Park, Chung Gyoo; Lee, Kyu Chul; Lee, Dong Woon; Choo, Ho Yul; Albert, P J
We evaluated the effects of tannic acid and purified perrsimmon tannin on survival and reproduction of bean bugs, Riptortus clavatus.Feeding behavior of R. clavatus was also examined on sweet (cv. Fuyu) and astringent (cv. Chongdosi) persimmon fruits. Soluble tannin in sweet persimmon fruits decreased from 3% in early June to 0.5% in late September, but it increased from 2 to 8% during the same period in astringent persimmon fruits. More bugs visited sweet than astringent persimmon. Numbers of piercing/sucking spots were higher on sweet than on astringent persimmon. When fed 1 and 3% solutions of persimmon tannin, adult bugs ingested only 64.1 and 9.5% of the amount of water ingested by those offered the control (distilled water). Amounts of persimmon tannin ingested by the adult bugs were 6.5 and 2.8 times higher at 1 and 3% tannin solutions compared to a 0.1% solution. Persimmon tannin exerted negative effects on survival and reproduction of R. clavatus at higher concentrations (1 and 3% solutions). Feeding of R. clavatus adults decreased with increasing tannin concentrations. When results from both sexes were pooled, 50% mortality was achieved at 11 and 4 days after treatment with the 1 and 3% tannin solutions, respectively. Reproduction decreased with 1% tannin, and no eggs were produced with 3% tannin solution. Tannic acid was similar in its effects on R. clavatus. All nymphs died 14, 12, and 7 days after feeding on 0.1, 1, and 3% tannic acid, respectively. Adults were less sensitive than nymphs, and their survival was not affected by 0.1% tannic acid. However. 1 and 3% tannic acid solutions were fatal. Survivorship decreased to 50% at 11 and 6 days after supplying tannin solutions of 1 and 3% concentrations. Higher concentrations (1 and 3%) resulted in reduced reproduction, as was seen with persimmon tannin. Our data may explain why R. clavatus does not invade sweet persimmon orchards until late July, when concentrations of soluble tannin are low enough to
Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Meng, Xian-Ying; Fukatsu, Takema
The Japanese common broad-headed bugs Riptortus clavatus and Leptocorisa chinensis possess a number of crypts in the posterior region of the midgut, whose lumen contains a copious amount of bacterial cells. We characterized the gut symbiotic bacteria by using molecular phylogenetic analysis, light and electron microscopy, in situ hybridization, and PCR-based detection techniques. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones suggested that a single bacterium dominated the microbiota in the crypts of the both bug species. The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from different individuals and species of the bugs were not identical but were very similar to each other. Homology searches in the DNA databases revealed that the sequences showed the highest levels of similarity (96% to 99%) to the sequences of Burkholderia spp. belonging to the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. In situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes confirmed the localization of the Burkholderia symbiont in the lumen of the midgut crypts. Electron microscopy showed that the lumen of the crypts was filled with rod-shaped bacteria of a single morphotype. Molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Burkholderia symbionts of the bugs formed a well-defined monophyletic group, although the group also contained several environmental Burkholderia strains. The phylogenetic relationship of the Burkholderia symbionts did not reflect the relationship of the host bug species at all. The sequences from R. clavatus and the sequences from L. chinensis did not form clades but were intermingled in the phylogeny, suggesting that horizontal transmission of the symbiont might have occasionally occurred between populations and species of the bugs. PMID:16000818
Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, María T; Gonzalez, Armando E
The pentastome species, Porocephalus clavatus, has been found to infect the lungs of two species of snakes in the family Boidae family (Boa constrictor and Epicrates cenchria). The individual of B. constrictor was collected in the Amazonian rainforest of Departamento Loreto, Peru. The E. cenchria was recovered from the pet trade in Lima, Peru's capital city. A total of 22 P. clavatus were collected and examined from these two snakes. This is the first report of P. clavatus in Peru. The morphology of the parasites and the possible importance in public and animal health are discussed.
Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Jun Beom; Huh, Ye Rang; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Chan-Hee; Yoo, Jin Wook; Lee, Bok Luel
The relation between gut symbiosis and immunity has been reported in various animal model studies. Here, we corroborate the effect of gut symbiont to host immunity using the bean bug model. The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a useful gut symbiosis model due to the monospecific gut symbiont, genus Burkholderia. To examine the effect of gut symbiosis to host immunity, we generated the gut symbiont-harboring (symbiotic) insect line and the gut symbiont-lacking (aposymbiotic) insect line. Upon bacterial challenges, the symbiotic Riptortus exhibited better survival than aposymbiotic Riptortus. When cellular immunity was inhibited, the symbiotic Riptortus still survived better than aposymbioic Riptortus, suggesting stronger humoral immunity. The molecular basis of the strong humoral immunity was further confirmed by the increase of hemolymph antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial peptide expression in the symbiotic insects. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that Burkhoderia gut symbiont positively affect the Riptortus systemic immunity.
Falahati, Mehraban; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Abastabar, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Farahyar, Shirin; Roudbary, Maryam; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Armaki, Mojtaba Taghizadeh; Hoseinnejad, Akbar
Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of nails which is mainly caused by dermatophyte species and less often by yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. We present a case of onychomycosis due to Aspergillus clavatus for the first time worldwide. The patient was an immunocompetent 32-year-old woman who identified with Psoriasis of the nail. The presence of A. clavatus in a nail sample was confirmed using microscopic and culture analysis followed by PCR of the β-tubulin gene. After antifungal susceptibility test, it is revealed that the isolate was resistant to the majority of common antifungal drugs, but finally the patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg daily. A. clavatus and drug-resistant A. clavatus have not previously been reported from onychomycosis.
Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Park, Ha Young; Lee, Bok Luel
Riptortus pedestris harboring Burkholderia symbiont is a useful symbiosis model to study the molecular interactions between insects and bacteria. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen is absent in the Burkholderia symbionts isolated from Riptortus guts. Here, we investigated the symbiotic role of O-antigen comprehensively in the Riptortus-Burkholderia model. Firstly, Burkholderia mutant strains deficient of O-antigen biosynthesis genes were generated and confirmed for their different patterns of the lipopolysaccharide by electrophoretic analysis. The O-antigen-deficient mutant strains initially exhibited a reduction of infectivity, having significantly lower level of symbiont population at the second-instar stage. However, both the wild-type and O-antigen mutant symbionts exhibited a similar level of symbiont population from the third-instar stage, indicating that the O-antigen deficiency did not affect the bacterial persistence in the host midgut. Taken together, we showed that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of gut symbiont plays an exclusive role in the initial symbiotic association.
Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.
Abstract The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n. PMID:23950673
Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A
The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n.
Ogundero, V W; Adebajo, L O
The factors responsible for the production and activities of polysaccharide degrading enzymes of a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus clavatus (ASC - IB 202) on an oat meal chaff (OMC) medium were studied. The enzymes assayed for were amylases, CM-cellulases, filter paper (FP)-cellulases, xylanases and dextranases. Amylase production by A. clavatus (ASC - IB 202) reached a peak within 48 h of incubation at 30 degrees C while optimal production of CM-cellulases occurred on day 6. The FP-cellulase and xylanase production did not reach a peak within the 10 day incubation period. Determination of dextranase activity showed optimal production and activity between days 6 and 8. When grown on varying sources of carbon at 30 degrees C, CM-cellulase production was only recorded on cellobiose, CM-cellulose and on the OMC medium. FP-cellulase production occurred on the microcrystalline cellulose and on the OMC medium. The other enzymes were produced to various extents on the carbon sources used. The best mycelial growth was recorded at 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. So also were the peak production of CM-cellulases and FP-cellulases. The xylanase and dextranase activity of the culture filtrate were optimally produced at 30 degrees C and pH 5.4. The potential health hazards which the presence of this toxigenic strain of Aspergillus clavatus on poultry feeds poses to farm animals including man are discussed.
Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A
Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given.
Boriová, Katarína; Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Matúš, Peter
As with many metals, bismuth can be accumulated or transformed by microorganisms. These interactions affect microbial consortia and bismuth environmental behaviour, mobility, and toxicity. Recent research focused specifically on bismuth anaerobic transformation by bacteria and archaea has inspired the evaluation of the mutual interactions between bismuth and filamentous fungi as presented in this article. The Aspergillus clavatus fungus proved resistant to adverse effects from bismuth contamination in culture medium with up to a concentration of 195 µmol L(-1) during static 15- and 30-day cultivation. The examined resistance mechanism includes biosorption to the fungal surface and biovolatilization. Pelletized fungal biomass has shown high affinity for dissolved bismuth(III). Bismuth biosorption was rapid, reaching equilibrium after 50 min with a 0.35 mmol g(-1) maximum sorption capacity as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm. A. clavatus accumulated ≤70 µmol g(-1) of bismuth after 30 days. Preceding isotherm study implications that most accumulated bismuth binds to cell wall suggests that biosorption is the main detoxification mechanism. Accumulated bismuth was also partly volatilized (≤1 µmol) or sequestrated in the cytosol or vacuoles. Concurrently, ≤1.6 µmol of bismuth remaining in solution was precipitated by fungal activity. These observations indicate that complex mutual interactions between bismuth and filamentous fungi are environmentally significant regarding bismuth mobility and transformation.
Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric
Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control.
Damásio, André R L; Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Brenelli, Lívia B; Citadini, Ana Paula; Mandelli, Fernanda; Cota, Junio; de Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Paixao, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Segato, Fernando; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; do Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Squina, Fabio M
The structural polysaccharides contained in plant cell walls have been pointed to as a promising renewable alternative to petroleum and natural gas. Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous component of plant polysaccharides, which is found in either monomeric or dimeric forms and is covalently linked to arabinosyl residues. Ferulic acid has several commercial applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The study herein introduces a novel feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus (AcFAE). Along with a comprehensive functional and biophysical characterization, the low-resolution structure of this enzyme was also determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. In addition, we described the production of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity from wheat arabinoxylan and sugarcane bagasse using AcFAE. The ability to specifically cleave ester linkages in hemicellulose is useful in several biotechnological applications, including improved accessibility to lignocellulosic enzymes for biofuel production.
Gundersen, Håkon; Thaulow, Christian; Leinaas, Hans Petter
The littoral Collembola Cryptopygus clavatus spends the summer submerged, grazing on algae under water, and the winter on dry land. The cuticles of Collembola are, in general, highly water repellent, often superhydrophobic; the cuticle of C. clavatus has, in contrast, been described as not water repellent. Wetting properties are closely tied to surface structuring, and previous studies of Collembola cuticles have used the pattern of cuticular granules to explain the superhydrophobic properties of these cuticles. The wetting properties of the cuticles of C. clavatus were measured on animals acclimated to summer and winter. A significant difference in wetting performance was observed. Animals acclimated to winter conditions showed superhydrophobic non-wetting properties. Animals acclimated to summer conditions were not superhydrophobic, water droplets readily adhered to their cuticles. This large change in wetting behavior of the cuticle could not be explained by changes in the cuticular surface structure, which were very limited. Instead, we suggest a change in the epicuticular wax layer could explain the differences.
Suzaki, Yû; Katsuki, Masako; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Yasukazu
Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male–male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male–male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male–male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection. PMID:24386170
Jang, Ho Am; Seo, Eun Sil; Seong, Min Young; Lee, Bok Luel
Riptortus pedestris, a common pest in soybean fields, harbors a symbiont Burkholderia in a specialized posterior midgut region of insects. Every generation of second nymphs acquires new Burkholderia cells from the environment. We compared in vitro cultured Burkholderia with newly in vivo colonized Burkholderia in the host midgut using biochemical approaches. The bacterial cell envelope of in vitro cultured and in vivo Burkholderia differed in structure, as in vivo bacteria lacked lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen. The LPS O-antigen deficient bacteria had a reduced colonization rate in the host midgut compared with that of the wild-type Burkholderia. To determine why LPS O-antigen-deficient bacteria are less able to colonize the host midgut, we examined in vitro survival rates of three LPS O-antigen-deficient Burkholderia mutants and lysates of five different midgut regions. The LPS O-antigen-deficient mutants were highly susceptible when cultured with the lysate of a specific first midgut region (M1), indicating that the M1 lysate contains unidentified substance(s) capable of killing LPS O-antigen-deficient mutants. We identified a 17 kDa protein from the M1 lysate, which was enriched in the active fractions. The N-terminal sequence of the protein was determined to be a soybean Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. These data suggest that the 17 kDa protein, which was originated from a main soybean source of the R. pedestris host, has antibacterial activity against the LPS O-antigen deficient (rough-type) Burkholderia.
The behavior of trace metals in terrestrial food chains is a subject of ecological interest, particularly in polluted environments where the potential exists for bioconcentration of metals known to be essential in trace amounts for normal plant and animal metabolism, as well as those with no known metabolic function but recognized toxicological properties. Laboratory studies of food chain relationships afford a means by which direct comparisons can be made between trace metals as a basis for interpretation of data collected from wild plant and animal populations. This study compares the behavior of three trace elements, copper, zinc and cadmium, in terms of their assimilation under experimental conditions by the herbivorous common field grasshopper, Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg.). This voracious orthopteran is widely distributed in Britain and is particularly prominent in the restricted invertebrate community of some metal smelter-affected grasslands where it forms important seasonal prey for insectivorous small mammals.
Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra
Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).
Zhang, Zhengrui; Wang, Xinglian; Zhang, Quanqi; Allen, Standish
Artificially induced tetraploid Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, produces more aneuploid gametes than normal diploid one, although they showed a comparable fecundity to diploidy. The meiotic chromosome configuration of 3 tetraploid and 1 tetraploid/triploid mosaic males were analyzed through direct chromosome observation. A majority of metaphase I spermatocytes contained both bivalents and quadrivalents. The chromosome configuration of these males was characterized by preferential formation of bivalents to quadrivalents. Bivalents appeared in all spermatocytes and consisted of 86% of all chromosome aggregates. In comparison, quadrivalents occurred in 91% spermatocytes and consisted of only 12.6% of all chromosome aggregates. The mean bivalent frequency per spermatocyte varied between 14.4 and 17.2; while that of quadrivalents varied between 2.2 and 2.7. Most quadrivalents were tandemly chained (58%) or circled (39%). The total number of chromosome aggregates per spermatocyte ranged from 13 to 20 with an average of 17.6; while 18 (16 bivalents and 2 quadrivalents) was the most frequent. Univalents and trivalents appeared in very low frequency. Aneuploid (hypotetraploid) spermatocytes were observed in a low frequency. The chromosome configuration of in the mosaic individual was similar to that of tetraploid individuals. The percentage of triploid spermatocytes (2%) of the mosaic individual was significantly lower (χ2 =30, P < 0.01) than that of triploid cells (46%) in its somatic tissue.
Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su
Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection.
Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:28300767
dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Woo, Tae Sun; Lee, Yong Soo; Cheong, Jae Hoon
The Artemisia group of plants has long been used as a traditional remedy for various conditions. The present study assessed the sleep-promoting (sedative-hypnotic) effects of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (A. capillaris), and elucidated a possible mechanism behind its effect. ICR mice were given A. capillaris extract (oral) at different dosages (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg), distilled water (oral; control), or diazepam (intraperitoneal; reference drug). One hour after administration, locomotion (open-field test) and motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. The extract's effect on pentobarbital-induced sleep was also evaluated. Additionally, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were measured in rats. To evaluate a possible mechanism behind its effects, changes in chloride ( Cl (-)) ion influx were measured in human neuroblastoma cells. As compared to the control group, mice treated with A. capillaris demonstrated significantly decreased locomotor activity and impaired motor balance and coordination. The extract also shortened the onset and lengthened the duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium. These effects were comparable to that induced by diazepam. Furthermore, A. capillaris-treated rats showed increased delta and decreased alpha EEG waves; an electroencephalographic pattern indicative of relaxation or sedation. In neuroblastoma cells, the extract dose-dependently increased Cl (-) ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor competitive antagonist, suggesting that its effects are mediated through the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate that A. capillaris possesses potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are probably mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex.
Gittenberger, A; Voorbergen-Laarman, M A; Engelsma, M Y
The Wadden Sea is an extensive wetland area, recognized as UNESCO world heritage site of international importance. Since the mid-1990s, the invasive Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg 1793) population in the area has grown exponentially, having a distinct impact on the ecosystem. The recent spread of the emerging oyster pathogen Ostreid herpesvirus OsHV-1 μVar worldwide and specifically in the oyster culture areas in the south of the Netherlands raised the question whether the virus may also be present in the Wadden Sea. In the summer of 2012 juvenile Pacific oysters were collected from five locations in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The virus was shown to be present in three of the five locations by real-time PCR and sequencing. It was concluded that OsHV-1 μVar has settled itself in Pacific oyster reefs in the Wadden Sea. These results and the recent discoveries of OsHV-1 microvariants in Australia and Korea indicate that OsHV-1 μVar and related variants might be more widespread than can be deduced from current literature. In particular in regions with no commercial oyster culture, similar to the Wadden Sea, the virus may go undetected as wild beds with mixed age classes hamper the detection of mortality among juvenile oysters.
Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan
There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. PMID:27528883
Liu, Yang; Wu, Haoyang; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun
Erthesina fullo (Thunberg, 1783) is an economically important heteropteran species in China. Since only three nucleotide sequences of this species (COI, 16S rRNA, and 18S rRNA) appear in the GenBank database so far, no analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying E. fullo’s resistance to insecticide and environmental stress has been accomplished. We reported a de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome for adult E. fullo using the Illumina sequence system. A total of 53,359,458 clean reads of 4.8 billion nucleotides (nt) were assembled into 27,488 unigenes with an average length of 750 bp, of which 17,743 (64.55%) were annotated. In the present study, we identified 88 putative cytochrome P450 sequences and analyzed the evolution of cytochrome P450 superfamilies, genes of the CYP3 clan related to metabolizing xenobiotics and plant natural compounds, in E. fullo, increasing the candidate genes for the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance in P450. The sequenced transcriptome greatly expands the available genomic information and could allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of insecticide resistance at the systems biology level. PMID:25955554
Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Yushkova, Olga V
New cockroach species from South India (Aptera brindlei sp.nov., Rhabdoblattella alexeevi sp.nov., R. euptera sp.nov., Morphna indica sp.nov.) and Sri Lanka (Placoblatta beybienkoi sp.nov., Morphna srilankensis sp.nov.) are described. The genus Rhabdoblattella Anisyutkin, 2000 is re-diagnosed. A revised key to the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka and detailed morphological descriptions of new species are provided. The structure of the female genital complex of Aptera fusca (Thunberg, 1784) is described for the first time. Possible biogeographical connections of the cockroach fauna of Indian subcontinent and the phylogenetic significance of the right phallomere are briefly discussed.
Jin, Feng-Liang; Qiu, Bao-Li; Wu, Jian-Hui; Ren, Shun-Xiang
The ladybird Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) is one of most important natural enemies of aphids in China. This species is threatened by the extensive use of insecticides but genomics-based information on the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance is limited. Hence, we analyzed the transcriptome and expression profile data of P. japonica in order to gain a deeper understanding of insecticide resistance in ladybirds. We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology and short reads. A total of 27,243,552 reads were generated. These were assembled into 81,458 contigs and 33,647 unigenes (6,862 clusters and 26,785 singletons). Of the unigenes, 23,965 (71.22%) have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, using BLASTX, with a cut-off E-value of 10−5. We examined COG, GO and KEGG annotations to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles between two insecticide resistant strains. When compared with an insecticide susceptible profile, a total of 4,692 genes were significantly up- or down- regulated in a moderately resistant strain. Among these genes, 125 putative insecticide resistance genes were identified. To confirm the DGE results, 16 selected genes were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study is the first to report genetic information on P. japonica and has greatly enriched the sequence data for ladybirds. The large number of gene sequences produced from the transcriptome and DGE sequencing will greatly improve our understanding of this important insect, at the molecular level, and could contribute to the in-depth research into insecticide resistance mechanisms. PMID:24959827
Lejart, Morgane; Hily, Christian
When the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) was introduced into France for aquaculture in the mid-sixties, it was initially confined to the sites where it was farmed. Subsequent global warming most likely facilitated the establishment of wild populations throughout the French coastline. This phenomenon of spread has become so great that oyster reefs have recently appeared in sheltered estuaries, on both soft and hard substrate. The present study examined two such sites in the Bay of Brest, Brittany. It is the first to investigate the impacts of this new substrate on the biocoenosis of uncolonised intertidal habitats in France. Increased species richness and abundance of intertidal macrofauna were observed in the presence of oyster reefs on both, mud (4 and 20 fold respectively) and rock (5 fold for both). The dominance of suspension feeders in mud changed to carnivores in reefs and their underlying sediment. Calculation of biotic coefficients (BC) of the soft-bottom fauna revealed only a slight organic enrichment, and the organic and silt composition in the sediment beneath oyster reefs were not significantly different from that on bare sites. On rock, the dominance of grazers remained unchanged between bare rock and oyster reef, while reef on rock was also characterised by deposit and detritic feeders. C. gigas is suspected to cause a homogenisation of coastal habitats with an impoverishment of overall quality but we detected only 11 common species between reefs on mud (60 species) and those on rock (55 species).
Guan, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Li-Hua; Chen, Li-Hua; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning
To study the in situ intestinal absorption kinetics and compatibility influence of peimine and peiminine in rats, the absorption of peimine and peiminine in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats was investigated using in situ single-pass perfusion method and the drug content was measured by HPLC-ELSD. Perfusion rate, pH, concentration of drug, gender and bile duct ligation can significantly affect the absorption of peimine and peiminine, the Ka, and Papp values in the condition of pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 had significant difference (P<0.01), as drug concentration irlcreased, the absorption parameters of peimine and peiminine decreased, Ka and Papp between low concentrations and middle concentrations was significant difference (P<0.01). Verapamil can not affect Ka and Papp of peimine and peiminine which are in the extract (P> 0.05). Bitter almonds and licorice can significantly reduce the absorption of peimine and peiminine with the usual dose (P<0.01), extracted separately and together had no significant difference on Ka and Papp (P> 0.05). Experimental results show that the absorption features of peimine and peiminine are basically the same, both of them could be absorbed at all segments of the intestine in rats and had no special absorption window, and with significant differences between male and female individuals. The absorption of peimine and peiminine complies with the active transport and facilitated diffusion in the general intestinal segments. Bitter almond and licorice can reduce the intestinal absorption rate ofpeimine and peiminine.
Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei
In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.
Zhang, Zhengrui; Wang, Xinglian; Zhang, Quanqi; Allen, Standish
Chromosome constitution was investigated in adult tetraploid Pacific oyster produced by blocking the first polar body of triploid eggs which were fertilized with haploid sperms. A high incidence of aneuploid and heteroploid mosaics were found among the offspring. Of 20 individuals identified, only 9 (45%) were eutetraploid which contained 40 chromosomes; 2 (10%) were aneuploid (hypotetraploid), which contained 39 and 38 chromosomes, respectively; and 9 (45%) were heteroploid mosaics. One mosaic was consisted of cells containing 40 and 39 chromosomes, respectiovely (1:1 in cell number), while the other 8 were consisted of cells containing chromosomes varying between tetraploid and triploid. It was also interesting to note that 3 mosaics even contained some diploid cells with 20 chromosomes. A certain number of cells of 2 tetraploids and 8 mosaics spread with 32-37 well-scattered and some clumped chromosomes at metaphase. The percentage of aneuploid cells with chromosomes varying between triploid and tetraploid correlated significantly with that of heteroploid mosaics cells with clumping chromosomes (P<0.05). Our findings suggested that reversion existed in both tetraploid and triploid oyster and chromosome clumping may underline the chromosome elimination in tetraploid oyster. It seems that the reversing cells, at least some of them, continuously eliminate their chromosomes until the most stable diploid state is established.
Collin, Hélène; Meistertzheim, Anne-Leila; David, Elise; Moraga, Dario; Boutet, Isabelle
Pesticide run-off into the ocean represents a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves living in coastal environments. However, little is known about the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides at the individual level. In this study, the suppression subtractive hybridisation technique was used to discover the main physiological function affected by a cocktail of three pesticides (lindane, metolachlor and carbofuran) in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Two oyster populations exposed to different pollution levels in the wild were investigated. The pesticide concentrations used to induce stress were close to those found in the wild. In a time course experiment, the expression of three genes implicated in iron metabolism and oxidative stress as well as that of two ubiquitous stress proteins was examined. No clear regulation of gene or protein expression was found, potentially due to a low-dose effect. However, we detected a strong site- and organ-specific response to the pesticides. This study thus (1) provides insight into bivalve responses to pesticide pollution at the level of the transcriptome, which is the first level of response for organisms facing pollution, and (2) raises interesting questions concerning the importance of the sites and organs studied in the toxicogenomic field.
Gagnaire, B; Thomas-Guyon, H; Burgeot, Th; Renault, T
The shellfish industry is an important economic activity in France, occurring mostly in estuarine zones subject to pollution due to anthropogenic activities. The harmful effects of pollutants on species inhabiting these estuarine zones are not well known. Among marine species, bivalve mollusks--particularly Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas--may serve a model of interest. The species is sedentary and filter-feeding, which favors bioaccumulation of pollutants in their tissues. Oysters may be suitable for studies on disturbance by pollutants of physiological activities, among which defense mechanisms are poorly documented in bivalves. In this study, effects of pollutants on hemocyte functions were monitored in Pacific oyster, C. gigas. Hemocytes were exposed in vitro to selected pollutants. The strategy for investigating the effects of pollutants on hemocyte functions is based on several biomarkers, which is more relevant than that of published papers based on single-endpoint experiments. Pollutants belonging to the most important groups of xenobiotics (PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides) were selected and their effect on hemocyte activities was analyzed using flow cytometry. Twenty-three pollutants were tested and eight of them showed significant modulation of hemocyte activities. PAHs and PCB 77 induced a decrease of hemocyte activity after an incubation periods of 4 and 24 h at 200 micro mol/L. Three pesticides (2,4D, paraoxon, and chlorothalonil) modulated hemocyte activities. A mixture of eight pesticides also decreased phagocytotic activity. This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of so many pollutants on hemocyte functions at the same time and therefore allows a real comparison of different pollutant effects.
Iglesias, David; Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Luis; Azevedo, Carlos; Montes, Jaime
In Galicia, there is an increasingly interest among representatives of the oyster industry in the development of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas culture. Nevertheless severe mortalities and emerging health problems in this species have been recently reported in European farming areas. A histological survey was performed from 2004 to 2009 to assess health status in both cultured and wild Galician oysters. Different symbiotic organisms and conditions were detected, including viral gametocytic hypertrophy (VGH) which is reported here for first time in Spanish coast. VGH, prokaryote-like colonies and ciliates were observed in oyster tissues without causing host damage. A haplosporidian infection, copepods inducing lesions and a cellular proliferative disorder were detected in some samples causing moderate host damage; their low prevalence suggests these parasites are not a threat for C. gigas in Galicia. None of the parasites detected is OIE (Office International des Epizooties: the World Organization for Animal Health) notifiable. Although the current study did not identify any pathogens or diseases of concern, it provides important prevalence baseline data for future health and epidemiological assessments needed to better understanding the existing and emerging health problems in this species.
Bagusche, F.; Pouvreau, S.; Trueman, C.; Long, S.; Hauton, C.
The published evidence of impacts of ocean acidification and on marine calcifiers has emphasized the need to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomineralisation. Crassostrea gigas is an ideal organism to examine these processes as: 1) the hatchery rearing of larval stages is well constrained, 2) studies have established an ontogenetic switch in deposition of carbonate polymorphs from aragonite in larval shells to calcite in adults and 3) it is a globally-important commercial species. Research summarized in this presentation will identify some of the molecular mechanisms involved in calcification processes during ontogeny of Crassostrea gigas, as well as possible impacts of changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and pH. Data will be presented from a quantitative real-time PCR study of the changes in gene expression during development in different environments. Additionally scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses of shell microstructures and composition will be summarised to correlate changes in gene expression with end-point differences in shell structure. Preliminary results suggest that changes in the environmental conditions lead to differences in expression patterns of genes involved in biomineralisation processes. The combined effects of ambient seawater temperature and low pH show the greatest negative effect on larval shell development, identified as malformations, eroded shell surfaces and a significant decrease in shell size. However, the effect of higher seawater temperature seems to amend the effects of ocean acidification on larval shell development.
Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng
Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499
Carvalho, D.B.; Rocha, M.F.; Loreto, V.; Silva, A.E.B.; Souza, M.J.
Abstract Chromosomes of Ommexecha virens and Descampsacris serrulatum (Ommexechidae) were analyzed through conventional staining, C-banding, base specific fluorochromes, silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO3), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probe for 45S rDNA. The two species presented diploid number 2n= 23,X0 in males and acrocentric autosomes, except the pair one that presented submetacentric morphology. The X chromosome has distinct morphology in the two analyzed species, being a medium acrocentric in Ommexecha virens and large submetacentric in Descampsacris serrulatum. The C-banding revealed pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) in all the chromosomes of Descampsacris serrulatum. For Ommexecha virens it was evidenced that the blocks of CH are preferentially located in the pericentromeric area (however some bivalents presents additional blocks) or in different positions. The staining with CMA3/DA/DAPI showed GC rich CH blocks (CMA3+) in some chromosomes of the two species. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located in the bivalents L2, S9, S10 of Ommexecha virens and M5, M6, M7, S11 of Descampsacris serrulatum. The FISH for rDNA showed coincident results with the pattern of active NORs revealed by AgNO3. This work presents the first chromosomal data, obtained through differential cytogenetics techniques in Ommexechidae, contributing to a better characterization of karyotypic evolution for this grasshopper family. PMID:24260624
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Gay, Melanie; Huvet, Arnaud; Daniel, Jean-Yves; Saulnier, Denis; Renault, Tristan
To assess the impact of pollution induced by pesticides on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, health in France, in vivo effects of combined pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge on cell activities and gene expression in hemocytes were tested using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. As a first step, an in vivo model of experimental contamination was developed. Pacific oysters were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, alachlor, metolachlor, fosetyl-alumimium, terbuthylazine, diuron and carbaryl) at environmentally relevant concentrations over a 7-day period. Hemocyte parameters (cell mortality, enzyme activities and phagocytosis) were monitored using flow cytometry and gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The expression of 19 genes involved in C. gigas hemocyte functions was characterized using RT-PCR. After 7 days of exposure, phagocytosis was significantly reduced and the 19 selected genes were down-regulated in treated animals. As a second step, the experimental contamination method previously developed was used to study interactions between pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge by intramuscular injection of two Vibrio splendidus-related pathogenic strains. Oyster mortality and expression of 10 of the 19 selected genes were followed 4 and 24h post-injection. Oyster mortality was higher in pesticide-treated oysters compared to untreated oysters after the bacterial challenge. Gene expression was up-regulated in pesticide-treated oysters compared to untreated oysters after the bacterial challenge. We hypothesize that gene over-expression due to an interaction between pesticides and bacteria could lead to an injury of host tissues, resulting in higher mortality rates. In conclusion, this study is the first to show effects of pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations on C. gigas hemocytes and to hypothesize that pesticides modulate the immune response to a bacterial challenge in oysters.
Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa
As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127
McGoldrick, D. J.; Hedgecock, D.
The effect that inbreeding has on the fixation and segregation of genes has rarely been confirmed by direct observation. Here, fixation, segregation, and linkage of allozymes is investigated in the progeny of self-fertilized hermaphrodites of the normally outcrossing Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estimate of fixation pooled over loci, individuals, and families, F = 0.462, is significantly lower than the expected value of 0.5. Log-likelihood ratios reveal significant heterogeneity in fixation among individuals, among families, and among loci. In addition, the grand pooled segregation ratio, 127:243:54, deviates significantly from 1:2:1, with a bias against homozygotes for alleles of lesser frequency in the natural population. Segregation ratios for 11 of 14 loci are significantly heterogeneous among families, and exact tests for segregation within families reveal 16 significant results out of 51 tests. Thus, fixation and segregation of allozyme markers in inbred oyster families deviates from the expectations of neutral inbreeding theory. Di-genic disequilibria are significant for four of 74 di-locus pairs revealing two linkage groups. Strong viability selection is apparently conditional on the genotype of the hermaphrodite-founders and is largely focused on these two linkage groups. These genetic effects are explained by interaction between cis-linked factors and polymorphic regulatory backgrounds. PMID:9136021
The effects of elutriates from PAH and heavy metal polluted sediments on Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) embryogenesis, larval growth and bio-accumulation by the larvae of pollutants from sedimentary origin.
Geffard, Olivier; Budzinski, Hélène; His, Edouard
The release, bio-availability and toxicity of contaminants, when sediments are resuspended have been examined, studying concurrently their effects on the embryogenesis and on the larval growth of the Crassostrea gigas larvae and their bio-accumulation in those organisms. Three characteristic sediments have been selected (one contaminated by PAHs, a second by heavy metals and the last by the both pollutants). The organisms were directly exposed to elutriates obtained from each sediment or fed on algae (Isochrysis galbana) contaminated with the same elutriates. The elutriates used in this study show contamination levels similar to those observed in some polluted coastal and estuary environments. The larval growth test has appeared to be more sensitive that the embryotoxicity test. The biological effects and the contaminant bio-accumulation were more pronounced when larvae were directly exposed to different elutriates. In the case of PAHs, the contamination of algae was sufficient to lead to effect on the larval growth of the Crassostrea gigas. In all cases, a fraction of contaminants adsorbed on suspended particles was bio-available and accumulated by the larvae. This study has shown that resuspending polluted sediments constitutes a threat to pelagic organisms and than the C. gigas larval growth may be proposed as a test to protect the most sensitive areas.
Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel
The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716
Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil
This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.
We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...
The genetic diversity among H. macrophylla (Thunberg) Seringe taxa is limited due to the restricted native distribution and multiple breeding programs that utilized the same taxa and targeted similar breeding goals. This study assessed the compatibility of interspecific crosses between Hydrangea ma...
Calvo, A; Guarro, J; Suarez, G; Ramirez, C
During a survey on the presence of species of the genus Aspergillus in the air of the city of Barcelona (Spain), the following species were identified: Aspergillus flavus Link, A. niger van Tieghem, A. fumigatus Fresenius, A. clavatus Desmazières, A. terreus Thom, A. chevalieri (Mang.) Thom et Church, A. niveus Bloch, emend. Thom et Church, A. ochraceus Wilhelm, A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi, and A. amstelodami (Mang.) Church et Thom.
Wiedner, Susan D.; Ansong, Charles; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Fortuin, Suereta; Hofstad, Beth A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.
Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary pathogen causing the devastating pulmonary disease Invasive Aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Genomic analysis shows high synteny between A. fumigatus and closely related rarely pathogenic Neosartorya fischeri and Aspergillus clavatus genomes. To investigate the presence of unique or highly inducible protein reactivity in the pathogen, we applied activity-based protein profiling to compare protein reactivity of all three fungi over time in minimal media growth and in response to human serum. We found 350 probe-reactive proteins exclusive to A. fumigatus, including known virulence associated proteins, and 13 proteins associated with stress response exclusive to A. fumigatus culture in serum. Though the fungi are highly orthologous, A. fumigatus has significantly more activity across varied biological process. Only 50% of expected orthologs of measured A. fumigatus reactive proteins were observed in N. fischeri and A. clavatus. Human serum induced processes uniquely or significantly represented in A. fumigatus include actin organization and assembly, transport, and fatty acid, cell membrane, and cell wall synthesis. Additionally, signaling proteins regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, and cell wall integrity, required for appropriate cellular response to external stimuli, had higher reactivity over time in A. fumigatus and N. fisheri, but not in A. clavatus. Together, we show that measured proteins and physiological processes identified solely or significantly over-represented in A. fumigatus reveal a unique adaptive response to human protein not found in closely related, but rarely aspergilli. These unique protein reactivity responses may reveal how A. fumigatus initiates pulmonary invasion leading to Invasive Aspergillosis.
Wu, Jialun; Zou, Yaohua; Zhan, Xiuping; Chen, Shifei; Lu, Guangzhao; Lai, Fugen
A two-year survey on the residues of heavy metals in four Chinese crude drugs and their cultivated soils was conducted. Targeted heavy metals were copper (Cu), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and cadmium (Cd). Herbs surveyed include White Peony Root (Radix Paeoniae Alba), Turmeric Root Tuber (Radix Curcumae), Thunberg Fritillary Bulb (Bulbus Fritillariae Thumbergii), and Tuber of Dwarf Lilyturf (Radix Ophiopogonis). Concentrations of all heavy metals were under the permitted levels except cadmium, which exceeded the permitted level in some samples of Thunberg Fritillary Bulb, White Peony Root, and Turmeric Root Tuber. Concentration coefficients were less than 1.0 for all heavy metals except cadmium. The concentration coefficient of cadmium in Turmeric Root Tuber was 14.0. Lower pH and high Zn concentration in the soil may facilitate the transfer of cadmium from cultivated soil into the herbs.
Feng, Hua; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong; Liu, Chenxi
Two new genera and species
Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Won, Yeo Jin; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Han, Sang Heum; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Rhee, Young Ha; Park, Ha Young; Kwon, Jeong Yun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Dohmae, Naoshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel
Many bacteria accumulate granules of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) within their cells, which confer resistance to nutritional depletion and other environmental stresses. Here, we report an unexpected involvement of the bacterial endocellular storage polymer, PHA, in an insect-bacterium symbiotic association. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a beneficial and specific gut symbiont of the β-proteobacterial genus Burkholderia, which is orally acquired by host nymphs from the environment every generation and easily cultivable and genetically manipulatable. Biochemical and cytological comparisons between symbiotic and cultured Burkholderia detected more PHA granules consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and associated phasin (PhaP) protein in the symbiotic Burkholderia. Among major PHA synthesis genes, phaB and phaC were disrupted by homologous recombination together with the phaP gene, whereby ΔphaB, ΔphaC, and ΔphaP mutants were generated. Both in culture and in symbiosis, accumulation of PHA granules was strongly suppressed in ΔphaB and ΔphaC, but only moderately in ΔphaP. In symbiosis, the host insects infected with ΔphaB and ΔphaC exhibited significantly lower symbiont densities and smaller body sizes. These deficient phenotypes associated with ΔphaB and ΔphaC were restored by complementation of the mutants with plasmids encoding a functional phaB/phaC gene. Retention analysis of the plasmids revealed positive selection acting on the functional phaB/phaC in symbiosis. These results indicate that the PHA synthesis genes of the Burkholderia symbiont are required for normal symbiotic association with the Riptortus host. In vitro culturing analyses confirmed vulnerability of the PHA gene mutants to environmental stresses, suggesting that PHA may play a role in resisting stress under symbiotic conditions.
Hausmann, Axel; Sciarretta, Andrea; Parisi, Francesco
In this paper we present a checklist and integrative revision for the genus Prasinocyma (Geometridae, Geometrinae, Hemistolini). With this contribution the checklist for the genus Prasinocyma in Ethiopia increases from eight to 40 species. Nineteen species and five subspecies are described as new for the science: Prasinocyma pedicata aethiopica subsp. n., Prasinocyma angolica pseudopedicata subsp. n., Prasinocyma bongaensis sp. n., Prasinocyma getachewi sp. n., Prasinocyma baumgaertneri sp. n., Prasinocyma robusta sp. n., Prasinocyma shoa yabellensis subsp. n., Prasinocyma amharensis sp. n., Prasinocyma magica sp. n., Prasinocyma batesi distans subsp. n., Prasinocyma monikae sp. n., Prasinocyma fusca sp. n., Prasinocyma leveneorum sp. n., Prasinocyma aquamarina sp. n., Prasinocyma beryllaria sp. n., Prasinocyma lutulenta sp. n., Prasinocyma septentrionalis sp. n., Prasinocyma fallax sp. n., Prasinocyma trematerrai sp. n., Prasinocyma trematerrai simienensis subsp. n., Prasinocyma angulifera sp. n., Prasinocyma stefani sp. n., Prasinocyma gemmifera sp. n., Prasinocyma discipuncta sp. n. Prasinocyma thiaucourti Herbulot, 1993 is downgraded from species rank to subspecies of P. immaculata (Thunberg, 1784) (stat. n.). Prasinocyma unipuncta Warren, 1897 is downgraded from species rank to synonymy of P. immaculata (Thunberg, 1784) (syn. n.). Prasinocyma nereis Townsend, 1952 (comb.n.) is transferred from genus Eretmopus to Prasinocyma. Thalassodes camerunalta Herbulot, 1986 (comb.n.) is transferred from genus Thalassodes to Prasinocyma. Thalassodini (syn.n.) are downgraded to synonymy of Hemistolini, here.
Maldonado, María Cristina; Santa Runco, Rosa; Navarro, Antonio Roberto
Numerous species of filamentous fungi were isolated from lemon on different plantations in the province of Tucuman, Argentina. The techniques suggested by the Subcommittee of Antifungal Susceptibility of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, (USA) were adapted. The effect of three different concentrations of the fungicides imazalil, guazatine, SOPP and thiabendazole on the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus clavatus, Geotrichum candidum, Rhizopus sp, Penicillium sp, Penicillium digitatum and Mucor sp were studied. All the tested strains were resistant to thiabendazole. We assayed a mixture of SOPP (5%), guazatine (350 ppm) and imazalil (100 ppm), which showed a synergic effect on Rhizopus sp. Mucor sp was the only fungus resistant to the four fungicides tested as well as to the above mentioned mixture.
Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224
Mayzel, Boaz; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ilan, Micha
Trace elements are vital for the growth and development of all organisms. Little is known about the elemental content and trace metal biology of Red Sea demosponges. This study establishes an initial database of sponge elemental content. It provides the necessary foundation for further research of the mechanisms used by sponges to regulate the uptake, accumulation, and storage of metals. The metal content of 16 common sponge species was determined using ICP measurements. A combination of statistical methods was used to determine the correlations between the metals and detect species with significantly high or low concentrations of these metals. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to compare sponge metal content to local sediment. Theonella swinhoei contained an extremely high concentration of arsenic and barium, much higher (at least 200 times) than all other species and local sediment. Hyrtios erecta had significantly higher concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ti and V than all other species. This is due to sediment accumulation and inclusion in the skeleton fibers of this sponge species. Suberites clavatus was found to contain significantly higher concentration of Cd, Co, Ni and Zn than all other species and local sediment, indicating active accumulation of these metals. It also has the second highest Fe concentration, but without the comparably high concentrations of Al, Mn and Ti that are evident in H. erecta and in local sediment. These differences indicate active uptake and accumulation of Fe in S. clavatus, this was also noted in Niphates rowi. A significantly higher B concentration was found in Crella cyatophora compared to all other species. These results indicate specific roles of trace elements in certain sponge species that deserve further analysis. They also serve as a baseline to monitor the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on Eilat's coral reefs. PMID:24759635
Shin, Chulwoo; Chaboo, Caroline S.
Abstract Stoiba Spaeth, 1909 is revised with a phylogenetic analysis of 38 adult morphological characters for nine Stoiba species and 11 outgroup species (Mesomphaliini, Ischyrosonychini, and Hemisphaerotini). Four Cuban species of Stoiba were not sampled. Parsimony analysis located the four most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus (CI=0.59, RI=0.78, Steps=83) resolved the monophyly of Stoiba. The monophyly of Stoiba is supported by pale yellow antennae, antennomere VII broader than its length, and rounded basal line of pronotum. An illustrated key to ten species of Stoiba is provided along with a distribution map of 11 species. Stoiba rufa Blake is synonymized with Stoiba swartzii (Thunberg) by a morphological comparison which includes female genitalia. PMID:23129988
Webster, Reginald P.; LeSage, Laurent; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman), Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus), Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire), Neohaemonia nigricornis (Kirby), Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say), Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer), Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius), Psylliodes affinis (Paykull), Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), Ophraella communa (LeSage), Ophraella cribrata (LeConte), Ophraella notata (Fabricius), Systena hudsonias (Forster), Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown), and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539900
Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou
Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.
Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.
Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866
Searle, Emily L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Five monorchiid species are reported from Diagramma labiosum Macleay (Perciformes: Haemulidae) collected from Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR): two described species, Helicometroides longicollis Yamaguti, 1934 and Diplomonorchis kureh Machida, 2005 and three new species, including one new genus, Asymmetrostoma heronensis n. g., n. sp., Lasiotocus arrhichostoma n. sp. and Proctotrema addisoni n. sp. Helicometroides longicollis and D. kureh were previously reported from the closely related species Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) from Japan. Two further monorchiid species known from D. pictum, Genolopa plectorhynchi (Yamaguti, 1934) and Paraproctotrema fusiforme Yamaguti, 1934, appear to be absent from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Previous reports of two other monorchiids from D. labiosum from the GBR, Paramonorcheides pseudocaranxi Dove & Cribb, 1998 and Helicometroides vitellosus (Durio & Manter, 1968), are shown to have been made in error. The high richness of monorchiids and other trematode families in D. labiosum is consistent with that seen in other haemulids elsewhere.
Tabuchi, Ken; Taki, Hisatomo; Iwai, Hideki; Mizutani, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Koukichi; Moriya, Seiichi; Sasaki, Rikiya
To determine differences in distribution patterns between the soybean pest Riptortus pedestris F. (Hemiptera: Alydidae) and its egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in source and cultivated habitats, we compared their abundances in soybean fields and forest edges, which were assumed to be the overwintering sites of R. pedestris. We set synthetic attractant-baited traps for both species over 2 yr in mid-August, just before R. pedestris normally colonizes soybeans. During one of the 2 yr, we also examined the rate of parasitism using an egg trap. The numbers of both R. pedestris and O. nezarae trapped at forest edges were higher than the numbers caught in soybean fields, suggesting that forest edges are important source habitats. Compared with R. pedestris, the abundance of O. nezarae in soybean fields was considerably lower than in forest edges, presumably because of differences in their dispersal abilities and their responses to landscape structure and resource distribution. Better pest control service by O. nezarae was provided at forest edges than in soybean fields. Therefore, when using pest control by O. nezarae in soybean fields, spatial arrangement and distance from the forest edge should be considered.
Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema
The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations. PMID:23691247
Kim, Sihyeon; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Yu, Jeong Seon; Lee, Mi Rong; Yang, Yi-Ting; Kim, Jae Su
The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a major agricultural pest that reduces crop quality and value. Chemical pesticides have contributed to pest management, but resistance to these chemicals has significantly limited their use. Alternative strategies with different modes of action, such as entomopathogenic fungi, are therefore of great interest. Herein, we explored how entomopathogenic fungi can potentially be used to control the bean bug and focused on identifying virulence-related genes. Beauveria bassiana (JEF isolates) were assayed against bean bugs under laboratory conditions. One isolate, JEF-007, showed >80 % virulence by both spray and contact exposure methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) of JEF-007 generated 249 random transformants, two of which (B1-06 and C1-49) showed significantly reduced virulence against Tenebrio molitor and R. pedestris immatures. Both species were used for rapid screening of virulence-reduced mutants. The two transformants had different morphologies, conidial production, and thermotolerance than the wild type. To determine the localization of the randomly inserted T-DNA, thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR was conducted and analysis of the two clones found multiple T-DNA insertions (two in B1-06 and three in C1-49). Genes encoding complex I intermediate-associated protein 30 (CIA30) and the autophagy protein (Atg22) were possibly disrupted by the T-DNA insertion and might be involved in the virulence. This work provides a strong platform for future functional genetic studies of bean bug-pathogenic B. bassiana. The genes putatively involved in fungal virulence should be experimentally validated by knockdown in future studies.
Tago, Kanako; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nakaoka, Sinji; Katsuyama, Chie; Hayatsu, Masahito
Some soil Burkholderia strains are capable of degrading the organophosphorus insecticide, fenitrothion, and establish symbiosis with stinkbugs, making the host insects fenitrothion-resistant. However, the ecology of the symbiotic degrading Burkholderia adapting to fenitrothion in the free-living environment is unknown. We hypothesized that fenitrothion applications affect the dynamics of fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia, thereby controlling the transmission of symbiotic degrading Burkholderia from the soil to stinkbugs. We investigated changes in the density and diversity of culturable Burkholderia (i.e. symbiotic and nonsymbiotic fenitrothion degraders and nondegraders) in fenitrothion-treated soil using microcosms. During the incubation with five applications of pesticide, the density of the degraders increased from less than the detection limit to around 10(6)/g of soil. The number of dominant species among the degraders declined with the increasing density of degraders; eventually, one species predominated. This process can be explained according to the competitive exclusion principle using V(max) and K(m) values for fenitrothion metabolism by the degraders. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of representative strains isolated from the microcosms and evaluated their ability to establish symbiosis with the stinkbug Riptortus pedestris. The strains that established symbiosis with R. pedestris were assigned to a cluster including symbionts commonly isolated from stinkbugs. The strains outside the cluster could not necessarily associate with the host. The degraders in the cluster predominated during the initial phase of degrader dynamics in the soil. Therefore, only a few applications of fenitrothion could allow symbiotic degraders to associate with their hosts and may cause the emergence of symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance.
Lee, Jun Beom; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Lee, Seung Ah; Jang, Seong Han; Eo, Ho Jeong; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Chan-Hee; Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Matsuura, Yu; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Futahashi, Ryo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel
Recent studies have suggested that gut symbionts modulate insect development and reproduction. However, the mechanisms by which gut symbionts modulate host physiologies and the molecules involved in these changes are unclear. To address these questions, we prepared three different groups of the insect Riptortus pedestris: Burkholderia gut symbiont-colonized (Sym) insects, Burkholderia-non-colonized (Apo) insects, and Burkholderia-depleted (Sym(Burk-)) insects, which were fed tetracycline. When the hemolymph proteins of three insects were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the hexamerin-α, hexamerin-β and vitellogenin-1 proteins of Sym-adults were highly expressed compared to those of Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects. To investigate the expression patterns of these three genes during insect development, we measured the transcriptional levels of these genes. The hexamerin-β gene was specifically expressed at all nymphal stages, and its expression was detected 4-5 days earlier in Sym-insect nymphs than that in Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects. However, the hexamerin-α and vitellogenin-1 genes were only expressed in adult females, and they were also detected 6-7 days earlier and were 2-fold higher in Sym-adult females than those in the other insects. Depletion of hexamerin-β by RNA interference in 2nd instar Sym-nymphs delayed adult emergence, whereas hexamerin-α and vitellogenin-1 RNA interference in 5th instar nymphs caused loss of color of the eggs of Sym-insects. These results demonstrate that the Burkholderia gut symbiont modulates host development and egg production by regulating production of these three hemolymph storage proteins.
Lelou, B; Van Damme, P
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants.
Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo
Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host–symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ’s ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host’s control and symbiont’s motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935
Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klautau, Michelle
Sponges of the genus Leucascus are frequently recognised as possessing anastomosed tubes with choanocytes, and cortical and atrial membranes with pinacocytes. In the last years, five species of other genera were transferred to Leucascus, and several other species were suggested but not formally included in this genus. In the present work, all these species accepted or suggested as Leucascus were revised. According to our results, Leucascus is now composed of nine species: L. clavatus, L. leptoraphis comb. nov., L. lobatus, L. neocaledonicus, L. protogenes comb. nov., L. roseus, L. simplex (type species), L. albus sp. nov., and L.flavus sp. nov. The presence of spines in the apical actine of the tetractines had never been observed in Leucascus, but it was found in all species with tetractines in their skeletons. Some species were transferred from Leucascus to the genus Ascoleucetta, which is revalidated here based on important differences in the cortex. Modifications are also proposed in the definition of both genera. Based on our results, the family Leucascidae is now composed of Ascaltis, Leucascus and Ascoleucetta.
Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Sadatsharifi, Arman; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali
Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.
Bamford, Natalie C; Snarr, Brendan D; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Little, Dustin J; Lee, Mark J; Zacharias, Caitlin A; Chabot, Josée C; Geller, Alexander M; Baptista, Stefanie D; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135.
Bamford, Natalie C.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Little, Dustin J.; Lee, Mark J.; Zacharias, Caitlin A.; Chabot, Josée C.; Geller, Alexander M.; Baptista, Stefanie D.; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P. Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C.
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135. PMID:26342082
Biaggio, Rafael Tage; Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues da; Rosa, Nathalia Gonsales da; Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Cabral, Tatiana Pereira de Freitas; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Cabral, Hamilton
Peptidases are important because they play a central role in pharmaceutical, food, environmental, and other industrial processes. A serine peptidase from Aspergillus terreus was isolated after two chromatography steps that showed a yield of 15.5%. Its molecular mass was determined to be 43 kD, by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This peptidase was active between pH 5.0 to 8.0 and had maximum activity at pH 7.0, at 45°C. When exposited with 1 M of urea, the enzyme maintained 100% activity and used azocasein as substrate. The N-terminal (first 15 residues) showed 33% identity with the serine peptidase of Aspergillus clavatus ES1. The kinetics assays showed that subsite S2 did not bind polar basic amino acids (His and Arg) nonpolar acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). The subsite S1 showed higher catalytic efficiency than the S2 and S3 subsites.
Gibson, Gary A P
The presence and distribution of two species of Notanisus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in North America is reported. Notanisus sexramosus (Erdős), originally described from Hungary and previously reported from Maryland, USA, is recorded also from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania based on a male and macropterous and brachypterous females. Males of Notanisus are shown to have two types of flagellar structure, ramose and pedicellate, and diagnostic features are given for the previously unknown males of N. clavatus Bouček to differentiate these from those of N. sexramosus and N. versicolor Walker. Five other species are newly described, Notanisus kansensis n. sp. based on a female from Nebraska, USA, and four species from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula--Notanisus brevipetiolus n. sp. based on two females from Uganda and Zambia, Notanisus longipetiolus n. sp. based on a female from Zimbabwe and a female and two males from Mozambique, Notanisus vanharteni n. sp. based on a female and several males from United Arab Emirates, and Notanisus yemenensis n. sp. based on a female and male from Yemen. The latter five species are included with the Palaearctic species N. oulmesiensis (Delucchi) and N. gracilis (Yang) in the oulmesiensis species group, defined by the presence of reduced stigmal and postmarginal veins in both sexes. The seven oulmesiensis-group species are differentiated in a key and all treated species are illustrated through macrophotography. Monophyly and relationships of Notanisus within Cleonymini are discussed, including features that indicate it could be paraphyletic relative to Callocleonymus Masi.
Fisher, Danielle M.; Schnepp, Kyle E.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.
Abstract Background The Ozark Mountains are a region with high endemism and biodiversity, yet few invertebrate inventories have been made and few sites extensively studied. We surveyed a site near Steel Creek Campground, along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction for eight and half months. New information We provide collection records of beetle species belonging to eight families collected at the site. Thirty one species represent new state records: (Buprestidae) Actenodes acornis, Agrilus cephalicus, Agrilus ohioensis, Agrilus paracelti, Taphrocerus nicolayi; (Carabidae) Agonum punctiforme, Synuchus impunctatus; (Curculionidae) Acalles clavatus, Acalles minutissimus, Acoptus suturalis, Anthonomus juniperinus, Anametis granulata, Idiostethus subcalvus, Eudociminus mannerheimii, Madarellus undulatus, Magdalis armicollis, Magdalis barbita, Mecinus pascuorum, Myrmex chevrolatii, Myrmex myrmex, Nicentrus lecontei, Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus, Piazorhinus pictus, Phyllotrox ferrugineus, Plocamus hispidulus, Pseudobaris nigrina, Pseudopentarthrum simplex, Rhinoncus pericarpius, Sitona lineatus, Stenoscelis brevis, Tomolips quericola. Additionally, three endemic carabids, two of which are known only from the type series, were collected. PMID:26752967
Fang, Weiguo; St Leger, Raymond J
Little is known about how fungi adapt to chilling. In eubacteria, cold shock proteins (CSPs) facilitate translation by destabilizing RNA secondary structure. Animals and plants have homologous cold shock domains within proteins, and additional glycine-rich RNA binding proteins (GRPs), but their role in stress resistance is poorly understood. In this study, we identified GRP homologues in diverse fungi. However, only Aspergillus clavatus and Metarhizium anisopliae possessed cold shock domains. Both M. anisopliae's small eubacteria-like CSP (CRP1) and its GRP (CRP2) homologue were induced by cold. Disrupting either Crp1 or Crp2 greatly reduced metabolism and conidial germination rates at low temperatures, and decreased tolerance to freezing. However, while both Crp1 and Crp2 reduced freezing-induced production of reactive oxygen species, only Crp1 protected cells against H(2)O(2) and increased M. anisopliae's virulence to caterpillars. Unlike CRP2, CRP1 rescued the cold-sensitive growth defects of an Escherichia coli CSP deletion mutant, and CRP1 also demonstrated transcription anti-termination activity, so CRP1 can regulate transcription and translation at low temperature. Expressing either Crp1 or Crp2 in yeast increased metabolism at cold temperatures and Crp1 improved tolerance to freezing. Thus besides providing a model relevant to many biological systems, Crp1 and Crp2 have potential applications in biotechnology.
El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha
Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions.
Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Bayoumi, Hoda A.; Ammar, Yousry A.; Aldhlmani, Sharah A.
Chromium(III), Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of 4-[4-hydroxy-3-(phenyliminomethyl)-phenylazo]benzenesulfonamide, were prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance and thermal analysis. Square planar, tetrahedral and octahedral geometries have been assigned to the prepared complexes. Dimeric complexes are obtained with 2:2 molar ratio except chromium(III) complex is monomeric which is obtained with 1:1 molar ratios. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes were suggested that the Schiff base ligand(HL) behaves as a bi-dentate ligand through the azomethine nitrogen atom and phenolic oxygen atom. The crystal field splitting, Racah repulsion and nepheloauxetic parameters and determined from the electronic spectra of the complexes. Thermal studies suggest a mechanism for degradation of HL and its metal complexes as function of temperature supporting the chelation modes. Also, the activation thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔE*, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* for the different thermal decomposition steps of HL and its metal complexes were calculated. The pathogenic activities of the synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against the sensitive organisms Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB010027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (RCMB010024) as Gram positive bacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia (RCMB 010093), Shigella flexneri (RCMB 0100542), as Gram negative bacteria and Aspergillus fumigates (RCMB 02564), Aspergillus clavatus (RCMB 02593) and Candida albicans (RCMB05035) as fungus strain, and the results are discussed.
Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali
Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264
Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia
In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses.
Glasby, Christopher J; Hutchings, Pat
The large polychaete genus Polycirrus (Terebellida: Polycirridae) is revised based on a morphological study of the type material of most of the approximately 74 nominal species; 59 species, including a new species, P. coibensis n.sp., from the Pacific coast of Panama, are accepted as valid. All characters are reanalysed and discussed in the light of recent phylogenetic studies of terebellomorph taxa, and a standard set of characters is developed. Most of the 59 accepted species are redescribed and illustrations provided in order to facilitate future identifications of members of the genus. We designate a neotype for the type species of the genus, Polycirrus medusa Grube, 1850, and a lectotype for P. elisabethae McIntosh, 1915, in order to stabilize the concept and type locality of these taxa. A replacement name is proposed for Polycirrus kerguelensis McIntosh, 1885, which is a secondary junior homonym of Ereutho kergulenesis McIntosh, 1885, viz. Polycirrus macintoshi new name. Two species are newly synonymised: Polycirrus insignis Gravier, 1907 (senior synonym P. antarcticus (Willey, 1902)) and Polycirrus habitats Carrerette & Nogueira, 2013 (senior synonym, P. clavatus (Kinberg, 1867)). In addition, several previously synonymised species are reinstated. All available names in the genus are tabulated with type species and type localities and their taxonomic status is assessed. A key to all valid species is provided.
Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.
Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andrés G.; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.
All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm’s cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans. PMID:24843133
Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract We report 20 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna in New Brunswick, Canada, five of which are new records for the Maritime provinces, including one species that is new for Canada. One species of Kateretidae, Kateretes pusillus (Thunberg) is newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Stelidota octomaculata (Say), Phenolia grossa (Fabricius), andCryptarcha strigatula Parsons of the family Nitidulidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick; the latter species is new to the Maritime provinces. Two species of Cerylonidae, Philothermus glabriculus LeConte and Cerylon unicolor (Ziegler), are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Philothermus glabriculus is new for the Maritime provinces. Two species of Endomychidae, Hadromychus chandleri Bousquet and Leschen and Danae testacea (Ziegler) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Three species of Coccinelidae, Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte), Naemia seriata seriata Melsheimer, and Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) are added to the provincial list. Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) is a species new to the Maritime provinces. Nine species of Latridiidae, Cartodere nodifer (Westwood), Dienerella ruficollis (Marsham), Enicmus aterrimus Motschulsky, Enicmus fictus Fall, Encimus histrio Jay and Tomlin, Lathridius minutus (Linnaeus), Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer, Corticaria elongata (Gyllenhal), and Corticarina longipennis (LeConte) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Stephostehus productus is newly recorded from Canada. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species. PMID:22539894
Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens Kristian; Dolmer, Per; Vismann, Bent; Hansen, Benni Winding
The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) is introduced into marine ecosystems worldwide. In Denmark, C. gigas was introduced into the micro tidal Limfjord, around 1972 for aquaculture. This study describes the population structure of C. gigas at Agger Tange in 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Here, C. gigas use beds of Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) as primary habitat. The mean abundance (± 1 SD) of C. gigas was unchanged during our study (45 ± 2 indv. m- 2), while it increased for M. edulis from 2010 to 2011 (934 ± 610 to 1434 ± 750 indv. m- 2, respectively). In 2009, a newly settled cohort of C. gigas was present, but in the succeeding years no or negligible recruitment was recorded. However, age cohort analyses, based on individual shell size at different ages, suggest successful recruitment in three out of seven years. A comparison with the course of the bioinvasion in List Tidal Basin, suggests that the population at Agger Tange is not in the expansion phase of the bioinvasion, despite of frequent settlement, high shell growth rates and relatively high abundance. So far, C. gigas has had moderate establishment success. We conclude that C. gigas is still in the establishment phase, but that this is prolonged, presumably due to low food availability.
Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950
Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andrés G; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T
All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm's cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans.
Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi
The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus.
Nilsson, Anders N; Söderström, Olle
In vernal ponds in the boreal region, egg-over-wintering Agabus species form a guild that feeds mainly on larvae and pupae of aedine mosquitoes. The regular co-existence of very similar Agabus species indicates local communities not structured by interspecific competition. However, the lower number of species in local guilds than in the regional species pool poses a problem of limited membership. We suggest that the species of this guild display habitat differences mainly with respect to water temperature, pond size and prey density. In this view, habitat selection reflects body size and thermal growth response of the species, mainly in connection with larval development. We present field data from two northern Swedish vernal ponds. Based on these data, feeding experiments were performed to test the hypothesis outlined above. At a high prey density, larvae of all instars of the larger species A. erichsoni Gemm. & Har. had a significantly higher consumption rate than those of the smaller species A. opacus Aubé. At a low prey density the differences were smaller, and only the third instar larvae differed significantly. At 2° C, larvae of A. opacus had a significantly higher consumption rate than those of A. congener (Thunberg). At 15° C, no significant difference was observed. In studies of within-guild interspecific predation, always the larger larvae consumed the smaller ones. Field data show that egg hatching is spread out in time, and show interspecific differences. Consequently, the effects of unexpected droughts differ with species.
Reid, C A M; Beatson, M
The Australian lucanid genus Ryssonotus MacLeay, 1819 is redefined and reduced to one species: R. nebulosus (Kirby, 1819). The supposed senior synonym of this species, Lucanus foveolatus Thunberg, 1806 is a junior synonym of the North American species Lucanus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1763) (new synonym). Safrina new genus, is described for the remaining species formerly in Ryssonotus and three new species: S. dekeyzeri new species, S. grandis (Lea, 1915) new combination, S. jaedoni new species, S. jugularis (Westwood, 1863) new combination, S. laticeps (Macleay, 1885) new combination, S. moorei new species, S. parallela (Deyrolle, 1881) new combination, and S. polita (Carter, 1921) new combination. Safrina grandis is a senior synonym of S. costata (Carter, 1929) new synonym. The type species of Safrina is Rhyssonotus laticeps Macleay, 1885. All species of Safrina are described and a key is provided to the adults of Ryssonotus and Safrina. The species are confined to the ranges of eastern mainland Australia. Diagnostic descriptions of the larvae of Ryssonotus and Safrina are provided. Safrina and Ryssonotus are placed in the tribe Chiasognathini and their systematic position is discussed.
Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Qian, Min; Shi, Tieliu
A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called "formula pair," to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb "Forsythia suspensa" in the formula "the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)" with a common herb "Thunberg Fritillary Bulb" and simplifying two formulae, "the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)" and "Fang Feng Tang" (FFT) to a new formula "Fang Feng Du Huo Tang" (FFDHT).
Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen.
López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I
This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected.
Pejler, G; David, G
Basement-membrane proteoglycans, biosynthetically labelled with [35S]sulphate, were isolated from normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells. Proteoglycans synthesized by normal cells contained mainly heparan sulphate and, in addition, small amounts of chondroitin sulphate chains, whereas transformed cells synthesized a relatively higher proportion of chondroitin sulphate. Polysaccharide chains from transformed cells were of lower average Mr and of lower anionic charge density compared with chains isolated from the untransformed counterparts, confirming results reported previously [David & Van den Berghe (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7338-7344]. A large proportion of the chains isolated from normal cells bound with high affinity to immobilized antithrombin, and the presence of 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues, previously identified as unique markers for the antithrombin-binding region of heparin [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555], could be demonstrated. A significantly lower proportion of the chains derived from transformed cells bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and a corresponding decrease in the amount of incorporated 3-O-sulphate was observed. PMID:2963617
Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi
The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNAser), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups—Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143
Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J
Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area.
Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G
Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs.
Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su
Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs.
Aranishi, Futoshi; Okimoto, Takane
We developed random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for the assessment of the genetic relationship between cultured populations of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunberg in Hiroshima and Goseong, the largest oyster farming areas in Japan and Korea, respectively. Of 25 arbitrary primers comprising decamer nucleotides of random sequences, polymerase chain reaction amplifications with 5 different primers gave reproducible electrophoretic patterns. A total of 49 RAPD markers were clearly identified for the Hiroshima and Goseong populations, and 46 markers were polymorphic presenting mean polymorphism rates of the respective populations at 92.29% and 93.32%. Pairwise genetic distances of each 20 individuals from these populations served to produce a UPGMA dendrogram. The dendrogram comprised two main clusters, one of which was a nested cluster including all individuals of the Hiroshima population along with 12 individuals of the Goseong population, and the other cluster included the remaining individuals of the Goseong population. Results indicate that RAPD markers are useful for the assessment of the genetic relationships between populations of the Pacific oyster and further that a significant portion of oysters imported from Korea could be genetically related to the Hiroshima population.
Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Jong-Jin; Moon, Hyung-In
Species of the Quercus species is an evergreen broadleaf tree found not only in Korea but also in China, Taiwan, and Japan. Quercus species is the most commonly occurring plant among the 50 native species of the family Fagaceae in Korea, China, and Taiwan. Quercus species have been used for diarrhea, dysentery, dermatitis, and hemorrhagia in Korean folk medicine. The present study evaluated the anticomplement effect of constituents from Quercus species (Fagaceae) in classical pathway complement system. We have evaluated leaves of five species of the Quercus genus with regard to its anticomplement activity and have identified its active principles following activity-guided isolation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 80% methanol extracts of the stem barks of Quercus glauca Thunberg has led to the isolation of galloyl derivatives, displaying high anticomplement activity. Four galloyl derivatives isolated from the leaves of Q. glauca, namely 6'-O-galloyl salidroside (1), methyl gallate (2), 1,2,3,6-tetragalloylglucose (3), and 1,2,6-trigalloylglucose (4). 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 224 μM, 362.4 μM, 32.3 μM, and 138.3 μM. Among the compounds tested, 3 showed the most potent anticomplement activity (IC(50), 32.3 μM). This is the first report of the isolation and anticomplement activity from Q. glauca.
Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su
Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs. PMID:26235136
This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.
Han, Kyu-Ho; Jeon, You-Jin; Athukorala, Yasantha; Choi, Kang-Duk; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Cho, Jin-Kook; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michiro; Lee, Chi-Ho
A water extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae) was investigated for protective effects against oxidative stress induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats were orally administered A. capillaris water extract (ACWE; 7.5 g/kg) for 7 days before AAPH treatment (60 mg/kg). AAPH intoxication significantly elevated enzyme markers of liver injury (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase). The pre-administration of ACWE significantly reduced the liver-damaging effects of AAPH as indicated by the low levels of these enzymes. Moreover, the ACWE administration significantly attenuated the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in both plasma and liver tissues compared with those of rats administered AAPH alone. Furthermore, ACWE administration slightly improved the liver reduced glutathione levels and enhanced the production of antioxidant enzymes like catalase. A. capillaris contained 10.1 mg of catechin in 100 g of dried sample; the high-performance liquid chromatography results showed catechin composition in the ACWE to be 28% (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, 49% (-)- epigallocatechin, and 23% other catechins. These observations clearly indicate that ACWE contains antioxidant catechins capable of ameliorating the AAPH-induced hepatic injury by virtue of its antioxidant activity.
Kajihara, Hiroshi; Sun, Shi-Chun; Chernyshev, Alexei V; Chen, Hai-Xia; Ito, Katsutoshi; Asakawa, Manabu; Maslakova, Svetlana A; Norenburg, Jon L; Strand, Malin; Sundberg, Per; Iwata, Fumio
We compared the anatomy of the holotype of the palaeonemertean Cephalothrix simula ( Iwata, 1952 ) with that of the holotypes of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis Sundberg, Gibson and Olsson, 2003 and Cephalothrix fasciculus ( Iwata, 1952 ), as well as additional specimens from Fukue (type locality of C. simula) and Hiroshima, Japan. While there was no major morphological discordance between these specimens, we found discrepancies between the actual morphology and some statements in the original description of C. simula with respect to supposedly species-specific characters. Our observation indicates that these three species cannot be discriminated by the anatomical characters so far used to distinguish congeners. For objectivity of scientific names, topogenetypes of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences are designated for C. simula, C. hongkongiensis, and C. fasciculus. Analysis of COI sequence showed that the Hiroshima population can be identified as C. simula, which has been found in previous studies from Trieste, Italy, and also from both the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, indicating an artificial introduction via (1) ballast water, (2) ship-fouling communities, or (3) the commercially cultured oyster Crassostrea gigas ( Thunberg, 1793 ) brought from Japan to France in 1970s. Cephalothrix simula is known to be toxic, as it contains large amounts of tetrodotoxin (TTX). We report here that the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles ( Jordan and Snyder, 1901 )-also known to contain TTX- consumes C. simula. We suggest that the puffer may be able to accumulate TTX by eating C. simula.
Kashiwaba, K; Tomooka, N; Kaga, A; Han, O K; Vaughan, D A
Resistance of wild and cultivated rice bean (Vigna umbellata [Thunberg] Ohwi and Ohashi) to three bruchid species, Callosobruchus chinensis L., Callosobruchus maculatus F., and Callosobruchus analis F., was evaluated. All but three accessions of cultivated, and all wild rice bean accessions tested, exhibited complete resistance to all three bruchid species. Rice bean seeds with seed coat removed also showed complete resistance to the three bruchid species. Results indicate that physical attributes and/or chemical(s) present in the seed coat of rice bean are not the main factors responsible for resistance. Feeding tests were performed by using artificial beans prepared with varying proportions of rice bean (resistant) and azuki bean (susceptible) flour. Number of bruchid adults that emerged decreased, and larval developmental period (days) was extended, when artificial beans with an increasing proportion of rice bean flour were used. These tests revealed that a chemical compound(s) contained in the cotyledon of rice bean has an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bruchid species. The results also indicate that the chemical(s) in rice bean cotyledon is most effective against C. maculatus.
Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh
Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.
Ye, Panpan; Shen, Ling; Jiang, Wei; Ye, Ying; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Bin
A naturally new cyclopeptide, clavatustide C, was produced as a stress metabolite in response to abiotic stress elicitation by one of the hydrothermal vent fluid components Zn in the cultured mycelia of Aspergillus clavatus C2WU, which were isolated from Xenograpsus testudinatus. X. testudinatus lives at extreme, toxic habitat around the sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents in Taiwan Kueishantao. The known compound clavatustide B was also isolated and purified. This is the first example of a new hydrothermal vent microbial secondary metabolite produced in response to abiotic Zn treatment. The structures were established by spectroscopic means. The regulation of G1-S transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by clavatustide B was observed in our previous study. The purpose of the present study was to verify these results in other types of cancer cell lines and elucidate the possible molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer activities of clavatustide B. In different human cancer cell lines, including pancreatic cancer (Panc-1), gastric cancer (MGC-803), colorectal cancer (SW-480), retinoblastoma (WERI-Rb-1) and prostate cancer (PC3), clavatustide B efficiently suppressed cell proliferations in a dose-dependent manner. Although different cancer cell lines presented variety in Max effect dose and IC50 dose, all cancer cell lines showed a lower Max effect dose and IC50 dose compared with human fibroblasts (hFB) (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant accumulations in G1 phases and a reduction in S phases (p < 0.05) were observed under clavatustide B treatment. The expression levels of 2622 genes including 39 cell cycle-associated genes in HepG2 cells were significantly altered by the treatment with 15 μg/mL clavatustide B after 48 h. CCNE2 (cyclin E2) was proved to be the key regulator of clavatustide B-induced G1-S transition blocking in several cancer cell lines by using real-time PCR.
Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732
Hines, Heather; Deans, Andrew Robert
We revise the genus Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858 occurring in Madagascar, based on data from more specimens than were examined for the latest world revision of the genus. Our results yield new information about intraspecific variability and the nature of the atypical latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) observed in Ceraphronoidea. We also investigate cellular processes that underlie body size polyphenism, by utilizing the correspondence between epidermal cells and scutes, polygonal units of leather-like microsculpture. Our results reveal that body size polyphenism in Megaspilidae is most likely related to cell number and not cell size variation, and that cell size differs between epithelial fields of the head and that of the mesosoma. Three species, Conostigmus ballescoracas Dessart, 1997, C. babaiax Dessart, 1996 and C. longulus Dessart, 1997, are redescribed. Females of C. longulus are described for the first time, as are nine new species: C. bucephalus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. clavatus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. fianarantsoaensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. lucidus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. macrocupula, Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. madagascariensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. missyhazenae Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. pseudobabaiax Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., and C. toliaraensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov. A fully illustrated identification key for Malagasy Conostigmus species and a Web Ontology Language (OWL) representation of the taxonomic treatment, including specimen data, nomenclature, and phenotype descriptions, in both natural and formal languages, are provided. PMID:27994960
Mikó, István; Trietsch, Carolyn; Sandall, Emily L; Yoder, Matthew Jon; Hines, Heather; Deans, Andrew Robert
We revise the genus Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858 occurring in Madagascar, based on data from more specimens than were examined for the latest world revision of the genus. Our results yield new information about intraspecific variability and the nature of the atypical latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) observed in Ceraphronoidea. We also investigate cellular processes that underlie body size polyphenism, by utilizing the correspondence between epidermal cells and scutes, polygonal units of leather-like microsculpture. Our results reveal that body size polyphenism in Megaspilidae is most likely related to cell number and not cell size variation, and that cell size differs between epithelial fields of the head and that of the mesosoma. Three species, Conostigmus ballescoracas Dessart, 1997, C. babaiax Dessart, 1996 and C. longulus Dessart, 1997, are redescribed. Females of C. longulus are described for the first time, as are nine new species: C. bucephalus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. clavatus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. fianarantsoaensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. lucidus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. macrocupula, Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. madagascariensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. missyhazenae Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. pseudobabaiax Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., and C. toliaraensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov. A fully illustrated identification key for Malagasy Conostigmus species and a Web Ontology Language (OWL) representation of the taxonomic treatment, including specimen data, nomenclature, and phenotype descriptions, in both natural and formal languages, are provided.
Diaz-Real, J; Serrano, D; Piriz, A; Jovani, R
Understanding the ecological function of species and the structure of communities is crucial in the study of ecological interactions among species. For this purpose, not only the occurrence of particular species but also their abundance in ecological communities is required. However, abundance quantification of species through morphological characters is often difficult or time/money consuming when dealing with elusive or small taxa. Here we tested the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for abundance estimation of two species of feather mites (Proctophyllodes stylifer and Pteronyssoides parinus) under five proportions (16:1, 16:4, 16:16, 16:64, and 16:256 mites) against a mock community composed by Proctophyllodes clavatus and Proctophyllodes sylviae. In all mixtures, we retrieved sequence reads from all species. We found a strong linear relationship between 454 reads and the real proportion of individuals in the mixture for both focal species. The slope for Pr. stylifer was close to one (0.904), and the intercept close to zero (-0.007), thus showing an almost perfect correspondence between real and estimated proportions. The slope for Pt. parinus was 0.351 and the intercept 0.307, showing that while the estimated proportion increased linearly relative to real proportions of individuals in the samples, proportions were overestimated at low real proportions and underestimated at larger ones. Additionally, pyrosequencing replicates from each DNA extraction were highly repeatable (R = 0.920 and 0.972, respectively), showing that the quantification method is highly consistent given a DNA extract. Our study suggests that NGS is a promising tool for abundance estimation of feather mites' communities in birds.
Damásio, André R L; Rubio, Marcelo V; Oliveira, Leandro C; Segato, Fernando; Dias, Bruno A; Citadini, Ana P; Paixão, Douglas A; Squina, Fabio M
Enzymes that cleave the xyloglucan backbone at unbranched glucose residues have been identified in GH families 5, 7, 12, 16, 44, and 74. Fungi produce enzymes that populate 20 of 22 families that are considered critical for plant biomass deconstruction. We searched for GH12-encoding genes in 27 Eurotiomycetes genomes. After analyzing 50 GH12-related sequences, the conserved variations of the amino acid sequences were examined. Compared to the endoglucanases, the endo-xyloglucanase-associated YSG deletion at the negative subsites of the catalytic cleft with a SST insertion at the reducing end of the substrate-binding crevice is highly conserved. In addition, a highly conserved alanine residue was identified in all xyloglucan-specific enzymes, and this residue is substituted by arginine in more promiscuous glucanases. To understand the basis for the xyloglucan specificity displayed by certain GH12 enzymes, two fungal GH12 endoglucanases were chosen for mutagenesis and functional studies: an endo-xyloglucanase from Aspergillus clavatus (AclaXegA) and an endoglucanase from A. terreus (AtEglD). Comprehensive molecular docking studies and biochemical analyses were performed, revealing that mutations at the entrance of the catalytic cleft in AtEglD result in a wider binding cleft and the alteration of the substrate-cleavage pattern, implying that a trio of residues coordinates the interactions and binding to linear glycans. The loop insertion at the crevice-reducing end of AclaXegA is critical for catalytic efficiency to hydrolyze xyloglucan. The understanding of the structural elements governing endo-xyloglucanase activity on linear and branched glucans will facilitate future enzyme modifications with potential applications in industrial biotechnology.
Calzado, Felipe; Prates, Erica T; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Rubio, Marcelo V; Zubieta, Mariane P; Squina, Fabio M; Skaf, Munir S; Damásio, André R L
Fungal GH12 enzymes are classified as xyloglucanases when they specifically target xyloglucans, or promiscuous endoglucanases when they exhibit catalytic activity against xyloglucan and β-glucan chains. Several structural and functional studies involving GH12 enzymes tried to explain the main patterns of xyloglucan activity, but what really determines xyloglucanase specificity remains elusive. Here, three fungal GH12 enzymes from Aspergillus clavatus (AclaXegA), A. zonatus (AspzoGH12), and A. terreus (AtEglD) were studied to unveil the molecular basis for substrate specificity. Using functional assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that three main regions are responsible for substrate selectivity: (i) the YSG group in loop 1; (ii) the SST group in loop 2; and (iii) loop A3-B3 and neighboring residues. Functional assays and sequence alignment showed that while AclaXegA is specific to xyloglucan, AtEglD cleaves β-glucan, and xyloglucan. However, AspzoGH12 was also shown to be promiscuous contrarily to a sequence alignment-based prediction. We find that residues Y111 and R93 in AtEglD harbor the substrate in an adequate orientation for hydrolysis in the catalytic cleft entrance and that residues Y19 in AclaXegA and Y30 in AspzoGH12 partially compensate the absence of the YSG segment, typically found in promiscuous enzymes. The results point out the multiple structural factors underlying the substrate specificity of GH12 enzymes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2577-2586. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Prajapati, Madhvi; Bhaduri, Asani; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Varma, Anupam; Madan, Taruna; Singh, Yogendra; Sarma, P. Usha
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) of Aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. Putative PKS protein sequences from Aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important Aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. Six candidate Aspergillus species, Aspergillus fumigatus Af293, Aspergillus flavus NRRL3357, Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, Aspergillus terreus NIH2624, Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1, were selected to study the PKS phylogeny. Full-length PKS proteins and only ketosynthase (KS) domain sequence were retrieved for independent phylogenetic analysis from the aforementioned species, and phylogenetic analysis was performed with characterized fungal PKS. This resulted into grouping of Aspergilli PKSs into nonreducing (NR), partially reducing (PR), and highly reducing (HR) PKS enzymes. Eight distinct clades with unique domain arrangements were classified based on homology with functionally characterized PKS enzymes. Conserved motif signatures corresponding to each type of PKS were observed. Three proteins from Protein Data Bank corresponding to NR, PR, and HR type of PKS (XP_002384329.1, XP_753141.2, and XP_001402408.2, respectively) were selected for mapping of conserved motifs on three-dimensional structures of KS domain. Structural variations were found at the active sites on modeled NR, PR, and HR enzymes of Aspergillus. It was observed that the number of iteration cycles was dependent on the size of the cavity in the active site of the PKS enzyme correlating with a type with reducing or NR products, such as pigment, 6MSA, and lovastatin. The current study reports the grouping and classification of PKS proteins of Aspergilli for possible exploration of novel polyketides based on sequence homology; this information can be useful for selection of PKS for polyketide exploration and
Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.
The effects of Mn on mycelial proliferation of fungi and the effect of pH on Mn toxicity were evaluated. Results indicated that the fungi exhibited wide differences in their sensitivities to Mn. Incipient inhibition (i.e., the level of Mn at which growth inhibition was noted initially, P < 0.05) for Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Aspergillus giganteus occurred at 100 ppM Mn; for Rhizopus stolonifer, Arthrobotrys conoides, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride, and Penicillium vermiculatum at 500 ppM Mn; for Cephalosporium sp. at 1000 ppM Mn; and for Gliocladium sp. at 1000 to 1500 ppM Mn; growth of Aspergillus clavatus was not inhibited even at 2000 ppM Mn. No growth of S. brevicaulis occurred at 500 ppM Mn and of R. stolonifer at 1500 ppM Mn. The levels of Mn causing incipient and/or total inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungi studied were comparable to the levels reported to inhibit mycelial proliferation of some phylloplane fungi. Only A. conoides showed significant (P < 0.5) stimulation of mycelial growth by Mn; 10, 50, and 100 ppM Mn increased growth rates over control (0 ppM Mn) values. There was no consistent trend in the effect of pH on Mn toxicity to the fungi. However, each fungus showed a definitive response to Mn at the different pH levels. Thus, increasing the pH from 5.5 to 8.5 did not significantly affect the toxicity of Mn to Gliocladium sp., P. vermiculatum, or A. niger. The toxicity of Mn to R. stolonifer and T. viride was not different at pH 5.5 and 6.5, but increasing the pH to 7.5 or 8.5 significantly enhanced the toxicity.
Synthesis, spectroscopic, molecular orbital calculation, cytotoxic, molecular docking of DNA binding and DNA cleavage studies of transition metal complexes with N-benzylidene-N'-salicylidene-1,1-diaminopropane
Al-Mogren, Muneerah M.; Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Elbohy, Salwa A. H.
Eight mononuclear chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of Schiff's base ligand were synthesized and determined by different physical techniques. The complexes are insoluble in common organic solvents but soluble in DMF and DMSO. The measured molar conductance values in DMSO indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. All the eight metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The analytical data helped to elucidate the structure of the metal complexes. The Schiff base is found to act as tridentate ligand using N2O donor set of atoms leading to an octahedral geometry for the complexes around all the metal ions. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with semi-empirical method to find the optimum geometry of the ligand and its complexes. Additionally in silico, the docking studies and the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters show promising futures for application of the ligand and complexes as high potency agents for DNA binding activity. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by UV absorption method, and the mode of CT-DNA binding to the complexes has been explored. Furthermore, the DNA cleavage activity by the complexes was performed. The Schiff base and their complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial strains [Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB010027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (RCMB010024), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB010063), Proteous vulgaris (RCMB 010085), Klebsiella pneumonia (RCMB 010093) and Shigella flexneri (RCMB 0100542)] and fungi [(Aspergillus fumigates (RCMB 02564), Aspergillus clavatus (RCMB 02593) and Candida albicans (RCMB05035)] by disk diffusion method. All the metal complexes have potent biocidal activity than the free ligand.
Background Most organisms have evolved a circadian clock in order to anticipate daily environmental changes and many of these organisms are also capable of sophisticated measurement of daylength (photoperiodism) that is used to regulate seasonal events such as diapause, migration and polymorphism. It has been generally accepted that the same elements are involved in both circadian (daily) and seasonal (annual) rhythms because both rely upon daily light-dark cycles. However, as reasonable as this sounds, there remains no conclusive evidence of such a molecular machinery in insects. We have approached this issue by using RNA interference (RNAi) in Riptortus pedestris. Results The cuticle deposition rhythm exhibited the major properties of circadian rhythms, indicating that the rhythm is regulated by a circadian clock. RNAi directed against the circadian clock genes of period and cycle, which are negative and positive regulators in the circadian clock, respectively, disrupted the cuticle deposition rhythm and distinct cuticle layers were produced by these RNAi. Simultaneously, period RNAi caused the insect to avert diapause under a diapause-inducing photoperiod whereas cycle RNAi induced diapause under a diapause-averting photoperiod. The expression patterns of juvenile hormone-regulated genes and the application of juvenile hormone analogue suggested that neither ovarian development itself nor a downstream cascade of juvenile hormone secretion, were disturbed by period and cycle RNAi. Conclusions This study revealed that the circadian clock genes are crucial not only for daily rhythms but also for photoperiodic diapause. RNAi directed against period and cycle had opposite effects not only in the circadian cuticle deposition rhythm but also in the photoperiodic diapause. These RNAi also had opposite effects on juvenile hormone-regulated gene expression. It is still possible that the circadian clock genes pleiotropically affect ovarian development but, based on these
Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho
Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.
Madeira, Vitor M C
Bioenergetic Science started in seventh century with the pioneer works by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier on photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. New developments were implemented by Pasteur in 1860s with the description of fermentations associated to microorganisms, further documented by Buchner brothers who discovered that fermentations also occurred in cell extracts in the absence of living cells. In the beginning of twentieth century, Harden and Young demonstrated that orthophosphate and other heat-resistant compounds (cozymase), later identified as NAD, ADP, and metal ions, were mandatory in the fermentation of glucose. The full glycolysis pathway has been detailed in 1940s with the contributions of Embden, Meyeroff, Parnas, Warburg, among others. Studies on the citric acid cycle started in 1910 (Thunberg) and were elucidated by Krebs et al. in the 1940s. Mitochondrial bioenergetics gained emphasis in the late 1940s and 1950s with the works of Lenhinger, Racker, Chance, Boyer, Ernster, and Slater, among others. The prevalent "chemical coupling hypothesis" of energy conservation in oxidative phosphorylation was challenged and replaced by the "chemiosmotic hypothesis" originally formulated in 1960s by Mitchell and later substantiated and extended to energy conservation in bacteria and chloroplasts, besides mitochondria, with clear-cut identification of molecular proton pumps. After identification of most reactive mechanisms, emphasis has been directed to structure resolution of molecular complex clusters, e.g., cytochrome c oxidase, complex III, complex II, ATP synthase, photosystem I, photosynthetic water splitting center, and energy collecting antennæ of several photosynthetic systems. Modern trends concern to the reactivity of radical and other active species in association with bioenergetic activities. A promising trend concentrates on the cell redox status quantified in terms of redox potentials. In spite of significant development and
Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas
The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild. PMID:25170907
Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species
van Achterberg, Cornelis; Shaw, Mark R.
Abstract Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: Aleiodes abraxanae sp. n., Aleiodes angustipterus sp. n., Aleiodes artesiariae sp. n., Aleiodes carminatus sp. n., Aleiodes diarsianae sp. n., Aleiodes leptofemur sp. n., and Aleiodes ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) and Aleiodes pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838), and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not Aleiodes ochraceus (Curtis, 1834)) is renamed as Aleiodes curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, Aleiodes nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and Aleiodes reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956), are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, Aleiodes albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838), Aleiodes apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932), Aleiodes arcticus (Thomson, 1892), Aleiodes cantherius (Lyle, 1919), Aleiodes esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834), Aleiodes jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898), Aleiodes modestus (Reinhard, 1863), Aleiodes nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, Aleiodes pallidator (Thunberg, 1822), Aleiodes praetor (Reinhard, 1863), Aleiodes seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838) sensu lato, Aleiodes testaceus (Telenga, 1941), Aleiodes ungularis (Thomson, 1892), and Aleiodes varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)) which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of Aleiodes seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key). The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined. PMID:28138281
Jacobsson, K G; Lindahl, U
Pulse-labelling of mouse mastocytoma cell cultures, established from ascites fluid, with inorganic [35S]sulphate for 1 h yielded labelled heparin proteoglycan containing polysaccharide chains of Mr 60,000-100,000. After chase incubation for 24 h most of the 35S appeared in intracellular polysaccharide fragments similar in size to commercially available heparin, Mr 5000-25,000, as indicated by gel chromatography. Products isolated from cultures after 6 h of chase incubation consisted of partially degraded free polysaccharide chains and, in addition, residual proteoglycans that were of smaller size than the proteoglycans initially pulse-labelled. The polysaccharide chains released by alkali treatment from the residual chase-incubated proteoglycans were of the same size as the chains derived from proteoglycans after 1 h of pulse labelling. These results suggest that the intracellular degradation of heparin proteoglycan to polysaccharide fragments is initiated by release of intact polysaccharide chains, probably by action of a peptidase, and is pursued through cleavage of these chains by an endoglycosidase. An endoglucuronidase with stringent substrate specificity [Thunberg, Bäckström, Wasteson, Ogren & Lindahl (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 10278-10282] has previously been implicated in the latter step. Cultures of more purified mastocytoma cells (essentially devoid of macrophages) did not metabolize [35S]heparin proteoglycan to polysaccharide fragments, but instead accumulated free intact polysaccharide chains, i.e. the postulated intermediate of the complete degradation pathway. When such purified cells were co-cultured with adherent mouse peritoneal cells, presumably macrophages, formation of polysaccharide fragments was observed. It is tentatively proposed that the expression of endoglucuronidase activity by the mast cells depends on collaboration between these cells and macrophages. PMID:3120695
Dagorn, Flore; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Kendel, Melha; Beninger, Peter G.; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane
Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. PMID:27231919
Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas
The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.
Meco, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Fontugne, M.; Ramos, A.J.; Lomoschitz, A.; Patterson, D.
The Canary Archipelago has long been a sensitive location to record climate changes of the past. Interbedded with its basalt lavas are marine deposits from the principal Pleistocene interglacials, as well as aeolian sands with intercalated palaeosols. The palaeosols contain African dust and innumerable relict egg pods of a temperate-region locust (cf. Dociostaurus maroccanusThunberg 1815). New ecological and stratigraphical information reveals the geological history of locust plagues (or infestations) and their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we show that the first arrival of the plagues to the Canary Islands from Africa took place near the end of the Pliocene, ca. 3Ma, and reappeared with immense strength during the middle Late Pleistocene preceding MIS (marine isotope stage) 11 (ca. 420ka), MIS 5.5 (ca. 125ka) and probably during other warm interglacials of the late Middle Pleistocene and the Late Pleistocene. During the Early Holocene, locust plagues may have coincided with a brief cool period in the current interglacial. Climatically, locust plagues on the Canaries are a link in the chain of full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes), early interglacial arid-sub-humid climate (African dust inputs and locust plagues), peak interglacial warm-humid climate (marine deposits with Senegalese fauna), transitional arid-temperate climate (pedogenic calcretes), and again full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes) oscillations. During the principal interglacials of the Pleistocene, the Canary Islands recorded the migrations of warm Senegalese marine faunas to the north, crossing latitudes in the Euro-African Atlantic. However, this northward marine faunal migration was preceded in the terrestrial realm by interglacial infestations of locusts. ??? Locust plagues, Canary Islands, Late Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoclimatology. ?? 2010 The Authors, Lethaia ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.
Yang, Fan; Wang, Qian; Wang, Dongmei; Xu, Bin; Xu, Jianxiang; Lu, Yanhui; Harwood, James D
The ubiquity of intraguild predation (IGP) has been widely recognized for predatory coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). In Chinese agroecosystems, three species (Coccinella septempunctata L., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), and Propylea japonica (Thunberg)) are particularly common, but there is little information of interactions occurring between them. In no-choice laboratory feeding trials, differential directional predation was observed between species: C. septempunctata preyed on eggs of P. japonica more than H. axyridis and H. axyridis consumed eggs of C. septempunctata and P. japonica equally, whereas P. japonica had a very low predation rate on eggs of the other two species. In choice trials, C. septempunctata and P. japonica larvae preyed less on H. axyridis eggs than those of P. japonica and C. septempunctata, respectively, contrasting with H. axyridis larvae, which showed similar preference for both species. Species-specific primers were developed for each coccinellid and used to determine the relative frequency of prey consumption in the field. Prior to field-based analysis, primer specificity was confirmed and consumption of prey elicited a positive reaction success, and detection time varied between different predator-prey combinations. Predators were then collected from cotton agroecosystems and, interestingly, no DNA of C. septempunctata was found in P. japonica, but all other predator-prey combinations yielded positive documentation of IGP in the field, with the greatest rate of 9% of C. septempunctata testing positive for H. axyridis DNA. This study confirmed the frequency of IGP among three common coccinellids in Chinese agroecosystems and the likelihood for interference to the biological control services provided by these important natural enemies.
van der Veer, Henk W.; Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; van der Meer, Jaap
Dynamic energy budgets are used for the description of the energy flow through individual organisms from the assimilation of food to the utilisation for maintenance, growth, development and reproduction. In this paper, a procedure for estimation of the parameters of Kooijman's Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is introduced and subsequently parameters are estimated for the following Northeast Atlantic bivalve species: the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.), the sandgaper Mya arenaria L., the cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.), the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. and the Pacifc oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793). For none of the species, a complete set of parameters could be compiled. A special protocol was developed to account for missing values and to achieve consistency between parameters. Species were similar in their optimal temperature range, as reflected in a common Arrhenius temperature of 5800 K, which corresponds with a Q 10 of 2. Differences between species were observed in width of the optimal temperature range. The taxonomic relatedness between species was reflected in similar volume-specific maintenance costs, costs for growth and almost similar maximum storage density of energy. Species differed in their maximum surface area-specific assimilation rate by a factor of 6 and in the fraction of energy allocated to reproduction (ranging from 0.15 to 0.50). These differences are reflected in the maximum theoretical total shell length of the species, which varied from about 3 cm in M. balthica, 6 cm in C. edule, 15 cm in M. arenaria and M. edulis and 45 cm in C. gigas.
Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Balandin, Sergey A; Gubanov, Ivan A; Jarvis, Charles E; Majorov, Sergey R; Simonov, Sergey S
The Herbarium of Moscow State University, Russia, possesses a relatively small (63 specimens), but historically interesting, collection of herbarium specimens linked with Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). Some of these originally formed part of Linnaeus' own herbarium while others, although never his property, were nevertheless studied by him and may be original material for the typification of his plant names. This paper discusses the broad historical background to the gathering of these specimens, their study by Linnaeus and their subsequent fate. Specimens linked with Linnaeus have been encountered in each of the four largest historical collections of the Herbarium of Moscow State University, i. e., in the herbaria of J. F. Ehrhart, G. F. Hoffmann, C. B. von Trinius and C. L. Goldbach. Ehrhart's General Herbarium contains 31 sheets, which were more or less certainly collected or studied by Linnaeus. Ehrhart, a pupil of Linnaeus, received some specimens directly from the latter, while others came to him from Linnaeus filius, A. Dahl, and P. J. Bergius. Ehrhart's collections were purchased by G. F. Hoffmann, later, the first head of the Department of Botany at Moscow University, who took them to Russia. Hoffmann's General Herbarium contains three specimens that may be connected with Linnaeus. They were received from C. P. Thunberg, J. A. Murray, and an unknown person, respectively. At least five specimens from Trinius' collection, although certainly never seen by Linnaeus, are probable duplicates of material that was studied by him. Some of them are almost certainly iso-lectotypes of Linnaean names. Finally, 24 specimens linked with Linnaeus were found in Goldbach's herbarium. The majority of them were collected in the Lower Volga Region by J. Lerche and during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (Great Northern Expedition) by J. G. Gmelin and G. W. Steller.
Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, So-Jin; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Sun-Mee
This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 μl/kg) injection. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic level of malondialdehyde were significantly higher after CCl4 treatment, and these increases were attenuated by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. CCl4 markedly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α level, which was reduced by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and their mRNA expression levels were significantly increased after CCl4 injection. The levels of HO-1 protein and mRNA expression levels were augmented by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, while isorhamnetin- 3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression levels. CCl4 increased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38, and isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside reduced these increases. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activating protein-1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were signifi cantly increased after CCl4 administration. Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases of NF-κB and c-Jun nuclear translocation, while it augmented the nuclear level of Nrf2. These results suggest that isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic damage by enhancing the anti-oxidative defense system and reducing the inflammatory signaling pathways.
Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi; Numazawa, Toshiaki; Wada, Akinobu
Simultaneous determination of four aconitine analogues (ACs) (AC; aconitine, HA; hypaconitine, JA; jesaconitine, MA; mesaconitine) in leaves and roots of wild Aconitum plants (Aconitum japonicum THUNBERG, Aconitum okuyamae Nakai) was carried out to elucidate the relation between toxicity to mice and ACs content determind by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The total amounts of ACs in leaves, roots, petals and nectaries of Aconitum japonicum collected at Sagae-shi Tashiro were 5.9 μg/g, 928.1 μg/g, 46.1 μg/g, and 69.8 μg/g, respectively. Despite the high contents in nectary, commercial honey contained no ACs. Extract of wild Aconitum japonicum roots which contained ACs (2.69 mg/g) was administered to 5 mice orally at 1.0 g/kg (fresh root equivalent), and 2 mice died. On the other hand, 3 of 5 mice died after being given the standard AC (3.0 mg/kg, p.o.). These findings confirmed good coincidence between toxicity and quantitative values. Mice given extract of Aconitum okuyamae root (100 g/kg, p.o.) without ACs showed no toxic symptoms. Residual ACs in Aconitum leaves were examined after boiling. The remaining percentage of ACs in leaves after 0.5 minutes boiling was 31.6%, and the amount in the boiling water was 54.5%. MA is converted into benzoylmesaconine by hydrolysis (by boiling). Therefore food poisoning caused by Aconitum plants is explained by detection of benzoylmesaconine formed during food preparation.
Rocha, Marília de França; Pine, Mariana Bozina; Oliveira, Elizabeth Felipe Alves dos Santos; Loreto, Vilma; Gallo, Raquel Bozini; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; de Domenico, Fernando Campos; da Rosa, Renata
Abstract Tropidacris Scudder, 1869 is a genus widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region where speciation was probably promoted by forest reduction during the glacial and interglacial periods. There are no cytogenetic studies of Tropidacris, and information allowing inference or confirmation of the evolutionary events involved in speciation within the group is insufficient. In this paper, we used cytogenetic markers in two species, Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) and Tropidacris cristata grandis (Thunberg, 1824), collected in different Brazilian biomes. Both species exhibited 2n=24,XX for females and 2n=23,X0 for males. All chromosomes were acrocentric. There were some differences in the karyotype macrostructure, e.g. in the chromosome size. A wide interspecific variation in the chromosome banding (C-banding and CMA3/DAPI staining) indicated strong differences in the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences. Specifically, Tropidacris cristata grandis had a higher number of bands in relation to Tropidacris collaris. FISH with 18S rDNA revealed two markings coinciding with the NORs in both species. However, two analyzed samples of Tropidacris collaris revealed a heterozygous condition for the rDNA site of S10 pair. In Tropidacris collaris, the histone H3 genes were distributed on three chromosome pairs, whereas in Tropidacris cristata grandis, these genes were observed on 14 autosomes and on the X chromosome, always in terminal regions. Our results demonstrate that, although the chromosome number and morphology are conserved in the genus, Tropidacris cristata grandis substantially differs from Tropidacris collaris in terms of the distribution of repetitive sequences. The devastation and fragmentation of the Brazilian rainforest may have led to isolation between these species, and the spreading of these repetitive sequences could contribute to speciation within the genus. PMID:26312132
Tannous, Joanna; El Khoury, Rhoda; Snini, Selma P; Lippi, Yannick; El Khoury, André; Atoui, Ali; Lteif, Roger; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier
Patulin is a polyketide-derived mycotoxin produced by numerous filamentous fungi. Among them, Penicillium expansum is by far the most problematic species. This fungus is a destructive phytopathogen capable of growing on fruit, provoking the blue mold decay of apples and producing significant amounts of patulin. The biosynthetic pathway of this mycotoxin is chemically well-characterized, but its genetic bases remain largely unknown with only few characterized genes in less economic relevant species. The present study consisted of the identification and positional organization of the patulin gene cluster in P. expansum strain NRRL 35695. Several amplification reactions were performed with degenerative primers that were designed based on sequences from the orthologous genes available in other species. An improved genome Walking approach was used in order to sequence the remaining adjacent genes of the cluster. RACE-PCR was also carried out from mRNAs to determine the start and stop codons of the coding sequences. The patulin gene cluster in P. expansum consists of 15 genes in the following order: patH, patG, patF, patE, patD, patC, patB, patA, patM, patN, patO, patL, patI, patJ, and patK. These genes share 60-70% of identity with orthologous genes grouped differently, within a putative patulin cluster described in a non-producing strain of Aspergillus clavatus. The kinetics of patulin cluster genes expression was studied under patulin-permissive conditions (natural apple-based medium) and patulin-restrictive conditions (Eagle's minimal essential medium), and demonstrated a significant association between gene expression and patulin production. In conclusion, the sequence of the patulin cluster in P. expansum constitutes a key step for a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to patulin production in this fungus. It will allow the role of each gene to be elucidated, and help to define strategies to reduce patulin production in apple-based products.
Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín
Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into
Angus, Robert B; Clery, Molly J; Carter, Jodie C; Wenczek, Daniel E
An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of
El-Sayed, A M; Mitchell, V J; McLaren, G F; Manning, L M; Bunn, B; Suckling, D M
This work was undertaken to identify floral compound(s) produced by honeysuckle flowers, Lonicera japonica (Thunberg), that mediate the attraction of New Zealand flower thrips Thrips obscuratus (Crawford). Volatiles were collected during the day and night and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine their emission over these two periods. Nine compounds were identified in the headspace; the main compound was linalool, and the other compounds were germacrene D, E,E-alpha-farnesene, nerolidol, cis-jasmone, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and indole. There was a quantitative difference between day and night volatiles, with cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and cis-jasmone emitted in higher amounts during the day compared to the night. When the compounds were tested individually in field trapping experiments, only cis-jasmone attracted New Zealand flower thrips in a significant number. In another field trapping experiment, cis-jasmone caught similar numbers of New Zealand flower thrips compared to a floral blend formulated to mimic the ratios of the compounds emitted during the day, while catch with the night-emitted floral blend was not significantly different from the control. Subsequently, two field trapping experiments were conducted to determine the optimal attraction dose for cis-jasmone, a range of 1-100 mg loaded onto a red rubber stopper was tested, and the highest catches were in traps baited with 100 mg loading. A higher range of 100-1000 mg loaded into polyethylene vials was tested, and the highest catch was in traps baited with 500 mg. In another experiment aimed at comparing the attraction efficacy of cis-jasmone with the two other known thrips attractants (ethyl nicotinate and p-anisaldehyde), ethyl nicotinate showed the highest trap catch followed by cis-jasmone. A smaller number of Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) was attracted to traps baited with cis-jasmone. These results
Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol
Based on the recent revised generic classification of the tribe Epilachnini (Szawaryn et al. 2015), all 27 genera are re-described, diagnosed, illustrated, and included in an identification key. The following nomenclatural changes are made: Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850, Epilachna (Cleta) Mulsant 1850, Solanophila Weise 1898, Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993, and Epilachna (Uniparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993 are removed from synonymy of Epilachna Chervolat 1837. The subgenus Cleta of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Cleta Mulsant 1850 stat. nov.; the subgenus Uniparodentata of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 stat. nov. Chazeauiana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna sahlbergi Mulsant 1850), and Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna nigrolimbata Thomson 1875) are synonymized here under the name Cleta Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna eckloni Mulsant 1850)—new synonyms; Fuerschia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781) is synonymized with Solanophila Weise 1898 (type species, Epilachna gibbosa Crotch 1874)—new synonym; Ryszardia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna decipiens Crotch 1874) and Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao, 1993 (type species, Epilachna yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984) are synonymized under the name Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (type species, Epilachna paramagna Pang and Mao 1979)—new synonyms. Henosepilachna (Elateria) Fürsch 1964 (type species: Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794) is removed from synomyms of Henosepilachna Li 1961 [type species, Coccinella sparsa Herbst 1786 (=Coccinella vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 1775)] and is synonymized here with Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (type species: Coccinella similis Thunberg 1781)—new synonym. Coccinella flavofasciata Laporte 1840, Epilachna aequatorialis Gordon 1975, E. bizonata Crotch 1874, E. convergens Crotch 1874, E. cruciata
Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.
; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario – Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec – Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick – Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz