and multi-level seed region growing with entropy. It is shown that the proposed method achieves more accurate results for medical image oversegmentation.

  15. Integrated Modeling for Watershed Ecosystem Services Assessment and Forecasting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional scale watershed management decisions must be informed by the science-based relationship between anthropogenic activities on the landscape and the change in ecosystem structure, function, and services that occur as a result. We applied process-based models that represent...

  16. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF TOXICS IN THE WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demand for water is beginning to outstrip the available supply of water. The truly insidious insult to freshwater supplies comes from anthropogenic impacts that pollute freshwater supplies and the surrounding watersheds, making even less water available for use.

    Wat...

  17. Evapotranspiration and runoff in a forest watershed, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Shimizu, T.; Miyabuchi, Y.; Ogawa, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Both water and heat balances were studied in a conifer plantation watershed in south-west Japan, within the warm-temperate East Asia monsoon area. Forest cover in the watershed consists mainly of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations. Precipitation and runoff have been observed since 1991, so evapotranspiration can be compared with the water balance. Two meteorological observation towers were built to monitor evapotranspiration in the watershed. The annual average precipitation, amount of runoff and losses were 2166, 1243 and 923 mm, respectively. The evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) agreed well with the water balance losses. The average annual evapotranspiration at the tower built in the centre of the watershed was 902 mm; evapotranspiration at the other tower, further upslope, was 875 mm. The observed evapotranspiration was 39% to 40% of the average precipitation (2166 mm). The mean net radiation was c. 2·6 GJ m-2 year-1, and is considered a representative value of the net radiation (Rn) in coniferous plantations in this region. This region is classified in the humid zone based on the ratio of net radiation (Rn) to the energy required to evaporate the rainfall (R). The mean annual evaporation of canopy-intercepted water was 356 mm or about 15% of the average precipitation. Copyright

  18. Mid-Holocene Hydrologic Model of the Shingobee Watershed, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filby, Sheryl K.; Locke, Sharon M.; Person, Mark A.; Winter, Thomas C.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Nieber, John L.; Gutowski, William J.; Ito, Emi

    2002-11-01

    A hydrologic model of the Shingobee Watershed in north-central Minnesota was developed to reconstruct mid-Holocene paleo-lake levels for Williams Lake, a surface-water body located in the southern portion of the watershed. Hydrologic parameters for the model were first estimated in a calibration exercise using a 9-yr historical record (1990-1998) of climatic and hydrologic stresses. The model reproduced observed temporal and spatial trends in surface/groundwater levels across the watershed. Mid-Holocene aquifer and lake levels were then reconstructed using two paleoclimatic data sets: CCM1 atmospheric general circulation model output and pollen-transfer functions using sediment core data from Williams Lake. Calculated paleo-lake levels based on pollen-derived paleoclimatic reconstructions indicated a 3.5-m drop in simulated lake levels and were in good agreement with the position of mid-Holocene beach sands observed in a Williams Lake sediment core transect. However, calculated paleolake levels based on CCM1 climate forcing produced only a 0.05-m drop in lake levels. We found that decreases in winter precipitation rather than temperature increases had the largest effect on simulated mid-Holocene lake levels. The study illustrates how watershed models can be used to critically evaluate paleoclimatic reconstructions by integrating geologic, climatic, limnologic, and hydrogeologic data sets.

  19. Mid-Holocene hydrologic model of the Shingobee watershed, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filby, S.K.; Locke, Sharon M.; Person, M.A.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Nieber, J.L.; Gutowski, W.J.; Ito, E.

    2002-01-01

    A hydrologifc model of the Shingobee Watershed in north-central Minnesota was developed to reconstruct mid-Holocene paleo-lake levels for Williams Lake, a surface-water body located in the southern portion of the watershed. Hydrologic parameters for the model were first estimated in a calibration exercise using a 9-yr historical record (1990-1998) of climatic and hydrologic stresses. The model reproduced observed temporal and spatial trends in surface/groundwater levels across the watershed. Mid-Holocene aquifer and lake levels were then reconstructed using two paleoclimatic data sets: CCM1 atmospheric general circulation model output and pollen-transfer functions using sediment core data from Williams Lake. Calculated paleo-lake levels based on pollen-derived paleoclimatic reconstructions indicated a 3.5-m drop in simulated lake levels and were in good agreement with the position of mid-Holocene beach sands observed in a Williams Lake sediment core transect. However, calculated paleolake levels based on CCM1 climate forcing produced only a 0.05-m drop in lake levels. We found that decreases in winter precipitation rather than temperature increases had the largest effect on simulated mid-Holocene lake levels. The study illustrates how watershed models can be used to critically evaluate paleoclimatic reconstructions by integrating geologic, climatic, limnologic, and hydrogeologic data sets. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  20. Upper Kalamazoo watershed land cover inventory. [based on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richason, B., III; Enslin, W.

    1973-01-01

    Approximately 1000 square miles of the eastern portion of the watershed were inventoried based on remote sensing imagery. The classification scheme, imagery and interpretation procedures, and a cost analysis are discussed. The distributions of land cover within the area are tabulated.

  1. Urban Watershed Management with a Focus on Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the physical principles that link together the various parts of the urban water cycle are well understood, the integration of green technologies into urban watershed management requires some further study. I will present results from a multidisciplinary approach to water...

  2. Urban Watershed Research Facility at Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Watershed Research Facility (UWRF) is an isolated, 20-acre open space within EPA’s 200 acre Edison facility established to develop and evaluate the performance of stormwater management practices under controlled conditions. The facility includes greenhouses that allow ...

  3. DNA BASED MOLECULAR METHODS FOR BACTERIAL SOURCE TRACKING IN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the po...

  4. Economic Tools for Managing Nitrogen in Coastal Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed managers are interested in using economics to communicate the value of estuarine resources to the wider community, determine the most cost-effective means to reduce nitrogen pollution, and evaluate the benefits of taking action to improve coastal ecosystems. We spoke to...

  5. Watershed management and organizational dynamics: nationwide findings and regional variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, B.T.; Burkardt, N.; King, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on resource management initiatives at the watershed scale with emphasis on collaborative, locally driven, and decentralized institutional arrangements. Existing literature on limited selection of well-established watershed-based organizations has provided valuable insights. The current research extends this focus by including a broad survey of watershed organizations from across the United States as a means to estimate a national portrait. Organizational characteristics include year of formation, membership size and composition, budget, guiding principles, and mechanisms of decision-making. These characteristics and the issue concerns of organizations are expected to vary with respect to location. Because this research focuses on organizations that are place based and stakeholder driven, the forces driving them are expected to differ across regions of the country. On this basis of location, we suggest basic elements for a regional assessment of watershed organizations to channel future research and to better approximate the organizational dynamics, issue concerns, and information needs unique to organizations across the country. At the broadest level, the identification of regional patters or organizational similarities may facilitate the linkage among organizations to coordinate their actions at the much broader river basin or ecosystem scale.

  6. Nitrogen management challenges in major watersheds of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Pérez, Tibisay; Rasse, Rafael; Ometto, Jean Pierre H. B.; Siqueira Pacheco, Felipe; Rafaela Machado Lins, Silvia; Marquina, Sorena

    2015-06-01

    Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 μg L-1 and 275 μg L-1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 μg L-1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 μg L-1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha-1 yr-1) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region.

  7. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR PLACEMENT OF BMP/LID IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist stormwater management professionals in planning for BMP/LID implementation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has funded the development of a decision support system for selection and placement of BMP/LID at strategic locations in urban watersheds. The...

  9. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  10. Assessments of Water Quality in Mississippi Delta Lake Watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes watershed scale research by USDA-ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory scientists on the effects of conservation management on water quality and ecology in oxbow lakes of the Mississippi Delta Region, USA. The Mississippi Delta Region is located in the central portion of the U...

  11. Applying online WEPP to assess forest watershed hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Great Lakes Commission are developing technologies and predictive tools to aid in watershed management with an ultimate goal of improving and preserving the water quality in the Great Lakes Basin. A new version of the online Water Erosion Prediction P...

  12. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Documentation Version 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/landsci/agwa/introduction.htm and www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa) tool is a GIS interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, University of Arizon...

  13. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  14. Modeling subsurface contaminant reactions and transport at the watershed scale

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; D`Azevedo, E.F.; Wilson, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to numerically examine the multiscale effects of physical and chemical mass transfer processes on watershed scale, variably saturated subsurface contaminant transport, and (2) to conduct numerical simulations on watershed scale reactive solute transport and evaluate their implications to uncertainty characterization and cost benefit analysis. Concurrent physical and chemical nonequilibrium caused by inter aggregate gradients of pressure head and solute concentration and intra-aggregate geochemical and microbiological processes, respectively, may arise at various scales and flowpaths. To this date, experimental investigations of these complex processes at watershed scale remain a challenge and numerical studies are often needed for guidance of water resources management and decision making. This research integrates the knowledge bases developed during previous experimental and numerical investigations at a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the concurrent effects of physical and chemical nonequilibrium. Comparison of numerical results with field data indicates that: (1) multiregion, preferential flow and solute transport exist under partially saturated condition and can be confirmed theoretically, and that (2) mass transfer between pore regions is an important process influencing contaminant movement in the subsurface. Simulations of watershed scale, multi species reactive solute transport suggest that dominance of geochemistry and hydrodynamics may occur simultaneously at different locales and influence the movement of one species relative to another. Execution times on the simulations of the reactive solute transport model also indicate that the model is ready to assist the selection of important parameters for site characterization.

  15. Undoing the Past: Restoration in the Monday Creek Watershed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Monday Creek Restoration Project is a collaborative effort of 20 organizations to clean up an Appalachian Ohio stream fouled for generations by acid mine drainage and industrial waste. The grassroots effort has involved state and federal agencies, VISTA volunteers, community volunteers, and college students who monitor the watershed and share…

  16. 76 FR 71936 - Upper Deckers Creek Watershed, Preston County, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Upper Deckers Creek Watershed, Preston County, WV AGENCY: Natural... Environmental Quality Guidelines (40 CFR part 1500); and the Natural Resources Conservation Service Guidelines (7 CFR part 650); the Natural Resources Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture,...

  17. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds (proceedings)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated wit...

  18. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated wit...

  19. Sub-watershed prioritization based on sediment yield using game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhami, Maryam; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-10-01

    The proper placement of soil and water conservation measures cannot be designated due to lack of appropriate technical prioritization of different areas of a watershed. Therefore, quantifying soil erosion hazard and spatial prioritization of sub-watersheds would aid in better watershed management planning. Although, many approaches have been applied to prioritize sub-watersheds, but still the efficient techniques like game theory have not been practically applied to prioritize sub-watersheds. The present study therefore has used the game theory to prioritize sub-watersheds in Gorganroud and Qareh Sou watersheds in Golestan Province, northern Iran. Towards this goal, 38 independent factors were classified in seven components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method with one representative variable in each component. The Condorcet method used for prioritization of effective variables indicated that the percent of forestry lands (52 scores) and discharge with 10 years of return period (32 scores) were respectively the most and the least effective variables on sediment yield. The Fallback bargaining and the Borda Scoring algorithms were also selected to prioritize study sub-watersheds based on weighted grades of total score for each variable. Accordingly, the aforesaid algorithms classified sub-watersheds in three categories. Comparison of results similarly introduced Galikesh, Qazaqli, Gonbad, Siyah Ab and Tamar as first ranked sub-watersheds with the worth condition, Tangrah and Naharkhoran as second priority and eventually Pole Ordougah as sub-watershed with the lowest priority.

  20. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. Designs for culvert replacements are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. 20 miles of roads were decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  1. Elevation-Derived Watershed Basins and Characteristics for Major Rivers of the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, S.K.; Worstell, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center Topographic Science Project has developed elevation-derived watershed basins and characteristics for major rivers of the conterminous United States. Watershed basins are delineated upstream from the mouth of major rivers by using the hydrologic connectivity of the Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) seamless database. Watershed characteristics are quantified by integrating ancillary geospatial datasets, including land cover, population, slope, and topography, with elevation-derived watershed boundaries. The results are published in an online EDNA Watershed Atlas at http://edna.usgs.gov/watersheds. The atlas serves as a framework for evaluating and analyzing the physical, biological, and anthropogenic status of watersheds.

  2. Effects of urbanization on groundwater evolution in an urbanizing watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, D.; Banner, J. L.; Bendik, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Jollyville Plateau Salamander (Eurycea tonkawae), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, is endemic to springs and caves within the Bull Creek Watershed of Austin, Texas. Rapid urbanization endangers known populations of this salamander. Conservation strategies lack information on the extent of groundwater contamination from anthropogenic sources in this karst watershed. Spring water was analyzed for strontium (Sr) isotopes and major ions from sites classified as "urban" or "rural" based on impervious cover estimates. Previous studies have shown that the 87Sr/86Sr value of municipal water is significantly higher than values for natural streamwater, which are similar to those for the Cretaceous limestone bedrock of the region's watersheds. We investigate the application of this relationship to understanding the effects of urbanization on groundwater quality. The use of Sr isotopes as hydrochemical tracers is complemented by major ion concentrations, specifically the dominant ions in natural groundwater (Ca and HCO3) and the ions associated with the addition of wastewater (Na and Cl). To identify high priority salamander-inhabited springs for water quality remediation, we explore the processes controlling the chemical evolution of groundwater such as municipal water inputs, groundwater-soil interactions, and solution/dissolution reactions. 87Sr/86Sr values for water samples from within the watershed range from 0.70760 to 0.70875, the highest values corresponding to sites located in the urbanized areas of the watershed. Analyses of the covariation of Sr isotopes with major ion concentrations help elucidate controls on spring water evolution. Springs located in rural portions of the watershed have low 87Sr/86Sr, high concentrations of Ca and HCO3, and low concentrations of Na and Cl. This is consistent with small inputs of municipal water. Three springs located in urban portions of the watershed have high 87Sr/86Sr, low Ca and HCO3, and

  3. Towards Sustainable Watershed Dvelopment: A Geographic Information Systems based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2006-01-01

    With an unprecedented projection of population and urban growth in the coming decades, assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is crucial for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with sustainable watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Most planners, government agencies, and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of watershed development. Before investing in complex analyses and customized data collection, it is often useful to utilize simple screening analyses using data that are already available. In this paper, we discuss such a technique for long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GIS by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. An application of the L-THIA/NPS model on the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana is illustrated in this paper. Three historical land use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land use change in the watershed and to assess the impacts of land use change on

  4. Nitrogen sink in a small forested watershed of subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Laiming; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Ganlin

    2011-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) emission and deposition have been increased rapidly due to massive mobilization of N which may have long-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Many agricultural and forest ecosystems have been identified as secondary N sources. In the present study, the input-output budget of inorganic N in a small forested watershed of subtropical China was investigated. Inorganic N wet deposition and discharge by stream water were monitored from March, 2007 to February, 2009. The concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N in wet precipitation and stream water and net retention of N were calculated. Global N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and N output by denitrification for forested watersheds elsewhere were reported as references to evaluate whether the studied forested watershed is a source or a sink for N. The results show that the inorganic N output by the stream water is mainly caused by NO3(-)-N even though the input is dominated by NH4(+)-N. The mean flux of inorganic N input by wet precipitation and output by stream water is 1.672 and 0.537 g N/(m2 x yr), respectively, which indicates that most of inorganic N input is retained in the forested watershed. Net retention of inorganic N reaches 1.135 g N/(m2 x yr) considering wet precipitation as the main input and stream water as the main output. If N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and output by denitrification are taken into account, this subtropical forested watershed currently acts as a considerable sink for N, with a net sink ranging from 1.309 to 1.913 g N/(m2 x yr) which may enhance carbon sequestration of the terrestrial ecosystem.

  5. Effects of Forest Disturbance on Water Quality in Appalachian Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, K. N.; Townsend, P.

    2006-12-01

    Land use/land cover changes and a variety of transient watershed disturbances are regarded as important factors that can significantly influence water quality in associated aquatic ecosystems. In forest ecosystems, nitrate-N losses to surface waters provide a sensitive integrative indicator of the biogeochemical status of the forest and of its response to disturbances. While effects of human-induced forest disturbances (e.g., forest harvesting) have been relatively well studied in carefully controlled field experiments, natural forest disturbances and their ecosystem-level impacts are far less well understood. The purpose of this research is to quantify the eco-hydrological effects of historical and current forest disturbances in three large predominantly forested areas of the eastern U.S.: Savage River watershed (Maryland), Fifteenmile Creek watershed (Maryland & Pennsylvania), and Shenandoah National Park (Virginia). Each of these study areas is predominantly forested, has been extensively disturbed within the last 15 years by one or more human- induced or natural disturbance agents (e.g., ice storms, blow-downs, insect defoliations, etc.), and covers an area of several hundred square kilometers. Our research integrates the study of disturbances at multiple scales using remote sensing analyses (landscape scale), observations of surface water quality (watershed scale), and measurements of ecosystem processes within forests (plot scale). In the paper we provide evidence of relationships between transient land cover alterations/disturbances and systematic measurements of surface water quality. In particular, we use our water monitoring data to test whether nitrate-N concentrations in soil water and streamwater vary as linear functions of the magnitude (intensity, frequency, and extensity) and timing of disturbance at three different spatial scales (plot, watershed, and landscape).

  6. Watershed Modeling in areas with Intensive Agricultural Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, J. R.; Watson, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigation in agricultural intensive watersheds affects soil moisture content, plays a major role in the overall water balance and also influences the hydrologic regime. Historically, irrigation in watershed modeling has been very difficult to simulate and was simulated in one of three general ways. 1) irrigation water was withdrawan from the model and never applied to the land, 2) ignored and assumed insignificant and 3) input as a constant by modifying atmospheric forcing files. For the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) model developed for the Flint River Watershed in southwest Georgia, we received a summary report of a study conducted to determine irrigation application depth, as well as spatial mapping of irrigated fields in the state of Georgia. The summary report provided minimum, mean, and maximum irrigation depth for both surface water and groundwater sources and the spatial mapping provided over 10,300 irrigated fields located within the boundaries of the Flint River Watershed. With this information we were able to calculate irrigation volume applied to the land by source water type. We discuss how these data were incorporated into the LSPC watershed modeling effort and demonstrate the utility and function of the model for irrigation application. We also investigate impacts to water balance and the hydrologic regime through a series of scenarios in the agriculturally dominated landscape of Ichawaynochaway Creek (HUC 03130009). The scenarios compare and contrast our approach with 1) ignoring irrigation both application and water withdrawal, and 2) only withdrawing the water and not applying it back to the land. We demonstrate the importance of properly simulating irrigation application in heavily influenced areas. The approach we have taken is applicable in other areas in the southeastern United States or any area that is highly influenced by irrigation practices.

  7. Integrating stakeholder values with multiple attributes to quantify watershed performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Deborah M.; Randhir, Timothy O.

    2006-08-01

    Integrating stakeholder values into the process of quantifying impairment of ecosystem functions is an important aspect of watershed assessment and planning. This study develops a classification and prioritization model to assess potential impairment in watersheds. A systematic evaluation of a broad set of abiotic, biotic, and human indicators of watershed structure and function was used to identify the level of degradation at a subbasin scale. Agencies and communities can use the method to effectively target and allocate resources to areas of greatest restoration need. The watershed performance measure (WPM) developed in this study is composed of three major components: (1) hydrologic processes (water quantity and quality), (2) biodiversity at a species scale (core and priority habitat for rare and endangered species and species richness) and landscape scale (impacts of fragmentation), and (3) urban impacts as assessed in the built environment (effective impervious area) and population effects (densities and density of toxic waste sites). Simulation modeling using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), monitoring information, and spatial analysis with GIS were used to assess each criterion in developing this model. Weights for attributes of potential impairment were determined through the use of the attribute prioritization procedure with a panel of expert stakeholders. This procedure uses preselected attributes and corresponding stakeholder values and is data intensive. The model was applied to all subbasins of the Chicopee River Watershed of western Massachusetts, an area with a mixture of rural, heavily forested lands, suburban, and urbanized areas. Highly impaired subbasins in one community were identified using this methodology and evaluated for principal forms of degradation and potential restoration policies and BMPs. This attribute-based prioritization method could be used in identifying baselines, prioritization policies, and adaptive community

  8. Managing material transfer and nutrient flow in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Nord, E A; Lanyon, L E

    2003-01-01

    Place-based resource management, such as watershed or ecosystem management, is being promoted to replace the media-focused approach for achieving water quality protection. We monitored the agricultural area of a 740-ha watershed to determine the nature and scale of farm material transfers, N and P balances, and farmer decisions that influenced them. Using field data and farmer interviews we found that 3 of 15 farms, emphasizing hog, dairy, or cash crops with poultry production, accounted for more than 80% of the inputs and outputs of N and P for the 362-ha agricultural area (332 ha of managed cropland and animal facilities). Feed for hogs (38% each of total N and P) and manure applied to fields as part of the cash crop and poultry operation (28 and 38% of total N and P, respectively) were the dominant inputs. No crops grown in the watershed were fed to animals in the watershed and more manure nutrients were applied from animals outside than from those in the watershed. A strategic decision by the hog farmer to begin marketing finished hogs changed the material transfers and nutrient balances more than tactical decisions by other farmers in allocating manure to cropland. Since the components of agricultural production were not all interconnected, the fundamental assumption of place-based management programs is not well-suited to this situation. Alternative approaches to managing the effect of agriculture on water quality should consider the organization of agricultural production and the role of strategic decisions in controlling farm nutrient balances.

  9. Selenium Distribution and Fractionation in a Managed Urban Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papelis, C.; Boettcher, T. M.; Harris-Burr, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    Metals, and metalloids, are common contaminants of concern in arid and semi-arid watersheds in the Southwestern U.S. Because of the dramatic population growth in this part of the U.S., the potential for contamination of urban watersheds has also increased over the last few decades. Streams in urban watersheds receive storm water, urban runoff, shallow groundwater, and treated wastewater. In addition, urban watersheds are often heavily managed to mitigate flood events and sediment-related impacts. Clearly, sediment transport can have a profound effect on the water quality of affected bodies of water, not only by affecting water clarity, but also by facilitating the transport of chemical constituents, as well as microbiological components. The Las Vegas Wash (Wash) is the lowest point in the Las Vegas Valley Watershed and receives storm water, urban runoff, and treated wastewater from the entire Las Vegas Valley. To minimize erosion, caused by the dramatic wastewater flow increase during the last few decades, several erosion control structures are being built. In addition, wetlands being constructed in the Wash area receive most of the water from the Wash. The construction of these ponds has the potential to alter the distribution of metals and metalloids in bodies of water used by wildlife. An element of particular concern is selenium, a metalloid commonly found at elevated concentrations in soils of the U.S. Southwest. To assess the potential adverse impact on water quality, sediment samples were collected along the Wash, upstream and downstream of erosion control structures, and around current and future constructed wetlands. The sediments were characterized by particle size distribution, specific surface area, mineralogical composition, organic carbon content, and scanning electron microscopy. The total selenium, as well as the percentages associated with exchangeable, organic, carbonate, and oxide sediment fractions were determined. The distribution of selenium

  10. Genome-to-Watershed Predictive Understanding of Terrestrial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Agarwal, D.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Long, P.; Nico, P. S.; Steefel, C. I.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although terrestrial environments play a critical role in cycling water, greenhouse gasses, and other life-critical elements, the complexity of interactions among component microbes, plants, minerals, migrating fluids and dissolved constituents hinders predictive understanding of system behavior. The 'Sustainable Systems 2.0' project is developing genome-to-watershed scale predictive capabilities to quantify how the microbiome affects biogeochemical watershed functioning, how watershed-scale hydro-biogeochemical processes affect microbial functioning, and how these interactions co-evolve with climate and land-use changes. Development of such predictive capabilities is critical for guiding the optimal management of water resources, contaminant remediation, carbon stabilization, and agricultural sustainability - now and with global change. Initial investigations are focused on floodplains in the Colorado River Basin, and include iterative model development, experiments and observations with an early emphasis on subsurface aspects. Field experiments include local-scale experiments at Rifle CO to quantify spatiotemporal metabolic and geochemical responses to O2and nitrate amendments as well as floodplain-scale monitoring to quantify genomic and biogeochemical response to natural hydrological perturbations. Information obtained from such experiments are represented within GEWaSC, a Genome-Enabled Watershed Simulation Capability, which is being developed to allow mechanistic interrogation of how genomic information stored in a subsurface microbiome affects biogeochemical cycling. This presentation will describe the genome-to-watershed scale approach as well as early highlights associated with the project. Highlights include: first insights into the diversity of the subsurface microbiome and metabolic roles of organisms involved in subsurface nitrogen, sulfur and hydrogen and carbon cycling; the extreme variability of subsurface DOC and hydrological controls on carbon and

  11. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  12. [Impact on nitrogen and phosphorous export of wetlands in Tianmu Lake watershed].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Fu; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Heng-Peng

    2012-11-01

    Focused on understanding the function of wetland in improving water quality, Pingqiao watershed and Zhongtian watershed in Tianmu Lake drinking water sources area were selected as the research region. We integrated remote sensing, GIS techniques with field investigation and chemical analysis to analyze the relationship between wetland and water quality in watershed scale. Results show: (1) There are many wetland patches in Pingqiao and Zhongtian watershed, wetlands patch densities were respectively 7.5 km(-2) and 7.1 km(-2). Wetlands widely distributed in the Pingqiao watershed with mostly located away from the river of 500 m, whereas wetlands relatively concentrated in the lower reach within 500 meters of riverside in Zhongtian watershed. (2) Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient retention of wetland in watershed scale was significant. The annual mean TN and DTN concentration had a strong relationship with percent area of wetlands in Zhongtian watershed while the weakest relationship was found with TP and DTP concentrations, especially, the mean TN and DTN concentrations in spring and winter had the significantly negative relationship with wetland areas of watershed. The negative relationship was existed for nitrogen in autumn of Pingqiao watershed, which suggested that watersheds varying in area of wetlands have the different nutrient reducing efficiency in seasonal periods. (3) A certain number and area of wetland will improve river water quality in watershed scale, which can instruct water environment treatment. However, considering the complexity of nutrient transport processes in watershed, wetland-related factors such as area, location, density, ecosystem structure and watershed-related factors such as temporal interval, spatial scales, slope and land use will impact on the transport processes, and related theoretical and practical problems need further research.

  13. AUTOMATED GEOSPATICAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYDROLOICAL MODELING TOOL FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execut...

  14. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOL FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/land-sci/agwa/introduction.htm and www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa) tool is a GIS interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, and the University ...

  15. The AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model: overview and application to experimental watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress in the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological processes influencing water quality, coupled with advances in the collection and analysis of hydrologic data, provide opportunities for significant innovations in the manner and level with which watershed-scale processes may be quan...

  16. Challenges and progress in distributed watershed modeling: applications of the AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress in the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological processes influencing water quality, coupled with advances in the collection and analysis of hydrologic data, provide opportunities for significant innovations in the manner and level with which watershed-scale processes may be quan...

  17. Travel time analysis for a subsurface drained sub-watershed in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runoff travel time, which is a function of watershed and storm characteristics, is an important parameter affecting the prediction accuracy of hydrologic models. Although, time of concentration (tc) is a most widely used time parameter, it has multiple conceptual and computational definitions. Most ...

  18. SWREGAP DATA TO ESTIMATE CHANGE IN WATERSHED CONDITION FOR SELECTED NEVADA WATERSHEDS USING A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are an important contemporary requisite for almost all natural resource agencies. An overview of the utility of SWReGAP data for watershed assessment and conservation will be presented using specific examples in Nevad...

  19. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Land cover data sets (1974-2007) for two southwestern Oklahoma agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A retrospective land cover analysis covering the time period from the early 1970s to early 1990s was conducted to gain a sense of the dynamics of land cover changes on the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir experimental watersheds (LWREW, FCREW), located in southwestern Oklahoma. This stu...

  20. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYRDOLOGIC MODELING TOOL FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly

    developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection

    Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the

    parame...