Science.gov

Sample records for risk factor metabolites

  1. Choline and its metabolites are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and MRI-documented cerebrovascular disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Roe, Annie J; Zhang, Shucha; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rogers, Gail T; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Smith, Caren E; Zeisel, Steven H; Scott, Tammy M

    2017-03-29

    (higher LDL cholesterol and triglycerides).Conclusion: Choline and its metabolites have differential associations with cardiometabolic risk factors and subtypes of vascular disease, thereby suggesting differing roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and cerebral large-vessel disease compared with that of small-vessel disease.

  2. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  3. Associations of cord blood metabolites with early childhood obesity risk

    PubMed Central

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Gall, Walt; Gillman, Matthew W.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Rapid postnatal weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome. To identify markers of rapid infancy weight gain and childhood obesity, we analyzed the metabolome in cord blood from infants differing in their postnatal weight trajectories. Methods We performed a nested case-control study within Project Viva, a longitudinal cohort of mothers and children. We selected cases (n=26) based on top quartile of change in weight-for-age 0-6 mo and BMI >85th percentile in mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Controls (n=26) were age- and sex-matched, had normal postnatal weight gain (2nd or 3rd quartile of change in weight-for-age 0-6 mo) and normal mid-childhood weight (BMI 25th-75th percentile). Cord blood metabolites were measured using untargeted LC/MS; individual metabolites and pathways differing between cases vs. controls were compared in categorical analyses. We adjusted metabolites for maternal age, maternal BMI, and breastfeeding duration (linear regression), and assessed whether metabolites improved the ability to predict case-control status (logistic regression). Results Of 415 detected metabolites, 16 were altered in cases vs. controls (T-test, nominal P<0.05). 3 metabolites were related to tryptophan: serotonin, tryptophan betaine, and tryptophyl leucine (46%, 48% and 26% lower in cases, respectively, P<0.05). Mean levels of 2 methyl donors, dimethylglycine and N-acetylmethionine, were also lower in cases (18% and 16% respectively, P=0.01). Moreover, the glutamine:glutamate ratio was reduced by 33% (P<0.05) in cases. Levels of serotonin, tryptophyl leucine, and N-acetylmethionine remained significantly different after adjustment for maternal BMI, age, and breastfeeding. Adding metabolite levels to logistic regression models including only clinical covariates improved the ability to predict case vs. control status. Conclusions Several cord blood metabolites are associated with rapid postnatal weight gain

  4. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  5. Identification of serum metabolites associated with risk of type 2 diabetes using a targeted metabolomic approach.

    PubMed

    Floegel, Anna; Stefan, Norbert; Yu, Zhonghao; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Drogan, Dagmar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Prehn, Cornelia; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Illig, Thomas; Schulze, Matthias B; Adamski, Jerzy; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias

    2013-02-01

    Metabolomic discovery of biomarkers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk may reveal etiological pathways and help to identify individuals at risk for disease. We prospectively investigated the association between serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics and risk of T2D in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (27,548 adults) among all incident cases of T2D (n = 800, mean follow-up 7 years) and a randomly drawn subcohort (n = 2,282). Flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 163 metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, hexose, and phospholipids, in baseline serum samples. Serum hexose; phenylalanine; and diacyl-phosphatidylcholines C32:1, C36:1, C38:3, and C40:5 were independently associated with increased risk of T2D and serum glycine; sphingomyelin C16:1; acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines C34:3, C40:6, C42:5, C44:4, and C44:5; and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:2 with decreased risk. Variance of the metabolites was largely explained by two metabolite factors with opposing risk associations (factor 1 relative risk in extreme quintiles 0.31 [95% CI 0.21-0.44], factor 2 3.82 [2.64-5.52]). The metabolites significantly improved T2D prediction compared with established risk factors. They were further linked to insulin sensitivity and secretion in the Tübingen Family study and were partly replicated in the independent KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) cohort. The data indicate that metabolic alterations, including sugar metabolites, amino acids, and choline-containing phospholipids, are associated early on with a higher risk of T2D.

  6. Identification of Serum Metabolites Associated With Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using a Targeted Metabolomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, Anna; Stefan, Norbert; Yu, Zhonghao; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Drogan, Dagmar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Prehn, Cornelia; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Illig, Thomas; Schulze, Matthias B.; Adamski, Jerzy; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic discovery of biomarkers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk may reveal etiological pathways and help to identify individuals at risk for disease. We prospectively investigated the association between serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics and risk of T2D in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (27,548 adults) among all incident cases of T2D (n = 800, mean follow-up 7 years) and a randomly drawn subcohort (n = 2,282). Flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 163 metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, hexose, and phospholipids, in baseline serum samples. Serum hexose; phenylalanine; and diacyl-phosphatidylcholines C32:1, C36:1, C38:3, and C40:5 were independently associated with increased risk of T2D and serum glycine; sphingomyelin C16:1; acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines C34:3, C40:6, C42:5, C44:4, and C44:5; and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:2 with decreased risk. Variance of the metabolites was largely explained by two metabolite factors with opposing risk associations (factor 1 relative risk in extreme quintiles 0.31 [95% CI 0.21–0.44], factor 2 3.82 [2.64–5.52]). The metabolites significantly improved T2D prediction compared with established risk factors. They were further linked to insulin sensitivity and secretion in the Tübingen Family study and were partly replicated in the independent KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) cohort. The data indicate that metabolic alterations, including sugar metabolites, amino acids, and choline-containing phospholipids, are associated early on with a higher risk of T2D. PMID:23043162

  7. Deriving in vivo biotransformation rate constants and metabolite parent concentration factor/stable metabolite factor from bioaccumulation and bioconcentration experiments: An illustration with worm accumulation data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dave Ta Fu; Chen, Ciara Chun

    2016-12-01

    Growing concern for the biological fate of organic contaminants and their metabolites and the urge to connect in vitro and in vivo toxicokinetics have prompted researchers to characterize the biotransformation behavior of organic contaminants in biota. The whole body biotransformation rate constant (kM ) is currently determined by the difference approach, which has significant methodological limitations. A new approach for determining kM from the kinetic observations of the parent contaminant and its intermediate metabolites is proposed. In this method, kM can be determined by fitting kinetic data of the parent contaminant and the metabolites to analytical equations that depict the bioaccumulation kinetics. The application of the proposed method is illustrated using worm bioaccumulation-biotransformation data collected from the literature. Furthermore, a metabolite parent concentration factor (MPCF) is also proposed to characterize the persistence of the metabolite in biota. Because both the proposed kM method and MPCF build on the existing theoretical framework for bioaccumulation, they can be readily incorporated into standard experimental bioaccumulation protocols or risk assessment procedures or frameworks. Possible limitations, implications, and future directions are elaborated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2903-2909. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  9. Life Cycle of Petroleum Biodegradation Metabolite Plumes, and Implications for Risk Management at Fuel Release Sites.

    PubMed

    Zemo, Dawn A; O'Reilly, Kirk T; Mohler, Rachel E; Magaw, Renae I; Espino Devine, Catalina; Ahn, Sungwoo; Tiwary, Asheesh K

    2016-09-14

    This paper summarizes the results of a 5-y research study of the nature and toxicity of petroleum biodegradation metabolites in groundwater at fuel release sites that are quantified as diesel-range "Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons" (TPH; also known as TPHd, diesel-range organics (DRO), etc.), unless a silica gel cleanup (SGC) step is used on the sample extract prior to the TPH analysis. This issue is important for site risk management in regulatory jurisdictions that use TPH as a metric; the presence of these metabolites may preclude site closure even if all other factors can be considered "low-risk." Previous work has shown that up to 100% of the extractable organics in groundwater at petroleum release sites can be biodegradation metabolites. The metabolites can be separated from the hydrocarbons by incorporating an SGC step; however, regulatory agency acceptance of SGC has been inconsistent because of questions about the nature and toxicity of the metabolites. The present study was conducted to answer these specific questions. Groundwater samples collected from source and downgradient wells at fuel release sites were extracted and subjected to targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nontargeted two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) analyses, and the metabolites identified in each sample were classified according to molecular structural classes and assigned an oral reference dose (RfD)-based toxicity ranking. Our work demonstrates that the metabolites identified in groundwater at biodegrading fuel release sites are in classes ranked as low toxicity to humans and are not expected to pose significant risk to human health. The identified metabolites naturally attenuate in a predictable manner, with an overall trend to an increasingly higher proportion of organic acids and esters, and a lower human toxicity profile, and a life cycle that is consistent with the low-risk natural attenuation paradigm adopted

  10. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  11. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  12. Complicating factors in safety testing of drug metabolites: Kinetic differences between generated and preformed metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Prueksaritanont, Thomayant . E-mail: thomayant_prueksaritanont@merck.com; Lin, Jiunn H.; Baillie, Thomas A.

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a scientifically based perspective on issues surrounding the proposed toxicology testing of synthetic drug metabolites as a means of ensuring adequate nonclinical safety evaluation of drug candidates that generate metabolites considered either to be unique to humans or are present at much higher levels in humans than in preclinical species. We put forward a number of theoretical considerations and present several specific examples where the kinetic behavior of a preformed metabolite given to animals or humans differs from that of the corresponding metabolite generated endogenously from its parent. The potential ramifications of this phenomenon are that the results of toxicity testing of the preformed metabolite may be misleading and fail to characterize the true toxicological contribution of the metabolite when formed from the parent. It is anticipated that such complications would be evident in situations where (a) differences exist in the accumulation of the preformed versus generated metabolites in specific tissues, and (b) the metabolite undergoes sequential metabolism to a downstream product that is toxic, leading to differences in tissue-specific toxicity. Owing to the complex nature of this subject, there is a need to treat drug metabolite issues in safety assessment on a case-by-case basis, in which a knowledge of metabolite kinetics is employed to validate experimental paradigms that entail administration of preformed metabolites to animal models.

  13. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  14. Prediagnostic levels of serum one-carbon metabolites and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Arning, Erland; Wang, Renwei; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Background Rats fed diets deficient in choline develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumor DNA from these animals is characteristically hypomethylated, suggesting that disruption of the one-carbon metabolism pathway is an underlying mechanism for hepatocarcinogenesis. Prospective studies in humans on circulating choline and other one-carbon metabolites and HCC risk have been lacking. Methods We prospectively examined the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of one-carbon metabolites including betaine, choline, cystathionine, homocysteine, methionine, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP, the bioactive form of vitamin B6) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and risk of developing HCC based on a nested case-control study of 297 incident cases and 631 matched controls from a cohort of 18,244 men in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression methods were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for established risk factors for HCC. Results Serum choline and PLP were associated with statistically significant reduced risk of HCC, while serum cystathionine, methionine and SAM were associated with increased HCC risk (all Ptrend<0.05). The inverse associations for HCC risk with choline and PLP remained statistically significant after adjusting for all potential confounders. The multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of serum choline and PLP were 0.35 (0.16, 0.78) (P=0.010) and 0.44 (0.25, 0.78) (P=0.005), respectively. There were no associations for HCC risk with 5-MTHF, betaine, or homocysteine. Conclusion The inverse associations between choline and vitamin B6 and the risk of HCC development are novel and warrant further investigation. Impact Identifying new modifiable factors for HCC prevention are warranted. PMID:23897582

  15. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  16. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  17. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  18. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  19. Significance of metabolites in the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals consumed by human.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2017-03-17

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the significance of metabolites to the ERA of human pharmaceuticals. The predicted exposure concentrations (PECs) in surface water were estimated for a total of 24 selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites using a life cycle based emission estimation model combined with a multimedia fate model with Monte-Carlo calculations. With the eco-toxicity data, the hazard quotients (HQs) of the metabolites were compared with those of individual parents alone. The results showed that PEC or toxicity or both of the metabolites was predicted to be higher than that of their parent APIs, which resulted in a total of 18 metabolites (from 12 parents) that have greater HQs than their parents. This result clearly demonstrated that some metabolites may potentially pose greater risk than their parent APIs in the water environment. Therefore, significance of metabolites should be carefully evaluated for monitoring strategy, priority setting, and scoping of the environmental risk assessment of APIs. The method used in the present work may serve as a pragmatic approach for the purpose of preliminary screening or priority setting of environmental risk posed by both APIs and their metabolites.

  20. Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, J L

    1989-01-01

    Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol consumption. Factors probably or possibly associated with a decreased risk include ingestion of vitamin D and its metabolites, fluoride levels of 2 ppm or more in drinking water, moderate physical activity, pregnancies and breast feeding, use of thiazide diuretics, and progestogens. Some evidence suggests that calcium intake and physical activity at young ages may be important determinants of peak bone mass. Few studies have been undertaken in males and blacks, although at least some risk factors in males may be similar to those in females. Preventive efforts may be aimed at increasing peak bone mass at young ages, preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, and preventing fractures and their adverse consequences in older people with osteoporosis. PMID:2517695

  1. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than normal in children who lived near Chernobyl, the site of a 1986 nuclear plant accident ... exposure was much, much lower than that around Chernobyl. A higher risk of thyroid cancer has not ...

  2. Stroke - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, and some types of arthritis. Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy. Both during and in the weeks right after ...

  3. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  4. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  5. Novel Transformations of Trenbolone Acetate Metabolites Suggest Incomplete Environmental Risk Assessment for Trenbolone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Jones, G.; Cwiertny, D. M.; Qu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In general, the existing regulatory and risk assessment paradigm for veterinary pharmaceuticals and other potential environmental contaminants is relatively simplistic as it equates contaminant degradation with significant reduction in associated ecological risk. However, it is becoming clear that there exist a number of environmental contaminants whose behaviors in the environment confound this assessment paradigm and whose environmental risk cannot be accurately assessed by laboratory studies demonstrating degradation or attenuation of compound concentrations in model environmental systems. For example, trenbolone acetate (TBA) is an androgenic growth promoting steroid used widely in animal agriculture in the United States, with the vast majority of U.S. beef cattle receiving TBA implants. Despite their significant economic value ( $1 billion annually), TBA metabolites can be potent endocrine disrupting compounds for sensitive species of aquatic organisms, capable of endocrine disruption at low ng/L concentrations. TBA metabolites are often considered rather reactive and prone to degradation, and risk assessment studies specifically point to their rapid degradation as evidence for limited ecological risks. However, we have recently demonstrated a most unexpected observation for TBA metabolite fate in environmental systems: namely that product-to-parent reversion is possible for certain TBA metabolites. Also, a variety of structural analogs and stereoisomers can arise from environmental transformation processes of TBA metabolites, potentially yielding a range of uncharacterized steroid structures capable of receptor interactions. None of these possibilities are accounted for in current risk assessment approaches for trenbolone or any other veterinary pharmaceutical. These observations confound most all current environmental risk assessment and contaminant fate models, and therefore improving our approach to environmental risk assessment needs to specifically

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  7. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous history of clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and livedo reticularis, a mottled purplish discoloration of the skin. “Risk factors are cumulative,” Dr. Kittner adds. “Reducing even one ...

  8. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  9. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  10. [Perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martinez, A M; Martínez-Sanchez, C; Pérez-Segura, J

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk perception on several factors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing an educational intervention based on detected needs. 405 women between 12 and 44 years were interviewed at home. 62.2% perceived the risk of pregnancy at 17 years and younger; 78.8% the risk of pregnancy at 35 years and older; 76.6% the risk of parity of 5 and higher; and 55.1% the risk of birth interval of 2 years and less. 60.5% recognized family history of birth defects, 80.2% age 35 years and older, and 84.4% rubella during pregnancy, as risk factors for newborns with congenital malformations. 27.7% identified history of a low birth weight and 61.0% birth interval of 1 year and less, as risk factors for low birth weight. The majority perceived the risk of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption during pregnancy, diseases with no treatment and deficient nutrition. There was an inconsistent influence of social and obstetric variables on risk perception. No linear correlation was detected. Health educators should recognize differences on knowledge and behavior of future receptors before an educational intervention starts.

  11. DNA immunization perturbs lipid metabolites and increases risk of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fu; Yan, Shikai; Wang, Fang; He, Ying; Guo, Yingjun; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weidong; Sun, Shuhan

    2008-02-01

    In addition to conventional vaccination, DNA-mediated immunization has been developed as an alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of different infectious diseases, including hepatitis B. To define sets of serum protein and metabolite biomarkers that could be employed to determine the efficacy and safety of DNA vaccines, an integrated multiple systems biology approach was undertaken on mice immunized with DNA vaccine, recombinant protein, plasmid vector, and phosphate-buffered solution. Their sera were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and HPLC coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We detected an increase in phytosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, palmitoylcarnitine, and ceramide in the sera of DNA-vaccinated mice. Several protein molecules were found to be altered in DNA-vaccinated mice, including apolipoprotein A-I precursor. Taken together, these results indicated that DNA vaccine stimulated hepatic sphingolipid synthesis, which may have altered the structure of circulating lipoproteins and promoted atherogenesis. This study also underscores the power of metabolomics and proteomics in the definition of DNA-vaccine-mediated metabolic phenotypes.

  12. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  13. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  14. Gut microbial metabolite TMAO enhances platelet hyperreactivity and thrombosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weifei; Gregory, Jill C.; Org, Elin; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Gupta, Nilaksh; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Mehrabian, Margarete; Sartor, R. Balfour; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Brown, J. Mark; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Normal platelet function is critical to blood hemostasis and maintenance of a closed circulatory system. Heightened platelet reactivity, however, is associated with cardiometabolic diseases and enhanced potential for thrombotic events. We now show gut microbes, through generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), directly contribute to platelet hyperreactivity and enhanced thrombosis potential. Plasma TMAO levels in subjects (N>4000) independently predicted incident (3 yr) thrombosis (heart attack, stroke) risk. Direct exposure of platelets to TMAO enhanced submaximal stimulus-dependent platelet activation from multiple agonists through augmented Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Animal model studies employing dietary choline or TMAO, germ-free mice, and microbial transplantation, collectively confirm a role for gut microbiota and TMAO in modulating platelet hyperresponsiveness and thrombosis potential, and identify microbial taxa associated with plasma TMAO and thrombosis potential. Collectively, the present results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanistic link between specific dietary nutrients, gut microbes, platelet function, and thrombosis risk. PMID:26972052

  15. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  16. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  17. Microbial biotransformation of furosemide for environmental risk assessment: identification of metabolites and toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Leroy, Sébastien; Rivard, Michael; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet; Buisson, Didier

    2016-11-01

    Some widely prescribed drugs are sparsely metabolized and end up in the environment. They can thus be a focal point of ecotoxicity, either themselves or their environmental transformation products. In this context, we present a study concerning furosemide, a diuretic, which is mainly excreted unchanged. We investigated its biotransformation by two environmental fungi, Aspergillus candidus and Cunninghamella echinulata. The assessment of its ecotoxicity and that of its metabolites was performed using the Microtox test (ISO 11348-3) with Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria. Three metabolites were identified by means of HPLC-MS and (1)H/(13)C NMR analysis: saluamine, a known pyridinium derivative and a hydroxy-ketone product, the latter having not been previously described. This hydroxy-ketone metabolite was obtained with C. echinulata and was further slowly transformed into saluamine. The pyridinium derivative was obtained in low amount with both strains. Metabolites, excepting saluamine, exhibited higher toxicity than furosemide, being the pyridinium structure the one with the most elevated toxic levels (EC50 = 34.40 ± 6.84 mg L(-1)). These results demonstrate that biotic environmental transformation products may present a higher environmental risk than the starting drug, hence highlighting the importance of boosting toxicological risk assessment related to the impact of pharmaceutical waste.

  18. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Metabolites Measured during Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Meeker, John D.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; McElrath, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia represents a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although it is known that the placenta plays a central role in development of preeclampsia, investigation into the contribution of environmental toxicants to the risk of preeclampsia has been sparse. Objectives: In the present study we examined the relationship between longitudinally measured urinary BPA and phthalate metabolite concentrations during gestation and preeclampsia. Methods: A nested case–control study of preterm birth was performed in 2011 from women enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. There were 50 cases of preeclampsia as part of this study. Urine samples were analyzed for concentrations of BPA and nine phthalate metabolites several times during pregnancy. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios of preeclampsia in association with an interquartile range increase in BPA and phthalate concentrations and were weighted to reflect results generalizable to the base population. Results: Adjusted hazard ratios indicated that an interquartile range increase of urinary concentrations of BPA (1.53; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.25) and MEP (monoethyl phthalate) (1.72; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.30) at 10 weeks gestation was associated with onset of preeclampsia, whereas significantly elevated hazard ratios were found across gestation for all DEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] metabolites. These relationships differed based on infant sex. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of BPA and several phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. If validated, these results indicate an environmental contribution of endocrine-disrupting chemicals to preeclampsia and suggest a modifiable means to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with this condition. Citation: Cantonwine DE, Meeker JD, Ferguson KK, Mukherjee B, Hauser R, McElrath TF. 2016. Urinary

  19. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  20. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  1. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  2. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  3. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In women, high triglycerides combined ... information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  4. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  5. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  6. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  7. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  8. Association of atopic dermatitis with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases.

    PubMed

    Standl, Marie; Tesch, Falko; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Rodríguez, Elke; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Kronenberg, Florian; Schulz, Holger; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schikowski, Tamara; von Berg, Andrea; Lehmann, Irina; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Schmitt, Jochen; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-20

    Epidemiological studies suggested an association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigate associations and potential underlying pathways of AD and CVD in large cohort studies: the AOK PLUS cohort (n=1.2Mio), the GINIplus/LISAplus birth cohorts (n=2286), and the KORA F4 cohort (n=2990). Additionally, metabolomics in KORA F4 and established cardiovascular risk loci in genome-wide data on 10,788 AD cases and 30,047 controls were analyzed. Longitudinal analysis of AD patients in AOK PLUS showed slightly increased risk for incident angina pectoris (AP) (adjusted risk ratio 1.17; 95%-confidence interval 1.12-1.23), hypertension (1.04 (1.02-1.06)) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (1.15 (1.11-1.19)) but not for myocardial infarction (MI) (1.05 (0.99-1.12) and stroke (1.02 (0.98-1.07)). In KORA F4 and GINIplus/LISAplus, AD was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and no differences in metabolite levels were detected. There was no robust evidence for shared genetic risk variants of AD and CVD. This study indicates only a marginally increased risk for AP, hypertension and PAD and no increased risk for MI or stroke in AD patients. Relevant associations of AD with CVRFs reported in US-populations could not be confirmed. Likewise, AD patients did not have increased genetic risk factors for CVD.

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  10. Suicide Risk Factors in Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motto, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    A current focus in evaluating suicide risk is the "clinical model" approach, which determines those factors associated with high risk for suicide. The sociological factors identified as estimators of suicide risk included impaired health, job instability, multiple unit residence, no change in living setting, and modest financial resources. (JAC)

  11. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  12. Risk Factors For Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, Yüksel; KURT, Semiha; KARAER ÜNALDI, Hatice; ERKORKMAZ, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for distal symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Method Sixty seven patients with type 2 DM (33 males and 34 females) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was administered to all patients and their total neuropathy scores were calculated. Nerve conduction examinations were performed for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.83±.87 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value was 8.56±2.07% (normal: 3–6.5%). The total neuropathy score significantly correlated with diabetes duration, hypertension, retinopathy, and HbA1C. Conclusion This study confirms the previous reports regarding the association of neuropathy with poor glycaemic control and duration of the disease. The association of neuropathy with retinopathy and hypertension is important.

  13. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  14. Plasma choline metabolites and colorectal cancer risk in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sajin; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Malysheva, Olga; Bailey, Lynn B.; Xiao, Liren; Brown, Elissa C.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Zheng, Yingye; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Lane, Dorothy S.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Caudill, Marie A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations between plasma choline metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we investigated associations between plasma biomarkers of choline metabolism [choline, betaine, dimethylglycine and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)] and CRC risk among postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 835 matched case-control pairs, and cases were further stratified by tumor site (proximal, distal, or rectal) and stage (local/regional or metastatic). CRC was assessed by self-report and confirmed by medical records over the mean 5.2y of follow-up. Baseline plasma choline metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, plasma choline tended to be positively associated with rectal cancer risk [OR (95% CI)highest vs. lowest quartile=2.44 (0.93–6.40);P-trend=0.08], while plasma betaine was inversely associated with CRC overall [0.68 (0.47–0.99);P-trend=0.01] and with local/regional tumors [0.64 (0.42–0.99);P-trend=0.009]. Notably, the plasma betaine:choline ratio was inversely associated with CRC overall [0.56 (0.39–0.82);P-trend=0.004] as well as with proximal [0.66 (0.41–1.06);P-trend=0.049], rectal [0.27 (0.10–0.78);P-trend=0.02] and local/regional [0.50 (0.33–0.76);P-trend=0.001] tumors. Finally, plasma TMAO, an oxidative derivative of choline produced by intestinal bacteria, was positively associated with rectal cancer [3.38 (1.25–9.16);P-trend=0.02] and with overall CRC risk among women with lower (vs. higher) plasma vitamin B12 levels (P-interaction=0.003). Collectively, these data suggest that alterations in choline metabolism, which may arise early in disease development, may be associated with higher risk of CRC. The positive association between plasma TMAO and CRC risk is consistent with an involvement of the gut microbiome in CRC pathogenesis

  15. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  16. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  17. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  18. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  19. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  20. What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... at some workplaces that increase risk include asbestos, arsenic, diesel exhaust, and some forms of silica and ... For more information, visit Lung Cancer Prevention. Also, arsenic in drinking water (primarily from private wells) can ...

  1. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  2. New perspectives on the cancer risks of trichloroethylene, its metabolites, and chlorination by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K.T.; Slone, T.; Gold, L.S.; Manley, N.; Revzan, K.

    1994-12-08

    Scientific developments in the 1990`s have important implications for the assessment of cancer risks posed by exposures to trichloroethylene (TCE). These new developments include: epidemiological studies; experimental studies of TCE carcinogenicity, metabolism and metabolite carcinogenicity; applications of new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for TCE; and new pharmacodynamic data obtained for TCE and its rhetabolites. Following a review of previous assessments of TCE carcinogenicity, each of these new sets of developments is summarized. The new epidemiological data do not provide evidence of TCE carcinogenicity in humans, and the new pharmacodynamic data support the hypothesis that TCE carcinogenicity is caused by TCE-induced cytotoxicity. Based on this information, PBPK-based estimates for likely no-adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for human exposures to TCE are calculated to be 16 ppb for TCE in air respired 24 hr/day, and 210 ppb for TCE in drinking water. Cancer risks of zero are predicted for TCE exposures below these calculated NOAELs. For comparison, hypothetical cancer risks posed by lifetime ingestive and multiroute household exposures to TCE in drinking water, at the currently enforced Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) concentration of 5 ppb are extrapolated from animal bioassay data using a conservative, linear dose-response model. These TCE-related risks are compared to corresponding ones associated with concentrations of chlorination by-products (CBP) in household water. It is shown that, from the standpoint of comparative hypothetical cancer risks, based on conservative linear dose-response extrapolations, there would likely be no health benefit, and more likely a possible health detriment, associated with any switch from a household water supply containing <375 ppb TCE to one containing CBP at levels corresponding to the currently proposed 80-ppb MCL for total trihalomethanes.

  3. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  4. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  5. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  6. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the association between urinary levels of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) and breast cancer risk using Prentice’s pseudo-likelihood approach. Several lifestyle factors were associated with urinary levels of PGE-M: smoking, high saturated fat diet and obesity increased urinary PGE-M, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreased urinary PGE-M. Although there was no association between urinary PGE-M and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the overall analysis or among regular users of NSAIDs, there was a positive association among postmenopausal women who did not regularly use NSAIDs with HRs of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.0–4.3); 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0–3.9); and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1–4.3) for the second, third, and highest quartiles of PGE-M. Our findings suggest a link between systemic PGE2 formation and postmenopausal breast cancer, and a possible modification of the association by lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. If confirmed in larger studies, these results may have useful implications for the development of preventive strategies. PMID:23636050

  7. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation.

  8. Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include tobacco use, physical inactivity, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients never achieve adequate control of CVD risk factors even when these factors have been identified. In addition, the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) threatens to undermine the improvements in CVD that have been achieved. In the United States, approximately two thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and even modest excess body weight is associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD-related mortality. Lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss reduce the risk of CVD-related illness but are difficult for patients to sustain over long periods of time. The increased incidence of obesity has also contributed to significant increases in the prevalence of other important CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 DM. Pharmacologic therapies are currently available to address individual CVD risk factors, and others are being evaluated, including endocannabinoid receptor antagonists, inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes alpha and gamma, and several agents that modulate the activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. The new agents have the potential to significantly improve several CVD risk factors with a single medication and may provide clinicians with several new strategies to reduce the long-term risk of CVD.

  9. Evaluation of relative MS response factors of drug metabolites for semi-quantitative assessment of chemical liabilities in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Blanz, Joachim; Williams, Gareth; Dayer, Jerôme; Délémonté, Thierry; Gertsch, Werner; Ramstein, Philippe; Aichholz, Reiner; Trunzer, Markus; Pearson, David

    2017-02-02

    Drug metabolism studies are performed in drug discovery to identify metabolic soft spots, detect potentially toxic or reactive metabolites and provide an early insight into potential species differences. The relative peak area approach is often used to semi-quantitatively estimate the abundance of metabolites. Differences in the LC/MS responses result in an under- or overestimation of the metabolite and misinterpretation of results. The relative MS response factors of 132 structurally diverse drug candidates and their 233 corresponding metabolites were evaluated using a capillary-LC/HRMS system. All of the synthesized metabolites discussed here were previously identified as key biotransformation products in discovery investigations or predicted to be formed. The most commonly occurring biotransformation mechanisms such as oxygenation, dealkylation and amide cleavage are represented within this dataset. However, relatively few phase II metabolites were evaluated due to the limited availability of authentic standards. 85 % of these metabolites had a relative response factor (RF) in the range between 0.2 (5 fold under-prediction) and 2.0 (2 fold over-prediction) and the median MS RF was 0.6. Exceptions to this included very small metabolites that were hardly detectable. Additional experiments performed to understand the impact of the MS platform, flow rate and concentration suggested that these parameters do not have a significant impact on the RF of the compounds tested. This indicates that the use of relative peak areas to semi-quantitatively estimate the abundance of metabolites is justified in the drug discovery setting in order to guide medicinal chemistry efforts.

  10. Atherosclerosis risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from initial endothelial dysfunction to rupture of atheromatous plaques. The increased frequency of atherosclerosis in SLE is likely due to a complex interplay among traditional risk factors, disease-related factors such as medications and disease activity, and inflammatory and immunogenic factors. Identification of these novel risk factors will lead to a better understanding of CVD pathogenesis and may also provide targets for potential treatment strategies. When caring for SLE patients, clinicians should be aware of the increased CVD risk and treat the known modifiable risk factors in addition to controlling disease activity and inflammation.

  11. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  12. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  13. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  14. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  15. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  16. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  18. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  19. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  20. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  1. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  2. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular dementia is diagnosed, place the pathophysiological consequences of cerebrovascular disease on cognition in the context of clinical and pathological Alzheimer’s disease, and then to consider the evidence for the role of major vascular risk factors in late-life cognitive impairment, changes in brain imaging and neuropathological changes. Midlife diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are established risk factors for clinically defined Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia. The basis for these relationships could either be that the risk factors lead to microvascular brain disease, promote Alzheimer pathology or both. The associations of late-life onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment are either attenuated or reversed. The role of vascular risk factors in midlife should be the focus of public health efforts to reduce the burden of late-life cognitive impairment. PMID:20182020

  3. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  4. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  5. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  6. Urinary Metabolites of Prostanoids and Risk of Recurrent Colorectal Adenomas in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study (AFPPS)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, Veronika; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Sandler, Robert S.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Milne, Ginger L.; Bresalier, Robert; Baron, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been shown to protect against colorectal neoplasms, however the optimal chemopreventive dose and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to study the relationship between prostanoid metabolites and aspirin’s effect on adenoma occurrence. We used data from the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, in which 1,121 participants with a recent adenoma were randomized to placebo or two doses of aspirin (81 or 325 mg/d) to be taken until the next surveillance colonoscopy, anticipated about 3 years later. Urinary metabolites of prostanoids (PGE-M, PGI-M, and dTxB2) were measured using LC/MS or GC/NICI-MS in 876 participants near the end of treatment follow-up. Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to calculate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. PGE-M, PGI-M, and dTxB2 levels were 28%, 37%, and 60% proportionately lower, respectively, in individuals who took 325 mg of aspirin compared to individuals who took placebo (all P<0.001). Similarly, among individuals who took 81 mg of aspirin, PGE-M, PGI-M, and dTxB2 were, respectively, 18%, 30%, and 57% proportionally lower compared to placebo (all P<0.005). None of the metabolites or their ratios were statistically significantly associated with the risk of adenoma occurrence. The effect of aspirin in reducing adenoma risk was independent of prostanoid levels. Aspirin use is associated with lower levels of urinary prostanoid metabolites. However, our findings do not support the hypothesis that these metabolites are associated with adenoma occurrence, suggesting that COX-dependent mechanisms may not completely explain the chemopreventive effect of aspirin on colorectal neoplasms. PMID:26304466

  7. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  8. Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites Secreted by Paenibacillus larvae as Potential Virulence Factors of American Foulbrood

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Hedwig-Annabell; Fuchs, Sebastian W.

    2014-01-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae causes a severe and highly infective bee disease, American foulbrood (AFB). Despite the large economic losses induced by AFB, the virulence factors produced by P. larvae are as yet unknown. To identify such virulence factors, we experimentally infected young, susceptible larvae of the honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica, with different P. larvae isolates. Honeybee larvae were reared in vitro in 24-well plates in the laboratory after isolation from the brood comb. We identified genotype-specific differences in the etiopathology of AFB between the tested isolates of P. larvae, which were revealed by differences in the median lethal times. Furthermore, we confirmed that extracts of P. larvae cultures contain low-molecular-weight compounds, which are toxic to honeybee larvae. Our data indicate that P. larvae secretes metabolites into the medium with a potent honeybee toxic activity pointing to a novel pathogenic factor(s) of P. larvae. Genome mining of P. larvae subsp. larvae BRL-230010 led to the identification of several biosynthesis gene clusters putatively involved in natural product biosynthesis, highlighting the potential of P. larvae to produce such compounds. PMID:24509920

  9. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  10. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  11. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  12. Oxidative stress: a new risk factor for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a state of excessive free radicals and reactive metabolites among which the most important class is reactive oxygen species (ROS) - radicals derived from oxygen - as represented by the superoxide anion radical (O2(·-)) and its reactive metabolites, hydroxyl radical (·OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In essence, OS represents an imbalance between the production of oxidants - ROS - and their elimination by antioxidative systems in the body. Many studies have linked OS to thyroid cancer by showing its association with abnormally regulated oxidative or antioxidative molecules. The study by Wang et al. in the December 2011 issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer (18, 773-782) further supports this relationship by demonstrating a high total oxidant status and OS index in thyroid cancer patients. The origin of ROS in thyroid cancer patients has not been defined, but thyroid cancer itself can be one since inflammation, a major event in it, is a classical source of ROS. ROS may in turn enhance the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, forming a vicious cycle propelling thyroid tumorigenesis. Regardless of the mechanism, the clinical implication of the association of OS with thyroid cancer is severalfold: one, OS is a new risk factor for thyroid cancer; two, OS confers thyroid cancer patients an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, degenerative neurological disorders, and other cancers that are classically associated with OS; and three, interference with OS may reduce this risk and be therapeutically beneficial to thyroid cancer itself in thyroid cancer patients. These interesting possibilities deserve further studies.

  13. Semen quality and insulin-like factor 3: Associations with urinary and seminal levels of phthalate metabolites in adult males.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Pan, Hsien-An; Guo, Pao-Lin; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Certain phthalates have adverse effects on male reproductive functions in animals, and potentially affect human testicular function and spermatogenesis, but little is known about the active mechanisms. We measured the urinary and seminal phthalate metabolites and explored their associations on insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) and semen quality. Urine, blood, and semen samples were collected from the male partners of subfertile (n = 253) and fertile (n = 37) couples in a reproductive center in southern Taiwan. INSL3, reproductive hormones, semen-quality, and 11 phthalate metabolites in urine and semen were measured. There were significant correlations in the distribution pattern of metabolites, such as the relative contribution of low or high molecular weight phthalate metabolites. The significantly monotonic trends in semen volume, sperm concentration and motility were associated with increasing quartiles of INSL3 (all p-trend < 0.001). In adjusted regression models, increases in urinary phthalate metabolites levels were adversely associated with sperm concentration (monobenzyl phthalate [MBzP], mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] and MEHP%), motility (MBzP and MEHP) and INSL3 (MBzP, MEHP and MEHP%) (all p < 0.01). Higher seminal phthalate metabolite levels were associated with decreases in sperm concentration (MEHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate), motility (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP] and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP] metabolites), normal morphology (MEP), and INSL3 (monomethyl phthalate and MEP) (all p < 0.05). Our data suggest that INSL3 secretion, reproductive hormone balance, and sperm production and quality might be simultaneously adversely affected for individuals excreting increasing levels of phthalates metabolites (especially di-ethyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, and DEHP) in urine and semen samples.

  14. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  15. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Lymphocytic Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  20. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  1. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  4. Analysis, occurrence, fate and risks of proton pump inhibitors, their metabolites and transformation products in aquatic environment: A review.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2016-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) which include omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole, are extensively used for the relief of gastro-intestinal disorders. Despite their high worldwide consumption, PPIs are extensively metabolized in human bodies and therefore are not regularly detected in monitoring studies. Very recently, however, it has been shown that some omeprazole metabolites may enter and are likely to persist in aquatic environment. Hence, to fully assess the environmental exposures and risks associated with PPIs, it is important to better understand and evaluate the fate and behavior not only of the parent compound but also of their metabolites and their transformation products arising from biotic and abiotic processes (hydrolysis, photodegradation, biodegradation etc.) in the environment. In this light, the purpose of this review is to summarize the present state of knowledge on the introduction and behavior of these chemicals in natural and engineering systems and highlight research needs and gaps. It draws attention to their transformation, the increase contamination by their metabolites/TPs in different environmental matrices and their potential adverse effects in the environment. Furthermore, existing research on analytical developments with respect to sample treatment, separation and detection of PPIs and their metabolites/TPs is provided.

  5. Epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut

    2014-05-01

    This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

  6. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

  7. Risk factors analysis of consecutive exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qianwen; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate clinical factors associated with the onset of consecutive exotropia (XT) following esotropia surgery. By a retrospective nested case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of 193 patients who had undergone initial esotropia surgery between 2008 and 2015, and had follow-up longer than 6 months. The probable risk factors were evaluated between groups 1 (consecutive XT) and 2 (non-consecutive exotropia). Pearson chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used for univariate analysis, and conditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring the potential risk factors of consecutive XT. Consecutive exotropia occurred in 23 (11.9%) of 193 patients. Patients who had undergone large bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) (P = 0.017) had a high risk of developing consecutive XT. Oblique dysfunction (P = 0.001), adduction limitation (P = 0.000) were associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which was confirmed in the conditional logistic regression analysis. In addition, large amount of BMR (6 mm or more) was associated with higher incidence of adduction limitation (P = 0.045). The surgical methods and preoperative factors did not appear to influence the risk of developing consecutive XT (P > 0.05). The amount of surgery could be optimized to reduce the risk of consecutive XT. The presence of oblique overaction and postoperative adduction limitation may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which may require close supervision, and/or even earlier operation intervention. PMID:27977611

  8. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Results Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Conclusions Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE. PMID:27097772

  9. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  11. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  12. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  13. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  14. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  15. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  16. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  17. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  18. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  19. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  20. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-05

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  1. Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yesha M.; Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Paiano, Viviana; Olvera, Natalie; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study demonstrated significant differences in lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers from five different ethnic/racial groups. For the same number of cigarettes smoked, and particularly among light smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians had the highest risk for lung cancer, Whites had intermediate risk, while Latinos and Japanese Americans had the lowest risk. We analyzed urine samples from 331–709 participants from each ethnic group in this study for metabolites of phenanthrene, a surrogate for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Consistent with their lung cancer risk and our previous studies of several other carcinogens and toxicants of cigarette smoke, African Americans had significantly (p<0.0001) higher median levels of the two phenanthrene metabolites 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-PheOH, 0.931 pmol/ml) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, 1.13 pmol/ml) than Whites (3-PheOH, 0.697 pmol/ml; PheT, 0.853 pmol/ml) while Japanese-Americans had significantly (p = 0.002) lower levels of 3-PheOH (0.621 pmol/ml) than Whites. PheT levels (0.838 pmol/ml) in Japanese-Americans were not different from those of Whites. These results are mainly consistent with the lung cancer risk of these three groups, but the results for Native Hawaiians and Latinos were more complex. We also carried out a genome wide association study in search of factors that could influence PheT and 3-PheOH levels. Deletion of GSTT1 explained 2.2% of the variability in PheT, while the strongest association, rs5751777 (p = 1.8x10-62) in the GSTT2 gene, explained 7.7% of the variability in PheT. These GWAS results suggested a possible protective effect of lower GSTT1 copy number variants on the diol epoxide pathway, which was an unexpected result. Collectively, the results of this study provide further evidence that different patterns of cigarette smoking are responsible for the higher lung cancer risk of African Americans than of Whites and the

  2. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  3. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christine W; Yamamoto, Kalani T; Henry, Rohan K; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-09-01

    Development of CKD may be programmed prenatally. We sought to determine the association of childhood CKD with prenatal risk factors, including birth weight, maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), and maternal overweight/obesity. We conducted a population-based, case-control study with 1994 patients with childhood CKD (<21 years of age at diagnosis) and 20,032 controls in Washington state. We linked maternal and infant characteristics in birth records from 1987 to 2008 to hospital discharge data and used logistic regression analysis to assess the association of prenatal risk factors with childhood CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 126.7 cases per 100,000 births. High birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated nominally with CKD, with respective crude odds ratios (ORs) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.15 to 3.37); however, adjustment for maternal confounders attenuated these associations to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.21) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.51 to 2.81), respectively. The adjusted ORs for CKD associated with other prenatal factors were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.63) for low birth weight, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.09) for maternal gestational DM, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48) for maternal overweight, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52) for maternal obesity. In subgroup analysis by CKD subtype, low birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated significantly with increased risk of renal dysplasia/aplasia. Low birth weight, maternal gestational DM, and maternal overweight/obesity associated significantly with obstructive uropathy. These data suggest that prenatal factors may impact the risk of CKD. Future studies should aim to determine if modification of these factors could reduce the risk of childhood CKD.

  4. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  5. Susceptibility and risk factors in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F

    2000-10-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a high prevalence of advanced destruction but also that relatively few individuals in each age group account for most of the advanced periodontal disease. The available data suggest that three quarters of advanced periodontal disease could be prevented by targeting an effective preventive strategy on the 28% of individuals especially at risk. Questions remain regarding: 1) whether an acceptable cost-effective preventive strategy can be devised; and 2) whether it is possible to establish a simple method of identifying the 'at risk' group. The various risk factors are numerous and include systemic diseases, smoking, drug therapy, hormonal disturbances and genetic factors as well as the more mundane factors such as plaque control and socio-economic and education and attitude factors. Aside from these factors, many patients present with periodontal disease and have no discernible predisposition other than possibly genetic, for which we can not currently test, and for the vast majority of patients there would appear to be no other alternative to periodic thorough examination for all patients, early treatment of all periodontal lesions and appropriate dental health education.

  6. Risk factors and their identification second part: study designs for identification of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-06-01

    This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of cardiovascular disease related metabolic risk factors using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in human serum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Yang, Ruiyue; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Siming; Zhou, Weiyan; Li, Hongxia; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Chuanbao; Chen, Wenxiang

    2016-01-15

    Recent observations from metabonomic studies have consistently found that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), Gln/Glu ratio, carnitine, and several species of acylcarnitines and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) are possible risk factors for metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We described here a simple and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of these metabolic risk factors by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples were extracted with isopropanol, and the extracted metabolites were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and detected with electrospary ionization (ESI) inpositive ion mode with multiple reaction monitor (MRM) mode. All the metabolites were effectively separated within 5.5min. Analytical recoveries were in the range of 92.8-106.9%, with an average of 100.6%. The intra- run and total imprecisions for the measurement of these metabolites were 1.2-3.8% and 1.5-7.4%, respectively. Serum concentrations of the metabolites were analyzed in 123 apparently healthy volunteers. Significant associations between the metabolites and traditional CVD risk factors were observed. The newly developed LC-MS/MS method was simple, precise, and accurate and can be used as an efficient tool in CVD research and studies.

  8. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  10. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  11. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  12. Clinical Risk Factors for Portopulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kawut, Steven M.; Krowka, Michael J.; Trotter, James F.; Roberts, Kari E.; Benza, Raymond L.; Badesch, David B.; Taichman, Darren B.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Zacks, Steven; Kaplowitz, Neil; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension affects up to 6% of patients with advanced liver disease, but the predictors and biologic mechanism for the development of this complication are unknown. We sought to determine the clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. We performed a multicenter case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of patients with portal hypertension recruited from tertiary care centers. Cases had a mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance >240 dynes · second · cm−5, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤ 15 mm Hg. Controls had a right ventricular systolic pressure < 40 mm Hg (if estimable) and normal right-sided cardiac morphology by transthoracic echocardiography. The study sample included 34 cases and 141 controls. Female sex was associated with a higher risk of portopulmonary hypertension than male sex (adjusted odds ratio =2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20-7.01, P = 0.018). Autoimmune hepatitis was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 4.02, 95% confidence interval 1.14-14.23, P = 0.031), and hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted odds ratio =0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.65, P =0.005) of portopulmonary hypertension. The severity of liver disease was not related to the risk of portopulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Female sex and autoimmune hepatitis were associated with an increased risk of portopulmonary hypertension, whereas hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk in patients with advanced liver disease. Hormonal and immunologic factors may therefore be integral to the development of portopulmonary hypertension. PMID:18537192

  13. Juvenile respiratory papillomatosis: risk factors for severity.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Caroline; Lapointe, Annie; Coutlée, François; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Roger, Michel; Trottier, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused mainly by human papillomavirus genotypes 6 or 11, acquired at birth or during pregnancy from an infected mother. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is characterized by recurring warts growing most commonly in the larynx. Multiple surgical procedures and the risk of airway obstruction contribute to the devastating impact of this disease. Some children will go into remission after a few surgeries whereas others will require repeated interventions over several years. Further understanding of the risk factors associated with severity may contribute to tailored treatments. A retrospective study of cases diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2008 was conducted to study determinants of severe forms of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from children's medical charts and mothers' delivery charts. Viral factors (HPV genotyping and viral load) were studied from archived biopsies. Specific HLA class II alleles and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes were tested from saliva samples. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for severity. Overall, 31 pediatric cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were identified. The only significant factor associated with severe forms of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was the maternal history of condylomas during pregnancy (OR: 12.05 [P=0.05]). The analysis failed to identify risk factors that could be used clinically to identify recurrent respiratory papillomatosis cases likely to take a severe course. Although too early to determine, vaccination against the HPV types involved most commonly in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis may provide the best hope to prevent severe forms of this disease.

  14. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  15. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Brian C.; Garvan, Gerard J.; Garvan, Cynthia S.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care. PMID:28138493

  16. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  17. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  18. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    PubMed

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  19. [Risk factors of fatal outcome in pancreatonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Romanov, É I; Zubeev, P S; Ryzhov, M K; Bodrov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzed risk factors after operations for pancreatonecrosis in order to predict a course of the disease and carefully plan the treatment. It was revealed that the lethality level depended on different factors: the sex, age, a period of admission to the hospital, prevalence of necrotic suppurative process and severity of operative trauma. The authors made a conclusion of radical change to treatment approach. The open operations should be reduced at the expense of introduction of low-invasive methods of treatment in the case of pancreatonecrosis.

  20. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  1. Risk factors for atherosclerosis in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Misra, A

    2000-06-01

    Atherosclerosis starts in childhood, and is accelerated in some individuals. A cluster of clinical and biochemical factors constitute the risk profile for many of them, perhaps most important being metabolic insulin resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance and its components for children and adolescents, especially obesity and dyslipidemia, are generators of hypertension, glucose intolerance and complications of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Some individuals are genetically predisposed, particularly those with the family history of such disorders. For many subjects, there is 'tracking' of metabolic and lifestyle factors from early age to adulthood. Several new risk factors of atherosclerosis (e.g. level of lipoprotein (a), procoagulant state, hyperhomocysteinemia, low birth weight and adverse in-utero environment, and possibly inflammatory markers) are current and potentially future areas of research concerning children and young individuals. Definition of and research on new and hitherto not investigated factors and formulation of strategies to neutralize the known factors are of paramount importance for primary prevention of atherosclerosis. Simple and effective measures for prevention include increasing awareness of the diseases, maintenance of ideal body weight, regular physical exercise, avoidance of smoking and chewing of tobacco, eating a balanced diet, and early periodic monitoring of blood pressure and metabolic status. These measures, starting from childhood, should be applied to all and in particular to the susceptible offspring, predisposed individuals, and populations.

  2. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  3. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  4. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  5. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  6. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    PubMed

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  7. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  8. Transcription factor StWRKY1 regulates phenylpropanoid metabolites conferring late blight resistance in potato.

    PubMed

    Yogendra, Kalenahalli N; Kumar, Arun; Sarkar, Kobir; Li, Yunliang; Pushpa, Doddaraju; Mosa, Kareem A; Duggavathi, Raj; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative resistance is polygenically controlled and durable, but the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms are poorly understood. Secondary cell wall thickening is a critical process in quantitative resistance, regulated by transcriptional networks. This paper provides compelling evidence on the functionality of StWRKY1 transcription factor, in a compatible interaction of potato-Phytophthora infestans, to extend our knowledge on the regulation of the metabolic pathway genes leading to strengthening the secondary cell wall. A metabolomics approach was used to identify resistance-related metabolites belonging to the phenylpropanoid pathway and their biosynthetic genes regulated by StWRKY1. The StWRKY1 gene in resistant potato was silenced to decipher its role in the regulation of phenylpropanoid pathway genes to strengthen the secondary cell wall. Sequencing of the promoter region of StWRKY1 in susceptible genotypes revealed the absence of heat shock elements (HSEs). Simultaneous induction of both the heat shock protein (sHSP17.8) and StWRKY1 following pathogen invasion enables functioning of the latter to interact with the HSE present in the resistant StWRKY1 promoter region. EMSA and luciferase transient expression assays further revealed direct binding of StWRKY1 to promoters of hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) biosynthetic genes encoding 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and tyramine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase. Silencing of the StWRKY1 gene was associated with signs of reduced late blight resistance by significantly increasing the pathogen biomass and decreasing the abundance of HCAAs. This study provides convincing evidence on the role of StWRKY1 in the regulation of downstream genes to biosynthesize HCAAs, which are deposited to reinforce secondary cell walls.

  9. Transcription factor StWRKY1 regulates phenylpropanoid metabolites conferring late blight resistance in potato

    PubMed Central

    Yogendra, Kalenahalli N.; Kumar, Arun; Sarkar, Kobir; Li, Yunliang; Pushpa, Doddaraju; Mosa, Kareem A.; Duggavathi, Raj; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative resistance is polygenically controlled and durable, but the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms are poorly understood. Secondary cell wall thickening is a critical process in quantitative resistance, regulated by transcriptional networks. This paper provides compelling evidence on the functionality of StWRKY1 transcription factor, in a compatible interaction of potato–Phytophthora infestans, to extend our knowledge on the regulation of the metabolic pathway genes leading to strengthening the secondary cell wall. A metabolomics approach was used to identify resistance-related metabolites belonging to the phenylpropanoid pathway and their biosynthetic genes regulated by StWRKY1. The StWRKY1 gene in resistant potato was silenced to decipher its role in the regulation of phenylpropanoid pathway genes to strengthen the secondary cell wall. Sequencing of the promoter region of StWRKY1 in susceptible genotypes revealed the absence of heat shock elements (HSEs). Simultaneous induction of both the heat shock protein (sHSP17.8) and StWRKY1 following pathogen invasion enables functioning of the latter to interact with the HSE present in the resistant StWRKY1 promoter region. EMSA and luciferase transient expression assays further revealed direct binding of StWRKY1 to promoters of hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) biosynthetic genes encoding 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and tyramine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase. Silencing of the StWRKY1 gene was associated with signs of reduced late blight resistance by significantly increasing the pathogen biomass and decreasing the abundance of HCAAs. This study provides convincing evidence on the role of StWRKY1 in the regulation of downstream genes to biosynthesize HCAAs, which are deposited to reinforce secondary cell walls. PMID:26417019

  10. Risk factors for malaria in UK travellers.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Grant, Alison D; Armstrong, Margaret; Stümpfle, Richard; Behrens, Ron H

    2004-01-01

    After observing an apparent increase in severe falciparum malaria among travellers returning from The Gambia to the United Kingdom (UK) in the last quarter of 2000, we conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors for malaria. The study participants had visited The Gambia between 1 September and 31 December 2000, travelling with the largest UK tour operator serving this destination. The main outcome measures were risk factors associated with malaria. Forty-six cases and 557 controls were studied. Eighty-seven percent of all participants reported antimalarial use (41% chloroquine/proguanil, 31% mefloquine). On univariate analysis the strongest risk factors for disease were: early calendar period of visit, longer duration of stay, non-use of antimalarial prophylaxis, non-use of mefloquine, lack of room air-conditioning, less use of insect repellent, prior visit to another malarial area and accommodation in 'hotel X'. After adjustment in multivariate analysis, use of mefloquine remained strongly protective (odds ratios, OR 0.13 [95% confidence intervals, 95% CI 0.04-0.40]), and the strongest independent risk factors for malaria were early calendar period (OR 5.19 [2.35-11.45] for 1 September to 9 November 2000 versus 10 November to 31 December 2000), prior visit to another malarial area (OR 3.27 [1.41-7.56]), main accommodation in 'hotel X' (OR 3.24 [1.51-6.97]) and duration of stay (OR 2.05 per extra week [1.42-2.95]). Neither any use, nor > 90% adherence to chloroquine/proguanil were protective (adjusted OR for any use 0.57 [0.27-1.21], P = 0.14). We concluded mefloquine use was strongly protective against malaria (87% protective efficacy), whereas chloroquine/proguanil, which is no longer recommended but remains widely used, was less than half as effective (43% protective efficacy). Waning efficacy of chloroquine/proguanil may have contributed to the observed increase in malaria among travellers to The Gambia in 2000. Local factors may also influence

  11. Risk Factors for Osteonecrosis of the Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, A.; Cunha-Cruz, J.; Curro, F.A.; Hujoel, P.; Sung, A.H.; Vena, D.; Voinea-Griffin, A.E.; Beadnell, Steven; Craig, Ronald G.; DeRouen, Timothy; Desaranayake, Ananda; Gilbert, Ann; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Goldberg, Ken; Hauley, Richard; Hashimoto, Mariko; Holmes, Jon; Latzke, Brooke; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Richman, Joshua; Safford, Monika; Ship [deceased], Jonathan; Thompson, Van P.; Williams, O. Dale; Yin, Wanrong

    2011-01-01

    Case reports and cohort studies have linked bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), but neither causality nor specific risks for lesion development have been clearly established. We conducted a 1:3 case-control study with three dental Practice-based Research Networks, using dentist questionnaires and patient interviews for collection of data on bisphosphonate therapy, demographics, co-morbidities, and dental and medical treatments. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested associations between bisphosphonate use and other risk factors with ONJ. We enrolled 191 ONJ cases and 573 controls in 119 dental practices. Bisphosphonate use was strongly associated with ONJ (odds ratios [OR] 299.5 {95%CI 70.0-1282.7} for intravenous [IV] use and OR = 12.2 {4.3-35.0} for oral use). Risk markers included local suppuration (OR = 7.8 {1.8-34.1}), dental extraction (OR = 7.6 {2.4-24.7}), and radiation therapy (OR = 24.1 {4.9-118.4}). When cancer patients (n = 143) were excluded, bisphosphonate use (OR = 7.2 {2.1-24.7}), suppuration (OR = 11.9 {2.0-69.5}), and extractions (OR = 6.6 {1.6-26.6}) remained associated with ONJ. Higher risk of ONJ began within 2 years of bisphosphonate initiation and increased four-fold after 2 years. Both IV and oral bisphosphonate use were strongly associated with ONJ. Duration of treatment > 2 years; suppuration and dental extractions were independent risk factors for ONJ. PMID:21317246

  12. Early-life factors and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study early-life factors in relation to endometriosis risk in adulthood. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study was conducted among female enrollees ages 18-49 years of a large, integrated healthcare system in western Washington State. Patients Cases (n=310) were women diagnosed for the first time with endometriosis between years 1996-2001 and controls (n=727) were women without a diagnosis of endometriosis randomly selected from the healthcare system population. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between intrauterine diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, maternal smoking, mother’s age at delivery, firstborn status, birth weight, fetal number, prematurity, and regular soy formula feeding during infancy and endometriosis were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching and confounding variables. Information on early-life factors was ascertained retrospectively by in-person interview, with information on maternal DES use and regular soy formula feeding directly gathered from the participant’s mother or other family member. Results We observed that women who were regularly fed soy formula as infants had over twice the risk of endometriosis compared to unexposed women (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9). Our data also suggested increased endometriosis risk with prematurity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and maternal use of DES (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-4.9, adjusting only for frequency matching variables), although these confidence intervals included the null. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that disruption of development during fetal and infant periods may increase the risk of endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:26211883

  13. [Subjective perception of maladjustment risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salomone, M; Romano, L; Esposito, A; Nigro, E; Boggia, B; Napolano, E; Carbone, U

    2007-01-01

    Maladjustment at work results from organizational and relational features of the work, the so-called fourth type factors; they include working hours, ways and contents of working activities, and horizontal and vertical business relations. The study reports the percentage of sensed disturbing factors in workers with maladjustment and disaffection at work. Data have been taken from 1382 white collars, 1117 males and 265 females, observed from January 2006 to June 2007 for Health Surveillance. Maladjustment prevalence was higher in females than in males. As individual variables, ageing and family care increased the prevalence of maladjustment among females, whilst a higher prevalence of maladjustment were found in youngest and unmarried males. A very different perception of work harmfulness were found between sexes. As risk factors, female have denounced more wear and tear and authoritarian management; male denounced physical strain.

  14. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities.

  15. Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Their Genetic Determinants: A Study Within the Dutch "DOM" Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    extracted and prepared for genotyping of polymorphic variants in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 , CYP3A4 and COMT genes, which will be measured in year 3 of the project. Measurements of estrogen metabolites will start in September/October 2003....cancer risk with polymorphic variations of a series of candidate genes, known to be implicated in the regulation of estrogen metabolites synthesis. In this

  16. Parkinson's disease: A risk factor for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Durif, Franck; Thomas, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. On the long term, it may be complicated by various musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoporotic fractures, that have significant socioeconomic consequences. Indeed, patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have a higher fracture risk, particularly hip fracture risk, than other subjects of the same age because of both a higher risk of falls and lower bone mineral density. Bone loss in Parkinson's disease may be associated with the severity and duration of the disease. We review here the different suspected mechanisms of accelerated bone loss in Parkinson's disease, amongst which weight loss and reduced mobility appear to play key roles. Antiparkinsonian drugs, particularly levodopa, may also be associated with decreased bone mineral density as a result of hyperhomocysteinaemia. We discuss the role of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate or vitamin K. In conclusion, it seems necessary to screen for and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population, while actions to prevent falls are still disappointing. A better understanding of the factors explaining bone loss in this population would help implementing preventive actions.

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yapar, Nur

    2014-01-01

    The number of immunosuppressive patients has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are at risk for opportunistic infections, especially fungal infections. Candidiasis is one of the most frequent fungal infections determined in these immunosuppressive patients and its epidemiology has changed over the last two decades. Recently, new antifungal agents and new therapy strategies such as antifungal prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis, and preemptive therapy have come into use. These changes resulted in the alteration of Candida species causing invasive infections. The incidence of Candida albicans was decreased in many countries, especially among patients with immunosuppressive disorders, while the incidence of species other than C. albicans was increased. In this review, incidence, risk factors, and species distribution of invasive candidiasis are discussed. PMID:24611015

  18. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  19. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  20. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  1. [Risk factors and pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Paknys, Gintaras; Kondrotas, Anatolijus Juozas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its pathogenesis and to introduce the readers to the basic concept of autoimmune thyroid disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease are different expressions of a basically similar autoimmune process, and the clinical appearance reflects the spectrum of the immune response in a particular patient. During this response, cytotoxic autoantibodies, stimulatory autoantibodies, blocking autoantibodies, or cell-mediated autoimmunity may be observed. Persons with classic Hashimoto's thyroiditis have serum antibodies reacting with thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. These antibodies (particularly antibodies against thyroid peroxidase) are complement-fixing immunoglobulins and may be cytotoxic. In addition, many patients have cell-mediated immunity directed against thyroid antigens. Cell mediated-immunity is also a feature of experimental thyroiditis induced in animals by injection of thyroid antigen with adjuvants. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is predominantly the clinical expression of cell-mediated immunity leading to destruction of thyroid cells, which in its severest form causes thyroid failure. The significance of genetic component and nongenetic risk factors (pregnancy, drugs, age, sex, infection, and irradiation) in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is also reviewed. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the genetic component is important in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, although the pattern of inheritance is non-Mendelian and is likely to be influenced by subtle variations in the functions of multiple genes. Nongenetic risk factors (environmental factors) are also etiologically important, because the concordance rate in monozygotic twins is below 1.

  2. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    PubMed

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p < .05). High levels of smoking, hypodynamia, and motivation to intake of unhealthy food were found in medical students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p < .05). The indicators of central obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  3. [Risk factors and protective factors of the insanities].

    PubMed

    Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial. How to explain this group of very heterogeneous factors? Many of them can be considered as biopsychosocial risk factors. In other words, the risk factors, in link with the physiological functioning and a physiopathology, are difficultly dissociable of contingencies of psychological and/or social nature. The vital lead could be the stress bound to these variables, be it biological or psychosocial. It remains to ask the question of the preventive efficiency of treatments to relieve the impact of the traumatizing events of life that entail a depressive state or a state of posttraumatic stress. The hippocamp has to be the object of a quite particular attention. AD is a disease of the adaptation. This integrative model combines three vulnerabilities: a genetic vulnerability which would be there to dictate the type of lesions, their localization and the age of occurence; a psychobiographic vulnerability corresponding to a personality with inadequate mechanisms of defence, precarious adaptability in front of the adversity, weak impact strength and biography built on events of life during childhood, then during the grown-up life of traumatic nature, with a psychosocial environment insufficiently auxiliary; a neuroendocrinologic vulnerability which would base on a deregulation of the corticotrope axis, acquired during its infantile maturation, hampered by too premature stress. It would lead to a bad biological adaptability in stress later, at the origin of the observable lesions in the insanities.

  4. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  5. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis. PMID:26925907

  6. Risk factors for Indian kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Alok; Sur, Dipika; Singh, Vijay P; Siddique, Niyamat A; Manna, Byomkesh; Lal, Chandra S; Sinha, Prabhat K; Kishore, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Sujit K

    2005-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted to understand the risk factors associated with kala-azar in disease-endemic areas of Bihar, India. A total of 134 kala-azar cases treated at the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Patna and 406 healthy controls selected randomly from the neighborhoods of cases in their native villages were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that education, a history of other diseases in the previous year, a history of kala-azar in the family, type of walls in houses, presence of a granary inside houses, presence of vegetation around houses, bamboo trees near houses, and irregular spraying around houses with DDT were risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of other diseases in the previous year (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, P = 0.002), a history of kala-azar in the family (OR = 1.8, P = 0.03), mud-plastered walls in houses, (OR = 2.4, P = 0.0001], a granary inside houses (OR = 4.3, P = 0.0001), presence of bamboo trees around houses (OR = 2.3, P = 0.001), and houses not sprayed with DDT in the past six months (OR = 3.4, P = 0.0001) were significant risk factors for kala-azar. These results will be useful in developing kala-azar control programs for identifying intervention strategies such as better housing, regular and proper insecticide spraying, and promoting health awareness to the community residing in disease-endemic areas for reducing transmission and incidence of this disease.

  7. Risk factors for anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Pan, Xueliang; Timmers, Cynthia Dawn; Pilarski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.; Lustberg, Maryam B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Carbonyl reductase (CBR) catalyzes anthracycline metabolism, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CBR impact metabolic efficiency. In pediatric patients, homo-zygosity for the major allele (G) in the CBR3 gene was associated with increased risk of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that CBR SNPs contribute to cardiotoxicity in adults Methods We retrospectively identified female breast cancer patients in the Columbus Breast Tissue Bank Registry treated with adriamycin and cytoxan (AC) from 2003 to 2012. We selected patients who developed cardiomyopathy, defined as a drop in ejection fraction to <50 % or >15 % decrease from pre-therapy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify cardiotoxicity risk factors. SNPs were genotyped, and frequency of the major allele (G)/minor allele (A) of the CBR3 and CBR1 genes was calculated. Results We identified 52 cases of cardiotoxicity after AC and 110 controls. Multivariate analysis showed that trastuzumab (p=0.009), diabetes (p=0.05), and consumption of >8 alcoholic drinks/week (p=0.024) were associated with higher cardiotoxicity risk. Moderate alcohol consumption (<8 drinks/week) was associated with lower risk (p=0.009). No association was identified between CBR SNPs and cardiotoxicity (CBR1 p= 0.261; CBR3 p=0.556). Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate SNPs in the CBR pathway as predictors of AC cardiotoxicity in adults. We did not observe any significant correlation between cardiotoxicity and SNPs within the CBR pathway. Further investigation into CBR SNPs in a larger adult sample is needed. Additional exploration into genomic predictors of anthracycline cardiotoxicity may allow for the development of preventative and therapeutic strategies for those at risk. PMID:26563179

  8. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  9. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Tlemcen (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries.

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Khan, Shahid A; Toledano, Mireille B; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance. PMID:18666317

  11. Phytol metabolites are circulating dietary factors that activate the nuclear receptor RXR.

    PubMed Central

    Kitareewan, S; Burka, L T; Tomer, K B; Parker, C E; Deterding, L J; Stevens, R D; Forman, B M; Mais, D E; Heyman, R A; McMorris, T; Weinberger, C

    1996-01-01

    RXR is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in cell signaling by pairing with a host of other receptors. Previously, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) was defined as a potent RXR activator. Here we describe a unique RXR effector identified from organic extracts of bovine serum by following RXR-dependent transcriptional activity. Structural analyses of material in active fractions pointed to the saturated diterpenoid phytanic acid, which induced RXR-dependent transcription at concentrations between 4 and 64 microM. Although 200 times more potent than phytanic acid, 9cRA was undetectable in equivalent amounts of extract and cannot be present at a concentration that could account for the activity. Phytanic acid, another phytol metabolite, was synthesized and stimulated RXR with a potency and efficacy similar to phytanic acid. These metabolites specifically displaced [3H]-9cRA from RXR with Ki values of 4 microM, indicating that their transcriptional effects are mediated by direct receptor interactions. Phytol metabolites are compelling candidates for physiological effectors, because their RXR binding affinities and activation potencies match their micromolar circulating concentrations. Given their exclusive dietary origin, these chlorophyll metabolites may represent essential nutrients that coordinate cellular metabolism through RXR-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:8856661

  12. Psychopathy as a risk factor for violence.

    PubMed

    Hare, R D

    1999-01-01

    As a result of Kansas v Hendricks, many sex offenders in the U.S. are likely to be civilly committed to mental institutions for indefinite periods, and many others with histories of violent offenses may also be so committed. It therefore becomes critical for mental health professionals to understand the risk factors for re-offending that put the public in jeopardy. The most reliable of these factors is psychopathy, which will here be defined, along with its differentiation from the more commonly diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. The assessment of psychopathy, its relationship to crime--especially, to violent crime, its (non-) responsiveness to the usual treatment, and an outline of a potentially more effective one, are presented. Finally, and particularly in view of its widely accepted validity, the potential for abuse of the PCL-R and :SV are noted.

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is anything that changes a person's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Be Prevented? Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Are the ... few known risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Being older These tumors can occur in people ...

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia? A risk factor is anything that affects a ... of leukemia. Having a brother or sister with leukemia Siblings (brothers and sisters) of children with leukemia ...

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Uterine Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as smoking, drinking, or diet. Some factors influence risk more than others. But risk factors don' ... the disease. Written by References The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team Our team is ...

  18. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  19. Vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia.

    PubMed

    Duron, E; Hanon, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease) and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer's disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.

  20. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  1. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  2. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia as a coronary risk factor.

    PubMed

    Borén, Jan; Matikainen, Niina; Adiels, Martin; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2014-04-20

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is now established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This metabolic abnormality is principally initiated by overproduction and/or decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and is a consequence of predisposing genetic variations and medical conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accumulation of TRLs in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall. Because of their size, most remnant particles cannot cross the endothelium as efficiently as smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, since each remnant particle contains approximately 40 times more cholesterol compared with LDL, elevated levels of remnants may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and CVD. The recognition of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in the clinical setting has been severely hampered by technical difficulties and the lack of established clinical protocols for investigating postprandial lipemia. In addition, there are currently no internationally agreed management guidelines for this type of dyslipidemia. Here we review the mechanism for and consequences of excessive postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, epidemiological evidence in support of high triglycerides and remnant particles as risk factors for CVD, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia, methods to measure postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and apolipoproteins and, finally, current and future treatment opportunities.

  3. Gene variants as risk factors for gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Tom, Lauren; Lin, Bin; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Lammer, Edward J.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    In a population‐based case‐control study in California of 228 infants, we investigated 75 genetic variants in 20 genes and risk of gastroschisis with regard to maternal age, race/ethnicity, vitamin use, and smoking exposure. We hypothesized that genes related to vascular compromise may interact with environmental factors to affect the risk of gastroschisis. Haplotypes were constructed for 75 gene variants using the HaploView program. Risk for gastroschisis associated with each gene variant was calculated for both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes, with the homozygous wildtypes as the referent. Risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. We found 11 gene variants with increased risk and four variants with decreased risk of gastroschisis for heterozygous (ORh) or homozygous variants (ORv) genotypes. These included NOS3 (rs1036145) ORh = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.7); NOS3 (rs10277237) ORv = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3–6.0); ADD1 (rs12503220) ORh = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.6–5.4), GNB3 (rs5443) ORh = 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.5), ORv = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.9); ICAM1 (rs281428) ORv = 6.9 (95% CI: 2.1–22.9), ICAM1 (rs3093030) ORv = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.6); ICAM4 (rs281438) ORv = 4.9 (95% CI: 1.4–16.6), ICAM5 (rs281417) ORh = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1–4.1), ORv = 4.8 (95% CI: 1.7–13.6); ICAM5 (rs281440) ORh = 23.7 (95% CI: 5.5–102.5), ORv = 20.6 (95% CI: 3.4–124.3); ICAM5 (rs2075741) ORv = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1–4.4); NAT1 ORv = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.9). There were additional associations between several gene variants and gastroschisis among women aged 20–24 and among mothers with and without vitamin use. NOS3, ADD1, ICAM1, ICAM4, and ICAM5 warrant further investigation in additional populations and with the interaction of additional environmental exposures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27616475

  4. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  5. Primary risk assessment of dimethyldithiocarbamate, a dithiocarbamate fungicide metabolite, based on their probabilistic concentrations in a coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ito, Mana; Ichihashi, Hideki; Fujii, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The primary ecological risk of dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC), a dithiocarbamate fungicide (DTC) metabolite, was evaluated based on their probabilistic environmental concentration distributions (ECDs) in the coastal environment, Hiroshima Bay, Japan. And their behavior and temporal trends was further considered. This is the first report of the identification of DMDC from environmental seawater and sediment samples. DMDC concentrations in bottom seawater were substantially higher than those in surface seawater, which are associated with the leachability from sediments in bottom seawaters, and with photodegradation in surface seawaters. Furthermore, seasonal risks are dominated by higher concentrations from April to June, indicating temporal variation in the risk to exposed species. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis offered DMDC ECD medians and range (5th to 95th percentiles) of 0.85 ng L(-1) (0.029, 22), 12 ng L(-1) (3.2, 48) and 110 ng kg dry(-1) (9.5, 1200) in surface seawater, bottom seawater and sediment, respectively. Considering that DMDC and DTCs have similar toxicological potential to aquatic organisms, the occurrence of the compound in water is likely to be of biological relevance. In summary, this work provides the first demonstration that the ecological risk of DMDC and its derived DTCs in Hiroshima Bay is relatively high, and that DTCs should be a high priority for future research on marine contamination, especially in bottom seawaters.

  6. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears.

  7. Levels of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk and their determinant factors.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, L; López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Cebrián, M; Rueda, C; Reyes, R; López-Cervantes, M

    1999-01-01

    To document the levels and the determinants of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk, we conducted a cohort study of 50 adult females who lived in Mexico City. We measured social and dietary characteristics via interview. Levels of DDT metabolites were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The mean values (lipid milk basis) were 0.162 ppm p,p'-DDT; 0.138 ppm o,p'-DDT; and 0.594 ppm 2,2(bis)p-chlorophyenyl-1-1-dichloroethylene (DDE). The main determinants of DDT metabolites were maternal age, lifetime lactation, history of living in an agricultural area, and consumption of salted meat and fish. We estimated that 6.0% of the breast-fed babies had daily intakes of DDT above the level of 0.005 mg/kg d recommended by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO/FAO). Health-outcomes research among children is needed, and investigators should design or adjust current surveillance programs.

  8. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  9. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of

  10. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  11. Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

  12. Biomarkers, genetics, and risk factors for concussion.

    PubMed

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Jelsing, Elena J; Smith, Jay

    2011-10-01

    It is estimated that between 1.6 and 3.8 million concussions occur annually in the United States. Although frequently regarded as benign, concussions can lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, including prolonged postconcussive symptoms, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, early onset dementia, movement disorders, psychiatric disorders, motor neuron disease, and even death. Therefore it is important to identify individuals with concussion to provide appropriate medical care and minimize adverse outcomes. Furthermore, it is important to identify individuals who are predisposed to sustaining a concussion or to having an adverse outcome after concussion. This article will discuss the current research on serum biomarkers for concussion, genetic influence on concussion, risk factors associated with concussion predisposition and poor outcome, and practical suggestions for the application of this information in clinical practice.

  13. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  14. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  15. Risk factors and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Storti, S; Crucitti, P; Cina, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last 20 years within the clinical research on venous thromboembolism a major objective was to identify and develop increasingly effective and safe methods of prevention. This trend is justified by the high incidence of thromboembolism as well as by the relevant mortality for acute pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic sequels of difficult treatment. A significant contribution to the rational application of methods of prevention was given by the knowledge of risk factors. Together with acquired risks, as surgery, age, malignant tumors, in the last 30 years some conditions of thrombophilia were identified. They are caused by deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors (antithrombin III, protein C, protein S) or other alteration of the anticoagulation system as resistance to activated protein C or antiphospholipid antibodies. The primary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism is aimed at the prevention of thrombosis by pharmacologic methods able to oppose the procoagulant alterations while avoiding hemorrhagic complications. The physical methods tend to reduce the stasis in the veins of the lower extremities. Subcutaneous calcium heparin at the dose of 5000 U twice or three times a day is the most common pharmacologic method used. It was shown to be safe and effective especially in postoperative prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in general surgery. More recently, low molecular weight heparin fractions have been introduced. As compared to standard heparin they have the advantage of a single daily dose and a better efficacy in some groups of patients, as those undergoing hip replacement. Among the substances under clinical experimentation, dermatan sulfate seems promising. Most common physical prevention methods consist in the use of elastic graduated compression stockings and systems of intermittent pneumatic calf compression. The former can be used also in presence of a hemorrhagic risk as in neurosurgery. The latter have shown a good efficacy in increasing flow

  16. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  17. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  18. Altered metabolite accumulation in tomato fruits by coexpressing a feedback-insensitive AroG and the PhODO1 MYB-type transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingjun; Liu, Zhongyuan; Meir, Sagit; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Klee, Harry J; Galili, Gad

    2016-12-01

    Targeted manipulation of phenylalanine (Phe) synthesis is a potentially powerful strategy to boost biologically and economically important metabolites, including phenylpropanoids, aromatic volatiles and other specialized plant metabolites. Here, we use two transgenes to significantly increase the levels of aromatic amino acids, tomato flavour-associated volatiles and antioxidant phenylpropanoids. Overexpression of the petunia MYB transcript factor, ODORANT1 (ODO1), combined with expression of a feedback-insensitive E. coli 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (AroG), altered the levels of multiple primary and secondary metabolites in tomato fruit, boosting levels of multiple secondary metabolites. Our results indicate that coexpression of AroG and ODO1 has a dual effect on Phe and related biosynthetic pathways: (i) positively impacting tyrosine (Tyr) and antioxidant related metabolites, including ones derived from coumaric acid and ferulic acid; (ii) negatively impacting other downstream secondary metabolites of the Phe pathway, including kaempferol-, naringenin- and quercetin-derived metabolites, as well as aromatic volatiles. The metabolite profiles were distinct from those obtained with either single transgene. In addition to providing fruits that are increased in flavour and nutritional chemicals, coexpression of the two genes provides insights into regulation of branches of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways.

  19. Infantile esotropia: risk factors associated with reoperation

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; Rombetto, Luca; Matarazzo, Francesco; Carelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM). Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years. Statistical analysis was performed with a logistical regression model in which the dependent variable was the presence/absence of reoperation. We found that late surgery (after 3 years of age) and a family history of strabismus are associated with a higher risk of reoperation, while some clinical factors, including some classically associated with worst motor outcome as preoperative angle, dissociated vertical deviation, and amblyopia, did not influence the incidence of reoperation in infantile esotropia. Male patients and patients with hyperopia in preoperative examinations have a significantly decreased reoperation rate. PMID:27799735

  20. Personalized Predictive Modeling and Risk Factor Identification using Patient Similarity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenney; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Personalized predictive models are customized for an individual patient and trained using information from similar patients. Compared to global models trained on all patients, they have the potential to produce more accurate risk scores and capture more relevant risk factors for individual patients. This paper presents an approach for building personalized predictive models and generating personalized risk factor profiles. A locally supervised metric learning (LSML) similarity measure is trained for diabetes onset and used to find clinically similar patients. Personalized risk profiles are created by analyzing the parameters of the trained personalized logistic regression models. A 15,000 patient data set, derived from electronic health records, is used to evaluate the approach. The predictive results show that the personalized models can outperform the global model. Cluster analysis of the risk profiles show groups of patients with similar risk factors, differences in the top risk factors for different groups of patients and differences between the individual and global risk factors.

  1. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-06-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Methods Data from the Stroke Foundation ‘Know your numbers’ program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Findings Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Conclusions Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world. PMID:28245267

  3. Indolepropionic acid and novel lipid metabolites are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Vanessa D.; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Lankinen, Maria A.; Shi, Lin; Kuusisto, Johanna; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; Rolandsson, Olov; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Nordin, Elise; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Landberg, Rikard; Eriksson, Johan G.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hanhineva, Kati; Uusitupa, Matti

    2017-01-01

    Wide-scale profiling technologies including metabolomics broaden the possibility of novel discoveries related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). By applying non-targeted metabolomics approach, we investigated here whether serum metabolite profile predicts T2D in a well-characterized study population with impaired glucose tolerance by examining two groups of individuals who took part in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS); those who either early developed T2D (n = 96) or did not convert to T2D within the 15-year follow-up (n = 104). Several novel metabolites were associated with lower likelihood of developing T2D, including indole and lipid related metabolites. Higher indolepropionic acid was associated with reduced likelihood of T2D in the DPS. Interestingly, in those who remained free of T2D, indolepropionic acid and various lipid species were associated with better insulin secretion and sensitivity, respectively. Furthermore, these metabolites were negatively correlated with low-grade inflammation. We replicated the association between indolepropionic acid and T2D risk in one Finnish and one Swedish population. We suggest that indolepropionic acid, a gut microbiota-produced metabolite, is a potential biomarker for the development of T2D that may mediate its protective effect by preservation of β-cell function. Novel lipid metabolites associated with T2D may exert their effects partly through enhancing insulin sensitivity.

  4. First Births among Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    1999-01-01

    Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent…

  5. Heart Disease Risk Factors for Children and Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... called risk factors . Some risk factors can be changed, treated, or modified, and some cannot. Many risk ... would not date someone who smokes. Be a role model for your child. If you ... aging, gender, lifestyle, and illness. Obesity in children is dangerous ...

  6. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment.

  7. Endosulfan and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, in freshwater ecosystems of South Florida: a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rand, Gary M; Carriger, John F; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2010-06-01

    Endosulfan is an insecticide-acaricide used in South Florida and is one of the remaining organochlorine insecticides registered under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act by the U.S.EPA. The technical grade material consists of two isomers (alpha-, beta-) and the main environmental metabolite in water, sediment and tissue is endosulfan sulfate through oxidation. A comprehensive probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment was conducted to determine the potential risks of existing exposures to endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in freshwaters of South Florida based on historical data (1992-2007). The assessment included hazard assessment (Tier 1) followed by probabilistic risk assessment (Tier 2). Tier 1 compared actual measured concentrations in surface freshwaters of 47 sites in South Florida from historical data to U.S.EPA numerical water quality criteria. Based on results of Tier 1, Tier 2 focused on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan at nine sites by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan [i.e., for total endosulfan (summation of concentrations of alpha- and beta-isomers plus the sulfate), alpha- plus beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate (alone)] with distributions of species effects from laboratory toxicity data. In Tier 2 the distribution of total endosulfan in fish tissue (whole body) from South Florida freshwaters was also used to determine the probability of exceeding a distribution of whole body residues of endosulfan producing mortality (critical lethal residues). Tier 1 showed the majority of endosulfan water quality violations in South Florida were at locations S-178 followed by S-177 in the C-111 system (southeastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP)). Nine surface water sampling sites were chosen for Tier 2. Tier 2 showed the highest potentially affected fraction of toxicity values (>10%) by the estimated 90th centile exposure concentration (total endosulfan) was at S-178

  8. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Epidemiology, environmental risk factors and genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delamarre, Anna; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2017-02-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease with a premotor phase that lasts several years. Risk factors that have been linked to PD are tobacco, caffeine, black tea, pesticides and calcium channel blockers. Some risk factors may be due to inverse causality (e.g. changes in personality during the premotor phase). The genetics of PD are complex with a contribution of Mendelian (e.g. SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin, Pink1,…) and non-Mendelian factors (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms). Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations (Gaucher disease) are currently the strongest genetic risk factor for PD. Studying risk factors will help to better understand the pathogenesis of PD.

  10. The effect of preanalytical factors on stability of the proteome and selected metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

    PubMed

    Rosenling, Therese; Slim, Christiaan L; Christin, Christin; Coulier, Leon; Shi, Shanna; Stoop, Marcel P; Bosman, Jan; Suits, Frank; Horvatovich, Peter L; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Vreeken, Rob; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Gool, Alain J; Luider, Theo M; Bischoff, Rainer

    2009-12-01

    To standardize the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biomarker research, a set of stability studies have been performed on porcine samples to investigate the influence of common sample handling procedures on proteins, peptides, metabolites and free amino acids. This study focuses at the effect on proteins and peptides, analyzed by applying label-free quantitation using microfluidics nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (chipLC-MS) as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FT-ICR-MS) and Orbitrap LC-MS/MS to trypsin-digested CSF samples. The factors assessed were a 30 or 120 min time delay at room temperature before storage at -80 degrees C after the collection of CSF in order to mimic potential delays in the clinic (delayed storage), storage at 4 degrees C after trypsin digestion to mimic the time that samples remain in the cooled autosampler of the analyzer, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles to mimic storage and handling procedures in the laboratory. The delayed storage factor was also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for changes of metabolites and free amino acids, respectively. Our results show that repeated freeze/thawing introduced changes in transthyretin peptide levels. The trypsin digested samples left at 4 degrees C in the autosampler showed a time-dependent decrease of peak areas for peptides from prostaglandin D-synthase and serotransferrin. Delayed storage of CSF led to changes in prostaglandin D-synthase derived peptides as well as to increased levels of certain amino acids and metabolites. The changes of metabolites, amino acids and proteins in the delayed storage study appear to be related to remaining white blood cells. Our recommendations are to centrifuge CSF samples immediately after collection to remove white blood cells, aliquot, and then

  11. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of trichloroethylene and its metabolites for use in risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Clewell, H J; Gentry, P R; Covington, T R; Gearhart, J M

    2000-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed that provides a comprehensive description of the kinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCOH), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), in the mouse, rat, and human for both oral and inhalation exposure. The model includes descriptions of the three principal target tissues for cancer identified in animal bioassays: liver, lung, and kidney. Cancer dose metrics provided in the model include the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for TCA and DCA in the plasma, the peak concentration and AUC for chloral in the tracheobronchial region of the lung, and the production of a thioacetylating intermediate from dichlorovinylcysteine in the kidney. Additional dose metrics provided for noncancer risk assessment include the peak concentrations and AUCs for TCE and TCOH in the blood, as well as the total metabolism of TCE divided by the body weight. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed on the model to evaluate its suitability for use in a pharmacokinetic risk assessment for TCE. Model predictions of TCE, TCA, DCA, and TCOH concentrations in rodents and humans are in good agreement with a variety of experimental data, suggesting that the model should provide a useful basis for evaluating cross-species differences in pharmacokinetics for these chemicals. In the case of the lung and kidney target tissues, however, only limited data are available for establishing cross-species pharmacokinetics. As a result, PBPK model calculations of target tissue dose for lung and kidney should be used with caution. PMID:10807559

  12. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Your risk of getting colorectal cancer increases as you get older. More than 90% ...

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental risk factors, such as radiation and certain chemicals, have been linked to MDS. High-dose radiation exposure (such as surviving an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of developing MDS. Long- ...

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  15. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  16. Clinical risk factors and periventricular leucomalacia.

    PubMed

    Trounce, J Q; Shaw, D E; Levene, M I; Rutter, N

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred infants of below 1501 g at birth were regularly examined with real time ultrasound using a 7.5 MHz transducer. Abnormalities were categorized as periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) (n = 107) or periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), with or without PVH (n = 52). Of the group with PVL, 25 had the appearances of prolonged flare without cavitation. Prospective assessments of up to 50 potential clinical risk factors were made wherever possible on each infant including stratification of all blood gas and systolic blood pressure data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed a strong correlation between immaturity and PVH but this was not found in cases of PVL. Independent variables associated with PVL included pneumothorax, maximum bilirubin concentration, surgery, and the proportion of time the infant's PaCO2 remained above 7 kPa. There was a very strong inverse correlation between anaemia and PVL. Systolic blood pressure data were carefully analysed and there was no relation between either hypotension or antepartum haemorrhage and the development of PVL.

  17. Perimenstrual symptoms: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Logue, C M; Moos, R H

    1986-01-01

    This article provides an overview of information on the prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Overall, at least 40% of women experience some cyclical perimenstrual symptoms. Although most women rate their symptoms as mild, approximately 2%-10% report severe symptoms. Prospective studies of perimenstrual symptoms indicate that retrospective reports are reasonably accurate among women who experience moderate to severe symptoms. However, among the majority of women with few or minimal symptoms, retrospective reports may amplify the cyclicity of variation in comparison to concurrent reports. A variety of risk factors are associated with patterns of symptom reporting and may provide clues to the etiology of perimenstrual symptoms and help to identify women most vulnerable to them. A woman's age and cycle characteristics are predictors of the type and severity of perimenstrual symptoms she experiences. In addition, a history of affective illness may be associated with increased reporting of perimenstrual symptoms. Future research should focus on developing new diagnostic criteria for subtypes of perimenstrual syndromes, exploring positive symptoms and experiences associated with the menstrual cycle, and formulating holistic treatment approaches that view perimenstrual syndromes as psychosomatic conditions.

  18. Seasonal variations of selected cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews research on selected biomarkers of cardiovascular risk - cholesterol and other lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine - in the attempt to determine the existence of a predictable seasonal chronobiological pattern of variation. Studies dating as far back as the 1930s have reported seasonal variations in cholesterol levels. Statistically significant seasonal changes in lipid levels have been found in individuals irrespective of the country where the research has been conducted, and irrespective of the age, sex, ethnicity, and baseline lipid levels of the study subjects. While not all studies have been in complete agreement on either the amplitude (degree of seasonal change) or month/s of highest lipid levels, a strong winter/summer difference has been found in most studies. Existing evidence for an independent effect of season in variation of CRP is weak. Studies have consistently reported significant seasonal variations in fibrinogen levels. While other biological factors clearly interact to affect fibrinogen variability, seasonality appears to be an independent source of variability. Evidence from several studies points to a lack of seasonal variability in homocysteine levels. Although seasonal variability is just one source of periodicity influencing biological function and assessments in clinical practice, for some biomarkers, including lipids and fibrinogen, it is a source of variability that warrants consideration prior to a decision to treat and in assessing response to interventions.

  19. Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Song, Jong-Oh; Park, Jung-Hwan; Koh, Soon-Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Seo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify risk factors for developing rhabdomyolysis in patients with doxylamine overdose. Patients who were admitted to a university teaching hospital between July 2000 and September 2005 due to doxylamine overdose were recruited. Demographic information, clinical variables, and laboratory data were investigated. Twenty-seven (M/F 12/15, age 33.2 +/-13.1 years) patients were enrolled. Sixteen (59%) of 27 patients developed rhabdomyolysis and three (19%) of 16 patients with rhabdomyolysis also developed acute renal failure. Patients who developed rhabdomyolysis differed from those who did not in the amount of doxylamine ingested, initial serum creatitnine and arterial pH. In multivariate regression analysis, the only reliable predictor of rhabdomyolysis was the amount of doxylamine ingested (P = 0.039). The amount of doxylamine ingested (>/= 20 mg/kg) predicted the development of rhabdomyolysis with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 82%, a positive predictive value of 87%, and a negative predictive value of 75%.In conclusion, rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose was common, occurring in 87% of patients who ingested more than 20 mg/kg. The amount of doxylamine ingested was the only reliable predictor for developing rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose.

  20. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  1. Urinary Level of Prostaglandin E2 Metabolite and Risk of Incident Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Approximately 70% of women underwent menopause naturally, and mean age at menopause was older in women reporting a natural menopause compared to those...reporting a surgical menopause (50.8 years [SD=4.5] vs. 42.8 years [SD=8.0]). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 66%. Few were current smokers (8...years, no association was observed between relative telomere length in blood and breast cancer risk. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status

  2. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  3. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  4. A behaviour risk factor survey in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J P; Fox, K; Minor, K

    1999-03-01

    A population based probability sample of 958 persons (454 males and 504 females) aged 15 to 49 years was surveyed in Jamaica in late 1993 for lifestyle and behaviour risk factors. Demographic characteristics of the sample were comparable to the general population, 60% of persons visited a private doctor the last time that they were ill. Based on self-reporting, 18% of the women and 8% of the men were hypertensive and 4.8% of the women and 3.3% of the men were diabetic. 26% of the men and 8% of the women had never had their blood pressure taken. 40% of the women had never had a Papanicolaou smear, 29% had never had a breast examination and 33% said that they were overweight compared with 18% of men. Smoking cigarettes and marijuana was more common among men (36%) than women (11%), as were drinking alcohol (79% of men, 41% of women) and heavy alcohol use (30% of men, 9% of women). Injuries requiring medical attention in the previous five years were reported by 40% of the men and 15% of the women. 34% of the men and 12% of the women regularly carried a weapon and 18% of the sample had participated in or witnessed at least one violent act in the previous month. Most of the people interviewed used a contraceptive method; 10% were not sexually active. Significantly more men than women had two or more sexual partners in the previous year (54% vs 17%, p < 0.001) or reported ever having a sexually transmitted disease (29% vs 9%, p < 0.001). Younger persons were more sexually active and more likely to use condoms during their most recent sexual intercourse. Higher socio-economic status and educational level generally had a more positive effect on health behaviour. This survey provides vital information relevant to planning health promotion campaigns and assessing their success.

  5. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  7. Radiation effects: Modulating factors and risk assessment -- an overview.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, R

    2012-01-01

    Following low dose or low dose-rate exposures to ionising radiation, the principal resulting radiation-related risk is cancer. Site-specific cancer risk models have been developed that describe how the radiation-induced risk of a particular cancer type varies with the relevant tissue-specific absorbed dose of radiation. The degree of risk will also be determined by the radiation quality and the dose-rate, factors that will vary between types of radiation and cancer. Risk models also include a number of intrinsic factors that modify the radiation-related excess risk - sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, and attained age - although not all these factors enter into each site-specific model. Of some importance is how the radiation-related excess risk is transferred between populations when background incidence rates differ. For most cancer types, expert groups consider that the radiation-related excess risk in a population depends, to some extent, upon the background incidence rate, and therefore that radiation interacts with at least some of the major risk factors that determine the background risk for a person. For example, the radiation-induced risk of lung cancer depends on the degree of individual exposure to tobacco smoke, but the implicit assumption of the currently accepted risk transfer models is that interactions are a general feature of radiation-related cancer risk.

  8. The Role of Unknown Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rafighdoust Abbas; Asadollah, Mirzaee; Hossien, Rafigdoust Amir

    2010-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction (MI), which is initiated from childhood and progresses gradually by aging. Several risk factors influence its progress, and are categorized as classic, traditional and novel factors. The role of unknown risk factors is becoming increasingly more significant recently. The aim of this study is to underscore the novel risk factors despite the importance of classic factors and consider these factors for future studies. Methods This is a prospective study on 180 myocardial infarction cases, conducted in the cardiology ward and CCU of Imam-Reza hospital (Mashad-IRAN). A number of risk factors identified and evaluated in these patients included: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, activity, stress, hair of external ear canal and ear lobe crease, age, and sex. Then patients without any risk factor or with one or two risk factors were distinguished. Results The majority of our patients were old men in the age range of 60 - 69 years. Amongst all patients 42.2% were smokers, 68.3% were type A personality group, 19% were active, 81% were physically inactive, 37.2% had hairy ear canal, 35% had hypertension, 21.1% were diabetic, 14.4% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had positive family history of myocardial infarction. Of great interest was the fact that of the patients whose case was studied, many did not have any risk factor or in some cases had only one. Conclusions In regard of increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction even amongst the young population, and because of considerable need to improve vascular risk detection, much research over the past decade has focused on identification of novel atherosclerotic risk factors, and some of these new risk factors are identified and some may be unknown. Amongst the new risk factors, inflammation has an important role, other risk factors that must be assessed are homocysteine, serum amyloid, and

  9. [Risk factors for destructive periodontitis. I. Behavioral and acquired factors (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Gera, István

    2004-02-01

    Dental plaque is a necessary but not sufficient etiologic factor of the destructive periodontal disease. The manifestation of periodontal destruction is influenced by a wide variety of risk factors and determinants. In the introduction the terminology of different etiologic and risk factors are discussed in general. Than the risk factors and determinants of destructive periodontitis are overviewed. In the first part the acquired and behavioral factors and determinates are discussed. Among the local factors the role of the individual oral hygiene, the specificity of subgingival dental plaque the plaque retentive factors and occlusal traumatism are discussed. The hormonal, the acquired immunological factors, osteoporosis and the age are discussed as systemic risk factors and determinants. Among the behavioral factors smoking, psychological stress and socio-economic factors are covered. The second part is going to cover the genetic predisposing factors.

  10. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels.

  11. Behaviour Problems and Adults with Down Syndrome: Childhood Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with intellectual disability suggest that several individual characteristics and environmental factors are associated with behaviour disorder. To date there are few studies looking at risk factors within specific syndromes and the relationship between early risk markers and later behaviour disorder. The key aim of the…

  12. Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0387 TITLE: Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema ...Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2004 – 30 Sep 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast...axillary lymph nodes removed were followed for the development of arm lymphedema . Participants completed a baseline interview and subsequent

  13. Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0387 TITLE: Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema ...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2005 – 30 Sep 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema of the arm is a consequence of breast cancer

  14. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  15. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  16. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  17. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  18. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  19. Environmental Influences and Perinatal Risk Factors in High Risk Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others

    Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…

  20. Risk factors associated with injuries in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H O; Hill, T; Lowe, J

    1991-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted on Thoroughbred horses to identify factors associated with the risk of breakdown on racetracks. A total of 310 cases (breakdowns) were identified from the Horse Identification Department records kept by the chief examining veterinarian of New York Racing Association. For each case, two control horses were selected randomly from the Daily Racing Form Inc. records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify and quantify the risk of factors associated with breakdown, while simultaneously controlling for the effect of other putative factors. Factors associated with risk of breakdown were: track (horses raced on Saratoga racetrack were at a lesser risk of breakdown), track composition/condition (turf tracks had a lower risk compared to dirt), number of seasons in race, racing in a later race, number of starts per year, the total number of starts, season (summer had a higher risk than winter or spring) and age of the horse.

  1. Cardiovascular risk factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in non-infected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk (F[1,117] = 0.13, p > .05). Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly, but significantly, correlated, r(126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. PMID:24070645

  2. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Gulati, R; Martin, U

    1996-10-01

    Many factors influence whether a person will develop coronary heart disease. Genetic predisposition, gender and advanced age are recognized risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease over which we have little control. On the other hand, high serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, excessive body weight and long-term physical inactivity are key risk factors over which we have considerable control. In many cases cardiac risk factors can be modified without resorting to pharmacological intervention. Current evidence suggests that individuals who follow a diet which is low in saturated fats and cholesterol, lose weight, stop cigarette smoking and take regular aerobic exercise will significantly reduce their risk of developing coronary heart disease. In addition, patients who already have evidence of coronary heart disease may improve their symptoms and prognosis by similar life-style changes. In the first of two parts, we review the role of exercise in modifying cardiac risk factors.

  3. Risk factors of patients with and without postoperative nausea (PON).

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline; Hudgens, Amanda N; Martin, Dana; Jones, Holly; Hunt, Ronald; Blackwell, Richard; Norton, H James; Divine, George

    2012-08-01

    This purpose of this analysis was to study risk factors of postoperative nausea (PON) and their strength. Data were obtained during the screening phase of a controlled clinical trial of aromatherapy for PON. In a sample of 1151 postsurgical subjects, 301 (26.2%) reported PON. Significant risk factors identified in the order of odds ratios for nausea were female gender, gastrointestinal surgery, use of volatile anesthesia gases, history of PON, history of motion sickness, and use of opioids after surgery. Although still over 1.0, the risk factors of length of surgery over 1 hour and gynecologic surgery had the lowest odds ratios. Likelihood of nausea increased significantly with the number of significant risk factors (P<.0001). Administration of preventive antiemetic medication also increased with the number of significant risk factors (P<.0001). Among 301 subjects reporting nausea, 49 (16.28%) received preventive medication. Despite prevention efforts, PON remains a substantial side effect for many surgical patients.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  5. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials.

  6. Children at risk: 2. Risk Factors and Clinic Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-27

    health services utilization. develop more robust models of risk, and increase the effectiveness of our efforts directed towards prevention and...mental health services ( Tuckman and Regan, 1967; Novack it is vitally important that the various ways of measuring et al., 1975). Possibly, parental...related to clinic clinics than later-born children ( Tuckman and Regan, 1967). attrition have been conducted, it is not clear that such studies Possibly

  7. Risk Factors for Acute Leukemia in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belson, Martin; Kingsley, Beverely; Holmes, Adrianne

    2007-01-01

    Although overall incidence is rare, leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It accounts for 30% of all cancers diagnosed in children younger than 15 years. Within this population, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs approximately five times more frequently than acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and accounts for approximately 78% of all childhood leukemia diagnoses. Epidemiologic studies of acute leukemias in children have examined possible risk factors, including genetic, infectious, and environmental, in an attempt to determine etiology. Only one environmental risk factor (ionizing radiation) has been significantly linked to ALL or AML. Most environmental risk factors have been found to be weakly and inconsistently associated with either form of acute childhood leukemia. Our review focuses on the demographics of childhood leukemia and the risk factors that have been associated with the development of childhood ALL or AML. The environmental risk factors discussed include ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, hydrocarbons, pesticides, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and illicit drug use. Knowledge of these particular risk factors can be used to support measures to reduce potentially harmful exposures and decrease the risk of disease. We also review genetic and infectious risk factors and other variables, including maternal reproductive history and birth characteristics. PMID:17366834

  8. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  9. Clinician perceptions of childhood risk factors for future antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Koegl, Christopher J; Farrington, David P; Augimeri, Leena K

    2009-07-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476 (87%) could be unambiguously classified under one discrete EARL factor category, providing support for the structure of the tools. Children's own antisocial behavior was seen as the most important factor, followed by experiencing abuse and having antisocial peers. In some cases, participants emphasized different risk factors for boys (e.g., having antisocial attitudes) and girls (e.g., low coping ability). The findings highlight the need to pay attention to client characteristics in developing risk assessment protocols and support continued efforts to bridge the gap between scientific research and clinical practice.

  10. Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

  11. Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Their Genetic Determinants: A Study Within the Dutch "DOM" Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    months 13-24) 2) Preparation of an exhaustive catalogue of polymorphisms in the CYPIA1, CYP1B1 , CYP3A4 and COMTgenes by searching the literature...association between the concentrations of these hormones and breast cancer risk with polymorphic variations of a series of candidate genes, known to be...hydroxy, 16a-hydroxy, 2-methoxy and 4-methoxy metabolites of E1 and E2 2) examine relationship of polymorphic variants of genes encoding estrogen

  12. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  13. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk.

  14. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and anxiety Negative emotions like depression, stress, and anxiety can raise your risk of developing heart disease . Researchers aren't exactly sure why this is. Perhaps these emotions lead to unhealthy ways of coping, such as smoking, drink too much, or eating high-fat foods — ...

  15. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in menopausal Argentinian women.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, G S; Ortiz, D; Goya, R G; Sala, C; Panzica, E; Sevillano, A; Dron, N

    1995-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk factor profile was assessed in a population sample consisting of 60 nonmenopausal (control) and 100 menopausal women from different cities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Each subject was individually interviewed and asked to complete a specially designed questionnaire aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors. A clinical general and gynecological examination including blood pressure and anthropometric measurements as well as a Papanicolaou smear were performed. The most prevalent risk factor in the menopausal group was low physical activity (87% of the subjects), followed by nervous complaints (67%), obesity (64%), familial antecedents of cardiovascular disease (CVD; 38%) and hypertension (33%). Other risk factors assessed showed a level of prevalence below 10%. In the control group, a tobacco smoking habit was the CVD risk factor with the highest prevalence (47%). Nervous complaints also showed a high prevalence (48%). Most menopausal patients (77%) had a cardiovascular risk index (RI) level between 1.5 and 4.0, whereas 17% of these subjects had an RI greater than 4.0 (high-risk patients). The present study reveals that, in the studied community, the menopause is associated with increased levels of both estrogen-dependent and psychosocial risk factors for CVD.

  16. Risk factors for sexually transmitted infections among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    Significant numbers of adolescents are initiating sexual activity at age 17 and younger. Little is known about this younger population of adolescents. This includes risk or protective factors for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. To safeguard all adolescents from the consequences of risky sexual behaviors, and to insure age appropriate and effective interventions, further study is critical to address risky behaviors specific to early adolescents. This study was a retrospective chart review of 155 sexually active adolescent girls. Students were divided into those who never had a documented STI and those who had 1 or more STIs. Data were collected from a sexual history questionnaire. These data were grouped into risk or protective domains. Domains were made up of 5 items of protective factors, 3 items of peer risks, 2 items of family risks, and 7 items of individual risks. STI outcomes were compared to these characteristics. One hundred fifty-five sexually active adolescents were studied. A univariate and multivariate analysis of risk and protective factors for testing positive for an STI demonstrated that high levels of protective factors reduced the risk of STIs. This suggests that STI prevention programs should focus on increasing protective factors among young adolescents in addition to reducing risk factors.

  17. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Taritei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke—whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk factor) was assessed using open-ended questionnaire. Data were treated with descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results. Sixty-nine stroke survivors (male = 72.5%; mean ± SD age = 49.7 ± 10.6 years) participated in the study. Thirty-four (49.4%) participants had knowledge of stroke risk factors. Only educational level was significantly associated with knowledge and participants with tertiary educational qualification were about 48 times (odds ratio = 48.5; CI = 7.6–309.8; P < 0.0001) more likely to be knowledgeable than those with no education. Conclusion. Less than half of the participants had knowledge of stroke risk factors. Participants with tertiary education were significantly more knowledgeable than those with lower educational qualifications. Effective means of educating stroke survivors on stroke risk factors should be identified and adopted. PMID:27882262

  18. Risk factors and their identification. Third Part: Examples.

    PubMed

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-10-01

    This is the final of a series of three articles in Diabete & Metabolisme which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. The three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-cohort studies are described in the second of the series [2]. Examples were provided of each of these study types and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. This final paper provides some examples of the study types and the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first examples involve diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and a disease, we then discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so and whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.

  19. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence.

  20. Foot blister risk factors in an ROTC summer camp population.

    PubMed

    Patterson, H S; Woolley, T W; Lednar, W M

    1994-02-01

    Data that establish risk factors for foot blister morbidity among ROTC cadets at summer camp are presented. The subjective blister attack rate was 42.1 per 100 cadets. Women had a relative risk of 1.6 that of men (p < 0.001). Cadets with a history of blisters in the 2 years before camp had an increased relative risk of blister formation. Cadets who reported wearing their boots less than 20 hours per week during the 2 weeks immediately before camp had elevated risk. Other factors are examined. These data suggest that the foot must become conditioned to its footwear to prevent blister formation.

  1. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2015-04-19

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  2. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  3. Suggested connections between risk factors of intracranial aneurysms: a review.

    PubMed

    Cebral, Juan R; Raschi, Marcelo

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review studies of aneurysm risk factors and the suggested hypotheses that connect the different risk factors and the underlying mechanisms governing the aneurysm natural history. The result of this work suggests that at the center of aneurysm evolution there is a cycle of wall degeneration and weakening in response to changing hemodynamic loading and biomechanic stress. This progressive wall degradation drives the geometrical evolution of the aneurysm until it stabilizes or ruptures. Risk factors such as location, genetics, smoking, co-morbidities, and hypertension seem to affect different components of this cycle. However, details of these interactions or their relative importance are still not clearly understood.

  4. Risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ashraf; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Khairy, Ahmed; Omar, Heba

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common disorder worldwide and ranks 2nd and 6th most common cancer among men and women in Egypt. HCC has a rising incidence in Egypt mostly due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis and its complications. Proper management requires the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate plan. The different modalities of treatment include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of HCC in Egypt including well-established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin, as well as possible risk factors.

  5. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27313880

  6. Viral factors in influenza pandemic risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitch, Marc; Barclay, Wendy; Raman, Rahul; Russell, Charles J; Belser, Jessica A; Cobey, Sarah; Kasson, Peter M; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Riley, Steven; Beauchemin, Catherine AA; Bedford, Trevor; Friedrich, Thomas C; Handel, Andreas; Herfst, Sander; Murcia, Pablo R; Roche, Benjamin; Wilke, Claus O; Russell, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The threat of an influenza A virus pandemic stems from continual virus spillovers from reservoir species, a tiny fraction of which spark sustained transmission in humans. To date, no pandemic emergence of a new influenza strain has been preceded by detection of a closely related precursor in an animal or human. Nonetheless, influenza surveillance efforts are expanding, prompting a need for tools to assess the pandemic risk posed by a detected virus. The goal would be to use genetic sequence and/or biological assays of viral traits to identify those non-human influenza viruses with the greatest risk of evolving into pandemic threats, and/or to understand drivers of such evolution, to prioritize pandemic prevention or response measures. We describe such efforts, identify progress and ongoing challenges, and discuss three specific traits of influenza viruses (hemagglutinin receptor binding specificity, hemagglutinin pH of activation, and polymerase complex efficiency) that contribute to pandemic risk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18491.001 PMID:27834632

  7. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  8. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigate the effects of 51 genetic variants identified in previous GWAS on breast cancer risk. The independent effect of these genetic variants was assessed by creating a summed genetic risk score (GRS) after adjustment for body mass index and the Gail model risk factors for breast cancer. Results The GRS was an independent predictor of breast cancer risk in Chinese women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of breast cancer for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the GRS were 1.26 (0.90 to 1.76), 1.47 (1.06 to 2.04) and 1.75 (1.27 to 2.41) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In addition to established risk factors, the GRS improved the classification of 6.2% of women for their absolute risk of breast cancer in the next five years. Conclusions Genetic variants on top of conventional risk factors can improve the risk prediction of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:24941967

  9. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  10. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  12. Occupational risk factors for developing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Hall, N

    1996-08-01

    We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries or occupations. A case-referent study of 149 male tuberculosis (TB) patients reported to the New Jersey Health Department from 1985 to 1987 and 290 referents was performed. Standardized interviews were conducted via the telephone or in person. Increased risk of TB was highest in heavy drinkers (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 1.99-5.59) and those who had a history of living with someone who had a history of TB (OR = 10.92, 95% CL 4.92-24.22). Occupations and industries associated with elevated risk for TB included: four silica-using industries-quarrying (OR = 3.96, 95% CL 0.36-44.02), pottery and related products (OR = 1.99, 95% CL 0.49-8.06), nonmetallic mineral and stone products (OR = 4.00, 95% CL 0.72-22.10), and ship and boat building and repair (OR = 1.84, 95% CL 0.76-4.43); hospitals (OR = 2.10, 95% CL 1.08-4.10); light truck drivers (OR = 2.49, 95% CL 1.30-4.77); agriculture (OR = 2.31, 95% CL 0.82-6.50); eating and drinking establishments (OR = 2.83, 95% CL 1.11-7.20); and janitors/cleaners (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.63-6.31). Except for janitors/cleaners, these elevated odds ratios remained for the above occupations/industries after controlling for alcohol or a history of having lived with someone with tuberculosis. Limitations of the study include a poor response rate (38%) and the exclusion of women from the study.

  13. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P < 0.001). The model-assigned 10-year risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors.

  14. TaWRKY70 transcription factor in wheat QTL-2DL regulates downstream metabolite biosynthetic genes to resist Fusarium graminearum infection spread within spike

    PubMed Central

    Kage, Udaykumar; Yogendra, Kalenahalli N.; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C.

    2017-01-01

    A semi-comprehensive metabolomics was used to identify the candidate metabolites and genes to decipher mechanisms of resistance in wheat near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing QTL-2DL against Fusarium graminearum (Fg). Metabolites, with high fold-change in abundance, belonging to hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs): such as coumaroylagmatine, coumaroylputrescine and Fatty acids: phosphatidic acids (PAs) were identified as resistance related induced (RRI) metabolites in rachis of resistant NIL (NIL-R), inoculated with Fg. A WRKY like transcription factor (TF) was identified within the QTL-2DL region, along with three resistance genes that biosynthesized RRI metabolites. Sequencing and in-silico analysis of WRKY confirmed it to be wheat TaWRKY70. Quantitative real time-PCR studies showed a higher expression of TaWRKY70 in NIL-R as compared to NIL-S after Fg inoculation. Further, the functional validation of TaWRKY70 based on virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) in NIL-R, not only confirmed an increased fungal biomass but also decreased expressions of downstream resistance genes: TaACT, TaDGK and TaGLI1, along with decreased abundances of RRI metabolites biosynthesized by them. Among more than 200 FHB resistance QTL identified in wheat, this is the first QTL from which a TF was identified, and its downstream target genes as well as the FHB resistance functions were deciphered. PMID:28198421

  15. Perineal skin injury: extrinsic environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Faria, D T; Shwayder, T; Krull, E A

    1996-08-01

    Little research has been performed to evaluate factors that may exacerbate perineal skin injury in the adult population. But extensive research has been done and knowledge has been gained from studies with diaper dermatitis in infants. Our objectives in writing this article are to define the anatomical area affected, the terms used, and to review the available literature for diaper dermatitis in infants, elucidating the similarities and differences between diaper dermatitis in infants and perineal dermatitis in adults. The six extrinsic environmental factors that have been identified and extensively studied in diaper dermatitis are skin wetness, urine, ammonia, feces, local skin pH and microorganisms. Although the complex interactions of the six factors are still not totally defined, we do know that to prevent perineal skin injury, it is helpful to prevent excessive skin hydration, minimize the interaction of urine and feces, minimize local microorganisms, and maintain skin near its physiologic pH. In general, the six extrinsic factors can be extrapolated and applied to the care of adults. Further research in adult fecal enzymes and pH is still necessary.

  16. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  17. Psychosocial Risk Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Marold, Donna B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents evidence for a model of risk factors, including depression, hopelessness, lack of social support, and negative self-evaluations, that contribute to suicidal ideation among normative and clinically depressed adolescents. (HTH)

  18. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  19. Gestational Diabetes a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gestational Diabetes a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression: Study It found chances increased even more if woman had suffered an earlier bout of depression To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... others. Risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors include: Gender Lung carcinoids occur more often in women than ... would like to unsubscribe/opt out from our communications, please follow this link: http://www.cancer.org/ ...

  1. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, p<0.0001), factor 6 (long-chain acylcarnitines, p<0.01), and factor 2 (medium-chain dicarboxylated acylcarnitines, p<0.0001) were higher in males vs. females; factor 6 levels were higher in Caucasians vs. African Americans (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also observed in hormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  2. "In vitro" effect of lipid peroxidation metabolites on elongation factor-2.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Elongation Factor-2 (eEF-2) is the protein that catalyzes the translocation of the ribosome through mRNA. Not all oxidants affect eEF-2, which is extremely sensitive to oxidative stress caused mainly by lipid peroxidant compounds such as cumene hydroperoxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide. Lipid peroxides constitute a potential hazard to living organisms because of their direct reactivity with a variety of biomolecules and the ability to decompose into free radicals and reactive aldehydes. In this "in vitro" study, we show the effect of three of these aldehydes on the levels of hepatic eEF-2. The results suggest that the toxicity associated with prooxidant-mediated hepatic lipid peroxidation on protein synthesis can originate from the interaction of the aldehydic end products of lipid peroxidation with eEF-2.

  3. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  4. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  5. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  7. Integratively Assessing Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly reviews key issues in adolescent suicide risk assessment and proposes that assessing risk and protective factors in combination has the best probability of informing the field's understanding of this complex problem. Several newer measures are described along with summaries of their psychometric properties. A recommended…

  8. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  9. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  10. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  11. Hyperuricemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: clinical review.

    PubMed

    Gudiño Gomezjurado, Álvaro

    2016-11-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several risk factors have been associated with the development of these pathologies. However, there is controversy about whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. To answer this question, we performed a recent literature review of relevant published material to assess the association of hyperuricemia with four major cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

  12. Multigenerational Breast Cancer Risk Factors in African-American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    psychosocial, reproductive, genetic and lifestyles ) related to disease risk. Cases were matched by ethnicity and age to two cancer-free women participating in a...Breast Cancer; African American, Lifestyles , Psychosocial 24 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...have shown risk factors such as age; socio-economic class; race/ethnicity; lifestyle ; and reproductive factors increase a woman’s chance of developing

  13. Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Caner Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0387 TITLE: Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mary Anne Rossing...2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0387 5c...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema of the arm is a consequence of breast cancer treatment that can result in substantial

  14. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Disorder , 1% for Panic Disorder , 3% for Social Phobia, 1% for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder , 2% for Generalized Anxiety Disorder , 5% for Alcohol Abuse...Award Number: W81XWH-061-0573 TITLE: Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: M...CONTRACT NUMBER Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0573 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Is Military Deployment A Risk Factor for Maternal Depression ? Stacie Nguyen Cynthia A. LeardMann Besa Smith...Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106-3521 Original Articles Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression ? Stacie Nguyen, MPH...Tyler C. Smith, PhD,1 for the Millennium Cohort Study Team Abstract Background: Maternal depression is a common condition among new mothers that can

  16. Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    W81XWH-04-1-0701 TITLE: Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Urszula T. Iwaniec...CONTRACT NUMBER Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...control of obesity through centrally administered, recombinant adeno-associated virus leptin gene (rAAV-lep) therapy will decrease the incidence of

  17. The host plant metabolite glucose is the precursor of diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous addition of host plant juice or ethanol extract to the growth medium of X. campestris pv. campestris could significantly boost DSF family signal production. It was subsequently revealed that X. campestris pv. campestris produces not only DSF but also BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) and another novel DSF family signal, which was designated DSF-II. BDSF was originally identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia to be involved in regulation of motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. Functional analysis suggested that DSF-II plays a role equal to that of DSF in regulation of biofilm dispersion and virulence factor production in X. campestris pv. campestris. Furthermore, chromatographic separation led to identification of glucose as a specific molecule stimulating DSF family signal biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris. (13)C-labeling experiments demonstrated that glucose acts as a substrate to provide a carbon element for DSF biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that X. campestris pv. campestris could utilize a common metabolite of the host plant to enhance DSF family signal synthesis and therefore promote virulence.

  18. [Anemia as a surgical risk factor].

    PubMed

    Moral García, Victoria; Ángeles Gil de Bernabé Sala, M; Nadia Diana, Kinast; Pericas, Bartolomé Cantallops; Nebot, Alexia Galindo

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative anemia is common in patients undergoing surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased quality of life. The main causes of anemia in the perioperative context are iron deficiency and chronic inflammation. Anemia can be aggravated by blood loss during surgery, and is most commonly treated with allogeneic transfusion. Moreover, blood transfusions are not without risks, once again increasing patient morbidity and mortality. Given these concerns, we propose to review the pathophysiology of anemia in the surgical environment, as well as its treatment through the consumption of iron-rich foods and by oral or intravenous iron therapy (iron sucrose and iron carboxymaltose). In chronic inflammatory anemia, we use erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (erythropoietin alpha) and, in cases of mixed anemia, the combination of both treatments. The objective is always to reduce the need for perioperative transfusions and speed the recovery from postoperative anemia, as well as decrease the patient morbidity and mortality rate.

  19. Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Amy; Wong, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Provides an overview of the identified risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression emphasizing the pediatric population. Recent findings Over the past ten years, there have been significant changes to our understanding and study of pre-terminal kidney failure. Recent refinements in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and GFR estimating equations are important tools for identification and association of risk factors for CKD progression in children. In pediatric CKD, lower level of kidney function at presentation, higher levels of proteinuria, and hypertension are known markers for a more rapid decline in GFR. Anemia and other reported risk factors from the pre-genomic era have need for further study and validation. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci which have provided novel genetic risk factors for CKD progression. Summary With cohort studies of children with CKD becoming mature, they have started to yield important refinements to the assessment of CKD progression. While many of the traditional risk factors for renal progression will certainly be assessed, such cohorts will be important for evaluating novel risk factors identified by genome-wide studies. PMID:20090523

  20. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  1. Individual and Co-occurring SNAP Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Julia M.; Ensari, Ipek; Hubbard, Elizabeth A.; Khan, Naiman; Barnes, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking, poor nutrition, excess alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity underlie most preventable causes of morbidity in the general population and may be associated with comorbidities and health outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the frequency of co-occurrence of these risk factors in people with MS remains unclear. Methods: Sixty-nine individuals with MS completed self-report measures of smoking status, nutrition, alcohol use, physical activity levels, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The data were analyzed using t tests and χ2 analyses. Results: Poor diet was the most common risk factor, with 85.5% of the sample not meeting dietary guidelines. Of participants with two risk factors, 90.3% were not meeting dietary and physical activity guidelines. Seventy-three percent of women were not meeting physical activity guidelines, compared with 38% of men (χ2 = 7.5, P < .01). There were also differential rates by sex of the most commonly co-occurring risk factors: 65% of women reported the co-occurrence of insufficient physical activity and poor diet, compared with 38% of men (χ2 = 4.2, P = .05). Conclusions: These results indicate that 85.5% of the sample was not meeting nutrition guidelines, 90.3% of participants with two risk factors reported the co-occurrence of poor diet and insufficient levels of physical activity, and physical activity levels and the total number of risk factors varied across sex. PMID:27999524

  2. Diabetic Nephropathy: New Risk Factors and Improvements in Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Patients with diabetic nephropathy have a high cardiovascular risk, comparable to patients with coronary heart disease. Accordingly, identification and management of risk factors for diabetic nephropathy as well as timely diagnosis and prompt management of the condition are of paramount importance for effective treatment. A variety of risk factors promotes the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, including elevated glucose levels, long duration of diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Most of these risk factors are modifiable by antidiabetic, antihypertensive, or lipid-lowering treatment and lifestyle changes. Others such as genetic factors or advanced age cannot be modified. Therefore, the rigorous management of the modifiable risk factors is essential for preventing and delaying the decline in renal function. Early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is another essential component in the management of diabetes and its complications such as nephropathy. New markers may allow earlier diagnosis of this common and serious complication, but further studies are needed to clarify their additive predictive value, and to define their cost-benefit ratio. This article reviews the most important risk factors in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy and summarizes recent developments in the diagnosis of this disease.

  3. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  4. Lifestyle and health-related risk factors and risk of cognitive aging among older veterans.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Kristine; Hoang, Tina D; Byers, Amy L; Barnes, Deborah E; Friedl, Karl E

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle and health-related factors are critical components of the risk for cognitive aging among veterans. Because dementia has a prolonged prodromal phase, understanding effects across the life course could help focus the timing and duration of prevention targets. This perspective may be especially relevant for veterans and health behaviors. Military service may promote development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors, but the period directly after active duty has ended could be an important transition stage and opportunity to address some important risk factors. Targeting multiple pathways in one intervention may maximize efficiency and benefits for veterans. A recent review of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease estimated that a 25% reduction of a combination of seven modifiable risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, smoking, and education/cognitive inactivity could prevent up to 3 million cases worldwide and 492,000 cases in the United States. Lifestyle interventions to address cardiovascular health in veterans may serve as useful models with both physical and cognitive activity components, dietary intervention, and vascular risk factor management. Although the evidence is accumulating for lifestyle and health-related risk factors as well as military risk factors, more studies are needed to characterize these factors in veterans and to examine the potential interactions between them.

  5. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  6. A toxicokinetic model of malathion and its metabolites as a tool to assess human exposure and risk through measurements of urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Michèle; Gosselin, Nathalie H; Brunet, Robert C; Samuel, Onil; Dumoulin, Marie-Josée; Carrier, Gaétan

    2003-05-01

    /kg/day derived from the data of Moeller and Rider (1962), the model predicts corresponding biological reference values for MCA, DCA, and phosphoric derivatives of 44, 13, and 62 nmol/kg, respectively, in 24-h urine samples. The latter were used to assess the health risk of workers exposed to malathion in botanical greenhouses, starting from urinary measurements of MCA and DCA metabolites.

  7. Metabolic factors and genetic risk mediate familial type 2 diabetes risk in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Sridharan; Porneala, Bianca; McKeown, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S.; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes mellitus in parents is a strong determinant of diabetes risk in their offspring. We hypothesise that offspring diabetes risk associated with parental diabetes is mediated by metabolic risk factors. Methods We studied initially non-diabetic participants of the Framingham Offspring Study. Metabolic risk was estimated using beta cell corrected insulin response (CIR), HOMA-IR or a count of metabolic syndrome components (metabolic syndrome score [MSS]). Dietary risk and physical activity were estimated using questionnaire responses. Genetic risk score (GRS) was estimated as the count of 62 type 2 diabetes risk alleles. The outcome of incident diabetes in offspring was examined across levels of parental diabetes exposure, accounting for sibling correlation and adjusting for age, sex and putative mediators. The proportion mediated was estimated by comparing regression coefficients for parental diabetes with (βadj) and without (βunadj) adjustments for CIR, HOMA-IR, MSS and GRS (percentage mediated = 1 – βadj / βunadj). Results Metabolic factors mediated 11% of offspring diabetes risk associated with parental diabetes, corresponding to a reduction in OR per diabetic parent from 2.13 to 1.96. GRS mediated 9% of risk, corresponding to a reduction in OR per diabetic parent from 2.13 to 1.99. Conclusions/interpretation Metabolic risk factors partially mediated offspring type 2 diabetes risk conferred by parental diabetes to a similar magnitude as genetic risk. However, a substantial proportion of offspring diabetes risk associated with parental diabetes remains unexplained by metabolic factors, genetic risk, diet and physical activity, suggesting that important familial influences on diabetes risk remain undiscovered. PMID:25619168

  8. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  9. Mid-adulthood risk factor profiles for CKD.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Preis, Sarah R; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Fox, Caroline S

    2014-11-01

    Early identification of CKD risk factors may allow risk factor modification and prevention of CKD progression. We investigated the hypothesis that risk factors are present ≥30 years before the diagnosis of CKD in a case-control study using data from the Framingham Offspring Study. Patients with incident CKD (eGFR≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at examination cycles 6, 7, and 8 were age- and sex-matched 1:2 to patients without CKD at baseline (examination 5). CKD risk factors were measured at each examination cycle. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and time period, were constructed to compare risk factor profiles at each time point between cases and controls. During follow-up, 441 new cases of CKD were identified and matched to 882 controls (mean age 69.2 years, 52.4% women). Those who ultimately developed CKD were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.51), obesity (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.59), and higher triglyceride levels (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.83) 30 years before CKD diagnosis, and were more likely to have hypertension (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.79), higher triglyceride levels (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.64), lower HDLc (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97), and diabetes (OR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.59 to 5.29) 20 years before CKD diagnosis. These findings demonstrate that risk factors for CKD are identifiable ≥30 years before diagnosis and suggest the importance of early risk factor identification in patients at risk for CKD.

  10. DEPRESSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Primma, Svetlana; Csako, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health threat. Multiple studies have reported an association between depression and low bone mineral density, but a causal link between these two conditions is disputed. Here we review the endocrine and immune alterations secondary to depression that might affect bone mass. We also discuss the possible role of poor lifestyle in the etiology of osteoporosis in subjects with depression and the potential effect of antidepressants on bone loss. We propose that depression induces bone loss and osteoporotic fractures, primarily via specific immune and endocrine mechanisms, with poor lifestyle habits and use of specific antidepressants also potential contributory factors. PMID:19747841

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue < 0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.

  12. [Occupational risk factors and medical prevention in corrections officers].

    PubMed

    Mennoial, Nunzio Valerio; Napoli, Paola; Battaglia, Andrea; Candura, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the Law n. 395/1990 defines the tasks and attributions of prison officers. According to the article 25 of the Legislative Decree n. 81/2008, the occupational physician should participate to risk assessment, and carry out the sanitary surveillance. This report analyzes the various tasks of prison staff, identifies the risk factors, and discusses the preventive strategies, including workers formation and education. Biological agents and work-related stress are the main risk factors, as a consequence of prison overcrowding, personnel shortage and work organization complexity. In his preventive action, and particularly in formulating the judgment on work fitness, the occupational physician often clashes with inadequate ministerial funding.

  13. A review of cardiovascular risk factors in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Leigh K; Turner, Barbara S; Stotts, Nancy A; Dracup, Kathleen A

    2008-01-01

    As the civilian population exhibits increasing trends in major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in younger age groups, the US military is observing similar trends. These worrisome developments are seen even in young adulthood. Despite the need for a fit, combat-ready force, increases in CV risk are increasingly evident in the military population. This review provides an overview of coronary artery disease in the young and the prevalence of risk factors in the military population. With increases in current military operations in an acutely stressful environment, the role of stress and the manifestation of CV disease are also examined.

  14. African Americans With Cancer Pain Are More Likely to Receive an Analgesic With Toxic Metabolite Despite Clinical Risks: A Mediation Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Meghani, Salimah H.; Kang, Youjeong; Chittams, Jesse; McMenamin, Erin; Mao, Jun J.; Fudin, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Renal impairment is highly prevalent among patients with cancer, and many patients have undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) from underlying disease, treatment, or both. African American individuals have disproportionate risk factors (diabetes, hypertension) predisposing them to CKD. We investigated whether African American patients are more likely than white patients to receive morphine with 3- and 6-glucuronide metabolites, which are known to be neurotoxic and accumulate in CKD; whether insurance type mediates the relationship between race and the prescriber's opioid selection; and whether the chosen opioid has a resultant negative effect according to race. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 182) were recruited from oncology clinics within the University of Pennsylvania Health System. Inclusion was based on self-identified African American or white race, age older than 18 years, and the presence of cancer-related pain plus a prescription for morphine or oxycodone. Kidney function was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Results Patients with CKD who received morphine reported a greater severity of analgesic-related adverse effects than patients with CKD who received oxycodone (P = .010). Controlling for health insurance type, African American patients had 71% lower odds of receiving a prescription of oxycodone than white patients (P < .001). Limiting analysis to those with CKD, the effect of private insurance became insignificant. However, race still remained a significant predictor of the prescribed opioid selection. Race was a strong predictor of adverse effect severity in the presence of CKD, and the type of opioid selection partially mediated this relationship. Conclusion Reducing racial disparities in the type of opioid prescription and understanding mechanisms of disproportionate opioid-related adverse effects in African American patients might decrease the clinical disparities in cancer pain outcomes

  15. Maternal environmental risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Pantazi, Mantha; Lianos, Georgios D; Stranjalis, George; Alexiou, George A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English. Only studies that investigated environmental risk factors concerning the mother-either during gestation or pregestationally-were included. RESULTS In total, 13 studies (5 cohorts, 3 case series, 3 case-control studies, 1 meta-analysis, and 1 case report) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Maternal medication or alcohol use during gestation; lifestyle modifiable maternal pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension; lack of prenatal care; and a low socioeconomic status were identified as significant maternal environmental risk factors for CH development. Maternal infections and trauma to the mother during pregnancy have also been highlighted as potential mother-related risk factors for CH. CONCLUSIONS Congenital hydrocephalus is an important cause of serious infant health disability that can lead to health inequalities among adults. The present study identified several maternal environmental risk factors for CH, thus yielding important scientific information relevant to prevention of some CH cases. However, further research is warranted to confirm the impact of the identified factors and examine their underlying behavioral and/or biological basis, leading to the generation of suitable prevention strategies.

  16. Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Barry, J G; Yasin, I; Bishop, D V M

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong genetic contribution to children’s language and literacy impairments. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of the phenotype are familial by comparing 34 parents of probands with language/literacy impairments and 33 parents of typically developing probands. The parents responded to questionnaires regarding previous history for language/reading impairment and participated in psychometric testing. The psychometric test battery consisted of tests assessing non-verbal IQ, short-term memory, articulation, receptive grammar, reading abilities and spelling. Self-report measures demonstrated a higher prevalence of language and literacy impairments in parents of affected probands (32%) compared with parents of unaffected probands (6%). The two groups of parents differed significantly in their performance on the non-word repetition, oromotor and digit span tasks. Non-word repetition gave the best discrimination between the parent groups even when the data from the parents who actually were impaired as ascertained by direct testing or self-report were removed from the analyses. This suggests that non-word repetition serves as a marker of a family risk for language impairment. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues associated with ascertainment of specific language impairment (SLI). PMID:17233642

  17. Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Alzina De Aguilar, Valentín; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, tremendous progress has been made very rapidly in the development of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) systems as a major public health initiative. The percentage of infants screened annually in Spain has increased significantly since the EHDI systems have expanded to all autonomic regions. Historically, high risk indicators have been used for the identification of infants who should receive audiological evaluation but who live in geographic locations where universal hearing screening is not yet available, to help identify infants who pass neonatal screening but are at risk of developing delayed-onset hearing loss and to identify infants who may have passed neonatal screening but have mild forms of permanent hearing loss. In this review, the standard risk factors for hearing loss are analysed and the risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss are identified. The recommendation for infants with a risk factor that may be considered as low risk is to perform at least one audiology assessment by 24-30 months. In contrast, for an infant with risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss (such as cytomegalovirus infection or family history), early and more frequent assessment is appropriate. All infants should have an objective standardised screening of global development with a validated assessment tool at 9, 18 and 24-30 months of age or at any time if the health care professional or the family is concerned.

  18. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  19. Minimizing the risk of chemically reactive metabolite formation of new drug candidates: implications for preclinical drug design.

    PubMed

    Brink, Andreas; Pähler, Axel; Funk, Christoph; Schuler, Franz; Schadt, Simone

    2016-11-27

    Many pharmaceutical companies aim to reduce reactive metabolite formation by chemical modification at early stages of drug discovery. A practice often applied is the detection of stable trapping products of electrophilic intermediates with nucleophilic trapping reagents to guide rational structure-based drug design. This contribution delineates this strategy to minimize the potential for reactive metabolite formation of clinical candidates during preclinical drug optimization, exemplified by the experience at Roche over the past decade. For the majority of research programs it was possible to proceed with compounds optimized for reduced covalent binding potential. Such optimized candidates are expected to have a higher likelihood of succeeding throughout the development processes, resulting in safer drugs.

  20. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Christie A; Gold, Katherine J; Flynn, Heather A; Yoo, Harim; Marcus, Sheila M; Davis, Matthew M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for antepartum depressive symptoms that can be assessed in routine obstetric care. We evaluated articles in the English-language literature from 1980 through 2008. Studies were selected if they evaluated the association between antepartum depressive symptoms and > or =1 risk factors. For each risk factor, 2 blinded, independent reviewers evaluated the overall trend of evidence. In total, 57 studies met eligibility criteria. Maternal anxiety, life stress, history of depression, lack of social support, unintended pregnancy, Medicaid insurance, domestic violence, lower income, lower education, smoking, single status, and poor relationship quality were associated with a greater likelihood of antepartum depressive symptoms in bivariate analyses. Life stress, lack of social support, and domestic violence continued to demonstrate a significant association in multivariate analyses. Our results demonstrate several correlates that are consistently related to an increased risk of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  1. [Protective and family risk factors related to adolescent drug use].

    PubMed

    Cid-Monckton, Patricia; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional and quantitative study aimed to verify the family's protective and risk factors related to drugs use in adolescents, considering the interaction patterns developed in the family, their degree of adaptability and vulnerability. Participants in this study were 80 female adolescents, from the 1st to 4th grade of high school, who answered a questionnaire. The most relevant risk and protective factors that would influence the situation were established, such as patterns of interaction, degree of adaptability, way of coping with problems, family resources and values. The major risk factors that emerged were the way people confront problems and, within these, lack of religious support and professional support, besides communication difficulties within families. The lowest risks were values, such as personal effort. The results highlight that nurses should assume psychosocial interventions as part of their role, especially among school-age children as, thus, they would be acting as agents in the prevention of drugs use.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  3. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Ryan J.; Prizment, Anna E.; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the two leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as two separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. While chronic inflammation is an indispensible feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, but there are now millions of cancer survivors at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiologic studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  4. Some risk factors for the progression of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Skaleric, U; Kovac-Kavcic, M

    2000-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of mankind. Gingival inflammation is widespread, but advanced periodontitis is limited to relatively small subgroups of the population. Gingivitis is initiated by microbial plaque deposits on the dento-gingival interface but progression to periodontitis is modified by several environmental, behavioural, biological and health care variables. This paper reviews the reports dealing with some risk factors for periodontal disease published in recent years and compares the data with findings in a Ljubljana population. It is concluded that male smokers with lower education and low frequency of tooth brushing represent a risk population for progression of periodontal disease. Marital status and body mass need further study to be proved as risk factors for periodontitis. A socioecological model proposed by Hansen et al. (1993) should be used for understanding the interplay of different risk factors for progression of periodontal disease.

  5. Sensitivity of risk estimates to wildlife bioaccumulation factors in ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karustis, C.G.; Brewer, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of conservatism in risk assessment is well established. However, overly conservative assumptions may result in risk estimates that incorrectly predict remediation goals. Therefore, realistic assumptions should be applied in risk assessment whenever possible. A sensitivity analysis was performed on conservative (i.e. bioaccumulation factor = 1) and scientifically-derived wildlife bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) utilized to calculate risks during a terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA). In the first approach, 100% bioaccumulation of contaminants was assumed to estimate the transfer of contaminants through the terrestrial food chain. In the second approach, scientifically-derived BAFs were selected from the literature. For one of the measurement species selected, total risks calculated during the first approach were higher than those calculated during the second approach by two orders of magnitude. However, potential risks due to individual contaminants were not necessarily higher using the conservative approach. Potential risk due to contaminants with low actual bioaccumulation were exaggerated while potential risks due to contaminants with greater than 100% bioaccumulation were underestimated. Therefore, the use of a default of 100% bioaccumulation (BAF = 1) for all contaminants encountered during an ERA could result in cases where contaminants are incorrectly identified as risk drivers, and the calculation of incorrect ecological risk-based cleanup goals. The authors suggest using site-specific or literature-derived BAFs whenever possible and realistic BAF estimates, based upon factors such as log K{sub ow}, when BAFs are unavailable.

  6. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, upregulates ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250

  7. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  8. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  9. Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Liza; Cohen, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment. PMID:21776202

  10. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  11. Chocolate matrix factors modulate the pharmacokinetic behavior of cocoa flavan-3-ol phase II metabolites following oral consumption by Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Andrew P; Sapper, Teryn N; Janle, Elsa M; Rudolph, Ralf; Matusheski, Nathan V; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2010-06-09

    The impact of carbohydrates and milk on the bioavailability of catechin (C) and epicatechin (EC) from chocolate has been previously studied. However, little data exist regarding potential modulation of the phase II metabolism by these chocolate matrix factors. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of matrix composition on qualitative and quantitative profiles of circulating catechins and their metabolites following administration of commercially relevant chocolate confections. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 1.5 g of a confection (reference dark, high sucrose, or milk chocolate) by intragastric gavage, and plasma samples were collected over 8 h. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to quantify C, EC, and their metabolites. The predominant metabolites were O-glucuronides (two metabolites) and O-Me-O-glucuronides (three metabolites). Plasma concentrations of metabolites were generally the highest for high sucrose treatment and lowest for milk treatment, while the reference dark treatment generally resulted in intermediate concentrations. The O-Me-(+/-)-C/EC-O-beta-glucuronide (peak 4) was significantly higher for the high sucrose treatment (2325 nM h) versus the milk treatment (1300 nM h). Additionally, C(MAX) values for (+/-)-C/EC-O-beta-glucuronide (peak 3) and two O-Me-(+/-)-C/EC-O-beta-glucuronides (peaks 4 and 6) were significantly higher for the high sucrose treatment (4012, 518, and 2518 nM, respectively) versus the milk treatment (2590, 240, and 1670 nM, respectively). Milk and sucrose appear to modulate both metabolism and plasma pharmacokinetics and, to a lesser extent, the overall bioavailability of catechins from chocolate confections.

  12. Chocolate Matrix Factors Modulate Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Cocoa Flavan-3-Ol Phase-II Metabolites Following Oral Consumption by Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Sapper, Teryn N.; Janle, Elsa M.; Rudolph, Ralf; Matusheski, Nathan V.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of carbohydrates and milk on the bioavailability of catechin (C) and epicatechin (EC) from chocolate has been previously studied. However, little data exists regarding potential modulation of the phase-II metabolism by these chocolate matrix factors. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of matrix composition on qualitative and quantitative profiles of circulating catechins and their metabolites following administration of commercially relevant chocolate confections. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1.5 g of a confection (reference dark, high sucrose, or milk chocolate) by intragastric gavage, and plasma samples were collected over 8 h. HPLC-MS analysis was performed to quantify C, EC and their metabolites. The predominant metabolites were O-glucuronides (2 metabolites), and O-Me-O-glucuronides (3 metabolites). Plasma concentrations of metabolites were generally the highest for high sucrose treatment and lowest for milk treatment, while reference dark treatment generally resulted in intermediate concentrations. The O-Me-(±)-C/EC-O-β-glucuronide (peak 4) was significantly higher for the high sucrose treatment (2325 nM*h) versus the milk treatment (1300 nM*h). Additionally, CMAX values for (±)-C/EC-O-β-glucuronide (peak 3), and two O-Me-(±)-C/EC-O-β-glucuronides (peaks 4 and 6) were significantly higher for high sucrose treatment (4012, 518, and 2518 nM, respectively) versus the milk treatment (2590, 240, and 1670 nM, respectively). Milk and sucrose appear to modulate both metabolism and plasma pharmacokinetics, and to a lesser extent, the overall bioavailability of catechins from chocolate confections. PMID:20446738

  13. Association of Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Metabolites with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Investigation in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Townsend, Mary K.; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Franke, Adrian A.; Hauser, Russ; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prospective evidence regarding associations for exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. Objective: We prospectively examined urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites with T2D risk. Methods: We measured BPA and eight major phthalate metabolites among 971 incident T2D case–control pairs from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (mean age, 65.6 years) and NHSII (mean age, 45.6 years). Results: In the NHSII, BPA levels were not associated with incident T2D in multivariate-adjusted analysis until body mass index was adjusted: odds ratio (OR) comparing extreme BPA quartiles increased from 1.40 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.15) to 2.08 (95% CI: 1.17, 3.69; ptrend = 0.02) with such an adjustment. In contrast, BPA concentrations were not associated with T2D in the NHS (OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.38; ptrend = 0.45). Likewise, urinary concentrations of total phthalate metabolites were associated with T2D in the NHSII (OR comparing extreme quartiles = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.85; ptrend = 0.02), but not in the NHS (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.53; ptrend = 0.29). Summed metabolites of butyl phthalates or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates were significantly associated with T2D only in the NHSII; ORs comparing extreme quartiles were 3.16 (95% CI: 1.68, 5.95; ptrend = 0.0002) and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.49; ptrend = 0.20), respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that BPA and phthalate exposures may be associated with the risk of T2D among middle-aged, but not older, women. The divergent findings between the two cohorts might be explained by menopausal status or simply by chance. Clearly, these results need to be interpreted with caution and should be replicated in future studies, ideally with multiple urine samples collected prospectively to improve the measurement of these exposures with short half-lives. Citation: Sun Q, Cornelis MC, Townsend MK, Tobias DK, Eliassen AH, Franke AA, Hauser R, Hu FB. 2014. Association of

  14. Risk factors for ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Shigemi, Akari; Ikawa, Kazuro; Kanazawa, Naoko; Fujisaki, Yuko; Morikawa, Norifumi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ganciclovir is a nucleoside guanosine analogue that exhibits therapeutic activity against human cytomegalovirus infection, and is primarily excreted via glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. The adverse effects induced by ganciclovir therapy are generally of a hematological nature and include thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Low marrow cellularity and elevated serum creatinine have been identified as risk factors for ganciclovir-induced neutropenia. However, the risk factors for thrombocytopenia have yet to be determined. Therefore, this study investigated patients administered ganciclovir to determine the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurred in 41 of these patients (30.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three independent risk factors for thrombocytopenia: cancer chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR)=3.1), creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) (OR=12.8), and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=15.1). Leukopenia occurred in 36 patients (28.6%), and white blood cell count (<6000 cells/mm(3)) (OR=3.7) and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=7.8) were identified as risk factors. These results demonstrated that several factors influenced the occurrence of ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and suggest that special attention should be paid to patients receiving cancer chemotherapy with a low creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) and high dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) in order to avoid ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia.

  15. Population attributable risks of patient, child and organizational risk factors for perinatal mortality in hospital births.

    PubMed

    Poeran, Jashvant; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; de Graaf, Johanna P; Birnie, Erwin; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the contributing role of maternal, child, and organizational risk factors in perinatal mortality by calculating their population attributable risks (PAR). The primary dataset comprised 1,020,749 singleton hospital births from ≥22 weeks' gestation (The Netherlands Perinatal Registry 2000-2008). PARs for single and grouped risk factors were estimated in four stages: (1) creating a duplicate dataset for each PAR analysis in which risk factors of interest were set to the most favorable value (e.g., all women assigned 'Western' for PAR calculation of ethnicity); (2) in the primary dataset an elaborate multilevel logistic regression model was fitted from which (3) the obtained coefficients were used to predict perinatal mortality in each duplicate dataset; (4) PARs were then estimated as the proportional change of predicted- compared to observed perinatal mortality. Additionally, PARs for grouped risk factors were estimated by using sequential values in two orders: after PAR estimation of grouped maternal risk factors, the resulting PARs for grouped child, and grouped organizational factors were estimated, and vice versa. The combined PAR of maternal, child and organizational factors is 94.4 %, i.e., when all factors are set to the most favorable value perinatal mortality is expected to be reduced with 94.4 %. Depending on the order of analysis, the PAR of maternal risk factors varies from 1.4 to 13.1 %, and for child- and organizational factors 58.7-74.0 and 7.3-34.3 %, respectively. In conclusion, the PAR of maternal-, child- and organizational factors combined is 94.4 %. Optimization of organizational factors may achieve a 34.3 % decrease in perinatal mortality.

  16. Community-level risk factors for depression hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Fortney, John; Rushton, Gerard; Wood, Scott; Zhang, Lixun; Xu, Stan; Dong, Fran; Rost, Kathryn

    2007-07-01

    This study measured geographic variation in depression hospitalizations and identified community-level risk factors. Depression hospitalizations were identified from the Statewide Inpatient Database. The dependent variable was specified as the indirectly standardized hospitalization rate. County-level data for 14 states were collected from federal agencies. The Bayesian spatial regression model included socio-demographic, economic, and health system characteristics as independent variables. There were 8.5 depression hospitalizations per 1,000 residents. 8.8% of counties had hospitalization rates 33% greater than the standardized rate. Significant risk factors included unemployment, poverty, physician supply, and hospital bed supply. Significant protective factors included rurality, economic dependence, and housing stress.

  17. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  18. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  19. Mental illness, criminal risk factors and parole release decisions.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Draine, Jeffrey; Solomon, Phyllis; Salzer, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Research has not examined whether higher rates of parole denial among inmates with mental illness (MI) are the result of the increased presence of criminal risk factors among this population. Employing a representative sample of inmates with (n  =  219) and without (n  =  184) MI receiving parole release decisions in 2007, this study tested whether the central eight risk factors for recidivism considered in parole release decisions intervened in the relationship between MI and parole release. MI was associated with possession of a substance use disorder, antisocial personality disorder and violent charges while incarcerated; however, these factors were not related to release decisions. MI was found to have neither a direct nor an indirect effect on release decisions. While results indicate that release decisions appear, to some extent, to be evidence-based, they also suggest considerable discretion is being implemented by parole board members in release decisions above and beyond consideration of criminal risk factors.

  20. Behavioural inhibition: is it a risk factor for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Hong, Melanie; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-06-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a stable temperamental trait that is identifiable during infancy and toddlerhood and is characterized by fearful reactivity to novelty. Children identified as behaviourally inhibited have been shown to be at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders such as social phobia. The current review addresses the link between behavioural inhibition and the risk for developing anxiety disorders. Research suggests that this risk may be modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include particular parental beliefs, parenting styles, and childrearing contexts. Intrinsic factors include executive function capacities such as attention bias, attention shifting, inhibitory control, and self-monitoring. In the present paper we review the contribution of these factors to the development of anxiety in behaviourally inhibited children.

  1. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  2. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09–1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13–1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias—cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40–5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01–1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  3. Radical and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    correlations between solar radiation and breast cancer mortality rates, as well as experimental findings. In vitro studies have demonstrated that 1,25...positively associated with solar radiation levels. Other factors that affect the production of vitamin D include host factors such as age, melatonin...correlated with solar radiation [Garland 1990, Gorham 1989, Gorham 1990, Morabia 1992]. Although the prevalence of breast cancer risk factors varies across

  4. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among University Students: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Y.; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F.; Tinawi, Lubna; Hamad, Rawan; Keewan, Esraa F.; Matarneh, Sulaiman K.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that the pathophysiological process of cardiovascular (CV) disease begins at early age, though the manifestations of the disease do not appear until middle age adulthood. Risk factors for CV disease, particularly lipoprotein profiles, are affected by physiological abnormalities, and lifestyle related issues. To evaluate prevalence of CV diseases risk factors among university students and to investigate relation between number of risk factors and body anthropometric, hematological and biochemical indices parameters. Methods In this cross sectional study, 348 students were randomly recruited. Blood glucose, cholesterol profile (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol), and triglyceride were measured using standard protocols. Physical activity (PA) level was assessed using the short-form Arabic version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ). Results The most commonly encountered CV disease risk factor was low levels of HDL-C, followed by physical inactivity, high levels TG, and obese BMI. When stratified by gender, females were less likely to have low HDL-C, and high TG, whereas, males were more likely to have overweight or obese BMI (P < 0.001). About 49% of the participants had at least one CV disease risk factor, where as the prevalence of having one, two and three or more CV disease risk factors were 35.7%, 9.3% and 4%, respectively. Additionally, the number of CV disease risk factors showed strong positive correlation with increases in body fat and bone percentages, glucose, total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, BMI, and WHR (range of R2: 0.17 to 0.603). On the other hand, physical activity, percentages of body water and muscle, HDL-C showed inverse strong correlation with cardiovascular risk factors (range of R2: -0.239 to -0.412). Conclusions Results indicate the high prevalence of CV disease risk factors among university students, and stress the need for early intervention programs to counteract these risks.

  5. [Nosocomial infections: definition, frequence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Diouf, E; Bèye, M D; Diop, Ndoye M; Kane, O; Ka, Sall B

    2007-01-01

    Infection is nosocomial if it missed at the time patient admission in the health establishment. When infectious status of the patient on admission is unknown, infection is generally regarded as nosocomial if it appears after a time of at least 48 hours of hospitalization. For surgical site infection, the commonly allowed time is 30 days, or, in case of prosthesis or an implant, one year after surgical intervention. Nosocomial infections (NI) constitute major health care problem from their frequency, their cost, their gravity. Mortality related to NI can attempt 70% in certain units like intensive care units. Two ways of contamination are possible: the endogenous way is responsible of majority of hospital infections. The normally sterile sites are contaminated then colonized by the flora which is carrying the patient himself, with the favor of a rupture of the barriers of defense. The exogenic way is associated colonization, possibly followed by infection, of the patient by external bacteria, coming from others patients or from environment, transmitted in an indirect way (aerosols, manuportage, materials). Whatever its mode of transmission, apparition of nosocomial infection can be related to several supporting factors: age and pathology, certain treatments (antibiotic which unbalance patients' flora and select resistant bacteria, immunosuppressive treatments), invasive practices necessary to the patient treatment. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is higher in the intensive care units where certain studies bring back rates of 42.8% versus 12.1% in others services. The four sites of nosocomial infection most frequently concerned are: the respiratory site, urinary infections, bloodstream infections (Catheters related bloodstream infections in particular), and surgical sites infections. The relative proportion of these infections varies according to principal activity of the unity.

  6. Atherosclerosis risk factors in pigeon squabs

    SciTech Connect

    Klumpp, S.A.; Clarkson, T.B.

    1986-03-01

    The basis for atherosclerosis susceptibility of White Carneau (WC) and resistance of Show Racer (SR) pigeons is not known. Body weight (BW), total serum cholesterol (TSC), growth of the aorta and replication of endothelial cells of the distal thoracic aorta (lesion prone site) of 1, 2 and 4 week old squabs were studied. Aortic measurements were determined morphometrically, and endothelial cell replication was quantitated by 24-hour /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling and whole-mount SEM autoradiography. From hatching to 4 weeks, BW increased more in WC than SR (22 to 473 gm in WC vs 19 to 416 gm in SR, p < 0.05) in WC than SR (197, 243 and 338 mg/dl in WC and 125, 194 and 282 mg/dl in SR). Surface area of the aorta between 1 and 4 weeks increased by 63% (109, 154 and 178 mm/sup 2/) in WC and 44% (101, 140 and 146 mm/sup 2/) in SR. Aortic surface area was significantly larger (0 = 0.002) in the 4 week WC than 4 week SR. /sup 3/H-thymidine labeled endothelial cells at 1, 2 and 4 weeks were 783, 387 and 53 in WC and 674, 283 and 27 cells/mm/sup 2/ in SR. Endothelial replication in the 4 week WC was twice that of the SR and significantly different between breeds at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). Higher TSC, endothelial cell replication and larger aortic surface area in the WC may be contributing factors to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  7. Diabetic Risk Factors Promote Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Misfolding by a Common, Membrane-mediated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Alan K.; Teranishi, Kazuki; Isas, J. Mario; Bedrood, Sahar; Chow, Robert H.; Langen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The current diabetes epidemic is associated with a diverse set of risk factors including obesity and exposure to plastics. Notably, significant elevations of negatively charged amphiphilic molecules are observed in obesity (e.g. free fatty acids and phosphatidic acid) and plastics exposure (monophthalate esters). It remains unclear whether these factors share pathogenic mechanisms and whether links exist with islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) misfolding, a process central to β-cell dysfunction and death. Using a combination of fluorescence, circular dichroism and electron microscopy, we show that phosphatidic acid, oleic acid, and the phthalate metabolite MBzP partition into neutral membranes and enhance IAPP misfolding. The elevation of negative charge density caused by the presence of the risk factor molecules stabilizes a common membrane-bound α-helical intermediate that, in turn, facilitates IAPP misfolding. This shared mechanism points to a critical role for the membrane-bound intermediate in disease pathogenesis, making it a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27531121

  8. Microbial Translocation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Manner, Ingjerd W.; Pedersen, Karin K.; Haissman, Judith M.; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk. PMID:24521167

  9. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depression are direct risk factors for cancer and cancer survival. Some researchers have recently reported that cancer affects the psychological status of the partners and family members of cancer patients. The mechanisms underlying this hypothesis imply the existence of not only psychological distress from caregiving and grief but also a shared unhealthy lifestyle. Only a few studies have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in partners of cancer patients. The present study used nationwide population-based data to investigate depression risk among male partners of women with breast cancer. The results support the hypothesis that such men are at increased risk of depression. In conclusion, the effects of personality traits and depression on cancer risk and survival appear to be extremely small. In addition, partners of cancer patients were at increased risk of depression. Screening partners and family members of cancer patients for depressive symptoms is therefore an important concern for research in psycho-oncology. PMID:24270060

  10. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Ramanathan, Murali; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    With the booming of healthcare industry and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we take advantage of EHR data to develop an effective disease risk management model that not only models the progression of the disease, but also predicts the risk of the disease for early disease control or prevention. Existing models for answering these questions usually fall into two categories: the expert knowledge based model or the handcrafted feature set based model. To fully utilize the whole EHR data, we will build a framework to construct an integrated representation of features from all available risk factors in the EHR data and use these integrated features to effectively predict osteoporosis and bone fractures. We will also develop a framework for informative risk factor selection of bone diseases. A pair of models for two contrast cohorts (e.g., diseased patients versus non-diseased patients) will be established to discriminate their characteristics and find the most informative risk factors. Several empirical results on a real bone disease data set show that the proposed framework can successfully predict bone diseases and select informative risk factors that are beneficial and useful to guide clinical decisions.

  11. Risk factors for lung diseases after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045

  12. The global distribution of risk factors by poverty level.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Hales, Simon; Kieft, Charlotte; Wilson, Nick; Woodward, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the individual-level association of income poverty with being underweight, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, having access only to unsafe water and sanitation, being exposed to indoor air pollution and being obese. METHODS: Using survey data for as many countries as possible, we estimated the relative risk association between income or assets and risk factors at the individual level within 11 medium- and low-income subregions of WHO. WHO and The World Bank data on the prevalence of risk factors and income poverty (defined as living on < US$ 1.00 per day, US$ 1-2.00 per day and > US$ 2.00 per day) were analysed to impute the association between poverty and risk factors for each subregion. The possible effect of poverty reduction on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated using population-attributable risk percentages. FINDINGS: There were strong associations between poverty and malnutrition among children, having access only to unsafe water and sanitation, and being exposed to indoor air pollution within each subregion (relative risks were twofold to threefold greater for those living on < US$ 1.00 per day compared with those living on > US$ 2.00 per day). Associations between poverty and obesity, tobacco use and alcohol use varied across subregions. If everyone living on < US$ 2.00 per day had the risk factor profile of those living on > US$ 2.00 per day, 51% of exposures to unimproved water and sanitation could be avoided as could 37% of malnutrition among children and 38% of exposure to indoor air pollution. The more realistic, but still challenging, Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of people living on < US$ 1.00 per day would achieve much smaller reductions. CONCLUSION: To achieve large gains in global health requires both poverty eradication and public health action. The methods used in this study may be useful for monitoring pro-equity progress towards Millennium Development Goals. PMID:15744404

  13. Urinary phthalate metabolites among elementary school children of Korea: sources, risks, and their association with oxidative stress marker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Kang, Sungeun; Lee, Gowoon; Lee, Saeram; Jo, Areum; Kwak, Kyunghee; Kim, Dohyung; Koh, Dohyun; Kho, Young Lim; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-02-15

    Phthalates have been used in a variety of consumer products and hence frequently been detected in humans. Children are susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as phthalates, but only limited information is available on the sources of exposure and potential adverse health effects among children. In this study, elementary school students (n=39, aged 9-12 years) were recruited in Seoul, and first void urine samples were collected twice in three-day intervals. Then six phthalate metabolites were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker was measured. A questionnaire was conducted and information on food consumption and the use of plastic packaging or storage materials was gathered. The concentrations of phthalate metabolites varied substantially by sampling time even within the same subject, but all target metabolites were detected in 100% of the samples with the highest geometric mean of 107 μg/g-creatinine for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). Urinary levels of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and MnBP among Korean children were 8 and 3 times greater than those reported for US children, but those of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were about 5 times lower than those of US children. Estimated phthalate intakes were generally in safe range, but in 3-8% of the participating children, the hazard quotients greater than one were noted. Urinary MDA concentrations were significantly associated with several metabolite levels after adjusting covariates in regression model. Consumption of dairy products or meat, and use of a plastic material were significantly associated with the DEHP metabolites or MnBP levels in multivariate model. The results of this study provide evidence of the association between phthalate exposure and oxidative stress especially among the early teenagers, and identified major sources that can be applied to development of management

  14. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  15. Phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) and risk factors for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    López-González, A A; Grases, F; Roca, P; Mari, B; Vicente-Herrero, M T; Costa-Bauzá, A

    2008-12-01

    Several risk factors seem to play a role in the development of osteoporosis. Phytate is a naturally occurring compound that is ingested in significant amounts by those with diets rich in whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytate consumption as a risk factor in osteoporosis. In a first group of 1,473 volunteer subjects, bone mineral density was determined by means of dual radiological absorptiometry in the calcaneus. In a second group of 433 subjects (used for validation of results obtained for the first group), bone mineral density was determined in the lumbar column and the neck of the femur. Subjects were individually interviewed about selected osteoporosis risk factors. Dietary information related to phytate consumption was acquired by questionnaires conducted on two different occasions, the second between 2 and 3 months after performing the first one. One-way analysis of variance or Student's t test was used to determine statistical differences between groups. Bone mineral density increased with increasing phytate consumption. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that body weight and low phytate consumption were the risk factors with greatest influence on bone mineral density. Phytate consumption had a protective effect against osteoporosis, suggesting that low phytate consumption should be considered an osteoporosis risk factor.

  16. Hepatitis C virus risk factors in the Turkish community.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Beytullah; Tahan, Veysel; Ozaras, Resat; Aytekin, Huseyin; Mert, Ali; Tabak, Fehmi; Senturk, Hakan

    2005-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the worldwide. This infection is often insidious and one-half of infected patients are asymptomatic. Determination of risk factors for HCV transmission is very important. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors, transmission to spouses and children for HCV infection in Turkish population. One hundred and fifty-one patients with chronic hepatitis C and 151 control cases were investigated for the probable risk factors of HCV infection. Complete blood count, ALT, AST, albumin, prothrombin time, upper abdomen ultrasonography assessment and percutaneous liver biopsy (not for cirrhotics) were performed in all patients with chronic hepatitis C. Anti-HCV testing was done by using second-generation ELISA in 302 cases. Minor surgical operation (p < 0.001), major surgical operation (p = 0.001), blood transfusion (p < 0.001), multi-partner sex (p < 0.05), frequent dental therapy (p < 0.05), and dental extraction (p < 0.001) in patients with a chronic HCV infection were found to be higher than the control group. No significant difference was found in other risk factors. The rate of hepatitis C virus in index cases was found to be 1.8% in their spouses and 1.2% in their children. Our study showed that surgical operation, frequent dental therapy, dental extraction, multi-partner sex, and blood transmission are the main risk factors for HCV infection in Turkish community.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullatif D; Mehrass, Amat Al-Khaleq O; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Al-Shammakh, Abdulqawi A; Amran, Adel A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) continues to be a significant health disorder triggering harmful complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Our knowledge of GDM epidemiology in Yemen is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM among pregnant women in Dhamar governorate, Yemen. Patients and methods A total of 311 subjects were randomly selected for this cross sectional survey. Health history data and blood samples were collected using a pretested questionnaire. To determine the prevalence of GDM, the fasting and random blood glucose techniques were applied according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, using alternative methods that are more convenient to the targeted population. Poisson’s regression model incorporating robust sandwich variance was utilized to assess the association of potential risk factors in developing GDM. Results The prevalence of GDM was found to be 5.1% among the study population. Multivariate analysis confirmed age ≥30 years, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and history of polycystic ovary syndrome as independent risk factors for GDM prevalence. However, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and previous macrosomic baby were found to be dependent risk factors. Conclusion This study reports new epidemiological information about the prevalence and risk factors of GDM in Yemen. Introduction of proper maternal and neonatal medical care and health education are important in order to save the mother and the baby. PMID:26869814

  18. Seroepidemiology and risk factors for sporadic norovirus/Mexico strain.

    PubMed

    Peasey, Anne E; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Quigley, Maria; Newsholme, William; Martinez, Julia; Rosales, Gustavo; Jiang, Xi; Blumenthal, Ursula J

    2004-06-01

    Risk factors associated with transmission of sporadic norovirus (NV; formerly Norwalk-like virus)/Mexico strain were identified in a seroepidemiological study conducted in rural Mexico. Acquisition of Mexico strain IgA antibodies was age-related; 34% of 1-4-year-olds were seropositive, compared with 81% of adults (P<.001). After 12 months, 42% of 1-4-year-olds showed a seroresponse to Mexico strain, compared with 27% of adults (P<.01). Personal and domestic hygiene measures, such as hand washing, general cleanliness of the mother's clothing, and the type of room assigned for cooking were significantly associated with odds of a seroresponse. For infants, having a dog in or near the home was a risk factor for seroresponse (P<.01), whereas, for older children, the mother's involvement in agricultural activities was a risk factor (P<.001). This study provides initial evidence of risk factors associated with sporadic NV infection. Data indicate some similarities to risk factors associated with outbreaks of NV infection.

  19. Epidemiology of endocrine-related risk factors for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian and other hormones are major determinants of breast cancer risk. Particularly important is the accumulative exposure of the breast to circulating levels of the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone. A number of breast cancer risk factors can be understood in light of how they affect women's hormone profiles. Age is a marker for the onset and cessation of ovarian activity. Racial differences in hormone profiles correlate with breast cancer incidence patterns. Age at menarche not only serves as the chronological indicator of the onset of ovarian activity, but as a predictor of ovulatory frequency during adolescence and hormone levels in young adults, and has a long-lasting influence on risk. Age at menopause, another established breast cancer risk factor, marks the cessation of ovarian activity. Pregnancy history and lactation experience also are hormonal markers of breast cancer risk. Postmenopausal obesity, which is associated with higher levels of estrogen following cessation of ovarian activity, increases breast cancer risk, whereas physical activity, which can limit menstrual function, reduces risk. A relatively recent area of investigation is prenatal exposures like preeclampsia and low birth weight; both may be associated with lower in utero exposure to estrogen and also may predict lower breast cancer risk as an adult. Improved understanding of these exposures and their potential interactions with breast cancer susceptibility genes may, in the future, improve our prospects for breast cancer prevention.

  20. Self-Reported Differences on Risk and Protective Factors in Rural Honor Students, At-Risk Dropouts, and At-Risk Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Gibbons, Theresa A.; Starks, Michael T.; Nicosia, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the ability to classify students into different risk groups based on self-reported risk and protective factors. Data on rural honor society students and at-risk graduates and dropouts indicated that at-risk students differed from honor society students on demographic and school-related risk factors. At-risk graduates reported higher grade…

  1. Modifiable factors governing indoor fungal diversity and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, R; Thornton, C R; Osborne, N J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to dampness and fungi in the home is a known risk factor for individuals with allergic asthma. Inadequate heating and ventilation may lead to dampness and concomitant increased exposure to spores of allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. These fungi have been cultured from sputum of asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals, and implicated in the initiation or exacerbation of asthma. Indoor environmental factors influence the presence and concentrations of fungal propagules and, in turn, risk of asthma outcomes. This review aims to identify modifiable risk factors in the built environment that have been shown to influence fungal composition indoors, and to examine this association with the risk of asthma development and/or exacerbation. A complex interaction between residential characteristics, the built environment and the behaviour of people regulate the diversity and concentrations of indoor fungi. Modifiable factors include build age, architectural design, level of maintenance, variations in construction materials, presence of pets, heating and ventilation patterns. Risk of fungal contamination and asthma outcomes are also influenced by low occupant awareness concerning potential health effects and socio-economic factors. Addressing these factors provides an opportunity to improve future housing interventions, though it is not clear how the built environment and occupant behaviours interact to modify the diversity of indoor fungi and resultant risk of asthma. A combination of housing improvements combined with awareness programmes and the alleviation of fuel poverty can be used to lower the allergen burden associated with damp homes. Further research is needed to identify factors that regulate the concentration and diversity of indoor fungi and how this may act as a modifier for asthma outcomes.

  2. Risk factors for clinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy J; Guitian, Javier; Fishwick, John; Gordon, Patrick J; Sheldon, I Martin

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition occurs in most dairy cattle. The presence of clinical endometritis beyond three weeks post partum depends on the balance between microbes, host immunity, and other environmental or animal factors. The present study tested the hypothesis that clinical endometritis is associated with animal factors, such as retained fetal membranes, assisted calving and twins, as well as fecal contamination of the environment. The association between selected risk factors and the lactational incidence risk of clinical endometritis was examined in 293 animals from four dairy herds. Multivariate analysis was used to identify risk factors and quantify their relative risk (RR) and population attributable fraction (PAF) based on the proportion of cows exposed to each factor. The lactational incidence of clinical endometritis was 27% and significant risk factors for clinical endometritis were retained fetal membranes (RR=3.6), assisted calving (RR=1.7), stillbirth (RR=3.1), vulval angle (RR=1.3), primparity (RR=1.8), and male offspring (RR=1.5) but not the cleanliness of the environment or the animal. The highest PAF was associated with male offspring (0.6) so the use of sexed semen has the greatest potential to reduce the incidence of clinical endometritis. The dominant association between retained fetal membranes and clinical endometritis was supported by an expert panel of clinicians. The risk factors for clinical endometritis appear to be associated with trauma of the female genital tract and disruption of the physical barriers to infection rather than fecal contamination.

  3. Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by Using Data on Easy-to-Measure Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, David M.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Statistical models for assessing risk of type 2 diabetes are usually additive with linear terms that use non-nationally representative data. The objective of this study was to use nationally representative data on diabetes risk factors and spline regression models to determine the ability of models with nonlinear and interaction terms to assess the risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods We used 4 waves of data (2005–2006 to 2011–2012) on adults aged 20 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,471) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to build risk models in 2015. MARS allowed for interactions among 17 noninvasively measured risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Results A key risk factor for type 2 diabetes was increasing age, especially for those older than 69, followed by a family history of diabetes, with diminished risk among individuals younger than 45. Above age 69, other risk factors superseded age, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The additive MARS model with nonlinear terms had an area under curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic of 0.847, whereas the 2-way interaction MARS model had an AUC of 0.851, a slight improvement. Both models had an 87% accuracy in classifying diabetes status. Conclusion Statistical models of type 2 diabetes risk should allow for nonlinear associations; incorporation of interaction terms into the MARS model improved its performance slightly. Robust statistical manipulation of risk factors commonly measured noninvasively in clinical settings might provide useful estimates of type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:28278129

  4. Cerebrovascular risk factors and clinical classification of strokes.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Fernandez, Paola; Licata, Giuseppe

    2004-08-01

    Cerebrovascular risk represents a progressive and evolving concept owing to the particular distribution of risk factors in patients with ischemic stroke and in light of the newest stroke subtype classifications that account for pathophysiological, instrumental, and clinical criteria. Age represents the strongest nonmodifiable risk factor associated with ischemic stroke, while hypertension constitutes the most important modifiable cerebrovascular risk factor, confirmed by a host of epidemiological data and by more recent intervention trials of primary (HOT, Syst-Eur, LIFE) and secondary (PROGRESS) prevention of stroke in hypertensive patients. To be sure, a curious relationship exists between stroke and diabetes. Although the Framingham Study, The Honolulu Heart Program, and a series of Finnish studies reported a linear relationship between improved glucose metabolism and cerebral ischemia, the clinical and prognostic profile of diabetic patients with ischemic stroke remains to be fully understood. Our group, on the basis of TOAST classification--a diagnostic classification of ischemic stroke developed in 1993 that distinguishes five different clinical subtypes of ischemic stroke: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), lacunar infarct (LAC), stroke of other determined origin (ODE), and stroke of undetermined origin (UDE), and now extensively used in clinical and scientific context--analysed the prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors and the distribution of TOAST subtypes in more 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke in two consecutives studies that reported the significant association between diabetes and the lacunar subtype and a better clinical outcome for diabetic patients, most likely related to the higher prevalence of the lacunar subtype. Well-confirmed are the roles of cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, and asymptomatic carotid stenosis as cerebrovascular risk factors. Particularly interesting seems to be the function of

  5. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

  6. Postoperative delirium. Part 1: pathophysiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Luzius A

    2011-09-01

    Delirium presents clinically with differing subtypes ranging from hyperactive to hypoactive. The clinical presentation is not clearly linked to specific pathophysiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, there seem to be different mechanisms that lead to delirium; for example the mechanisms leading to alcohol-withdrawal delirium are different from those responsible for postoperative delirium. In many forms of delirium, the brain's reaction to a peripheral inflammatory process is considered to be a pathophysiological key element and the aged brain seems to react more markedly to a peripheral inflammatory stimulus than a younger brain. The effects of inflammatory mediators on the brain include changes in neurotransmission and apoptosis. On a neurotransmitter level, impaired cholinergic transmission and disturbances of the intricate interactions between dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine seem to play an important role in the development of delirium. The risk factors for delirium are categorised as predisposing or precipitating factors. In the presence of many predisposing factors, even trivial precipitating factors may trigger delirium, whereas in patients without or with only a few predisposing factors, a major precipitating insult is necessary to trigger delirium. Well documented predisposing factors are age, medical comorbidities, cognitive, functional, visual and hearing impairment and institutional residence. Important precipitating factors apart from surgery are admission to an ICU, anticholinergic drugs, alcohol or drug withdrawal, infections, iatrogenic complications, metabolic derangements and pain. Scores to predict the risk of delirium based on four or five risk factors have been validated in surgical patients.

  7. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    PubMed

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  8. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.

  9. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications.

  10. Examining Protective Factors and Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Head Start Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stacy L.; Fedor, Megan C.; Carlson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined a comprehensive screening model within children attending Head Start programs from urban (n = 232) and rural (n = 231) communities. The Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA; LeBuffe & Naglieri, 1999) was used to measure social-emotional protective factors (i.e., Total Protective Factors [TPF]) and risk factors (i.e.,…

  11. Occupational and genetic risk factors for osteoarthritis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Charles, Luenda E.; Baker, Brent; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease with strong genetic and occupational components. Although published studies have described several risk factors for OA, very few studies have investigated the occupational and genetic factors that contribute to this debilitating condition. OBJECTIVE To describe occupational and genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing (OA). METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the search terms osteoarthritis, occupation, work, and genetics. RESULTS Heavy physical work load was the most common occupational risk factor for OA in several anatomical locations. Other factors include kneeling and regular stair climbing, crawling, bending and whole body vibration, and repetitive movements. Numerous studies have also shown the influence of genetic variability in the pathogenesis of OA. Genetic variants of several groups of genes e.g., cartilage extracellular matrix structural genes and the genes related to bone density have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. CONCLUSION This review shows that occupational factors were extensively studied in knee OA unlike OA of other anatomical regions. Although genetic association studies performed to date identified a number of risk variants, some of these associations have not been consistently replicated across different studies and populations. Therefore, more research is needed. PMID:24004806

  12. Risk Factors Predictive of the Problem Behavior of Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Stage, Scott; Duppong-Hurley, Kristin; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Logistic regression analyses were used to establish the most robust set of risk factors that would best predict borderline/clinical levels of problem behavior (i.e., a t score at or above 60 on the Child Behavior Checklist Total Problem scale) of kindergarten and first-grade children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Results showed…

  13. Multi-Domain Risk and Protective Factor Predictors of Violent Behavior among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2011-01-01

    This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…

  14. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  15. Environmental Risk Factors for Pneumocystis Pneumonia Hospitalizations in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Djawe, Kpandja; Levin, Linda; Swartzman, Alexandra; Fong, Serena; Roth, Brenna; Subramanian, Anuradha; Grieco, Katherine; Jarlsberg, Leah; Miller, Robert F.; Huang, Laurence; Walzer, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients in the United States. Although the host risk factors for the development of PcP are well established, the environmental (climatological, air pollution) risk factors are poorly understood. The major goal of this study was to determine the environmental risk factors for admissions of HIV-positive patients with PcP to a single medical center. Methods. Between 1997 and 2008, 457 HIV-positive patients with microscopically confirmed PcP were admitted to the San Francisco General Hospital. A case-crossover design was applied to identify environmental risk factors for PcP hospitalizations. Climatological and air pollution data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and Weather Warehouse databases. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of each environmental factor and PcP hospital admission. Results. Hospital admissions were significantly more common in the summer than in the other seasons. Increases in temperature and sulfur dioxide levels were independently associated with hospital admissions for PcP, but the effects of sulfur dioxide were modified by increasing carbon monoxide levels. Conclusions. This study identifies both climatological and air pollution constituents as independent risk factors for hospitalization of HIV-positive patients with PcP in San Francisco. Thus, the environmental effects on PcP are more likely complex than previously thought. Further studies are needed to understand how these factors exert their effects and to determine if these factors are associated with PcP in other geographic locations. PMID:23042978

  16. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behaviour in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy.

  17. Coronary Risk Factor Scoring as a Guide for Counseling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A risk factor scoring system for early detection, possible prediction, and counseling to coronary heart disease patients is discussed. Scoring data include dynamic EKG, cholesterol levels, triglycerine content, total lipid level, total phospolipid levels, and electrophoretic patterns. Results indicate such a system is effective in identifying high risk subjects, but that the ability to predict exceeds the ability to prevent heart disease or its complications.

  18. Lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX is able to upregulate expression of NF-{kappa}B p65. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX enhances nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 via increasing p-I{kappa}B-{alpha} level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX stimulates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LTB4 activates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. -- Abstract: The issue that lipid metabolism enzyme and its metabolites regulate transcription factors in cancer cell is not fully understood. In this study, we first report that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are capable of activating nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) in hepatoma cells. We found that the treatment of MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) or knockdown of 5-LOX was able to downregulate the expression of NF-{kappa}B p65 at the mRNA level and decreased the phosphorylation level of inhibitor {kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}) in the cytoplasm of hepatoma HepG2 or H7402 cells, which resulted in the decrease of the level of nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65. These were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 cell. Moreover, the above treatments were able to decrease the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in the cells. The LTB4, one of metabolites of 5-LOX, is responsible for 5-LOX-activated NF-{kappa}B in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Our finding provides new insight into the significance of lipid metabolism in activation of transcription factors in cancer.

  19. Risk factors for borderline personality in male outpatients.

    PubMed

    Paris, J; Zweig-Frank, H; Guzder, J

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the role of several psychological risk factors--childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and its parameters, childhood physical abuse and its parameters, early separation or loss, and abnormal parental bonding--in male patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Subjects with personality disorders were divided into BPD (N = 61) and non-BPD (N = 60) groups. The risk factors were measured by a developmental interview and the Parental Bonding Index. The BPD group had a higher frequency of CSA, more severe CSA, a longer duration of physical abuse, increased rates of early separation or loss, and a higher paternal control score on the Parental Bonding Index. CSA and separation or loss were significant in the multivariate analysis. The risk factors suggest that trauma and loss, as well as problems with fathers, are important for the development of BPD in males.

  20. Risk factors and the prevalence of depression in Mormon women.

    PubMed

    Spendlove, D C; West, D W; Stanish, W M

    1984-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Utah metropolitan area in which a random sample of white, married women with children 14 years of age or younger were interviewed by telephone. Information was obtained on possible risk factors for depression and depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Prevalence of depression was compared in Mormon women (N = 143) who have a high percentage of career homemakers and non-Mormon (N = 36) who have a high percentage of women working outside the home. No difference in prevalence of depression was noted. Risk factors for depression in Mormon women were also studied. After adjusting for confounding, the risk factors were: Less education, little perceived caring from spouse, perception of having less than good health and having a low income. These findings are compared to other studies.

  1. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  2. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted analyses identified seven prenatal and seven perinatal risk factors significantly associated with autism. In the adjusted analysis, nine risk factors showed significant association with autism: maternal second-hand smoke exposure, maternal chronic or acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, gestational complications, edema, abnormal gestational age (<35 or >42 weeks), nuchal cord, gravidity >1, and advanced paternal age at delivery (>30 year-old). PMID:20358271

  3. Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men.

    PubMed

    Brower, K J; Blow, F C; Hill, E M

    1994-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic steroids to enhance athletic performance and physical appearance can cause numerous psychiatric and other adverse effects. In order to prevent steroid use and its negative consequences, knowledge of risk factors is needed. We conducted an anonymous survey of 404 male weight lifters from community gymnasiums who completed a 20-min, self-administered questionnaire. The sample for this study included all 35 men who were thinking about using steroids ("high-risk" nonusers), 50 randomly selected nonusers who were not thinking about using steroids ("low-risk" nonusers) and all 49 steroid users. The three groups differed in age, training characteristics, other performance-enhancers tried, body image, acquaintance with steroid users, and perception of negative consequences. When groups were compared along a continuum from low risk to high risk and from high risk to actual use, we found increasing amounts of competitive bodybuilding, performance-enhancers tried, and steroid-using acquaintances. Groups did not differ in their use of addictive substances. Nearly three-fourths of the high-risk group felt "not big enough," compared to 21% of the low-risk group and 38% of the steroid users (p < .001). These data suggest that steroids do work to increase satisfaction with body size, and that dissatisfaction with body size may contribute to the risk of using steroids.

  4. Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Baeta, Isabela Guimarães Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques; Gontijo, Bernardo; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. PMID:25184912

  5. Factor analysis of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Huang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    To assess the clustering of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among Taiwanese adults, we evaluated 579 healthy participants who underwent health examinations between May and December 2007. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine risk factor clustering. Smoking, alcohol intake, exercise habits, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, serum hepatic enzymes, and mean arterial pressure were assessed. Separate factor analyses assessed total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Principal components analysis identified five factors for a model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and four factors for a model without total cholesterol. Four common factors in both models explained between 51.1 and 51.8% of variance in the original 14 factors. Metabolic factors, hematological factors (white blood cells and platelets), lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and exercise habits and fasting blood glucose explained about 20, 11, 10, 10% of total variance, respectively. In the model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol factor explained 8.83% of variance. This study confirmed clustering of established metabolic syndrome components and revealed additional associated cardiovascular disease risk factors, including lifestyle factors, exercise and total cholesterol, which should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  6. Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors.

    PubMed

    van der Maarel-Wierink, Claar D; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; De Visschere, Luc M J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; de Baat, Cees; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-02-01

    Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five experienced speech-language therapists assessed 203 care home residents (115 primarily physically disabled, 88 primarily cognitively impaired) 60 and older in the first week after admission to a care home. In 43 (21.2%) residents, speech-language therapists assessed risk of aspiration and found no significant difference between physically disabled (26.1%) and cognitively impaired (14.8%) residents. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the final prediction model for risk of aspiration showed Parkinson's disease as a significant factor (odds ratio = 5.11; 95% confidence interval [1.49, 17.52]) . The authors therefore conclude that risk of aspiration is a relevant care problem among Dutch care home residents and requires further assessment.

  7. Nurse management of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Corominas, Hèctor

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, multi-system inflammatory disease. The incidence and prevalence of RA varies considerably between geographic areas and over time; the prevalence of RA in adults aged > 20 years in Spain is around 0.5% (Carmona et al, 2002). People with RA also have extra-articular manifestations, presenting an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; therefore, cardiovascular risk screening and management strategies are necessary in individuals with RA. The importance of interventions in the management of people with RA and cardiovascular risk factors is recognised by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations (Peters et al, 2010). Rheumatology specialist nurses are well placed to include routine cardiovascular risk assessment for people with RA attending clinic, and to provide educational interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating a balanced, low-fat diet and exercising regularly.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P < 0.001), daily contact with raw meat (OR = 1.8; P = 0.001), unfiltered water (OR = 1.7; P = 0.003), and density of cats (OR = 1.4; P = 0.045). Visualizing the spatial distribution of seropositive respondents highlighted clustering in lowland areas. This study highlighted that Middle Java has a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  9. Risk factors associated with chronic low back pain in Syria

    PubMed Central

    Alhalabi, Mohammad Salem; Alhaleeb, Hassan; Madani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify risk factors associated with chronic low back pain (C-LBP) in Syria. Materials and Methods: We conducted the study in a busy outpatient neurology clinic in Damascus city from October 2011 to August 2012. We enrolled all eligible adults presenting with C-LBP along with those who denied any back pain as a controls. We considered C-LBP any LBP lasting over 3 months. We developed our own questionnaire. A clinical nurse interviewed each person and filled in the results. Results: We had a total of 911 subjects; 513 patients and 398 controls. We found that C-LBP increased with age. Having a sibling with C-LBP was a strong predictor of C-LBP. In women obesity, but not overweight, was a risk factor. Number of children was a risk factor for mothers. Higher level of education decreased the chance of C-LBP in women. Sedentary job increased the risk of C-LBP. Conclusion: This study sheds some light on risk factors for C-LBP in our population and might help find possible preventive measures. PMID:26629465

  10. Early-life risk factors for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Copenhaver, Cathleen I; Mortimer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Research findings obtained over the past 20 years suggest that Alzheimer disease (AD) may have its origins in early life. In this review, we consider the evidence for early-life risk factors for this illness. We propose that risk factors that predict neuropathology are largely distinct from those related to the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. Early-life risk factors for pathology include genes, chromosomal abnormalities, head injury, insulin resistance, and inflammation. With regard to risk factors for clinical expression of Alzheimer disease, six general groups of childhood exposures are reviewed: (1) perinatal conditions, (2) early-life brain development, (3) early-life body growth, (4) early-life socioeconomic conditions, (5) environmental enrichment, and (6) cognitive reserve. The literature reviewed suggests that risk of Alzheimer disease is probably not determined in any single time period but results from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental exposures throughout the life course. Enhancement or preservation of brain or cognitive reserve could delay the onset of Alzheimer disease and in some cases prevent the disease from occurring altogether.

  11. Bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection: Risk factors and preventive methods

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Yosuke; Tsuji, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Niimi, Keiko; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become widely accepted as a standard method of treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms because it enables en block resection even for large lesions or fibrotic lesions with minimal invasiveness, and decreases the local recurrence rate. Moreover, specimens resected in an en block fashion enable accurate histological assessment. Taking these factors into consideration, ESD seems to be more advantageous than conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), but the associated risks of perioperative adverse events are higher than in EMR. Bleeding after ESD is the most frequent among these adverse events. Although post-ESD bleeding can be controlled by endoscopic hemostasis in most cases, it may lead to serious conditions including hemorrhagic shock. Even with preventive methods including administration of acid secretion inhibitors and preventive hemostasis, post-ESD bleeding cannot be completely prevented. In addition high-risk cases for post-ESD bleeding, which include cases with the use of antithrombotic agents or which require large resection, are increasing. Although there have been many reports about associated risk factors and methods of preventing post-ESD bleeding, many issues remain unsolved. Therefore, in this review, we have overviewed risk factors and methods of preventing post-ESD bleeding from previous studies. Endoscopists should have sufficient knowledge of these risk factors and preventive methods when performing ESD. PMID:27468187

  12. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies.

  13. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís, J.; Berbel, O.; Alonso-López, J.; Garcia, J.; Ortega, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, we reviewed the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Acquisition of evidence Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987–2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been “Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs” and “Bladder cancer”. Synthesis of evidence Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2–5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. Conclusions The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favors BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. PMID:23618510

  14. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  15. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  16. Epidemiology, risk factors, intervention, and prevention of adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Rosewater, K M; Burr, B H

    1998-08-01

    Increasing rates of adolescent suicide are a significant health concern and the third leading cause of death for this age group. Recent research into psychiatric, gender-related, family, cultural and neurobiologic risk factors is reviewed. The effects of suicide exposure and media influences are also examined. Although many risk factors have been identified, the application of this knowledge to clinical practice requires further study. The limited number of studies on prevention and intervention strategies are discussed. High rates of nonadherence to follow-up remain problematic. More research is needed to develop appropriate treatments, prevention programs and outcome measures.

  17. Risk factors involved in orofacial cleft predisposition – review

    PubMed Central

    Nelke, Kamil; Pawlas, Krystyna; Gerber, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Clefts that occur in children are a special topic. Avoiding risk factors, and also an early diagnosis of cleft possibility can result in minimizing or avoiding them. If on the other hand when clefts occur they require a long-term, multistage specialized treatment. Etiology of clefts seems to be related to many factors. Factors such as genetic, environmental, geographic and even race factors are important. Identification of risk factors can lead to prevention and prophylactic behaviors in order to minimize its occurrence. Exposure to environmental factors at home and work that lead to cleft predisposition should not be disregarded. It seems that before planning a family it would be wise to consult with doctors of different specializations, especially in high-risk families with cleft history in order to analyze previous lifestyle. Clefts are very common in hereditary facial malformations and are causing a lot of other irregularities in the head and neck region. In this paper after a brief papers review authors present socio-geographic, environmental and also work place related factors that are influencing pregnant women condition and should be taken under serious consideration. PMID:28352691

  18. Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Lagrain, Bert; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-01-15

    Fermenting yeast does not merely cause dough leavening, but also contributes to the bread aroma and might alter dough rheology. Here, the yeast carbon metabolism was mapped during bread straight-dough fermentation. The concentration of most metabolites changed quasi linearly as a function of fermentation time. Ethanol and carbon dioxide concentrations reached up to 60 mmol/100g flour. Interestingly, high levels of glycerol (up to 10 mmol/100g flour) and succinic acid (up to 1.6 mmol/100g flour) were produced during dough fermentation. Further tests showed that, contrary to current belief, the pH decrease in fermenting dough is primarily caused by the production of succinic acid by the yeast instead of carbon dioxide dissolution or bacterial organic acids. Together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of metabolite production during dough fermentation and yield insight into the importance of some of these metabolites for dough properties.

  19. Student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization.

    PubMed

    Saarento, Silja; Kärnä, Antti; Hodges, Ernest V E; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously investigate student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization. Both peer nominations and students' self-reports of victimization were utilized. The sample consisted of 6731 Finnish elementary school students (3386 girls and 3345 boys) nested in 358 classrooms in 74 schools. The participants were from Grades 3, 4, and 5 (mean age 11years). The results of multilevel analyses indicated that there was considerable variability in, and distinctive risk factors associated with, both peer- and self-reported victimization at all the three levels investigated. Social anxiety and peer rejection synergistically predicted victimization at the student level. At the classroom level, negative social outcome expectations of defending the victim were associated with an increased risk of a student being bullied. Victimization was also common in classrooms and schools where students perceived their teachers to have less disapproving attitudes toward bullying. Furthermore, the effects of the student-level predictors were found to vary across classrooms, and classroom size moderated the effects of social anxiety and peer rejection on victimization. By identifying the risk factors at the multiple levels, and looking into cross-level interactions among these factors, research can help to target interventions at the key ecological factors contributing to victimization, making it possible to maximize the effectiveness of interventions.

  20. Stroke Risk Factor Profiles in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Johnston, Karen C.; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). Methods We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Results A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. Conclusions AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke. PMID:11935036

  1. Analysis of genetics and risk factors of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Panpalli Ates, M; Karaman, Y; Guntekin, S; Ergun, M A

    2016-06-14

    Alzheimer's Disease is the leading neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood yet, is believed to be the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Consequently vascular risk factors and Apolipoprotein E genotyping are increasingly gaining importance. This study aimed at assessing the relationships between Alzheimer's Disease and Apolipoprotein E phenotype and vascular risk factors. Patients diagnosed with "possible Alzheimer's Disease" in the Gazi University, Department of Neurology, were included in the study and age-matched volunteer patients who attended the polyclinic were included as a control group. In this study, the risk factors including low education level, smoking, hyperlipidemia, higher serum total cholesterol levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia were found to be statistically significantly more common in the Alzheimer's Disease group in comparison to the Control Group, while all Apolipoprotein E ε4/ε4 genotypes were found in the Alzheimer's Disease group. The presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is believed to increase vascular risk factors as well as to affect Alzheimer's Disease directly. The biological indicators which are used in identifying the patients' genes will be probably used in the treatment plan of the patients in the future.

  2. Interpreting Hemoglobin A1C in Combination With Conventional Risk Factors for Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jarmul, Jamie A.; Pignone, Michael; Pletcher, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, but its use for prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in combination with conventional risk factors has not been well defined. Methods and Results To understand the effect of HbA1C on CVD risk in the context of other CVD risk factors, we analyzed HbA1C and other CVD risk factor measurements in 2000 individuals aged 40-79 years old without pre-existing diabetes or cardiovascular disease from the 2011-2012 NHANES survey. The resulting regression model was used to predict the HbA1C distribution based on individual patient characteristics. We then calculated post-test 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk incorporating the actual versus predicted HbA1C, according to established methods, for a set of example scenarios. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were significant predictors of HbA1C in our model, with the expected HbA1C distribution being significantly higher in non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian and Hispanic individuals than non-Hispanic white/other individuals. Incorporating the expected HbA1C distribution into pretest ASCVD risk has a modest effect on post-test ASCVD risk. In the patient examples we assessed, having an HbA1C < 5.7% reduced post-test risk by 0.4%-2.0% points, whereas having an HbA1C ≥ 6.5% increased post-test risk by 1.0%-2.5% points, depending on the scenario. The post-test risk increase from having an HbA1C ≥ 6.5 % tends to approximate the risk increase from being five years older in age. Conclusions HbA1C has modest effects on predicted ASCVD risk when considered in the context of conventional risk factors. PMID:26349840

  3. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    PubMed Central

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; De Wit, Guillermo; Martínez, Jaime D.; Mingo, David; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS) proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases), incomplete medical notes (5 cases) and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases). We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05), although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y. PMID:28393027

  4. Modifiable Risk Factors in Patients With Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Shemory, Scott T; Pfefferle, Kiel J; Gradisar, Ian M

    2016-05-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common reasons for physician visits in the United States and is a chief complaint frequently seen by orthopedic surgeons. Patients with chronic low back pain can experience recurring debilitating pain and disability, decreasing their quality of life. A commercially available software platform, Explorys (Explorys, Inc, Cleveland, Ohio), was used to mine a pooled electronic health care database consisting of the medical records of more than 26 million patients. According to the available medical history data, 1.2 million patients had a diagnosis of low back pain (4.54%). The information was used to determine the incidence of low back pain in patients with a history of nicotine dependence, obesity (body mass index, >30 kg/m(2)), depressive disorders, and alcohol abuse. Relative risk was then calculated for the defined modifiable risk factors. Patients with nicotine dependence, obesity, depressive disorders, and alcohol abuse had a relative risk of 4.489, 6.007, 5.511, and 3.326 for low back pain, respectively, compared with patients without the defined risk factor. A statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of low back pain between all 4 groups with the risk factors evaluated and the general population (P<.05). By determining treatable patient risk factors for low back pain, physicians can monitor at-risk patients and focus on prevention and control of debilitating disease. These approaches can decrease the number of patients with isolated low back pain who are seen by orthopedic surgeons. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e413-e416.].

  5. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection Following Major Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Lefta, Mellani; Dietz, Jill R.; Brandt, Keith E.; Aft, Rebecca; Matthews, Ryan; Mayfield, Jennie; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections following breast surgery result in increased length of hospital stay, antibiotic utilization, and morbidity. Understanding SSI risk factors is essential to develop infection prevention strategies and improve surgical outcomes. Methods A retrospective case-control design was used to determine independent risk factors for surgical site infection in subjects selected from a cohort of patients who had mastectomy, breast reconstruction or reduction surgery between January 1998 and June 2002 at a tertiary-care university affiliated hospital. SSI cases within 1 year after surgery were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for wound infection or complication and/or positive wound cultures. The medical records of 57 case patients with breast SSI and 268 randomly selected uninfected control patients were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results During the 4.5-year study period, 57 patients developed SSIs involving a breast incision and 10 patients developed SSIs involving a donor site incision. Significant independent risk factors for SSI involving the breast incision included insertion of a breast implant or tissue expander (odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI):2.5–11.1), suboptimal prophylactic antibiotic dosing (OR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.5–0.2 ), transfusion (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–9.0), mastectomy (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4–7.7), previous chest irradiation (OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2–6.5), and current or recent smoking (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 0.9–4.9). Local infiltration of an anesthetic agent was associated with significantly reduced risk of SSI (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.1–0.9). Conclusions Suboptimal prophylactic antibiotic dosing is a potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI following breast surgery. Risk of SSI was increased in patients undergoing mastectomy and in patients who had an implant or tissue expander placed during surgery. Knowledge of these risk factors can be

  6. [Pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Neurobiological risk factors and possible endophenotypes].

    PubMed

    Pászthy, Bea; Törzsök-Sonnevend, Mária

    2014-01-26

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious, chronical state of illness which often starts in childhood or adolescence and has serious consequences on the quality of life. This review focuses on the heterogenity of the disease with emphasis on special diagnostic implications in case of childhood onset. Research findings of the last decade showed that genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities are at least as potent risk factors as psychological, family constellations and sociocultural preferences. The heritability of eating disorders levels those of diseases predominantly influenced by biological factors. The authors give a summary of the most investigated neurobiologic and neurocognitive factors which could be the fundaments of a biological vulnerablilty. To date, no common risk factor could be identified, but some existing adversities can clearly be related to distinct subgroups with the disorder. The concept of endo- and subphenotypes leads to more specific and more efficient methods of therapy in other somatic and psychiatric diseases.

  7. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  8. Gastric cancer risk factors in subjects with family history.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S E; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    1997-02-01

    Until now, it has been unclear whether there are differences in various risk factor profiles for familial gastric cancer, i.e., gastric cancer among subjects with a family history of the disease. A total of 722 gastric cancer patients and 2024 controls were admitted between 1985 and 1992 to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area. Of these, 88 cases and 103 controls who reported a family history of gastric cancer in first degree relatives were considered in the present analysis. There was no relationship between gastric cancer risk and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking. Shorter duration of electrical refrigerator use was related to a nonsignificant increased risk and a high daily meal frequency was associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Significant direct trends of risk were observed for pasta (odds ratio, OR = 4.20 for the highest versus the lowest tertile), bread (OR, 2.86), red meat (OR, 3.38), and preserved meat (OR, 1.90). Inverse associations were observed for increasing consumption of selected vegetables and fruits, chiefly peppers (OR = 0.31), total fruits (OR, 0.47), and citrus fruits (OR, 0.38). With reference to selected micronutrients, a significant inverse trend in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene (OR, 0.27) and ascorbic acid (OR, 0.20) was observed. These results suggest that dietary risk factors for subjects with a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives are not appreciably different from well-established risk factors of the disease in the general population.

  9. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors.

  10. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  11. Interrelations of risk factors and low back pain in scaffolders

    PubMed Central

    Elders, L; Burdorf, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess with a cross sectional study the interrelations between physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors and different end points of low back pain.
METHODS—In total, 229 scaffolders and 59 supervisors completed a questionnaire about manual handling of materials, awkward back posture, strenuous arm position, perceived exertion, psychosocial load, need for recovery, and general health. Physical load at the worksite was also measured with many frequent observations. Interrelations between risk factors and their relation with four end points of low back pain were investigated.
RESULTS—Interrelations were strong among self reported determinants of physical load but showed an inverted trend for both age and total working experience, which could indicate the presence of a healthy worker effect. Weak relations existed between variables of psychosocial and physical load. The multivariate analyses showed a significant relation between high manual handling of materials, moderate perceived general health, high job demands, and low back pain in the past 12 months. Chronic low back pain was significantly correlated with high perceived exertion and moderate perceived general health. Severe low back pain was significantly correlated with awkward back postures, high need for recovery, and high job demands. Finally, low back pain with perceived disability was significantly related to strenuous shoulder positions and moderate perceived general health. All end points of low back pain were consistently associated with physical load whereas psychosocial aspects showed a more diverse pattern.
CONCLUSIONS—The findings of this study suggest that work related risk factors may vary according to different definitions of low back pain. Distinct patterns of risk factors might enhance different expressions of it. Scaffolders are a group at high risk of developing persistent forms of low back pain.


Keywords: interrelations; low back pain; risk

  12. Risk Factors for Fluconazole-Resistant Candida glabrata Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ingi; Fishman, Neil O.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Morales, Knashawn H.; Weiner, Mark G.; Synnestvedt, Marie; Nachamkin, Irving; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2010-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Candida glabrata have increased substantially. Candida glabrata is often associated with resistance to fluconazole therapy. However, to our knowledge, risk factors for fluconazole-resistant C glabrata BSIs have not been studied. Methods A case-case-control study was conducted at 3 hospitals from January 1, 2003, to May 31, 2007. The 2 case groups included patients with fluconazole-resistant C glabrata BSIs (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥16 μg/mL) and patients with fluconazole-susceptible C glabrata BSIs (minimum inhibitory concentration ≤8 μg/mL). Hospitalized patients without C glabrata BSIs were randomly selected for inclusion in the control group and were frequency matched to cases on the basis of time at risk. Two case-control studies were performed using this shared control group. The primary risk factor of interest, previous fluconazole use, was evaluated at multivariate analyses, adjusting for demographic data, comorbid conditions, and antimicrobial exposures. Results We included 76 patients with fluconazole-resistant C glabrata BSIs, 68 patients with fluconazole-susceptible C glabrata BSIs, and 512 control patients. Previous fluconazole use (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.3 [1.3–4.2]) and linezolid use (4.6 [2.2–9.3]) were independent risk factors for fluconazole-resistant C glabrata BSIs; previous cefepime use (2.2 [1.2–3.9]) and metronidazole use (2.0 [1.1–3.5]) were independent risk factors for fluconazole-susceptible C glabrata BSIs. Conclusions Previous fluconazole use is a significant risk factor for health care–associated fluconazole-resistant C glabrata BSIs. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the effect of decreasing fluconazole use on rates of fluconazole-resistant C glabrata BSIs. PMID:19237722

  13. Reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, K O; Kaveh-Ahangar, T

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy for women in most parts of the world and the incidence in Iranian women is growing. The patients are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The aim of study was to investigate the roles of reproductive factors for breast cancer in Babol. In a case-control study in Babol, we recruited a total of 100 new patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 200 age-matched controls selected from outpatient clinics. Demographic and reproductive factors were ascertained by in-person interview using a constructed questionnaire. Several potential confounding factors were adjusted using multiple logistic model. The adjusted odds ratio showed that having higher age at first pregnancy and abortion were associated with increased breast cancer risk (the adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.3-13.2 and 2.93, 95% CI: 1.64-5.24, respectively). By increasing parity, the risk had reduced significantly; among women with parity ≥ 5, the adjusted OR was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.7) compared with nulliparous women, and also for each additional parity, the risk reduced by 50% (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71). The duration of breast feeding was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while after additional adjustment for parity, no longer the protective effect of breast feeding was observed. Nulliparity, late age at first birth and abortion were the most important reproductive factors associated with breast cancer risk; therefore, it is recommended to women with these risk factors to perform breast cancer screening tests earlier.

  14. [Research on the socioeconomic risk factors in pregnancy and delivery].

    PubMed

    Bompiani, A; Arduini, D; Marchetti, P; Matarazzo, C

    1980-01-01

    The effects of various socioeconomic factors on the outcome of pregnancy and delivery in Italy are investigated. Variables considered include marital status, area of residence, educational level, occupation, income, and attitude toward pregnancy. Methods for accurate evaluation of risk factors are discussed. The need for physicians to consider the social and psychological aspects of pregnancy and delivery is emphasized. Data are for women interviewed at the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Clinic of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome.

  15. Occupational risk factors for shoulder pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van der Windt, D. A W M; Thomas, E.; Pope, D.; de Winter, A. F; Macfarlane, G.; Bouter, L.; Silman, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To systematically evaluate the available evidence on occupational risk factors of shoulder pain.
METHODS—Relevant reports were identified by a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Psychlit, Cinahl, and Current Contents. The quality of the methods of all selected publications was assessed by two independent reviewers using a standardised checklist. Details were extracted on the study population, exposures (physical load and psychosocial work environment), and results for the association between exposure variables and shoulder pain.
RESULTS—29 Studies were included in the review; three case-control studies and 26 cross sectional designs. The median method score was 60% of the maximum attainable score. Potential risk factors related to physical load and included heavy work load, awkward postures, repetitive movements, vibration, and duration of employment. Consistent findings were found for repetitive movements, vibration, and duration of employment (odds ratio (OR) 1.4-46 in studies with method scores ⩾ 60%). Nearly all studies that assessed psychosocial risk factors reported at least one positive association with shoulder pain, but the results were not consistent across studies for either high psychological demands, poor control at work, poor social support, or job dissatisfaction. Studies with a method score ⩾60% reported ORs between 1.3 and 4.0. Substantial heterogeneity across studies for methods used for exposure assessment and data analysis impeded statistical pooling of results.
CONCLUSIONS—It seems likely that shoulder pain is the result of many factors, including physical load and the psychosocial work environment. The available evidence was not consistent across studies, however, and the associations were generally not strong. Future longitudinal research should evaluate the relative importance of each individual risk factor and the role of potential confounding variables—such as exposure during leisure time—to set

  16. Risk factors for postoperative complications in robotic general surgery.

    PubMed

    Fantola, Giovanni; Brunaud, Laurent; Nguyen-Thi, Phi-Linh; Germain, Adeline; Ayav, Ahmet; Bresler, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility and safety of robotically assisted procedures in general surgery have been reported from various groups worldwide. Because postoperative complications may lead to longer hospital stays and higher costs overall, analysis of risk factors for postoperative surgical complications in this subset of patients is clinically relevant. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative morbidity after robotic surgical procedures in general surgery. We performed an observational monocentric retrospective study. All consecutive robotic surgical procedures from November 2001 to December 2013 were included. One thousand consecutive general surgery patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean overall postoperative morbidity and major postoperative morbidity (Clavien >III) rates were 20.4 and 6 %, respectively. This included a conversion rate of 4.4 %, reoperation rate of 4.5 %, and mortality rate of 0.2 %. Multivariate analysis showed that ASA score >3 [OR 1.7; 95 % CI (1.2-2.4)], hematocrit value <38 [OR 1.6; 95 % CI (1.1-2.2)], previous abdominal surgery [OR 1.5; 95 % CI (1-2)], advanced dissection [OR 5.8; 95 % CI (3.1-10.6)], and multiquadrant surgery [OR 2.5; 95 % CI (1.7-3.8)] remained independent risk factors for overall postoperative morbidity. It also showed that advanced dissection [OR 4.4; 95 % CI (1.9-9.6)] and multiquadrant surgery [OR 4.4; 95 % CI (2.3-8.5)] remained independent risk factors for major postoperative morbidity (Clavien >III). This study identifies independent risk factors for postoperative overall and major morbidity in robotic general surgery. Because these factors independently impacted postoperative complications, we believe they could be taken into account in future studies comparing conventional versus robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures in general surgery.

  17. Risk factors for gastroenteritis in child day care.

    PubMed

    Enserink, R; Mughini-Gras, L; Duizer, E; Kortbeek, T; Van Pelt, W

    2015-10-01

    The child day-care centre (DCC) is often considered as one risk factor for gastroenteritis (GE) rather than a complex setting in which the interplay of many factors may influence the epidemiology of GE. This study aimed to identify DCC-level risk factors for GE and major enteropathogen occurrence. A dynamic network of 100 and 43 DCCs participated in a syndromic and microbiological surveillance during 2010-2013. The weekly incidence of GE events and weekly prevalence of five major enteropathogens (rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum) were modelled per DCC using mixed-effects negative binomial/Poisson regression models. Sixteen hundred children were surveyed up to 3 years, during which 1829 GE episodes were reported and 5197 faecal samples were analysed. Identified risk factors were: large DCC capacity, crowding, having animals, nappy changing areas, sandpits, paddling pools, cleaning potties in normal sinks, cleaning vomit with paper towels (but without cleaner), mixing of staff between child groups, and staff members with multiple daily duties. Protective factors were: disinfecting fomites with chlorine, cleaning vomit with paper towels (and cleaner), daily cleaning of bed linen/toys, cohorting and exclusion policies for ill children and staff. Targeting these factors may reduce the burden of DCC-related GE.

  18. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  19. Risk and protective factors for juvenile eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Hans; Kwan, Winnie; Shaffer, Tani Graham; Walker, Shetarra; Miller, Samantha; Sagar, Ashwini; Lock, James

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorders are prevalent and complicated disorders which are difficult to treat. Unicausal and main effects models are not likely to do justice to the complexity of psychopathology encountered, as one considers etiology and pathogenesis. Risk and protection can arise out of several domains: biological, psychological and social. Risk and protective factors aggregate in specific developmental phases and interact to produce adverse outcomes. Temperamental factors, eating dysregulation, attachment, deficient self regulation and sociocultural ideals of health and beauty all contribute to pathogenesis. Applying the insights of developmental psychopathology to these disorders has considerable potential to lead to early and preventive interventions. Reviewing the current literature from this perspective and updating a similar discussion from 8 years ago, we witness a continued accumulation of quality empirical data. Compared to previous reviews, the field's attention has shifted to psychosocial/cultural domains relevant to eating, away from biological risk. In the aggregate, these data make possible the increasing differentiation of eating disorders from other psychopathology, and the specific pathways in which anorexia and bulimia may develop. Understanding of risk and vulnerability still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. While an ideal study would be longitudinal, such studies are still extremely difficult to conduct and costly, thus, forcing us to further our understanding from lagged designs, cross-sectional data and case control studies. While these have many limitations, they do seem to produce an increasingly coherent account of the development of these disorders and prepare us for more targeted and longitudinal study of high risk populations.

  20. The Epidemiological Investigation on the Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jianjun; Lin, Yong; Guo, Zhinan; Niu, Mu; Su, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranked the fifth in male and ninth in the female counterparts, and 50% of incidence HCC cases were occurred in China with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence. HCC has seriously compromised the health status of general population in China. A case–control study of 314 HCC cases and 346 controls was conducted in Xiamen, which is an epidemic area in China for both hepatitis B infection and HCC. Face-to-face interview was conducted to gather information on demographic characteristics as well as exposure of environmental factors. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the status of serological markers of HBV infection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the potential interactions of variables or confounders. As expected, HBV and alcohol intake still are the major risk factors of HCC. Liver disease history and passive smoking are also associated with elevated HCC risk. Indoor air pollution and pesticide exposure have newly identified as risk factors of HCC. Fruit and tea intake can significantly lower the HCC risk. The application of HBV vaccine and reduction on alcohol intake should be further promoted in high-risk population. Fruit and tea can be served as chemoprevention in daily life due to their high accessibility. PMID:26871825

  1. Unaccompanied status as a risk factor in Vietnamese Amerasians.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, R S; Webb, J A

    1995-07-01

    This study prospectively evaluates the relationship between unaccompanied status and levels of psychological distress in a group of Vietnamese Amerasians both prior to, and during, migration. Its objective was to determine whether unaccompanied migrant status functions as an independent post-departure risk factor for psychological distress, or if unaccompanied migrants are already at increased risk for, and have higher levels of, psychological distress prior to departure and the acquisition of unaccompanied status. Seventy-five Vietnamese Amerasian youth were evaluated at two points during their migration utilizing Felsman's Personal Information Form, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and the Youth Self-Report. The first assessment was conducted prior to migration at the Amerasian Transit Center in Vietnam, and the second during migration at the Philippine Refugee Processing Center. Unaccompanied Amerasians were found to have significantly higher risk levels for, and significantly more symptoms of, psychological distress prior to migration than accompanied Amerasians. During migration the difference in levels of psychological distress between accompanied and unaccompanied Amerasians increased beyond that attributable to predeparture risk levels alone. This significant differential increase in levels of psychological distress among unaccompanied Amerasians is attributable to unaccompanied status. Unaccompanied migrant status thus appears to function both as an independent postdeparture risk factor for psychological distress and also as a marker for increased levels of risk and psychological distress prior to migration.

  2. Methods for diagnosing the risk factors of stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare various systems for assessing the risk of recurrent stones, based on the composition of urine. Methods The relative supersaturation (RSS) of urine, the Tiselius Indices, the Robertson Risk Factor Algorithms (RRFA) and the BONN-Risk Index were compared in terms of the numbers of variables required to be measured, the ease of use of the system and the value of the information obtained. Results The RSS methods require up to 14 analyses in every urine sample but measure the RSS of all the main constituents of kidney stones. The Tiselius Indices and the RRFA require only seven analyses. The Tiselius Indices yield information on the crystallisation potentials (CP) of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate; the RRFA also provide information on the CP of uric acid. Both methods provide details on the particular urinary abnormalities that lead to the abnormal CP of that urine. The BONN-Risk Index requires two measurements in each urine sample but only provides information on the CP of calcium oxalate. Additional measurements in urine have to be made to identify the cause of any abnormality. Conclusions The methods that are based on measuring RSS are work-intensive and unsuitable for the routine screening of patients. The Tiselius Indices and the RRFA are equally good at predicting the risk of a patient forming further stones. The BONN-Risk Index provides no additional information about the causative factors for any abnormality detected. PMID:26558033

  3. Clinical Risk Factors for Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James C.; Kawut, Steven M.; Shah, Rupal J.; Localio, A. Russell; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Lederer, David J.; Cantu, Edward; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Ashish S.; Weinacker, Ann; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Pali D.; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Palmer, Scott M.; Christie, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is the main cause of early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results for PGD risk factors. Objectives: We sought to identify donor, recipient, and perioperative risk factors for PGD. Methods: We performed a 10-center prospective cohort study enrolled between March 2002 and December 2010 (the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group). The primary outcome was International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade 3 PGD at 48 or 72 hours post-transplant. The association of potential risk factors with PGD was analyzed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,255 patients from 10 centers were enrolled; 211 subjects (16.8%) developed grade 3 PGD. In multivariable models, independent risk factors for PGD were any history of donor smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.6; P = 0.002); FiO2 during allograft reperfusion (OR, 1.1 per 10% increase in FiO2; 95% CI, 1.0–1.2; P = 0.01); single lung transplant (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1.2–3.3; P = 0.008); use of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.2–5.3; P < 0.001); overweight (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = 0.01) and obese (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3–3.9; P = 0.004) recipient body mass index; preoperative sarcoidosis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.6; P = 0.03) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6–7.7; P = 0.002); and mean pulmonary artery pressure (OR, 1.3 per 10 mm Hg increase; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5; P < 0.001). PGD was significantly associated with 90-day (relative risk, 4.8; absolute risk increase, 18%; P < 0.001) and 1-year (relative risk, 3; absolute risk increase, 23%; P < 0.001) mortality. Conclusions: We identified grade 3 PGD risk factors, several of which are potentially modifiable and should be prioritized for future research aimed at preventative strategies. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT

  4. Definitive Metabolite Identification Coupled with Automated Ligand Identification System (ALIS) Technology: A Novel Approach to Uncover Structure-Activity Relationships and Guide Drug Design in a Factor IXa Inhibitor Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yong; Yang, Xianshu; Martin, Gary E; Yao, Huifang; Shang, Jackie; Bugianesi, Randal M; Ellsworth, Kenneth P; Sonatore, Lisa M; Nizner, Peter; Sherer, Edward C; Hill, Susan E; Knemeyer, Ian W; Geissler, Wayne M; Dandliker, Peter J; Helmy, Roy; Wood, Harold B

    2016-03-10

    A potent and selective Factor IXa (FIXa) inhibitor was subjected to a series of liver microsomal incubations, which generated a number of metabolites. Using automated ligand identification system-affinity selection (ALIS-AS) methodology, metabolites in the incubation mixture were prioritized by their binding affinities to the FIXa protein. Microgram quantities of the metabolites of interest were then isolated through microisolation analytical capabilities, and structurally characterized using MicroCryoProbe heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques. The isolated metabolites recovered from the NMR experiments were then submitted directly to an in vitro FIXa enzymatic assay. The order of the metabolites' binding affinity to the Factor IXa protein from the ALIS assay was completely consistent with the enzymatic assay results. This work showcases an innovative and efficient approach to uncover structure-activity relationships (SARs) and guide drug design via microisolation-structural characterization and ALIS capabilities.

  5. Synergistic action of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone on myelopoietic stimulating activity of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Colagiovanni, D. B.; Henry, V. A.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The effects of in vitro pretreatment with benzene metabolites on colony-forming response of murine bone marrow cells stimulated with recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) were examined. Pretreatment with hydroquinone (HQ) at concentrations ranging from picomolar to micromolar for 30 min resulted in a 1.5- to 4.6-fold enhancement in colonies formed in response to rGM-CSF that was due to an increase in granulocyte/macrophage colonies. The synergism equaled or exceeded that reported for the effects of interleukin 1, interleukin 3, or interleukin 6 with GM-CSF. Optimal enhancement was obtained with 1 microM HQ and was largely independent of the concentration of rGM-CSF. Pretreatment with other authentic benzene metabolites, phenol and catechol, and the putative metabolite trans, trans-muconaldehyde did not enhance growth factor response. Coadministration of phenol and HQ did not enhance the maximal rGM-CSF response obtained with HQ alone but shifted the optimal concentration to 100 pM. Synergism between HQ and rGM-CSF was observed with nonadherent bone marrow cells and lineage-depleted bone marrow cells, suggesting an intrinsic effect on recruitment of myeloid progenitor cells not normally responsive to rGM-CSF. Alterations in differentiation in a myeloid progenitor cell population may be of relevance in the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to drug or chemical exposure.

  6. Identifying Causal Risk Factors for Violence among Discharged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Coid, Jeremy W.; Kallis, Constantinos; Doyle, Mike; Shaw, Jenny; Ullrich, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Background Structured Professional Judgement (SPJ) is routinely administered in mental health and criminal justice settings but cannot identify violence risk above moderate accuracy. There is no current evidence that violence can be prevented using SPJ. This may be explained by routine application of predictive instead of causal statistical models when standardising SPJ instruments. Methods We carried out a prospective cohort study of 409 male and female patients discharged from medium secure services in England and Wales to the community. Measures were taken at baseline (pre-discharge), 6 and 12 months post-discharge using the Historical, Clinical and Risk-20 items version 3 (HCR-20v3) and Structural Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF). Information on violence was obtained via the McArthur community violence instrument and the Police National Computer. Results In a lagged model, HCR-20v3 and SAPROF items were poor predictors of violence. Eight items of the HCR-20v3 and 4 SAPROF items did not predict violent behaviour better than chance. In re-analyses considering temporal proximity of risk/ protective factors (exposure) on violence (outcome), risk was elevated due to violent ideation (OR 6.98, 95% CI 13.85–12.65, P<0.001), instability (OR 5.41, 95% CI 3.44–8.50, P<0.001), and poor coping/ stress (OR 8.35, 95% CI 4.21–16.57, P<0.001). All 3 risk factors were explanatory variables which drove the association with violent outcome. Self-control (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.08–0.24, P<0.001) conveyed protective effects and explained the association of other protective factors with violence. Conclusions Using two standardised SPJ instruments, predictive (lagged) methods could not identify risk and protective factors which must be targeted in interventions for discharged patients with severe mental illness. Predictive methods should be abandoned if the aim is to progress from risk assessment to effective risk management and replaced by methods which identify factors

  7. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  8. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  9. Teens' Knowledge of Risk Factors for Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cynthia W.

    2004-01-01

    Youth participation in sports has increased greatly over the past 20 years. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of sports injuries. A study was conducted to determine teen's level of physical activity, knowledge about risk factors for sports injuries, use of protective equipment, and parental involvement. Two groups of teens, one of…

  10. Predicting Reading Disability: Early Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth Mikael; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We…

  11. Problem Gambling in Chinese American Adolescents: Characteristics and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  13. Risk factors for early recurrence after inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Family history, male gender and age are significant risk factors for inguinal hernia disease. Family history provides evidence for a genetic trait and could explain early recurrence after inguinal hernia repair despite technical advance at least in a subgroup of patients. This study evaluates if age and family history can be identified as risk factors for early recurrence after primary hernia repair. Methods We performed an observational cohort study for 75 patients having at least two recurrent hernias. The impact of age, gender and family history on the onset of primary hernias, age at first recurrence and recurrence rates was investigated. Results 44% (33/75) of recurrent hernia patients had a family history and primary as well as recurrent hernias occurred significantly earlier in this group (p = 0.04). The older the patients were at onset the earlier they got a recurrent hernia. Smoking could be identified as on additional risk factor for early onset of hernia disease but not for hernia recurrence. Conclusion Our data reveal an increased incidence of family history for recurrent hernia patients when compared with primary hernia patients. Patients with a family history have their primary hernias as well as their recurrence at younger age then patients without a family history. Though recurrent hernia has to be regarded as a disease caused by multiple factors, a family history may be considered as a criterion to identify the risk for recurrence before the primary operation. PMID:20003183

  14. Gallbladder cancer and nutritional risk factors in Chile

    PubMed

    Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2016-02-16

    Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.

  15. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  16. Infantile colic: maternal smoking as potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Reijneveld, S.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.

    2000-01-01

    The association of maternal smoking and type of feeding with colic was assessed in 3345 children aged 1-6 months (96% response). The prevalence of colic was twofold higher among infants of smoking mothers, but less among breastfed infants. Maternal smoking as a potential risk factor for infantile crying needs further study.

 PMID:10999861

  17. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted…

  18. Teenage Pregnancy among Latinas: Examining Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Ates, Aysun; Carrion-Basham, Carla Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of three groups of risk and protective factors (e.g., individual, family, and extrafamilial) that are associated with teen pregnancy. Two groups of Latina adolescents (aged 15 to 19), nonpregnant/ nonparenting (NP; N = 48) and pregnant/parenting (P; N = 46), completed a demographic survey, an adolescent profile…

  19. Risk and Protective Factors in Gifted Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated risk and protective factors associated with dyslexia and literacy development, both at the group and individual level, to gain more insight in underlying cognitive profiles and possibilities for compensation in high-IQ children. A sample of 73 Dutch primary school children included a dyslexic group, a gifted-dyslexic group,…

  20. Family Risk Factors, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Associations between parents' poor marital adjustment, parent-child discord, affectionless control, low family cohesion, and parental divorce and DSM-III diagnoses were explored among 220 offspring of parents with and without major depression. Parental depression and family risk factors were significant predictors of conduct disorder. (RH)

  1. Osteoarthritis 1: Physiology, risk factors and causes of pain.

    PubMed

    Swift, Amelia

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a synovial joint disorder characterised by pain, stiffness, and restricted function. It is often classed as a degenerative disease because the affected joints deteriorate over time. This article, the first in a three-part series, describes the complex pathophysiology and causes of pain in OA, risk factors, and how it is diagnosed.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  3. [Blood groups as a risk factor in venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cañete, C M; Alvarez Dieguez, R; González Sánchez M de la, C; Díaz Hernández, C; Sánchez Montiel, M E

    1993-01-01

    We report 173 patients with venous thrombosis (or post-thrombotic syndrome) demonstrated by phlebography. We show up the importance of blood groups as risk factor, being very significant the A group. Female sex is associated with a high incidence of this pathology. A frequent location is the left lower limb.

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    *Christina A. Peterson 1,2,3 and Rebecca L. Calderon 2

    1 Department of Epidemiology
    School of Public Health (SPH)
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), 27516
    2 Nat...

  5. Constitutional and occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís, J.; Garcia, J.; Berbel, O.; Ortega, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bladder carcinoma (BC) is the fourth most common type of cancer in males from Western countries, with primary prevention an important healthcare challenge. We review the associated constitutional and occupational risk factors (RF), with greater or lesser scientific evidence, in the etiology of BC. Material and methods Literature review of the last 25 years of the constitutional and occupational RF associated with BC, conducted on MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Risk factors/Genetic factors/Genetic polymorphisms/Epidemiology/Occupational factors and Bladder cancer. Results The main RF were (a) age and gender (diagnosed at age 65 and over, with a 4:1 ratio of males to females); (b) race, ethnicity and geographic location (predominantly in Caucasians and in Southern European countries); (c) genetic (N-acetyltransferase-2 and glutathione s-transferase M1 gene mutations, which significantly increase the risk for BC); (d) occupational, which represent 5–10% of BC RF; and (f) occupations with high BC risk, such as aluminum production, the manufacture of dyes, paints and colourings, the rubber industry and the extraction and industrial use of fossil fuels. Conclusions BC is the end result of the variable combination of constitutional and environmental RF, the majority of which are unknown. The most significant constitutional RF are related to age, gender, race, ethnicity geographic location and genetic polymorphisms. The main occupational RF are those related to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:23664103

  6. Road Rage: Risk Factors, Assessment, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkin, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents of angry and aggressive driving, often referred to as "road rage," are becoming more and more commonplace in everyday driving. Many people might benefit from counseling interventions to help manage driving anger and aggression. This article provides a review of research on road rage risk factors, a description of inventories for…

  7. Critical factors in assessing risk from exposure to nasal carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Bogdanffy, M S; Mathison, B H; Kuykendall, J R; Harman, A E

    1997-10-31

    Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that contribute to chemical-induced nasal carcinogenesis are either largely divergent between test species and humans, or we know very little of them. These factors, let alone the uncertainty associated with our knowledge gap, present a risk assessor with the formidable task of making judgments about risks to human health from exposure to chemicals that have been identified in rodent studies to be nasal carcinogens. This paper summarizes some of the critical attributes of the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of risk assessments for nasal carcinogens that must be accounted for by risk assessors in order to make informed decisions. Data on two example compounds, dimethyl sulfate and hexamethylphosphoramide, are discussed to illustrate the diversity of information that can be used to develop informed hypotheses about mode of action and decisions on appropriate dosimeters for interspecies extrapolation. Default approaches to interspecies dosimetry extrapolation are described briefly and are followed by a discussion of a generalized physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that, unlike default approaches, is flexible and capable of incorporating many of the critical species-specific factors. Recent advancements in interspecies nasal dosimetry modeling are remarkable. However, it is concluded that without the development of research programs aimed at understanding carcinogenic susceptibility factors in human and rodent nasal tissues, development of plausible modes of action will lag behind the advancements made in dosimetry modeling.

  8. Chromium supplementation alleviates risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome has been applied to a clustering of risk factors of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including elevated blood lipids, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, proinflammatory state including increased C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha, and prothrombotic state including anomal...

  9. Cyberbullying and Its Risk Factors among Chinese High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…

  10. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Rebecca T.; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Samuels, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods. Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053–053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results. European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71–.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07–1.77; P = .01). Conclusions. Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors. PMID:27807590

  11. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  12. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  13. Pseudarthrosis of the Cervical Spine: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Leven, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy are common pathologies that often improve with spinal decompression and fusion. Postoperative complications include pseudarthrosis, which can be challenging to diagnose and manage. We reviewed the literature with regard to risk factors, diagnosis, controversies, and management of cervical pseudarthrosis. PMID:27559462

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, George A.; Lowing, Larry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined cardiovascular risk factors in Black first-year college students (N=238). Students completed surveys about blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking, and physical activity. Results found low rates of high blood pressure, low awareness of cholesterol levels, and low numbers of students who smoked. Females had lower physical…

  15. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  16. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Melissa N.; Miller, William C.; Staples, Betty; Bravender, Terrill

    2008-01-01

    College obesity is increasing, but to the authors' knowledge, no researchers to date have evaluated risk factors in this population. Objective: The authors assessed whether abnormal eating perceptions and behaviors were associated with overweight in college students. Participants and Methods: A sample of undergraduates (N = 4,201) completed an…

  17. Pre-Diabetes Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Nov 9,2015 ... This content was last reviewed August 2015. Pre-diabetes • Introduction • About Pre-diabetes • What's the Problem? Intro ...

  18. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  19. Risk factors associated with sacral stress fractures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Kristi; Bartsokas, Jenna; Averell, Kristina; McBride, Erin; Long, Christine; Cook, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine and identify risk factors associated with the development of sacral stress fractures in order to improve diagnosis in clinical practice. Methods: Electronic search strategies in PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus were combined with a hand search to identify articles for inclusion. Studies were considered if they described patient cases in which imaging confirmed diagnosis of a sacral stress fracture, and the diagnosis included whether the fracture was a sacral insufficiency or sacral fatigue stress fracture. Results: In those that developed sacral insufficiency fractures, the risk factors that were most prevalent included osteoporosis, pelvic radiation therapy, rheumatoid arthritis, long-term corticosteroid therapy, and postmenopausal, each with a prevalence of 100%. Risk factors with 100% prevalence in those diagnosed with sacral fatigue fractures included recent increase in training intensity and deficient diet. Discussion: A pattern of signs and symptoms are consistent among subjects with sacral stress fractures. Patients being unsuccessfully treated for low-back and buttock pain who fit the risk factor profiles for sacral stress fractures should be referred to a physician for further diagnostic workup. PMID:26109829

  20. Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryant, Sid E.; Johnson, Leigh; Reisch, Joan; Edwards, Melissa; Hall, James; Barber, Robert; Devous, Michael; Royall, Donald; Singh, Meharvan

    2013-01-01

    Background While a great deal of literature has focused on risk factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), little published work examines risk for MCI among Mexican Americans. Methods Data from 1628 participants (non-Hispanic n= 1002; Mexican American n=626) were analyzed from two ongoing studies of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, Project FRONTIER and TARCC. Results When looking at the full cohorts (non-Hispanic and Mexican American), age, education, APOE ε4 status and gender were consistently related to MCI diagnosis across the two cohorts. However, when split by ethnicity advancing age was the only significant risk factor for MCI among Mexican Americans across both cohorts. Conclusions The current data suggests that many of the previously established risk factors for MCI among non-Hispanic cohorts may not be predictive of MCI among Mexican Americans and point to the need for additional work aimed at understanding factors related to cognitive aging among this underserved segment of the population. PMID:23643456

  1. Is peritraumatic dissociation a risk factor for PTSD?

    PubMed

    Breh, Doris C; Seidler, Günter H

    2007-01-01

    In the literature, peritraumatic dissociation is frequently considered to be a risk factor for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In the last few years, a large number of studies have investigated the connections between PTSD and peritraumatic dissociation. A meta-analysis was conducted, including 35 empirical studies that discuss the connections between peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD. Meta-analysis makes it possible to undertake a systematic integration of findings produced by primary studies of this kind to date. The average effect size was r=0.36, indicating a significant positive correlation between the two dimensions. In this article, the authors make a distinction between correlate and risk factor. Therefore, subgroup analyses of quasi-prospective and retrospective studies were undertaken with a view to establishing whether peritraumatic dissociation represents a risk factor for the development of PTSD following a traumatic event. The average effect size in the quasi-prospective studies was r=0.34, which was significant. From a methodological viewpoint, the results show that peritraumatic dissociation is a moderate risk factor for PTSD. Nonetheless, the conceptualization of peritraumatic dissociation in the framework of psychotraumatic stress syndromes--is it a predictor, a symptom, or something else entirely?--needs to be addressed by future research.

  2. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  3. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  4. Childhood Risks and Protective Factors in Social Exclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John

    2001-01-01

    Distills the literatures of social exclusion and developmental psychopathology by examining which children are likely to become socially excluded as adults and which are most vulnerable to adult psychiatric disorders or criminality. Points to the role of family for risk and protective factors. Considers policy initiatives to combat social…

  5. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in a hepatology ward.

    PubMed

    Vanjak, Dominique; Girault, Guillaume; Branger, Catherine; Rufat, Pierre; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Fantin, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    During 2001, Clostridium difficile infection was observed in 23 patients hospitalized in a hepatology ward (attack rate, 0.9%). Since strain typing ruled out a clonal dissemination, we performed a case-control study. In addition to antibiotic use as a risk factor, the C. difficile infection rate was higher among patients with autoimmune hepatitis (P<.01).

  6. Suicide during Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Vecchiotti, Roberta; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice; Fornaro, Michele; De Berardis, Domenico; Perna, Giampaolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide has been considered a relatively rare event during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e., postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors, and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk factors, and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behavior during the pregnancy and postpartum period. Practical recommendations have been provided as well. PMID:27570512

  7. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal injuries in Australian thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C J; Reid, S W; Hodgson, D R; Suann, C J; Rose, R J

    1997-09-01

    Risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in racing Thoroughbreds were investigated in a case-control study conducted at racetracks administered by the Australian Jockey Club. Univariable analysis of 137 cases from the official Veterinary Surgeon's reports and an equal number of randomly selected controls from the Australian Race Results identified field size, barrier position and class of race as being significantly associated with breakdown (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression was then used to investigate the effect of each putative risk factor whilst controlling for all others. Horses at greater risk were older, started from a wider barrier position, ran at the same distance as their previous race and raced in the highest class of race. There was no significant difference between tracks or significant association with track condition. The incidence of fatalities in the study population was less than that reported in the UK and USA.

  8. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity.

  9. Unrecognized or potential risk factors for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Larebeke, Nicolas A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Boogaerts, Marc A; Bracke, Marc; Davis, Devra Lee; Demarini, David M; Hooper, Kim; Huff, James; Kleinjans, Jos C; Legator, Marvin S; Schoeters, Greet; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic methods only seldom identify causes of childhood cancer associated with relative risks below a factor of 1 1/2-2. Children are at risk of exposure to over 15,000 high-production-volume chemicals and are certainly exposed to many carcinogens. The individual impacts of most of these agents are too small to be detected, but collectively these unrecognized factors are potentially important. Infants and children are exposed to higher levels of some environmental toxicants and may also be more sensitive. During intrauterine development and childhood, cells divide frequently, and the mutant frequency rises rapidly. Endocrine-related cancers or susceptibility to cancer may result from developmental exposures rather than from exposures existing at or near the time of diagnosis. That environmental exposures may be important causes of childhood cancers is indicated by associations of enzyme polymorphisms with risk.

  10. Risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Issazadegan, Ali; Etemadinia, Mahin; Golssanamlou, Safar; Abdolmanafi, Atefe

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of several cognitive and emotional variables including perfectionism, rumination, and attachment quality with depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students (144 males, 156 females) from Urmia University of Technology, Urmia University, and Urmia University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (TMPS), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results demonstrated that insecurity of attachment, socially prescribed perfectionism, and rumination could significantly predict the depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. Confirming predictive risk factors of depressive symptoms, results of the present study can produce an empirical basis for designing educational and health programs for people at risk. Accordingly, proper assessment of the risk factors of depressive symptoms in health care settings may provide invaluable information for prevention and management programs.

  11. Venous and arterial thrombosis during oral contraceptive use: risks and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Bea C; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2003-02-01

    Since the introduction of oral contraceptives, their use has been associated with an increased risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke are serious disorders with a considerable risk of mortality. Because worldwide over 100 million women use oral contraceptives, issues of drug safety are of great importance. The risk of venous thrombosis during low-dose oral contraceptive use is three- to sixfold increased compared with that of nonusers. The association is not only attributed to the estrogen component of the pill: the risk is twice as high for desogestrel and gestodene (third generation) containing oral contraceptives as for levonorgestrel (second generation) containing oral contraceptives. The risk of venous thrombosis is highest in the first year of use and in women with genetic or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. Both venous or arterial thrombosis are unrelated to duration of use or past use of combined oral contraceptives. The risk of myocardial infarction and stroke during low-dose oral contraceptive use is two- to fivefold increased relative to that of nonusers. The risk of arterial thrombosis induced by oral contraceptive use is more pronounced in smokers and women with hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. All types of thrombosis have strongly age-dependent incidences, and therefore in absolute figures the risks and effects of risk factors increase with age. The lowering of the estrogen dose in combined oral contraceptives from 50 microg to 20-30 microg in the last decade did not clearly reduce the risk of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. For stroke and peripheral arterial disease no difference in risk was found between second and third generation oral contraceptives. For myocardial infarction study results are conflicting, and a small benefit of third- over second-generation oral contraceptives cannot be ruled out. However, this is

  12. Plasma levels of brain derived-neurotrophic factor and catecholamine metabolites are increased during active phase of psychotic symptoms in CNS lupus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ikemura, Naomi; Utsunomiya, Kensuke; Mitoma, Masae; Nakamura, Jun

    2006-09-30

    In the present study, the authors reported a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system involvement (CNS lupus). The authors also longitudinally investigated plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catecholamine metabolites in the patient, and found that plasma levels of BDNF, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were raised in accordance with the severity of psychotic symptoms in this case of CNS lupus. These results suggest that it is useful to measure plasma levels of BDNF and the catecholamine metabolites in order to predict the severity of psychotic symptoms in CNS lupus and to provide a differential diagnosis from that of steroid-induced psychosis.

  13. Risk Factors for Complications After Esophageal Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Viklund, Pernilla; Lindblad, Mats; Lu, Ming; Ye, Weimin; Johansson, Jan; Lagergren, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors for complications after resection for esophageal or cardia cancer. Summary Background Data: Knowledge of risk factors for complications after esophageal resection for cancer is sparse, and prospective population-based studies are lacking. Methods: A prospective, nationwide, population-based study was conducted in Sweden in April 2, 2001 through December 31, 2003. Details about tumor characteristics and stage, surgical procedures, and complications were collected prospectively from the Swedish Esophageal and Cardia Cancer register. Medical records and specific charts from surgical procedures, histopathology reports, and intensive care units were continuously scrutinized. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals. Results: Among 275 patients undergoing surgical resection for esophageal or cardia cancer, 122 (44%) had at least one predefined complication. Operation by low-volume surgeons (<5 operations annually) were followed by more anastomotic leakages than those by surgeons with higher volume (odds ratio, 7.86; 95% confidence interval, 2.13–29.00). Hand-sewn and stapled anastomoses did not differ regarding risk of anastomotic leakage. Among cardia cancer patients, transthoracic approach resulted in more respiratory complications compared with transhiatal (abdominal only) approach (odds ratio, 4.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.66–13.76). Older age, adjuvant oncologic therapy, and higher preoperative bleeding volume nonsignificantly increased the risks of complications, while no influence of sex or tumor stage was found. Conclusions: High-volume esophageal surgeons seem to lower the risk of anastomotic leakage. More large-scale studies are warranted to establish the roles of the other potentially important risk factors suggested in our study. PMID:16432353

  14. Height-related risk factors for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Norrish, A E; McRae, C U; Holdaway, I M; Jackson, R T

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that adult height is positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer. The authors carried out a population-based case-control study involving 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 controls to further investigate the possibility that height is more strongly associated with advanced, compared with localized forms of this disease. Since the inherited endocrine factors, which in part determine height attained during the growing years, may influence the risk of familial prostate cancer later in life, the relationship with height was also investigated for familial versus sporadic prostate cancers. Adult height was not related to the risk of localized prostate cancer, but there was a moderate positive association between increasing height and the risk of advanced cancer (relative risk (RR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.73, upper versus lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.07). Height was more strongly associated with the risk of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history compared with those reporting a negative family history. The RR of advanced prostate cancer for men in the upper height quartile with a positive family history was 7.41 (95% CI 1.68-32.67, P-trend = 0.02) compared with a reference group comprised of men in the shortest height quartile with a negative family history. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels did not correlate with height amongst men with familial or sporadic prostate cancers. These findings provide evidence for the existence of growth-related risk factors for prostate cancer, particularly for advanced and familial forms of this disease. The possible existence of inherited mechanisms affecting both somatic and tumour growth deserves further investigation.

  15. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show—by using two 8-d laboratory protocols—that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8–15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3–29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  16. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  17. Clinical Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Bikash; Joshi, Astha; Brennessel, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis. There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P=0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker (P=0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve (P=0.003), and recent hospitalization (P=0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups (P=0.437). In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis. Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted. PMID:28265207

  18. Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Tendinopathies in Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Brett D.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A.K.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Smith, Tyler C.; Bagnell, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Overuse injuries have a significant impact on United States military service members, but research to date has been limited in its ability to assess occupational and behavioral risk factors. Hypothesis/Purpose: To prospectively identify risk factors for the development of lower extremity tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis in United States military personnel. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a long-term observational cohort of military personnel, were utilized. Service members were enrolled in the cohort in 2001, 2004, and 2007. A total of 80,106 active-duty personnel were followed over 1 year for the development of patellar tendinopathy, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Regression analyses were used to estimate significant associations between each tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and demographic, behavioral, and occupational characteristics. Results: Using medical records, 450 cases of Achilles tendinitis, 584 cases of patellar tendinopathy, and 1228 cases of plantar fasciitis were identified. Recent deployment was associated with an increased risk for developing plantar fasciitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.56). Moderate weekly alcohol consumption was marginally associated with an increased risk for Achilles tendinopathy (AOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.76). Overweight or obese individuals were more likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis. Conclusion: Lower extremity tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis are common among military service members, and this study identified several modifiable risk factors for their occurrence. These potential risk factors could serve as the focus for future preventive and intervention studies. PMID:26535232

  19. Nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2016-12-01

    If we are to gain a full and complete understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent type 1 diabetes mechanistic risk markers must be developed that predict risk accurately and which can be used as endpoints for short or intermediate term intervention studies aimed at reducing risk. A variety of biochemical and vascular markers have potential to meet these requirements. Biochemical markers include markers of inflammation, oxidation, and endothelial damage. Vascular markers include static and dynamic measures of arterial function. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes demonstrate alterations in many of these markers. For many of the biochemical markers precise cut-off points with high sensitivity and specificity are not available and many of the vascular measures require specific equipment and are operator dependent.

  20. Preoperative risk factors of malnutrition for cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Donata, Ringaitienė; Dalia, Gineitytė; Vaidas, Vicka; Tadas, Žvirblis; Jūratė, Šipylaitė; Algimantas, Irnius; Juozas, Ivaškevičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition (MN) is prevalent in cardiac surgery, but there are no specific preoperative risk factors of MN. The aim of this study is to assess the clinically relevant risk factors of MN for cardiac surgery patients. Materials and methods. The nutritional state of the patients was evaluated one day prior to surgery using a bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle (PA). Two groups of patients were generated according to low PA: malnourished and well nourished. Risk factors of MN were divided into three clinically relevant groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. Variables in each different group were entered into separate multivariate logistic regression models. Results. A total of 712 patients were included in the study. The majority of them were 65-year old men after a CABG procedure. Low PA was present in 22.9% (163) of patients. The analysis of disease-related factors of MN revealed the importance of heart functions (NYHA IV class OR: 3.073, CI95%: 1.416–6.668, p = 0.007), valve pathology (OR: 1.825, CI95%: 1.182–2.819, p = 0.007), renal insufficiency (OR: 4.091, CI95%: 1.995–8.389, p < 0.001) and body mass index (OR: 0.928, CI95%: 0.890–0.968, p < 0.001). Laboratory values related to MN were levels of haemoglobin (OR: 0.967, CI95%: 0.951–0.983, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (OR: 1.015, CI95%: 1.002–1.028, p = 0.0279). The lifestyle variables that qualified as risk factors concerned the intake of food (OR: 3.030, CI95%: 1.353–6.757, p = 0.007) and mobility (OR: 2.770, CI95%: 1.067–7.194, p = 0.036). Conclusions. MN risk factors comprise three different clinical groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. The patients who are most likely to be malnourished are those with valve pathology, severe imparted heart function, insufficient renal function and high inflammatory markers. Also these patients have decreased mobility

  1. Risk and vulnerability: do socioeconomic factors influence the risk of acquiring HIV in Asia?

    PubMed

    Greener, Robert; Sarkar, Swarup

    2010-09-01

    HIV epidemics in Asia have been mainly concentrated among certain population groups such as injecting drug users, sex workers and their clients and men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV risk has also been associated with labour migrants and their partners. Many of the people at risk through these behaviours are very poor, and this raises the question that poverty and social deprivation may be underlying factors that drive the adoption of risk behaviours and can be regarded as 'determinants' of vulnerability to HIV infection in Asia. The study presents some observations of the socioeconomic pattern of HIV spread in Asia, using country-level and household-level data. The discussion then draws tentative conclusions about what is known concerning the mechanisms influencing the risk of HIV acquisition in Asia and what they might imply for programme design and policy. In summary, the data presented here do not support the hypothesis that HIV epidemics in Asia are primarily driven by poverty and social deprivation, though sex inequality and education for women and girls are strongly associated factors. There is clearly a multidimensional relationship between the risk of HIV infection and a host of underlying social and cultural factors that confound any attempt at a single explanation for the HIV epidemic in Asia or elsewhere. There is an undeniable need for further research through multicountry studies and better analysis of existing household data, as well as through further investigation of the quantitative relationship between the barriers to HIV services and the risk of infection. The key message for policy is to seek a broad balance between a focus on prevention and treatment for the higher-risk behaviours without losing sight of the importance of programmes that address vulnerability and behavioural change among the sexually active adult population. The implication of these findings for the allocation of resources for downstream factors such as risk behaviours as

  2. Patterns of multisite pain and associations with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Masood Kadir, M.; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S.P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C.W; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To explore definitions for multisite pain, and compare associations with risk factors for different patterns of musculoskeletal pain, we analysed cross-sectional data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. The study sample comprised 12,410 adults aged 20–59 years from 47 occupational groups in 18 countries. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information about pain in the past month at each of 10 anatomical sites, and about potential risk factors. Associations with pain outcomes were assessed by Poisson regression, and characterised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Extensive pain, affecting 6–10 anatomical sites, was reported much more frequently than would be expected if the occurrence of pain at each site were independent (674 participants vs 41.9 expected). In comparison with pain involving only 1–3 sites, it showed much stronger associations (relative to no pain) with risk factors such as female sex (PRR 1.6 vs 1.1), older age (PRR 2.6 vs 1.1), somatising tendency (PRR 4.6 vs 1.3), and exposure to multiple physically stressing occupational activities (PRR 5.0 vs 1.4). After adjustment for number of sites with pain, these risk factors showed no additional association with a distribution of pain that was widespread according to the frequently used American College of Rheumatology criteria. Our analysis supports the classification of pain at multiple anatomical sites simply by the number of sites affected, and suggests that extensive pain differs importantly in its associations with risk factors from pain that is limited to only a small number of anatomical sites. PMID:23727463

  3. Men’s knowledge about osteoporosis and its risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Kulik, Teresa; Dziedzic, Małgorzata A.; Barańska, Agnieszka; Kryk, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Until recently osteoporosis was seen mainly as a woman’s problem. However, in the last ten years there has been rising awareness in society that osteoporosis constitutes an inseparable element of getting old for men as well. The aim of the research was to evaluate men’s knowledge about osteoporosis and its risk factors contributing to the development of the disease. Material and methods The study included 205 men aged 20-60. The examined men were patients of selected healthcare centres in Lublin Voivodeship. The study was conducted between September 2014 and April 2015. The research was performed by means of the survey method, using a poll technique. Purposive sampling and an original questionnaire were used. Gathered material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. The statistical significance level was set at α = 0.05. IBM SPSS Statistics software was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results The respondents’ level of knowledge about osteoporosis and its risk factors can be estimated as average. The polled men showed better knowledge on osteoporosis risk factors (M = 59.78) than general osteoporosis knowledge (M = 53.71). Significant differences were found between the respondents’ education and their general osteoporosis knowledge as well as between the respondents’ living conditions and their knowledge about osteoporosis risk factors. Conclusions Because of the insufficient level of knowledge about osteoporosis and its risk factors in the male population it is advisable to launch prevention programmes aimed at men focusing on this issue. PMID:27980526

  4. Risk factors for cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenqing; Tian, Li; Ke, Jinshan; Sun, Yi; Wu, Ruixia; Zhu, Jianfang; Ke, Qinmei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inconsistent results have been reported about the risk stratification of patients with Brugada syndrome. We have summarized the evidence regarding the strength of association between 6 risk factors (family history of sudden cardiac death [SCD] or syncope, inducible ventricular arrhythmias on electrophysiology study [EPS], spontaneous type 1 Brugada electrocardiogram [ECG], male sex, family history of SCD, and sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 [SCN5A] gene mutation) and subsequent cardiac events in Brugada syndrome patients. Methods: Pubmed, Ovid, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published between January 1992 and March 2016. Only prospective studies (27 studies, 4494 patients) that reported estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cardiac events for the 6 risk factors were included. Results: Family history of SCD or syncope (risk ratio [RR] 4.97, 95% CI 3.96–6.23, P < 0.001), inducible ventricular arrhythmia on EPS (RR 3.56, 95% CI 1.30–9.74, P = 0.01), and spontaneous type 1 Brugada ECG (RR 4.07, 95% CI 2.23–7.41, P < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of future cardiac events. Spontaneous type 1 Brugada ECG was associated with an elevated risk of future cardiac events in patients without a family history of SCD. Conclusions: Inducible ventricular arrhythmias on EPS, spontaneous type 1 Brugada ECG, and family history of SCD or syncope indicate a high risk of future cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome. Spontaneous type 1 Brugada ECG significantly increased the risk of future cardiac events in patients without family history of SCD. PMID:27472692

  5. Dynamics and environmental risk assessment of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in a small vineyard river of the Lake Geneva catchment.

    PubMed

    Daouk, Silwan; Copin, Pierre-Jean; Rossi, Luca; Chèvre, Nathalie; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    The use of pesticides may lead to environmental problems, such as surface water pollution, with a risk for aquatic organisms. In the present study, a typical vineyard river of western Switzerland was first monitored to measure discharged loads, identify sources, and assess the dynamic of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Second, based on river concentrations, an associated environmental risk was calculated using laboratory tests and ecotoxicity data from the literature. Measured concentrations confirmed the mobility of these molecules with elevated peaks during flood events, up to 4970 ng/L. From April 2011 to September 2011, a total load of 7.1 kg was calculated, with 85% coming from vineyards and minor urban sources and 15% from arable crops. Compared with the existing literature, this load represents an important fraction (6-12%) of the estimated amount applied because of the steep vineyard slopes (∼10%). The associated risk of these compounds toward aquatic species was found to be negligible in the present study, as well as for other rivers in Switzerland. A growth stimulation was nevertheless observed for the algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus with low concentrations of glyphosate, which could indicate a risk of perturbation in aquatic ecosystems, such as eutrophication. The combination of field and ecotoxicity data allowed the performance of a realistic risk assessment for glyphosate and AMPA, which should be applied to other pesticide molecules.

  6. Identification of Risk Factors for Recurrence in High-Risk Stage II Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Satoshi; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro; Miura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    To identify risk factors for recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed in 194 patients with stage II colon cancer who underwent curative surgery between April 1997 and December 2008. Thirteen clinical and pathologic factors, including use of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in 113 of the patients (58.2%), were assessed. By multivariate analysis, only obstruction, perforation, and T4-level invasion were identified as independent risk factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.01). The 5-year DFS rate was 70.6% in patients with one or more risk factors (n = 68) and 96.0% in patients with no risk factors (n = 126) (P < 0.01). These results suggest that obstruction, perforation, and T4-level invasion are suitable candidates for prediction of tumor recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer. The oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy, which has been reported to be effective in stage III colon cancer patients, may improve the prognosis in high-risk stage II colon cancer patients. PMID:23701145

  7. Early Risk Factors for Violence in Colombian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rosen, Zohn; De la Rosa, Mario; Montoya, Ivan D.; Whiteman, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Violence and homicide are more prevalent in Colombia, South America, than in the United States, but the role of psychosocial factors in the violent behavior of Colombian adolescents remains unclear. The objective of the study was to identify personality, familial, peer, and ecological variables associated with violence in Colombian adolescents. Method A survey of adolescents was conducted in 1995-1996. A standard self-report measure was adapted to ensure linguistic and cultural relevance. A total of 2,837 adolescents ages 12-17 years from various self-reported ethnic groups were randomly selected from the community in three Colombian cities: Bogota, Medellin, and Barranquilla. Eighty percent of eligible adolescents agreed to participate. Data were collected concerning the adolescent's personality attributes, family characteristics, peer characteristics, and ecological/cultural factors, including the availability of illicit drugs and the prevalence of violence in the community. The dependent variable was the adolescent's self-reported frequency of violent behavior. Results Violence directed at the adolescent and the adolescent's own drug use were both more highly correlated with the adolescent's violent behavior than were other risk factors. Significant risk factors of less importance included tolerance of deviance, peer drug use, peer deviance, and exposure to violence on television. Conclusions The results supported a model in which violent behavior was correlated independently with a number of risk factors from several domains. The findings point to the use of specific intervention procedures for adolescents to prevent their own subsequent acts of violent behavior. PMID:12900310

  8. Is polycystic ovarian syndrome a risk factor for urolithiasis?

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Kafali, Hasan; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2013-08-01

    Urinary stone disease is a complex multifactorial disorder influenced by both intrinsic and environmental factors. It is generally known that age and sex are risk factors for urinary stone disease. Also men have higher mean urinary oxalate concentrations than women. In addition, in animal and human studies, testosterone has been shown to increase the formation of urinary stones. This suggests that sex hormones are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of stone disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders of women in the reproductive age, affecting 5-10 % of women in this life span. It is characterized with chronic anovulation\\oligo-ovulation, clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination. Hyperandrogenism, the main feature of PCOS, may trigger the urinary stone formation besides hirsutism, alopecia and acne. Therefore, we hypothesize that PCOS accompanied by hyperandrogenism may be a risk factor in the formation of urinary stone disease.

  9. The epidemiology and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yulan; Pang, Zhi; Chen, Weichang; Ju, Songwen; Zhou, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    This review aimed to summarize the epidemiology (incidence, prevalence and morality) and risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and includes Crohn’s Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD has increasing incidence and prevalence in most of countries and becomes a global emerging disease. A westernized lifestyle or habits and some environmental factors have been found to contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. The relevant risk factors include Smoking, hygiene hypothesis, microorganisms, appendectomy, medication, nutrition, and stress have all been found to be associated with the modality of IBD, but results are inconsistent on this issue in available studies. Therefore, more studies are required to identify and understand the environmental determinants of IBD. PMID:26885239

  10. Infections as risk factor for autoimmune diseases - A nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Deleuran, Bent Winding; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2016-11-01

    Viruses, bacteria and other infectious pathogens are the major postulated environmental triggers of autoimmunity. In the present nation-wide study we describe the association between infections and 29 autoimmune diseases. We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify 4.5 million persons born between 1945 and 2000. Information on infections and autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish Hospital Register. The cohort was followed from 1977 to 2012. Incidence rate ratios for developing an autoimmune disease were estimated using poisson regression. We found an association between hospital admission for an infection and 29 autoimmune diseases. This study shows that infections are risk factors for a broad spectrum of autoimmune diseases in a dose-response and temporal manner, in agreement with the hypothesis that infections are an environmental risk factor contributing to the etiology of autoimmune diseases together with genetic factors.

  11. Development of Risk Uncertainty Factors from Historical NASA Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is a good investment of federal funds and strives to provide the best value to the nation. NASA has consistently budgeted to unrealistic cost estimates, which are evident in the cost growth in many of its programs. In this investigation, NASA has been using available uncertainty factors from the Aerospace Corporation, Air Force, and Booz Allen Hamilton to develop projects risk posture. NASA has no insight into the developmental of these factors and, as demonstrated here, this can lead to unrealistic risks in many NASA Programs and projects (P/p). The primary contribution of this project is the development of NASA missions uncertainty factors, from actual historical NASA projects, to aid cost-estimating as well as for independent reviews which provide NASA senior management with information and analysis to determine the appropriate decision regarding P/p. In general terms, this research project advances programmatic analysis for NASA projects.

  12. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present.

  13. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  14. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  15. Risk factors for pulmonary complications following laparoscopic gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ntutumu, Redondo; Liu, Hao; Zhen, Li; Hu, Yan-Feng; Mou, Ting-Yu; Lin, Tian; I, Balde A.; Yu, Jiang; Li, Guo-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The risk factors associated with postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) following laparoscopic gastrectomy have not been well studied. We sought to identify the risk factors for PPCs following gastric cancer surgery. A retrospective analysis was performed on all gastric cancer patients in a prospective database who underwent a laparoscopic gastrectomy from 2004 to 2014. The potential risk factors for PPCs were evaluated. PPCs occurred in 6.8% (83/1205) of patients and included pneumonia in 56 (67.5%) patients, pleural effusion in 26 (31.3%) patients, and pulmonary embolism in 1 (1.2%) patient. The multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors for PPCs: advanced age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.043, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.021%, 1.066%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 17.788, 95% CI = 2.618%, 120.838%), total gastrectomy (OR = 2.781, 95% CI = 1.726%, 4.480%), time to first diet (OR = 1.175, 95% CI = 1.060%, 1.302%), and postoperative hospital stay (OR = 1.015, 95% CI = 1.002%, 1.028%). The risk factors for pneumonia included advanced age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.010%, 1.063%), total gastrectomy (OR = 3.420, 95% CI = 1.960%, 5.969%), and time to first diet (OR = 1.207, 95% CI = 1.703%, 1.358%). Only pancreatectomy was a risk factor for pleural effusion (OR = 9.082, 95% CI = 2.412%, 34.206%). The frequency of PPCs in patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopic surgery was relatively high. Patients with cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities and those who undergo total gastrectomy and combined resection should be considered at high risk. PMID:27512884

  16. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Sandra; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Hatta, Mochammad; Scheelbeek, Pauline F. D.; Dwiyanti, Ressy; Usman, Romi; Sultan, Andi R.; Sabir, Muhammad; Tandirogang, Nataniel; Amir, Masyhudi; Yasir, Yadi; Pastoor, Rob; van Beers, Stella; Smits, Henk L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua) in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Methods We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449); controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484). Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor. Results Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often). These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5). Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Preve