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  1. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  2. Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Is Military Deployment A Risk Factor for Maternal Depression ? Stacie Nguyen Cynthia A. LeardMann Besa Smith...Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106-3521 Original Articles Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression ? Stacie Nguyen, MPH...Tyler C. Smith, PhD,1 for the Millennium Cohort Study Team Abstract Background: Maternal depression is a common condition among new mothers that can

  3. Infantile colic: maternal smoking as potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Reijneveld, S.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.

    2000-01-01

    The association of maternal smoking and type of feeding with colic was assessed in 3345 children aged 1-6 months (96% response). The prevalence of colic was twofold higher among infants of smoking mothers, but less among breastfed infants. Maternal smoking as a potential risk factor for infantile crying needs further study.

 PMID:10999861

  4. Maternal environmental risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Pantazi, Mantha; Lianos, Georgios D; Stranjalis, George; Alexiou, George A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English. Only studies that investigated environmental risk factors concerning the mother-either during gestation or pregestationally-were included. RESULTS In total, 13 studies (5 cohorts, 3 case series, 3 case-control studies, 1 meta-analysis, and 1 case report) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Maternal medication or alcohol use during gestation; lifestyle modifiable maternal pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension; lack of prenatal care; and a low socioeconomic status were identified as significant maternal environmental risk factors for CH development. Maternal infections and trauma to the mother during pregnancy have also been highlighted as potential mother-related risk factors for CH. CONCLUSIONS Congenital hydrocephalus is an important cause of serious infant health disability that can lead to health inequalities among adults. The present study identified several maternal environmental risk factors for CH, thus yielding important scientific information relevant to prevention of some CH cases. However, further research is warranted to confirm the impact of the identified factors and examine their underlying behavioral and/or biological basis, leading to the generation of suitable prevention strategies.

  5. Community level risk factors for maternal mortality in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julio C; Moser, Christine M

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the community level in Madagascar using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level of maternal mortality. The findings suggest that improvement to transportation systems and access to hospitals with surgery rooms are needed to deal with obstetric complications and reduce maternal mortality.

  6. Risk factors for maternal night blindness in rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Coles, Christian; Sheeladevi, S.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Rahmathullah, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with maternal night blindness in rural South India. Methods At delivery, women enrolled in a population-based trial of newborn vitamin A supplementation were asked whether they were night blind at any time during the pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal night blindness. Results Women reported night blindness in 687 (5.2%) of 13,171 pregnancies. In a multivariate model, having a concrete roof (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47, 0.78), religion other than Hindu (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76), maternal literacy (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.69), and maternal age from 25 to 29 years (OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.50, 0.93) were associated with a lower risk of night blindness in pregnancy. The odds of night blindness were higher for those leasing rather than owning land (OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.93), parity 6 or more compared to 0 (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.08), and with twin pregnancies (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.93, 5.41). Factors not associated with night blindness in the multivariate model were other markers of socioeconomic status such as electricity in the house, radio and television ownership, type of cooking fuel, and household transportation, and number of children under 5 years of age in the household. Conclusions Maternal night blindness was prevalent in this population. Being pregnant with twins and of higher parity put women at higher risk. Maternal literacy and higher socioeconomic status lowered the risk. PMID:19437315

  7. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  8. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. )

    1991-07-15

    This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

  9. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance.

  10. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  11. Maternal obesity - a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    MOREA, MELINDA; MIU, NICOLAE; MOREA, VICENŢIU FLORIN; CORNEAN, RODICA

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between the metabolic syndrome in children (MS) and the pre-pregnancy nutritional status of the mother. Design and methods A total number of 180 children aged between 6–19 years were examined. Self reported data about parents and their children were collected. The children underwent physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF criteria for MS were used in children 10 years and older, and age and gender specific cut-off points in children younger than 10 years. The mothers were classified in the normal weight, overweight and obese categories according to the pre-pregnancy BMI. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive and inferential analysis. In the bivariate analysis of the association between qualitative variables, we used the Chi-Square test and the exact Fisher test. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v 13.0. Results 73 (40.55%) children were normal weight, 54 (30%) were overweight and 53 (29.44%) were obese. None of the normal weight children, 16 (29.60%) of the overweight and 23 (43.40%) of the obese ones had MS; 125 (69.44%) of the mothers were normal weight, 44 (24.44%) were overweight and 11 (6.11%) were obese. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring MS in both genders, obese children and in the 10–16 age group. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight/obesity represents a risk factor for offspring MS. The results are very difficult to compare between studies because of different cut-off values and definition of MS in children. If prevention is the goal rather than treatment, the perinatal period may be an important focus for future research. PMID:26527958

  12. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  13. Is Maternal Periodontal Disease a Risk Factor for Preterm Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Kungsadalpipob, Kajorn; Chanchareonsook, Prohpring; Limpongsanurak, Sompop; Vanichjakvong, Ornanong; Sutdhibhisal, Sanutm; Wongkittikraiwan, Nopmanee; Sookprome, Chulamanee; Kamolpornwijit, Wiboon; Jantarasaengaram, Surasak; Manotaya, Saknan; Siwawej, Vatcharapong; Barlow, William E.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery, but this has not been a consistent finding. In 2006–2007, the authors examined the relation between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery among 467 pregnant Thai women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (<37 weeks’ gestation) and 467 controls who delivered a singleton infant at term (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Periodontal examinations were performed within 48 hours after delivery. Participants’ periodontal health status was classified into 4 categories according to the extent and severity of periodontal disease. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Preterm delivery cases and controls were similar with regard to mean probing depth, mean clinical attachment loss, and mean percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing. After controlling for known confounders, the authors found that severe clinical periodontal disease was not associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 2.16). In addition, there was no evidence of a linear increase in risk of preterm delivery or its subtypes associated with increasing severity of periodontal disease (Ptrend > 0.05). The results of this case-control study do not provide convincing evidence that periodontal disease is associated with preterm delivery or its subtypes among Thai women. PMID:19131565

  14. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  15. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: not as simple as it might seem.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother's body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD.

  16. Maternal obesity is a risk factor for orofacial clefts: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, R; Colombo, A; Suazo, J

    2015-10-01

    Orofacial clefts are the most prevalent birth defects that affect craniofacial structures and implicate genetic and environmental factors in their aetiology. Maternal metabolic state and nutrition have been related to these and other structural malformations, and studies of maternal obesity before pregnancy have shown controversial results about its association with the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring. Our aim was to assess the combined effect of several single studies of maternal obesity on the risk of orofacial clefts using meta-analysis. We searched for these reports in the PubMed database, and selected 8 studies that met our criteria for eligibility. As a result of this analysis, and using maternal normal weight as a reference, we found that maternal obesity does increase the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26). When these clefts are considered separately, maternal obesity is associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23), and with cleft palate alone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35). Our results support the relation between maternal obesity and orofacial clefts, and confirm two previous meta-analyses that considered fewer studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this statistical evidence have not been fully elucidated.

  17. Risk and protective factors in maternal-fetal attachment development.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, Camilla; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Orcesi, Simona; Spinillo, Arsenio; Politi, Pierluigi; Balottin, Umberto; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal attachment can be described as the parents' emotions, perceptions and behaviors that are related to the fetus. This relationship has been described as the most basic form of the human intimacy and represents the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents typically acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. The quality of the relationship between an infant and his or her parent is an important factor influencing the child's later development, both cognitive and emotional. There is evidence - even though yet unclear - that demographic, perinatal and psychological variables may correlate with attachment. In this perspective, it is essential to recognize the factors influencing attachment of parents towards their fetus and to planning psychosocial interventions in antepartum units or in obstetric clinics, in order to preserve a positive physical and emotional development of the infant and to provide family-centered prenatal care. Particular attention should be paid to women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy, since this condition involves a high distress that often results in feelings of anxiety and depression, that can hinder an adequate mother-fetus attachment.

  18. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  19. The plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as contributing factors to the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Johnathan R

    2015-11-27

    Recent research suggests the maternal environment may be especially important for the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular maternal infections, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity, and toxicant exposures are likely to interact with genetic risk factors to disrupt fetal brain development.

  20. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Province in Italy*

    PubMed Central

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M.; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods Maternal interviews (n=905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p<.001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. PMID:25456331

  1. [Maternal and perinatal risk factors for neonatal morbidity: a narrative literature review].

    PubMed

    Hernández Núñez, Jónathan; Valdés Yong, Magel; Suñol Vázquez, Yoanca de la Caridad; López Quintana, Marelene de la Caridad

    2015-07-14

    Newborn diseases increase neonatal mortality rates, so a literature review was conducted to establish the risk factors related to maternal and peripartum morbidity affecting the newborn. We searched the following electronic databases: Cumed, EBSCO, LILACS, IBECS and PubMed/MEDLINE. We used specific terms and Boolean operators in Spanish, Portuguese and English. We included longitudinal and cross-sectional descriptive studies, as well as case-control and cohort studies, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, spanning from 2010 to 2015 that responded the topic of interest. The included studies show that multiple maternal and perinatal conditions are risk factors for significant increase of neonatal morbidity, which are described in this narrative review.

  2. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Salafia, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Wanda K; Duggan, Anne; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Frederick L

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as < 10th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a) predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal) and (b) predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal). Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:18811957

  3. Maternal depression as a risk factor for children's inadequate housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Depression among mothers with young children is an important public health issue that not only has implications for their own well-being, but can also potentially affect their children's health and developmental trajectories. This study explored the extent to which maternal depression is a risk factor for inadequate housing conditions related to utilities, a noteworthy risk factor for poor child health. Using data on 2965 mothers and children from a national urban cohort of U.S. births in 1998-2000, we estimated multivariate logistic regression models of associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) measure of severely inadequate housing due to heating issues, as well as a broader measure of energy insecurity that encompasses various types of utility problems. We also considered outcomes that incorporated housing instability and food insecurity in conjunction with housing inadequacy. Mothers who experienced depression had about 60% higher odds of experiencing severely inadequate housing due to heat (OR: 1.57) and 70% higher odds of experiencing energy insecurity (OR: 1.69) compared to mothers who did not experience depression. Maternal depression was even more strongly associated with multiple hardships in the forms of housing inadequacy plus housing instability and/or food insecurity than it was with housing inadequacy. This study provides robust evidence that maternal depression is a risk factor for inadequate housing and multiple hardships during a critical period of children's development. The findings suggest that policy efforts should not occur in mental health, housing, and food security silos.

  4. Investigation of CBS, MTR, RFC-1 and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fintelman-Rodrigues, N; Corrêa, J C; Santos, J M; Pimentel, M M G; Santos-Rebouças, C B

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that almost 92% of the DS children are born from young mothers, suggesting that other risk factors than advanced maternal age must be involved. In this context, some studies demonstrated a possible link between DS and maternal polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. These polymorphisms, as well as low intake of folate could generate genomic instability, DNA hypomethylation and abnormal segregation, leading to trisomy 21. We compared the frequency of CBS 844ins68, MTR 2756A>G, RFC-1 80G> A and TC 776C>G polymorphisms among 114 case mothers and 110 matched controls, in order to observe whether these variants act as risk factors for DS. The genotype distributions revealed that there were not significant differences between both samples. However, when we proceed the multiplicative interaction analyses between the four polymorphisms described above together with the previously studied MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and MTRR 66A>G polymorphisms, our results show that the combined genotype TC 776CC / MTHFR 677TT and TC 776CC / MTR 2756AG were significantly higher in the control sample. Nevertheless, there was no significant association after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that maternal folate-related polymorphisms studied here have no influence on trisomy 21 susceptibility in subjects of Brazilian population.

  5. Maternal risk factors and anaemia in pregnancy: a prospective retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Noronha, J A; Bhaduri, A; Vinod Bhat, H; Kamath, A

    2010-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is still a concern during the reproductive period, as it is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This study examined the maternal risk factors associated with increased prevalence of anaemia among antenatal and postnatal women. A prospective-retrospective cohort approach was carried out among 1,077 antenatal and 1,000 postnatal women. The haemoglobin was estimated using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. The maternal factors included were age, parity, education, socioeconomic status, spacing, history of bleeding, worm infestation, period of gestation, knowledge regarding anaemia in pregnancy, food selection ability and compliance to iron supplementation. Of the 1,077 antenatal women studied, 540 were anaemic. Among the 1,000 postnatal women, the prevalence was 537 (53.7%). The high prevalence was strongly associated with low socioeconomic status (OR 1.409 [1.048-1.899]; p < 0.023) which affected their knowledge and health seeking behaviour in both the groups. Hence it can be concluded that empowering women in terms of education and economic status is the key factor in combating anaemia in pregnancy to prevent the vicious cycle of associated problems.

  6. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  7. Rural origin as a risk factor for maternal and child health in periurban Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Rivera, T; Madonna, D

    1993-12-01

    Rapid migration in Latin America is settling rural women and their families next to those of urban origin in sprawling urban settings. Those born and reared in rural areas bring with them knowledge and skills learned and adapted to rural areas; those same skills may be maladaptive in urban areas. Hypothesized is that urban women of rural origin are more likely to have poorer health outcomes for themselves and their children than lifelong urban counterparts. Identification of specific risk factors affecting child and/or maternal health status in peri-urban barrios can assist health workers to target limited resources to those least likely to access available services.

  8. Maternal coffee intake and associated risk factors: effects on fetal growth and activity.

    PubMed

    Conde, Ana; Teves, Cláudia; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that fetal growth and activity can be affected by several risk factors, such as maternal anxiety, depression and tobacco or alcohol consumption. Caffeine intake has received less attention in the literature, as well as the analysis of the mutual interplay of the range of such risk factors. This study aimed to examine effects of mother's coffee intake and associated risk factors during early pregnancy on fetal growth and activity. The sample involved 47 fetuses (51.1% male and 48.9% female) with gestational ages between 20-22 weeks whose mothers were recruited in a Portuguese antenatal obstetric unit. Repeated measures of mother's anxiety (STAI-S) and depression (EPDS) and information about socio-demographics and substances consumption were collected during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Fetal activity and biometry were measured during the 2(nd) trimester ultrasound. Results showed that 1) 23.4% of the pregnant women (N = 11) had regular coffee intake; 2) no significant differences were found neither on fetal growth nor on fetal movements considering mother's coffee intake; 3) when mother's socio-demographics and substances consumption were considered, tobacco consumption and anxiety at the 2(nd) trimester appeared as significant predictors of fetal growth and mother's coffee intake and anxiety symptoms at the 2(nd) trimester emerged as significant predictors of fetal movements. An adverse impact of maternal coffee intake during pregnancy was found on fetal activity but not on fetal growth. A deeper understanding of the multiple pathways by which these risk factors affect fetal growth and activity is needed.

  9. Risk factors for childhood asthma and wheezing. Importance of maternal and household smoking.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, R I; Du Toit, D; Jordaan, E; Zwarenstein, M; Potter, P; Volmink, J A; Weinberg, E

    1996-09-01

    To identify modifiable risk factors for wheezing illness in childhood, the associations between current asthma or wheezing and factors such as household smoking, damp and dietary salt preference were measured in a questionnaire-based prevalence study of schoolchildren 7 to 9 yr of age in Cape Town. In a random sample of 15 schools, questionnaires were completed by parents of 1,955 children, from which 368 cases and 294 controls were selected on the basis of reported asthma diagnosis or symptoms. Urinary cotinine concentrations were measured, and the parents were interviewed. An exposure-response relationship between the urinary cotinine creatinine ratio and asthma/wheeze was observed. In multivariate analysis, predictors of asthma/wheeze were hay fever (odds ratio [OR] - 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.16 to 8.89), eczema (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.33-3.62), parental asthma (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.84), absence of paternal contribution to income (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.17 to 2.54), maternal smoking in pregnancy (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.25 to 2.81), and each additional household smoker (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.30). Findings were similar, with higher odds ratios for most variables, except number of household smokers, when the group was restricted to children with parent-reported asthma. The findings confirm that household smoking is an important modifiable risk factor in asthma/wheeze among young schoolchildren, and they suggest that maternal smoking in pregnancy and current household exposure are independent contributors to this effect.

  10. Population-based study of risk factors for severe maternal morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kristen E; Wallace, Erin R; Nelson, Kailey R; Reed, Susan D; Schiff, Melissa A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is a serious health condition potentially resulting in death without immediate medical attention, including organ failure, obstetric shock, and elcampsia. SMM affects 20,000 US women every year; however, few population-based studies have examined SMM risk factors. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data from Washington State (1987–2008), identifying 9,485 women with an antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum SMM with ≥3-day hospitalization or transfer from another facility and 41,112 random controls. Maternal age, race, smoking during pregnancy, parity, preexisting medical condition, multiple birth, prior cesarean delivery, and BMI were assessed as risk factors with logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for education and delivery payer source. Results Older women [35–39: OR 1.65 CI 1.52, 1.79; 40+: OR 2.48 CI 2.16, 2.81], non-white women [Black: OR 1.82 CI 1.64, 2.01; American Indian: OR 1.52 CI 1.32, 1.73; Asian/Pacific Islander: OR 1.30 CI 1.19, 1.41; Hispanic: OR 1.17 CI 1.07, 1.27], and women at parity extremes [OR 1.83 CI 1.72, 1.95, nulliparous; OR 1.34 CI 1.23, 1.45, parity 3+] were at greater risk of SMM. Women with a preexisting medical condition [OR 2.10 CI 1.88, 2.33], a multiple birth [OR 2.54 CI 2.26, 2.82], and a prior cesarean delivery [OR 2.08 CI 1.93, 2.23] were also at increased risk. Conclusion The risk factors identified are not modifiable at the individual level; therefore, provider and system-level factors may be the most appropriate target for preventing SMM. PMID:23061686

  11. "Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".

    PubMed

    Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC) = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC) = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD.

  12. Do Maternal Caregiver Perceptions of Childhood Obesity Risk Factors and Obesity Complications Predict Support for Prevention Initiatives Among African Americans?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Wright, Alesha R

    2017-01-28

    Objectives African American maternal caregiver support for prevention of childhood obesity may be a factor in implementing, monitoring, and sustaining children's positive health behaviors. However, little is known about how perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors and health complications influence caregivers' support of childhood obesity prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if childhood obesity risk factors and health complications were associated with maternal caregivers' support for prevention initiatives. Methods A convenience sample of maternal caregivers (N = 129, ages 22-65 years) completed the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether perceptions about childhood obesity risk factors and subsequent health complications influenced caregivers' support for prevention strategies. Results Caregivers' perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors were moderate (M = 3.4; SD = 0.64), as were their perceptions of obesity-related health complications (M = 3.3; SD = 0.75); however, they perceived a high level of support for prevention strategies (M = 4.2; SD = 0.74). In the regression model, only health complications were significantly associated with caregiver support (β = 0.348; p < 0.004). Conclusions Childhood obesity prevention efforts should emphasize health complications by providing education and strategies that promote self-efficacy and outcome expectations among maternal caregivers.

  13. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Southwick, K. L.; Blanco, S.; Santander, A.; Estenssoro, M.; Torrico, F.; Seoane, G.; Brady, W.; Fears, M.; Lewis, J.; Pope, V.; Guarner, J.; Levine, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery--all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in Bolivia. METHODS: All women delivering either live-born or stillborn infants in the seven participating hospitals in and around La Paz, El Alto, and Cochabamba between June and November 1996 were eligible for enrolment in the study. FINDINGS: A total of 61 out of 1428 mothers (4.3%) of live-born infants and 11 out of 43 mothers (26%) of stillborn infants were found to have syphilis at delivery. Multivariate analysis showed that women with live-born infants who had less than secondary-level education, who did not watch television during the week before delivery (this was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status), who had a previous history of syphilis, or who had more than one partner during the pregnancy were at increased risk of syphilis. While 76% of the study population had received prenatal care, only 17% had syphilis testing carried out during the pregnancy; 91% of serum samples that were reactive to rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were also reactive to fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) testing. There was 96% agreement between the results from local hospital laboratories and national reference laboratories in their testing of RPR reactivity of serum samples. Congenital syphilis infection was confirmed by laboratory tests in 15% of 66 infants born to women with positive RPR and FTA-ABS testing. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a congenital syphilis prevention programme in Bolivia could substantially reduce adverse infant outcomes due to this

  14. Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight.

    PubMed

    McConley, Regina L; Mrug, Sylvie; Gilliland, M Janice; Lowry, Richard; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Franzini, Luisa; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad L; Franklin, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to children's leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on children's active and sedentary behaviors.

  15. Epidemiologic evidence supporting the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of infantile autism

    PubMed Central

    Soles, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for infantile autism disease (IAD). We used epidemiologic data seasonal variation of birth rates and prevalence of IAD for cohorts born before 1985. For seven studies reporting spring-to-summer excess birth rates for IAD, the season progressed from broad near 30° N latitude, spring/summer in midlatitudes, to winter at the highest latitude. Also, using data from 10 studies, we found a strong effective latitudinal (related to wintertime solar ultraviolet B radiation) increase in IAD prevalence. These findings are consistent with maternal vitamin D deficiency’s being a risk factor for IAD, possibly by affecting fetal brain development as well as possibly by affecting maternal immune system status during pregnancy. Further investigation of this hypothesis is warranted. PMID:20592795

  16. Maternal fumonisin exposure as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the fungus F. verticillioides, a common contaminant of maize (corn) worldwide. Maternal consumption of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize during early pregnancy has recently been associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in human populations th...

  17. Prepregnancy Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and the Role of Maternal Nativity in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Gee, Denise C.; Zhu, Yuda; Whaley, Shannon E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth in a low-income, Hispanic population in Southern California. Additionally, the study assessed whether the prevalence of preterm birth and any associations between risk factors and preterm birth differed between U.S.- and foreign-born mothers. The study sample included 1,174 mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) within 1 year postpartum, including an augment sample of mothers who delivered preterm. Maternal sociodemographic traits, prepregnancy health-related characteristics and behaviors, and birth outcomes were collected by telephone survey. Odds ratios for associations between risk factors and preterm birth were estimated by logistic regression with sampling weights. Effect measure modification of any association by maternal nativity was also assessed using interaction terms. After adjustment for confounding, significant prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth included maternal age ≥35 y (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.84) compared to age 18–24 y, and experience of a financially stressful life event among U.S.-born, but not foreign-born, women (OR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.43, 4.77). The weighted prevalence of preterm birth was 15.1% and did not significantly differ by maternal nativity (P = 0.19). Further investigation with large, prospective studies is needed to better understand the risk factors for and disparities in preterm birth among the growing Hispanic population in the U.S. so that women who are at risk prepregnancy can be identified and provided risk-specific services. PMID:25994418

  18. Maternal Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism as Risk Factors for Down Syndrome Offspring in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Bandinelli, Eliane; Santos, Pollyanna Almeida Dos; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of maternal polymorphisms, as well as their risk genotypes combinations of MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, CBS 844ins68, and RFC A80G, involved in folate/homocysteine metabolism, as possible risk factors for Down syndrome (DS) in Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 239~mothers of DS children and 197 control mothers. The investigation of polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. The distribution of genotypic variants was similar in both groups when they were analyzed separately. An investigation of combined risk genotypes showed that the risk of having a DS child for one, two or three risk genotypes was 6.23, 6.96 and 5.84 (95%CI 1.48–26.26; 1.69–28.66; 1.37–24.86), respectively. The combined MTRR 66G and MTHFR 677T alleles were significantly more common among mothers of children with DS than among control mothers (OR 1.55; IC 95% 1.03–2.35). The results show that individual polymorphisms studied in this work are not associated with DS; however, the effects of the combined risk genotypes among MTR, MTRR, CBS and RFC genes are considered maternal risk factors for DS offspring in our population. PMID:21045269

  19. Genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine: maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biselli, J M; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Zampieri, B L; Haddad, R; Eberlin, M N; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C

    2008-01-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of polymorphisms C677T and A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, A2756G in methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene and A80G in reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) gene, and plasma homocysteine (Hcy), on the maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS). Seventy-two DS mothers and 194 mothers who had no children with DS were evaluated. The investigation of the MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G and RFC1 A80G polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion and the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Hcy quantification was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The median number of polymorphic alleles for the four loci tested was greater in DS mothers compared to the control group, and the presence of three or more polymorphic alleles increased the risk for having a child with DS 1.74 times. Elevated maternal risk for DS was also observed when plasma Hcy concentration was higher than 4.99 micromol/L. In conclusion, the presence of three or more polymorphic alleles for MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and RFC1 A80G, and plasma Hcy concentrations higher than 4.99 micromol/L are maternal risk factors for DS.

  20. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective study at the maternity Souissi in Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Sabiri, Nargisse; Kabiri, Meryem; Razine, Rachid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. Methods This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records. The data sheet was filled out for each newborn, including socio-demographic, obstetrical, maternal, childbirth and neonatal data, as well as, monitoring and surveillance of pregnancy. Results A total of 1015 births were collected. 954 were full term babies and 61 were preterms. The gestational age was between 33-34 weeks in 57.4%. Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p < 0.004), absence of pregnancy’ monitoring (p < 0.001), multiparity (p < 0.001), maternal chronic diseases (p < 0.001), and drug taking during pregnancy (p < 0.001). Conclusion To reduce the incidence of preterm births, reliable programs must be established, devoting all its interest, to educate the young woman in childbearing age about the appropriate ways of monitoring pregnancy, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative development of health care structures. PMID:26600920

  1. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. Results: There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. PMID:27759818

  2. Maternal behavioural risk factors for severe childhood diarrhoeal disease in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Dikassa, L; Mock, N; Magnani, R; Rice, J; Abdoh, A; Mercer, D; Bertrand, W

    1993-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between severe diarrhoeal disease and maternal knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene and sanitation. Some 107 paediatric cases admitted to two hospitals in Kinshasa, Zaire in 1988 were matched on age and nearest-neighbour status to 107 controls. Personal interviews and observational methods were used to assess knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene and sanitation. Cases and controls had equivalent socioeconomic status, demographic profiles and access to water and sanitation facilities. However, cases generally exhibited lower levels of knowledge and less sanguine sanitary practices than did controls. Of particular interest was the finding that very specific behavioural items distinguished cases from controls. The disposal of the child faeces and household garbage and mother's knowledge that poor caretaker cleanliness was a cause of diarrhoea in children showed the strongest associations with risk of diarrhoea. There was an exponential relationship between the number of these items a mother answered incorrectly and the odds of diarrhoeal disease. The risk attributable to these three variables was as high as 70%. These findings provide further support for the view that focused educational interventions may have a substantial impact on the occurrence of severe diarrhoeal disease in low-income countries.

  3. One-year neurodevelopmental outcome of very and late preterm infants: Risk factors and correlation with maternal stress.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Maria Franca; Caravale, Barbara; Gasparini, Corinna; Franco, Francesco; Campi, Francesca; Dotta, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Although "late preterm" (LP) newborns (33-36 weeks of gestational age) represent more than 70% of all preterm labors, little is known about the relation between certain risk factors and developmental outcomes in LP compared to "very preterm" (≤32 weeks) children (VP). This study investigates: (1) LP and VP infants' development at 12 months of corrected age (CA) using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 3rd Edition (BSID-III); (2) correlation between BSID-III performances and maternal stress (using Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, PSI-SF) among LP and VP at 12 months CA; and (3) the link between known neonatal and demographic risk factors and developmental outcomes of LP and VP infants. For both LP and VP infants the Mean Cognitive (LP: 102.69±7.68; VP: 103.63±10.68), Language (LP: 96.23±10.08; VP: 99.10±10.37) and Motor (LP: 91.11±10.33; VP: 93.85±10.17) composite scores were in the normal range, without significant differences between the groups. Correlations between PSI-SF and BSID-III showed that in the VP group (but not LP), Language score was negatively related to the PSI-SF 'Difficult Child' scale (r=-.34, p<.05). Regression models revealed that cognitive performance was significantly predicted by physical therapy in LP and by cesarean section in VP infants. For VP only maternal education and length of stay predicted Language score, whereas physical therapy predicted Motor score. Results of the study underline the importance of considering cognitive, language and motor developments separately when assessing a preterm child's development. Prediction models of developmental performance confirm the influence of some known neonatal risk factors and indicate the need for further research on the role of sociodemographic risk factors.

  4. Maternal and foetal risk factor and complication with immediate outcome during hospital stay of very low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A; Jahan, N; Dey, S K; Uddin, M F; Ahmed, S

    2012-10-01

    This prospective study was done to find out the maternal and foetal risk factors and complications during hospital stay. It was conducted in Special Care Neonatal Unit (SCANU), Department of Child Health, Bangabandhu Memorial Hospital (BBMH), University of Science and Technology Chittagong (USTC) from1st October 2001 to 30th March 2002 and cases were 35 very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Common complications of VLBW babies of this series were frequent apnea (40%), Septicemia (25.71%), Hypothermia (17.14%), NEC (14.28%), Convulsion (11.43%), Hyper-bilirubinaemia (8.57%), Anemia (5.71%), IVH (5.71%), RDS (2.86%), HDN (2.86%), CCF (2.86%), ARF (2.86%), either alone or in combination with other clinical conditions. Newborns 62.86% male, 37.14% female & their mortality rate were 40.91% & 38.46% respectively; Preterm 88.57% & their mortality (41.93%) were higher than term babies (25.00%); AGA 62.86%, SGA 37.14% & mortality rate of AGA babies (45.46%) were higher than of SGA (30.77%) babies. The mortality rate of VLBW infants of teen age (≤ 18 years) mothers (57.14%) & high (≥ 30 years) aged mothers (50.00%) were higher than average (19-26 yrs) maternal age mothers (33.33%). Mortality rate was higher among the babies of primi (41.67%) than multiparous (36.36%), poor socioeconomic group (53.33%) than middle class (30.00%) & mothers on irregular ANC (47.83%) than regular ANC (25.00%). It has been also noted the mortality rate of home delivered babies (50.00%) higher than institutional delivered (34.78%) babies; higher in LUCS babies (46.15%) than normal vaginal delivered babies (31.58%); higher in the babies who had antenatal maternal problem (48.15%) than no maternal problems babies (12.50%); higher in the babies who had fetal distress (50.00%) and twin (46.67%) than no foetal risk factors (28.57%) during intrauterine life; higher in the babies who had problems at admission (46.67%) than no problems (35.00%); and mortality higher in twin (46.67%) than singleton

  5. Lack of Breastfeeding: A Potential Risk Factor in the Multifactorial Genesis of Borderline Personality Disorder and Impaired Maternal Bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Cornelia E; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Stroehle, Verena; Lieb, Klaus; Mobascher, Arian

    2015-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pattern of intense but unstable interpersonal relationships. These interpersonal dysfunctions may originate from impaired bonding and attachment that is determined during early life. Remarkably, it has been reported that the quality of mother-infant relationship is influenced by the feeding mode. Thus, bottle feeding instead of breastfeeding and possible lack of maternal bonding-related behavior may increase the risk for later psychopathology and attachment problems as seen in BPD. A total of 100 BPD patients and 100 matched healthy controls underwent semistructured interviews, based on retrospective information about early risk factors and breastfeeding during infancy. The authors' analyses revealed that BPD patients were significantly less breastfed compared to healthy controls (no breastfeeding in BPD: 42.4%; no breastfeeding in controls: 18.2%; p < .001). The BPD diagnosis was significantly predicted by the variable "no breastfeeding" (p < .001; odds ratio [OR] = 3.32; confidence interval [CI] [1.74, 6.34]), even after adjustment for childhood trauma and several confounding factors (p = .001). The variable "no breastfeeding" accounts for 9.1% of the variance of the BPD diagnosis and is associated with low perceived maternal bonding (p = .006). Breastfeeding may act as an early indicator of the mother-infant relationship that seems to be relevant for bonding and attachment later in life.

  6. Bacteriological profile and associated risk factors of neonatal sepsis in Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital Thapathali, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, N; Shah, P K; Acharya, G; Vaidya, K M

    2014-12-01

    Neonatal Sepsis is one of the most common reasons for admission to neonatal units in developing countries. It is also a major cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Identification of the common bacteria and risk factors causing such infections and their susceptibility patterns will provide necessary information for timely intervention. This study was carried out to determine the bacteriological profile and associated risk factors of neonatal sepsis in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted among neonates suspected of neonatal sepsis. Blood culture was performed and organisms were identified and antibiotic susceptibility was carried out with standard microbiological methods. Data were analysed by using SPSS. Ver. 16 software. The positive yield of blood culture was 21%. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas spp. In Antibiotic susceptibility pattern Gentamycin showed the highest sensitivity to all types of isolated organisms. Vancomycin sensitivity was highest for Gram positive organism and Ciprofloxacin was most effective for Gram negative organisms isolated. Ampicillin and Amoxycillin were the least effective drug. Multiple drug resistance was observed in 77.15% of isolates. Prematurity, low birth weight and maternal pyrexia before delivery were found to be strongly associated with neonatal sepsis. Gram positive organisms were more prevalent than gram negative organisms.

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Maternal Anxiety in Late Pregnancy in China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu-ting; Yao, Yan; Dou, Jing; Guo, Xin; Li, Shu-yue; Zhao, Cai-ning; Han, Hong-zhi; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A large number of studies have shown the adverse neonatal outcomes of maternal psychological ill health. Given the potentially high prevalence of antenatal anxiety and few studies performed among Chinese people, the authors wanted to investigate the prevalence of antenatal anxiety and associated factors among pregnant women and to provide scientific basis to reduce prenatal anxiety effectively. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Changchun Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital from January 2015 to march 2015, with 467 participants of at least 38 weeks’ gestation enrolled. Antenatal anxiety was measured using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). χ2 test and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association of related factors of antenatal anxiety. Results: Among the 467 participants, the prevalence of antenatal anxiety was 20.6% (96 of 467). After adjustment for women’s socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., area, age, household income), multivariate logistical regression analysis revealed that antenatal anxiety showed significant relationship with education level lower than middle school (years ≤ 9), expected natural delivery, anemia during pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, disharmony in family relationship and life satisfaction. Conclusions: It is important to prevent or reduce antenatal anxiety from occurring by improving the health status of pregnant women and strengthening prenatal-related education and mental intervention. PMID:27153080

  9. MATERNAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS AS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR FOR THE RISK OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie M.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compare nutritional status of 57 South African mothers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with 148 mothers of controls. Methods Dietary data were analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and fats via Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Adequate Intakes (AI) for pregnant women. Results Virtually all mothers were likely deficient on most micronutrients by either EAR (<50%) or AI values. Mothers of FASD children consumed more of 13 of 25 micronutrients. For percentage below EAR, only vitamin D was significantly higher for FASD mothers. Despite no difference in total food intake, control mothers had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) than FASD mothers. Maternal BMI is more significant for positive child outcomes than any individual nutrient. Conclusions Most mothers have inadequate dietary intake. Minor advantages in nutrient intake are overpowered by teratogenic effects of alcohol. Further study is needed of the interaction of alcohol, maternal nutrition, and metabolism. PMID:26656914

  10. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  11. Effect of simple, targeted diet in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors on maternal and fetal outcomes (ESTEEM): study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Dodds, Julie; Placzek, Anna; Spyreli, Eleni; Moore, Amanda; Hooper, Richard; Beresford, Lee; Roseboom, Tessa J; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Hitman, Graham; Khan, Khalid S; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women with metabolic risk factors are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mediterranean-based dietary interventions have the potential to minimise these risks. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple, targeted intervention modelled on Mediterranean diet in preventing maternal and fetal complications in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors. Methods and analysis Pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy <18 weeks gestation, and without pre-existing diabetes, chronic renal disease and autoimmune diseases will be recruited. Women with metabolic risk factors will be randomised to receive a dietary intervention based on a Mediterranean pattern, supplemented with extra virgin olive oil and mixed nuts until delivery. The intervention will be delivered through a series of one to one and group sessions. The primary outcome is a composite maternal outcome of pre-eclampsia or gestational diabetes and a composite fetal outcome of stillbirth, small for gestational age fetus or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Secondary outcomes include maternal, fetal, dietary and laboratory outcomes. We aim to randomise 1230 eligible women with metabolic risk factors. We will also compare the outcomes in women with and without these risk factors. The sample size will provide us with 80% power at 5% significance, assuming a 20% loss to follow-up to detect a 30% reduction in maternal and fetal complications. Ethics and dissemination The ESTEEM trial is designed to provide a definitive estimate of the effects of Mediterranean dietary pattern in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. The pragmatic nature of ESTEEM ensures the applicability of its findings into clinical practice. The findings of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings and congresses. Ethical approval was granted by the NHS Research Ethics Committees (14/EE/1048). Trial registration number NCT02218931

  12. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    PubMed

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  13. Risk factors for obesity and high blood pressure in Chinese American children: maternal acculturation and children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B; Lustig, Robert

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children's weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and self-efficacy regarding diet and physical activity. Mothers completed questionnaires on demographic data and acculturation. About 46% of children had a body mass index exceeding the 85th percentile. Lower level of maternal acculturation is a risk factor for overweight and higher waist to hip ratio. Children's unhealthy food choices were predictive of high body mass index and high systolic blood pressure, whereas older age and less physical activity in children were predictors of high diastolic blood pressure. Developing culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate interventions to reduce overweight and high blood pressure is critical to reduce health disparities among minority children.

  14. Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

  15. Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition – mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359

  16. A study on usefulness of a set of known risk factors in predicting maternal syphilis infections in three districts of Western Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Jacob; Chizuni, Nellisiwe; Nzala, Selestine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite roll-out of cost-effective point-of-care tests, less than half antenatal attendees in rural western Zambia are screened for syphilis. This study formulated a clinical, risk-based assessment criteria and evaluated its usefulness as a non-biomedical alternative for identifying high-risk prenatal cases. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of antenatal clinic attendees in Kaoma, Luampa and Nkeyema districts to collect data on exposure to nine pre-selected syphilis risk factors. These factors were classified into major and minor factors based on their observed pre-study association strengths to maternal syphilis. Clinical disease was defined as exposure to either two major factors, one major with two minor factors or three minor factors. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the clinical protocol were then calculated in comparison to rapid plasmin reagin results. Results The observed syphilis prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI: 7.4 - 11.6%) and the overall sensitivity of the study criteria was 62.3% with positive predictive value of 72.9%. Sensitivities of individual case-defining categories were even lower; from 17.4% to 33.3%. Results confirmed that abortion history, still birth, multiple sexual partners, previous maternal syphilis infection, partner history of sexually transmitted infection and maternal co-morbid conditions of HIV and genital ulcer disease were significantly associated to maternal syphilis in study population as well. Conclusion The criteria was not as effective as biomedical tests in identifying maternal syphilis. However, it could be a useful adjunct/alternative in antenatal clinics when biomedical tests are either inadequate or unavailable. PMID:27703597

  17. Alcohol consumption and other maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome among three distinct samples of women before, during, and after pregnancy: the risk is relative.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; White-Country, Mary; Goodhart, Karen; Decoteau, Sara; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Viljoen, Denis L; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2004-05-15

    Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to have developmental issues consistent with prenatal alcohol consumption. The third sample is of women from South Africa, each of whom has given birth to a child diagnosed with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Data across samples conform to expected trends on many variables. For example, the maternal age at time of pregnancy, a major risk factor for FAS, ranged from a mean of 23.5 years for the prenatal clinic sample, to 23.8 years for the developmental clinic sample, to 27.6 for the sample of women who have delivered children with FAS. Other variables of maternal risk for FAS expected from the extant literature, such as high gravidity and parity, binge drinking, heavy intergenerational drinking in the mother's extended family and immediate social network, and length of drinking career, were compared across the three samples with variable results. However, normative measures of drinking problems are unreliable when reported across cultures. An unexpected finding from this three-sample comparison was the differential risk found when comparing U.S. women to South African women. Women in the U.S. Plains Indian samples report a high consumption of alcohol in a binge pattern of drinking, yet there is less detectable damage to the fetus than among the South African women. Body mass index (BMI) and lifelong and current nutrition may have a substantial impact, along with the above factors, in relative risk for an FAS birth. The level of risk for producing a child with FAS is influenced by environmental and behavioral conditions that vary between populations and among individual women. Also, because many syndromes are genetically based, there is a need for full behavioral and

  18. Risk factors for maternal deaths in unplanned obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit-lessons for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ugochukwu V; Efetie, Efenae R; Amucheazi, Adaobi

    2011-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the risk factors for maternal deaths in unplanned or unbooked obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit of a tertiary health centre. Hospital records of unbooked obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit of the hospital from January 1997 to December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included patients' demographics, diagnosis, duration of stay in the ICU and patient outcome. The intensive care unit records showed that there were 25 unbooked obstetric admissions. Major diagnoses for unplanned admissions to the ICU were preeclampsia/eclampsia (41.1%), obstetric haemorrhage (37.5%), and respiratory distress (12.5%). There were 12 deaths (48%). Organ dysfunction on admission, massive blood loss and late presentation were the risk factors for mortality. The high maternal mortality was mainly due to limited supply of blood products and inadequate prenatal care resulting in disease severity.

  19. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Results Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ≥ 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. Conclusions In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population. PMID:22895107

  20. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  1. Adolescent motherhood and developmental outcomes of children in early head start: the influence of maternal parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors within the family setting.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W; Lodise, Michelle

    2011-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors of low-income adolescent mothers on the cognitive and language abilities of children from infancy to age 3. Participants consisted of 1,240 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Data were collected using structured interviews with the mothers and from videotaped mother-child interactions during play activities when children were approximately 14 months old and again at 36 months of age. Positive parenting behaviors exhibited toward the 14-month-old children predicted gains in both cognitive and language abilities more so than did maternal well-being, risk factors within the family setting, and demographic risk factors. Gains in cognitive abilities from infancy to age 3 were predicted by supportive parenting, higher family resources, and lower family conflict when children were infants. Gains in language abilities were predicted by supportive parenting, support for language and learning in the home environment, and higher family resources when children were infants. Finally, path analyses showed that maternal age had an indirect effect on child cognitive and language abilities at age 3 through effects on parenting behaviors. Older mothers were more likely to be supportive during play at age 14 months, which in turn promoted enhanced developmental outcomes at age 3. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  2. Associations of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9 years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4 years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9 years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4 years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9 years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (−0.48 mm Hg difference per 50 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01), Apo-B (−0.01 mg/dL difference; 95% CI −0.02 to −0.001), and CRP (−6.1% difference; 95% CI −11.5% to −0.3%) at age 9.9 years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4 years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (−5.5% difference; 95% CI −11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life. PMID:24125739

  3. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    PubMed

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  4. Maternal hurricane exposure and fetal distress risk.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Peek, Lori; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Logistic regression and spatial analytic techniques are used to model fetal distress risk as a function of maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew. First, monthly time series compare the proportion of infants born distressed in hurricane affected and unaffected areas. Second, resident births are analyzed in Miami-Dade and Broward counties, before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew. Third, resident births are analyzed in all Florida locales with 100,000 or more persons, comparing exposed and unexposed gravid females. Fourth, resident births are analyzed along Hurricane Andrew's path from southern Florida to northeast Mississippi. Results show that fetal distress risk increases significantly with maternal exposure to Hurricane Andrew in second and third trimesters, adjusting for known risk factors. Distress risk also correlates with the destructive path of Hurricane Andrew, with higher incidences of fetal distress found in areas of highest exposure intensity. Hurricane exposed African-American mothers were more likely to birth distressed infants. The policy implications of in utero costs of natural disaster exposure are discussed.

  5. Maternal migration and autism risk: systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Crafa, Daina; Warfa, Nasir

    2015-02-01

    Autism (AUT) is one of the most prevalent developmental disorders emerging during childhood, and can be amongst the most incapacitating mental disorders. Some individuals with AUT require a lifetime of supervised care. Autism Speaks reported estimated costs for 2012 at £34 billion in the UK; and $3.2 million-$126 billion in the US, Australia and Canada. Ethnicity and migration experiences appear to increase risks of AUT and relate to underlying biological risk factors. Sociobiological stress factors can affect the uterine environment, or relate to stress-induced epigenetic changes during pregnancy and delivery. Epigenetic risk factors associated with AUT also include poor pregnancy conditions, low birth weight, and congenital malformation. Recent studies report that children from migrant communities are at higher risk of AUT than children born to non-migrant mothers, with the exception of Hispanic children. This paper provides the first systematic review into prevalence and predictors of AUT with a particular focus on maternal migration stressors and epigenetic risk factors. AUT rates appear higher in certain migrant communities, potentially relating to epigenetic changes after stressful experiences. Although AUT remains a rare disorder, failures to recognize its public health urgency and local community needs continue to leave certain cultural groups at a disadvantage.

  6. Association of Maternal and Community Factors With Enrollment in Home Visiting Among At-Risk, First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K.; Short, Jodie A.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We identified individual and contextual factors associated with referral and enrollment in home visiting among at-risk, first-time mothers. Methods. We retrospectively studied referral and enrollment in a regional home visiting program from 2007 to 2009 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Using linked vital statistics and census tract data, we obtained individual and community measures on first-time mothers meeting eligibility criteria for home visiting (low income, unmarried, or age < 18 years). Generalized linear modeling was performed to determine factors associated with relative risk (RR) of (1) referral to home visiting among eligible mothers and (2) enrollment after referral. Results. Of 8187 first-time mothers eligible for home visiting, 2775 were referred and 1543 were enrolled. Among referred women, high school completion (RR = 1.10) and any college (RR = 1.17) compared with no high school completion were associated with increased enrollment, and enrollment was less likely for those living in communities with higher socioeconomic deprivation (RR = 0.71; P < .05). Conclusions. Barriers to enrollment in home visiting persisted at multiple ecological levels. Ongoing evaluation of enrollment in at-risk populations is critical as home visiting programs are implemented and expanded. PMID:24354835

  7. Maternal and Neonatal Risk Factors Associated with Vertical Transmission of Ophthalmia Neonatorum in Neonates Receiving Health Care in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Roshni; Menezes, Lynette; Drucker, Mitchell; Msukwa, Gerald; Batumba, Nkume

    2014-01-01

    Context: Neonatal conjunctivitis is associated with poor prenatal care worldwide. Purpose: Data on neonatal conjunctivitis is scarce in Malawi. This study describes risk factors associated with conjunctivitis in neonates born in a large tertiary care hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a retrospective cohort of 231 neonates diagnosed with conjunctivitis from January 2006 to December 2009 at a large tertiary hospital in Malawi were reviewed. All subjects were clinically diagnosed with ophthalmia neonatorum. Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical features. The frequencies were calculated of various risk factors in neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum and their mothers as well as the treatments administered. Results: Mean age of the mother was 23.45 years (range, 15-40 years), and the mean number of previous deliveries was 2.3 (range, 1-7) children. Nearly, 80% of mothers delivered preterm infants via spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mean birth weight of neonates was 2869.6 grams (1100-5000 grams). Among mothers, premature rupture of membranes was the leading risk factor (24%) followed by sepsis during labor (9%), and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (7%). Neonates presented with low Apgar scores (19%), fever (8%), and/or meconium aspiration (5%). Providers treated patients empirically with a varied combination of benzyl penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline eye ointment, and saline eye wash. Tetracycline with a saline eyewash was used frequently (34%) compared with combinations of benzyl penicillin and gentamicin. Conclusions: Improving prenatal care to reduce sepsis, traumatic deliveries, and early diagnosis of STI with appropriate treatment may potentially reduce vertical transmission of neonatal conjunctivitis in this understudied population. PMID:25100909

  8. Maternal depression and perception of teratogenic risk.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy is characterized by unrealistically heightened perception of teratogenic risk. Appropriate counseling regarding the exposure at hand can assist in reducing maternal concerns. Addressing depression during pregnancy and, in parallel, providing evidence based counseling and reassurance regarding different antidepressants in pregnancy may avert major health risks.

  9. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  10. Impact of a Kentucky Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home-Visitation Program on Parental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jonnisa M.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

    2013-01-01

    As public health organizations continue to implement maternal and child health home-visitation programs, more evaluation of these efforts is needed, particularly as it relates to improving parental behaviors. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of families' participation in a home-visitation program offered by a central Kentucky…

  11. Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Araya, Ricardo; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression, a non-psychotic depressive episode of mild to major severity, is one of the major contributors of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Maternal depression (antepartum or post partum) has been linked to negative health-related behaviours and adverse outcomes, including psychological and developmental disturbances in infants, children, and adolescents. Despite its enormous burden, maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries remains under-recognised and undertreated. In this Series paper, we systematically review studies that focus on the epidemiology of perinatal depression (ie, during antepartum and post-partum periods) among women residing in low-income and middle-income countries. We also summarise evidence for the association of perinatal depression with infant and childhood outcomes. This review is intended to summarise fi ndings from the existing literature, identify important knowledge gaps, and set the research agenda for creating new generalisable knowledge pertinent to increasing our understanding of the prevalence, determinants, and infant and childhood health outcomes associated with perinatal depression. This review is also intended to set the stage for subsequent work aimed at reinforcing and accelerating investments toward providing services to manage maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:27650773

  12. Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

  13. Understanding adolescent psychopathic traits from early risk and protective factors: Relations among inhibitory control, maternal sensitivity, and attachment representation.

    PubMed

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2015-10-01

    Psychopathic traits reflect deficits in behavioral, affective, and interpersonal functioning (Cooke & Michie, 2001). Children with poor inhibitory control may display these traits. Maternal sensitivity and attachment have been implicated in psychopathic traits, but whether they may reduce the likelihood of psychopathic trait expression in adolescence for uninhibited children is largely unknown. The current study attempted to shed light on this issue. Data came from 957 adolescents, followed from 54 months through 15 years. Findings demonstrated that maternal sensitivity was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychopathic traits for males with low inhibitory control. For females, secure attachment mediated the interaction of sensitivity and inhibitory control to psychopathic traits. The current study offers insight into the temperamental traits, parenting, and relational processes involved in psychopathic trait expression during adolescence.

  14. Digitization of clinical and epidemiological data from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos: maternal risk factors and embryonic malformations.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the causes of congenital anomalies is of prime importance to develop management and/or prevention strategies. It is widely accepted that the occurrence of congenital malformations in fetuses and neonates is heavily correlated with maternal genetic makeup and lifestyle. However, very few epidemiologic analyses have been conducted on the embryonic developmental period because of the rarity of data available. Instigated in 1961, the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of embryos and fetuses. The collection's most unique feature is that most specimens were added to the collection along with epidemiologic information on the respective mothers. This is the first report on the digitization of data from the collection. A total of 22,262 embryonic specimens were selected on the basis of data integrity. Data related to the embryos were then classified according to the following criteria: developmental stage, sampling period, geographical area, maternal determinant, and external malformation. Results indicate that 7.8% of the embryos exhibit external anomalies and 92.2% are without anomalies. The three most common anomalies were nuchal bleb, holoprosencephaly and spina bifida. A special emphasis was placed on the potential association between maternal determinants and embryonic external anomalies, allowing for statistical analyses. The present study provides further evidence that this collection represents a unique source of information to conduct epidemiological analyses, not only to further the understanding of congenital anomalies but also to help establish preventive health guidelines for pregnant women.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Stress, Nativity, and Risk for Maternal Maltreatment of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of intimate partner violence (IPV) and maternal risk factors with maternal child maltreatment risk within a diverse sample of mothers. Methods. We derived the study sample (N = 2508) from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. We conducted regression analyses to examine associations between IPV, parenting stress, major depression, key covariates, and 4 proxy variables for maternal child maltreatment. Results. Mothers reported an average of 25 acts of psychological aggression and 17 acts of physical aggression against their 3-year-old children in the year before the study, 11% reported some act of neglect toward their children during the same period, and 55% had spanked their children during the previous month. About 40% of mothers had experienced IPV by their current partner. IPV and maternal parenting stress were both consistent risk factors for all 4 maltreatment proxy variables. Although foreign-born mothers reported fewer incidents of child maltreatment, the IPV relative risk for child maltreatment was greater for foreign-born than for US-born mothers. Conclusions. Further integration of IPV and child maltreatment prevention and intervention efforts is warranted; such efforts must carefully balance the needs of adult and child victims. PMID:19008518

  16. Maternal miscarriage history and risk of anencephaly.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo

    2006-05-01

    Women with a history of reproductive loss may be at an increased risk of having an unfavourable outcome in subsequent pregnancies. Using data from a matched case-control study based on the record of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Neural Tube Defects, we evaluated the association between history of maternal reproductive loss and the risk of anencephaly in three Mexican states. Mothers of 157 cases of anencephaly and 151 controls born during the period March 2000 to February 2001, were interviewed about their reproductive history and other additional factors, including socio-economic characteristics, prenatal care, use of tobacco and alcohol, presence of chronic diseases, acute illnesses and fever during the periconceptional period, and consumption of multivitamins and medicines during this period; mothers who reported no prior pregnancies were excluded from the analysis; 58 matched case-control pairs were used for the analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, women with a history of miscarriage in previous pregnancies had 4.58 times more risk of having a child with anencephaly, than those who did not have this history; OR = 4.58, [95% CI 1.22, 17.23]. Our results suggest that a history of previous miscarriages is a risk indicator for anencephaly in future gestations. This does not necessarily mean that the miscarriage itself is the cause, but that common mechanisms could be involved in the aetiology of both events. Thus, women who have had histories of reproductive losses, especially miscarriages, should be a priority group for the primary and secondary prevention of neural tube defects.

  17. [Maternal breastfeeding: health factor. Historical memory].

    PubMed

    Barriuso, L; de Miguel, M; Sánchez, M

    2007-01-01

    Maternal breastfeeding is a habit that has been closely linked to the survival of the human species since time immemorial. Following a stage when it was massively abandoned in the mid-XX century, we are now witnessing a recovery of this habit, especially in the so-called "developed" world, promoted by the health institutions in light of the scientific evidence. The superiority of maternal breastfeeding over artificial feeding is beyond dispute as the scientific evidence makes clear. Maternal breastfeeding is a positive factor for the health of the mother and for the child. Hence the promotion and recovery of this habit is more than just a fashion or tendency: it is an incontrovertible factor in maternal-child health. Through the Foral Order of January 28th 2004, the government of Navarre has brought together the numerous administrative initiatives that are emerging in our province for the promotion of maternal breastfeeding by promoting a Technical Advisory Commission for the Promotion of Maternal Breastfeeding in Navarre.

  18. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  19. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  20. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    PubMed

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  1. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  2. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christine W; Yamamoto, Kalani T; Henry, Rohan K; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-09-01

    Development of CKD may be programmed prenatally. We sought to determine the association of childhood CKD with prenatal risk factors, including birth weight, maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), and maternal overweight/obesity. We conducted a population-based, case-control study with 1994 patients with childhood CKD (<21 years of age at diagnosis) and 20,032 controls in Washington state. We linked maternal and infant characteristics in birth records from 1987 to 2008 to hospital discharge data and used logistic regression analysis to assess the association of prenatal risk factors with childhood CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 126.7 cases per 100,000 births. High birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated nominally with CKD, with respective crude odds ratios (ORs) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.15 to 3.37); however, adjustment for maternal confounders attenuated these associations to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.21) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.51 to 2.81), respectively. The adjusted ORs for CKD associated with other prenatal factors were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.63) for low birth weight, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.09) for maternal gestational DM, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48) for maternal overweight, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52) for maternal obesity. In subgroup analysis by CKD subtype, low birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated significantly with increased risk of renal dysplasia/aplasia. Low birth weight, maternal gestational DM, and maternal overweight/obesity associated significantly with obstructive uropathy. These data suggest that prenatal factors may impact the risk of CKD. Future studies should aim to determine if modification of these factors could reduce the risk of childhood CKD.

  3. THE CHANGE IN CONCENTRATIONS OF ANGIOGENIC AND ANTI-ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN MATERNAL PLASMA BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND TRIMESTERS IN RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT OF PREECLAMPSIA AND SGA

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Fu, Wenjiang; Todem, David; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Nien, Jyh Kae; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Gomez, Ricardo; Hassan, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors has been proposed as central to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Indeed, patients with PE and those delivering small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates have higher plasma concentrations of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and the soluble form of endoglin (s-Eng), as well as lower plasma concentrations of vascual endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) than do patients with normal pregnancies. Of note, this imbalance has been observed before the clinical presentation of PE or the delivery of an SGA neonate. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in the profile of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal plasma between the first and second trimesters are associated with a high risk for the subsequent development of preeclampsia and/or delivery of an SGA neonate. Methods This longitudinal case-control study included 402 singleton pregnancies in the following groups: 1) normal pregnancies with appropiate for gestational age (AGA) neonates (n=201); 2) patients who delivered an SGA neonate (n=145); and 3) patients who developed PE (n=56). Maternal plasma samples were obtained at the time of each prenatal visit, scheduled at 4-week intervals from the first or early second trimester until delivery. In this study, we included two samples per patient: 1) first sample obtained between 6 and 15 weeks of gestation (“first trimester” sample); and 2) second sample obtained between 20 and 25 weeks of gestation (“second trimester” sample). Plasma concentrations of s-Eng, sVEGFR-1 and PlGF were determined by specific and sensitive immunoassays. Changes in the maternal plasma concentrations of these angiogenesis-related factors were compared among normal patients and those destined to develop PE or deliver an SGA neonate while adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity and body mass index (BMI). General linear

  4. Maternal positive affect mediates the link between family risk and preschoolers' positive affect.

    PubMed

    Davis, Molly; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The present study sought to further specify conceptual models of youth positive affect (PA) by examining mothers' observed PA as a mediator of the relation between family risk (based on maternal reports of demographic factors) and children's PA in a sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00% boys). Results yielded a significant, negative correlation between family risk and child PA. Mediation analyses indicated that family risk was related to child PA through its effects on maternal PA, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. Findings suggest that family risk and maternal PA are important factors to consider in understanding preschoolers' PA development. Identifying children at risk for developing PA difficulties can aid in the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies for promoting young children's PA specifically, and their psychosocial functioning more broadly.

  5. Maternal Positive Affect Mediates the Link Between Family Risk and Preschoolers’ Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Molly; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to further specify conceptual models of youth positive affect (PA) by examining mothers’ observed PA as a mediator of the relation between family risk (based on maternal reports of demographic factors) and children’s PA in a sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00% boys). Results yielded a significant, negative correlation between family risk and child PA. Mediation analyses indicated that family risk was related to child PA through its effects on maternal PA, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. Findings suggest that family risk and maternal PA are important factors to consider in understanding preschoolers’ PA development. Identifying children at risk for developing PA difficulties can aid in the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies for promoting young children’s PA specifically, and their psychosocial functioning more broadly. PMID:25326667

  6. Factors associated with maternal death in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Saintrain, Suzanne Vieira; de Oliveira, Juliana Gomes Ramalho; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Borges, Juliana Lima Nogueira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; da Silva Jr, Geraldo Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with maternal death in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a maternal intensive care unit. All medical records of patients admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Pregnant and puerperal women were included; those with diagnoses of hydatidiform mole, ectopic pregnancy, or anembryonic pregnancy were excluded, as were patients admitted for non-obstetrical reasons. Death and hospital discharge were the outcomes subjected to comparative analysis. Results A total of 373 patients aged 13 to 45 years were included. The causes for admission to the intensive care unit were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, followed by heart disease, respiratory failure, and sepsis; complications included acute kidney injury (24.1%), hypotension (15.5%), bleeding (10.2%), and sepsis (6.7%). A total of 28 patients died (7.5%). Causes of death were hemorrhagic shock, multiple organ failure, respiratory failure, and sepsis. The independent risk factors associated with death were acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR] = 6.77), hypotension (OR = 15.08), and respiratory failure (OR = 3.65). Conclusion The frequency of deaths was low. Acute kidney injury, hypotension, and respiratory insufficiency were independent risk factors for maternal death. PMID:28099637

  7. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.

  8. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  9. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    PubMed

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  10. Maternal, neonatal and community factors influencing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-03-01

    Child mortality (the mortality of children less than five years old) declined considerably in the developing world in the 1990s, but infant mortality declined less. The reductions in neonatal mortality were not impressive and, as a consequence, there is an increasing percentage of infant deaths in the neonatal period. Any further reduction in child mortality, therefore, requires an understanding of the determinants of neonatal mortality. 209,628 birth and 2581 neonatal death records for the 1998 birth cohort from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were probabilistically matched. Data were from SINASC and SIM, Information Systems on Live Births and Deaths of Brazil. Logistic regression was used to find the association between neonatal mortality and the following risk factors: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, maternal age, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Infants of older mothers were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Caesarean delivery was not found to be associated with neonatal mortality. Low birth weight, pre-term birth and low Apgar scores were associated with neonatal death. Having a mother who lives in the highest developed community decreased the odds of neonatal death, suggesting that factors not measured in this study are behind such association. This result may also indicate that other factors over and above biological and more proximate factors could affect neonatal death.

  11. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  12. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  13. Maternal and perinatal risks for women over 44--a review.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Rosen, Todd

    2009-10-20

    It has been widely documented that advanced maternal age constitutes a risk to both mother and child. The purpose of this review is to examine the risks posed to the pregnant mother over the age of 44 and determine if they are experienced in greater frequency than in their younger cohorts. A review of the recent literature demonstrates a significant increased incidence of cesarean section, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and perinatal mortality. There also appears to be different rates of maternal complications depending on mode of conception with assisted reproductive technology conferring a higher risk in this population. Further study is recommended in mode of conception and parity to examine the effects on maternal and fetal risks.

  14. Delivery of a Small for Gestational Age Infant and Greater Maternal Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Davis, Karen E.; Wilson, Peter W. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant has been associated with increased maternal risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is uncertain whether giving birth to SGA infant is a specific determinant of later IHD, independent of other risk factors, or a marker of general poor health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between delivery of a SGA infant and maternal risk for IHD in relation to traditional IHD risk factors. Methods and Findings Risk of maternal IHD was evaluated in a population based cross-sectional study of 6,608 women with a prior live term birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006), a probability sample of the U.S. population. Sequence of events was determined from age at last live birth and at diagnosis of IHD. Delivery of a SGA infant is strongly associated with greater maternal risk for IHD (age adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.8; 1.2, 2.9; p = 0.012). The association was independent of the family history of IHD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes (family history-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.9; 1.2, 3.0; p = 0.011) as well as other risk factors for IHD (risk factor-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.1, 2.7; p = 0.025). Delivery of a SGA infant was associated with earlier onset of IHD and preceded it by a median of 30 (interquartile range: 20, 36) years. Conclusions Giving birth to a SGA infant is strongly and independently associated with IHD and a potential risk factor that precedes IHD by decades. A pregnancy that produces a SGA infant may induce long-term cardiovascular changes that increase risk for IHD. PMID:22431995

  15. Maternal asthma, infant feeding, and the risk of asthma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H; Peat, Jennifer K; de Klerk, Nicholas H

    2002-07-01

    Controversy surrounds the issue of whether children with asthmatic mothers should be breast-fed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal asthma status alters the association between asthma and breast-feeding. In a cohort study of 2602 West Australian children enrolled before birth and followed prospectively, we collected data on method of infant feeding, maternal asthma (as reported by parental questionnaire), atopy (as measured by skin prick test), and current asthma (defined as a physician's diagnosis of asthma and wheeze in the last year) at 6 years of age. The risk of childhood asthma increased if exclusive breast-feeding was stopped (other milk was introduced) before 4 months (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62; P =.038), and this risk was not altered by atopy or maternal asthma status. After adjusting for covariates, exclusive breast-feeding for less than 4 months was a significant risk factor for current asthma (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00-1.82; P =.049). There was no formal statistical interaction between breast-feeding and maternal asthma status (P =.970). In this study maternal asthma status did not modify the association between asthma and breast-feeding duration. We recommend that infants with or without a maternal history of asthma be exclusively breast-fed for 4 months and beyond.

  16. Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary Analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Erika; Ganchimeg, Togoobaatar; Morisaki, Naho; Vogel, Joshua P.; Pileggi, Cynthia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Souza, João P.; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010–11. Methods We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA’s association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. Results A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%), Nepal (17.9%), the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%), and Japan (16.0%), while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%), Uganda (6.6%) and Thailand (9.7%). The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55–3.28) compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3) (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.92) was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries. Conclusion Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and

  17. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-09

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  18. Women at risk: Gender inequality and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Banda, Pamela C; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Ntoimo, Lorretta F C; Muchiri, Evans

    2017-04-01

    Gender inequality has been documented as a key driver of negative health outcomes, especially among women. However, studies have not clearly examined the role of gender inequality in maternal health in an African setting. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the role of gender inequality, indicated by lack of female autonomy, in exposing women to maternal health risk. Data were obtained from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey on a weighted sample of 3,906 married or partnered women aged 15-49 years. Multivariable analyses revealed that low autonomy in household decision power was associated with maternal health risk (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52, p < .001). Autonomy interacted with household wealth showed that respondents who were in the wealthier households and had low autonomy in household decision power (OR = 2.03, p < .05) were more likely to be exposed to maternal health risk than their counterparts who had more autonomy. Efforts to lower women's exposure to maternal mortality and morbidity in Zambia should involve interventions to alter prevailing gender norms that limit women's active participation in decisions about their own health during pregnancy and delivery.

  19. Cumulative Risk, Maternal Responsiveness, and Allostatic Load among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.; Kim, Pilyoung; Ting, Albert H.; Tesher, Harris B.; Shannis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk…

  20. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  1. Children's experiences of maternal incarceration-specific risks: predictions to psychological maladaptation.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Thrash, Todd M

    2015-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children's experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother's arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children's psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age = 9.8 years, range = 6-12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children's experiences related to maternal incarceration and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children's incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children's exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration.

  2. Fetal origins of autism spectrum disorders: the non-associated maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hind N; Srikrishnan, Anand; Blackwell, Sean C; Dash, Pramod; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Several population-based studies have been conducted to determine whether maternal exposures are involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We review these studies and describe the factors not associated with increased risk for ASD development. Methods: We identified studies describing associations between maternal exposures and ASD development. These studies include the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment, Nurses’ Health Study II, and the Swedish population registry. Results: Factors not associated with ASD development include Type 2 and gestational diabetes, chronic hypertension, fever treated with antipyretic medication, autoimmune disease and short interpregnancy intervals. Conclusion: There is increasing evidence that maternal exposures are involved in the pathophysiology of ASD in the developing fetus. PMID:28031961

  3. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  4. Does maternal body mass index during pregnancy influence risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring?

    PubMed

    Khandaker, G M; Dibben, C R M; Jones, P B

    2012-06-01

    Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with several adverse outcomes in offspring including schizophrenia. The rising prevalence of obesity may contribute to an increase in the number of schizophrenia cases in the near future; therefore, it warrants further exploration. We reviewed current evidence regarding maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. We searched PubMed and Embase databases and included studies that were based on large and representative population-based datasets. A qualitative review was undertaken due to heterogeneity between studies. Four studies with 305 cases of schizophrenia and 24,442 controls were included. Maternal obesity (pre-pregnant BMI over 29 or 30 compared with mothers with low or average BMI) was associated with two- to threefold increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring in two birth cohorts. High maternal BMI at both early and late pregnancy also increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Discrepant findings from one study could be attributable to sample characteristics and other factors. The area needs more research. Future studies should take into account obstetric complications, diabetes, maternal infections and immune responses that might potentially mediate this association.

  5. Does maternal body mass index during pregnancy influence risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, G M; Dibben, C R M; Jones, P B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with several adverse outcomes in offspring including schizophrenia. The rising prevalence of obesity may contribute to an increase in the number of schizophrenia cases in the near future; therefore, it warrants further exploration. We reviewed current evidence regarding maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. We searched PubMed and Embase databases and included studies that were based on large and representative population-based datasets. A qualitative review was undertaken due to heterogeneity between studies. Four studies with 305 cases of schizophrenia and 24,442 controls were included. Maternal obesity (pre-pregnant BMI over 29 or 30 compared with mothers with low or average BMI) was associated with two- to threefold increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring in two birth cohorts. High maternal BMI at both early and late pregnancy also increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Discrepant findings from one study could be attributable to sample characteristics and other factors. The area needs more research. Future studies should take into account obstetric complications, diabetes, maternal infections and immune responses that might potentially mediate this association. PMID:22188548

  6. Brain Reward Pathway Dysfunction in Maternal Depression and Addiction: A Present and Future Transgenerational Risk

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Murgatroyd, Christopher; Pittet, Florent; Febo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Two research areas that could benefit from a greater focus on the role of the reward pathway are maternal depression and maternal addiction. Both depression and addiction in mothers are mediated by deficiencies in the reward pathway and represent substantial risks to the health of offspring and future generations. This targeted review discusses maternal reward deficits in depressed and addicted mothers, neural, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the transgenerational transmission of these deficits from mother to offspring. Postpartum depression and drug use disorders may entail alterations in the reward pathway, particularly in striatal and prefrontal areas, which may affect maternal attachment to offspring and heighten the risk of transgenerational effects on the oxytocin and dopamine systems. Alterations may involve neural circuitry changes, genetic factors that impact monoaminergic neurotransmission, as well as growth factors such as BDNF and stress-associated signaling in the brain. Improved maternal reward-based preventative measures and treatments may be specifically effective for mothers and their offspring suffering from depression and/or addiction. PMID:27617302

  7. Prenatal Maternal Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Preterm Birth and the Effects of Heterogeneity on This Relationship: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. Sarah; Pana, Gianella; Premji, Shahirose

    2016-01-01

    Background. Systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) that previously explored the relationship between prenatal maternal anxiety (PMA) and preterm birth (PTB) have not been comprehensive in study inclusion, failing to account for effects of heterogeneity and disagree in their conclusions. Objectives. This SRMA provides a summary of the published evidence of the relationship between PMA and PTB while examining methodological and statistical sources of heterogeneity. Methods. Published studies from MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, until June 2015, were extracted and reviewed. Results. Of the 37 eligible studies, 31 were used in this MA; six more were subsequently excluded due to statistical issues, substantially reducing the heterogeneity. The odds ratio for PMA was 1.70 (95% CI 1.33, 2.18) for PTB and 1.67 (95% CI 1.35, 2.07) for spontaneous PTB comparing higher levels of anxiety to lower levels. Conclusions. Consistent findings indicate a significant association between PMA and PTB. Due to the statistical problem of including collinear variables in a single regression model, it is hard to distinguish the effect of the various types of psychosocial distress on PTB. However, a prenatal program aimed at addressing mental health issues could be designed and evaluated using a randomised controlled trial to assess the causal nature of different aspects of mental health on PTB. PMID:27298829

  8. Epistasis between COMT and MTHFR in maternal-fetal dyads increases risk for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hill, Lori D; York, Timothy P; Kusanovic, Juan P; Gomez, Ricardo; Eaves, Lindon J; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F

    2011-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This disorder is thought to be multifactorial in origin, with multiple genes, environmental and social factors, contributing to disease. One proposed mechanism is placental hypoxia-driven imbalances in angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, causing endothelial cell dysfunction. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt)-deficient pregnant mice have a preeclampsia phenotype that is reversed by exogenous 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an estrogen metabolite generated by COMT. 2-ME inhibits Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α, a transcription factor mediating hypoxic responses. COMT has been shown to interact with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which modulates the availability of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a COMT cofactor. Variations in MTHFR have been associated with preeclampsia. By accounting for allelic variation in both genes, the role of COMT has been clarified. COMT allelic variation is linked to enzyme activity and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs6269, rs4633, rs4680, and rs4818) form haplotypes that characterize COMT activity. We tested for association between COMT haplotypes and the MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism and preeclampsia risk in 1103 Chilean maternal-fetal dyads. The maternal ACCG COMT haplotype was associated with reduced risk for preeclampsia (P = 0.004), and that risk increased linearly from low to high activity haplotypes (P = 0.003). In fetal samples, we found that the fetal ATCA COMT haplotype and the fetal MTHFR minor "T" allele interact to increase preeclampsia risk (p = 0.022). We found a higher than expected number of patients with preeclampsia with both the fetal risk alleles alone (P = 0.052) and the fetal risk alleles in combination with a maternal balancing allele (P<0.001). This non-random distribution was not observed in controls (P = 0.341 and P = 0.219, respectively). Our findings demonstrate a role for both maternal and fetal COMT in preeclampsia

  9. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  10. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  11. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women’s lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women’s health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant’s intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child’s health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother’s lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother’s mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with

  12. Maternal Predictors of Anxiety Risk in Young Males with Fragile X

    PubMed Central

    Tonnsen, Bridgette; Cornish, Kim M.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) demonstrate high rates of anxiety disorders, with 65–83% meeting diagnostic criteria. The severity of anxiety symptoms in FXS has been shown to be partially predicted by elevated negative affect across early childhood (Tonnsen, Malone, et al., 2013). This association suggests that biologically-driven vulnerability emerges early in development, as is reported in non-clinical populations. However, anxiety emergence is likely moderated by multifaceted genetic, biological and environmental risk and protective factors. Mothers with the FMR1 premutation have been shown to exhibit elevated parenting stress and internalizing symptoms, which have each been associated with child behavior problems (Bailey, et al., 2008). Despite these findings, it is unclear whether maternal factors directly relate to anxiety vulnerability in high-risk children with FXS, a question essential to informing targeted, family-sensitive treatment. The present study examines how maternal protective and risk factors relate to child inhibition reflected in (1) child anxiety symptoms, (2) child trajectories of negative affect, and (3) the association between child anxiety and negative affect. Primary predictors include maternal parenting stress, indicators of mental health risk (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and maternal optimism. We also examine genetic correlates in mothers (CGG repeats, activation ratio, mRNA). Our findings suggest that behavioral inhibition in young children with FXS is associated with higher parenting stress and lower optimism, and higher parenting stress is associated with lower maternal X-activation ratio. These findings underscore the need for family-sensitive treatment strategies for anxiety disorders in children with FXS. PMID:24832235

  13. Children's Intellectual and Emotional-Behavioral Adjustment at 4 Years as a Function of Cocaine Exposure, Maternal Characteristics, and Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined 4-year-olds for effects on IQ of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, risk factors, and neonatal medical problems. Found that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores for boys only. Maternal harsh…

  14. Where does distance matter? Distance to the closest maternity unit and risk of foetal and neonatal mortality in France

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Béatrice; Drewniak, Nicolas; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of maternity units has declined in France, raising concerns about the possible impact of increasing travel distances on perinatal health outcomes. We investigated impact of distance to closest maternity unit on perinatal mortality. Methods: Data from the French National Vital Statistics Registry were used to construct foetal and neonatal mortality rates over 2001–08 by distance from mother’s municipality of residence and the closest municipality with a maternity unit. Data from French neonatal mortality certificates were used to compute neonatal death rates after out-of-hospital birth. Relative risks by distance were estimated, adjusting for individual and municipal-level characteristics. Results: Seven percent of births occurred to women residing at ≥30 km from a maternity unit and 1% at ≥45 km. Foetal and neonatal mortality rates were highest for women living at <5 km from a maternity unit. For foetal mortality, rates increased at ≥45 km compared with 5–45 km. In adjusted models, long distance to a maternity unit had no impact on overall mortality but women living closer to a maternity unit had a higher risk of neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths associated with out-of-hospital birth were rare but more frequent at longer distances. At the municipal-level, higher percentages of unemployment and foreign-born residents were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality was not associated with living far from a maternity unit. Mortality was elevated in municipalities with social risk factors and located closest to a maternity unit, reflecting the location of maternity units in deprived areas with risk factors for poor outcome. PMID:24390464

  15. Culture and Comorbidity: Intimate Partner Violence as a Common Risk Factor for Maternal Mental Illness and Reproductive Health Problems among Former Child Soldiers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Bourey, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to elucidate how culture influences internal (psychological), external (social), institutional (structural), and health care (medical) processes, which, taken together, create differential risk of comorbidity across contexts. To develop a conceptual model, we conducted qualitative research with 13 female child soldiers in Nepal. Participants gave open-ended responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) vignettes (marital rape, emotional abuse, violence during pregnancy). Twelve participants (92%) endorsed personal responses (remaining silent, enduring violence, forgiving the husband). Twelve participants endorsed communication with one's husband. Only four participants (31%) sought family support, and three contacted police. Ultimately, 12 participants left the relationship, but the majority (nine) only left after the final IPV experience, which was preceded by prolonged psychological suffering and pregnancy endangerment. In conclusion, comorbidity risks are increased in cultural context that rely on individual or couples-only behavior, lack external social engagement, have weak law and justice institutions, and have limited health services.

  16. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  17. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Christiansen, Kelly J.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767

  18. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Heidi M; Christiansen, Kelly J; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  19. Maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Wei; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Jiang, Li-Na; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Min; Huo, Shu-Ting; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Although inherited and immune disorder factors are known to be involved in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), controversy still exists as to whether maternal autoimmune disease is an independent risk of ASD in offspring. We aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk of ASD in offspring in relation to maternal autoimmune diseases. A literature search in Pubmed, Web of science, Embase, and China national knowledge internet was conducted to identify relevant studies. Pooled odd ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed by STATA version 12.0. Nine case-control studies and one cohort studies comprising 9775 cases and 952,211 controls were included in this study. A positive association between maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of ASD in offspring was identified assuming a fixed effect model (pooled OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.46; I(2), 27.9%). There were statistically significant associations between maternal autoimmune diseases developed during pregnancy or maternal thyroid disease and the risk of ASD in offspring (pooled OR, 1.30, 1.29, respectively). Maternal autoimmune disease is likely to be an independent risk factor of ASD in offspring.

  20. Relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ocak, S; Ogun, S; Onder, H

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between maternal intrinsic factors and placental traits was investigated on three Southern Mediterranean breed of sheep; Cukurova Assaf (CA), Cukurova (C) and Cukurova Meat Sheep (CMS). The effect of parity and birth type were also considered in the study as a potential influencing factor. Our hypothesis was to show that while differences in placental traits between breed, parity and birth type affected lamb condition and survivability, its correlation to maternal intrinsic behavioral factors may also be a strong indicator. The study found breed related differences of maternal behavioral factors and also showed significant correlation of these behavioral patterns to various placental traits. It confirmed earlier findings that parity played a major role in the refinement of these behavioral patterns. Significant differences in birth weight (P<0.05), placental weight (P<0.05), number of cotyledons (P<0.01) and cotyledon length (P<0.05) was seen between breeds. Cotyledon weight (P<0.05), width (P<0.01) and length (P<0.05) were found to differ by parity. Breed and parity interaction significantly influenced cotyledon quantity. While we detected breed specific differences in relation to maternal intrinsic factors we also noticed significant variance within breeds to these behavioral patterns when linked to placental traits. Further study is required on the correlation between placental traits and postnatal behavior on not just the ewes but also on their lambs. This could have a significant bearing on how producers manage and maximize lamb survivability.

  1. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose–response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  2. A DRD4 Gene by Maternal Sensitivity Interaction Predicts Risk for Overweight or Obesity in Two Independent Cohorts of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Robert D.; Jansen, Pauline; Wendland, Barbara; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Silveira, Patricia P.; Kennedy, James L.; Atkinson, Leslie; Fleming, Alison; Sokolowski, Marla; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Dubé, Laurette; Hamilton, Jill; Moss, Ellen; Wazana, Ashley; Meaney, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study…

  3. Maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nousome, Darryl; Lupo, Philip J.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Discovering genetic predictors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) necessitates the evaluation of novel factors including maternal genetic effects, which are a proxy for the intrauterine environment, and robust epidemiologic study designs. Therefore, we evaluated five maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood ALL among 120 case-parent triads. Two of the five haplotypes were significantly associated with risk: GSTM3/GSTM4 (P=0.01) and GSTP1 (P=0.02). The EPHX1 haplotype was marginally associated with risk (P=0.05), whereas haplotypes in CYP1B1 and GSTA4 were not. Our results suggest genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolism is important in childhood ALL etiology. PMID:23433810

  4. Cytoplasmic factors do not contribute to a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Downing, C; Gilliam, D

    1999-01-01

    Both maternal and fetal genetic factors influence variations in response to prenatal ethanol exposure. To assess the effect of maternal genotype on the incidence of ethanol teratogenesis, a reciprocal cross study was conducted in an animal mode using the relatively susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and the relatively resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. This mating pattern produced four embryonic genotypes: true-bred B6B6 and D2D2 litters and hybrid B6D2 and D2B6 litters. To examine the role of maternal egg cytoplasm as the source of variation that could account for a maternal effect, B6D2 and D2B6 F1 females were mated back to B6 males, which produced two additional embryonic genotypes: B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6. Dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg of ethanol or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin on day 9 of pregnancy. On day 18 of pregnancy, dams were sacrificed, fetuses were removed, weighed, sexed, and examined for gross morphological malformations. Every other fetus within a litter was prepared for either skeletal or soft tissue analysis. Results showed a higher rate of teratogenesis in the B6D2 group compared to the genetically similar D2B6 group, which indicates an influence of maternal genotype on susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis. The percentage of affected male and female fetuses did not differ, which suggests that sex-linked factors are not responsible for the maternal effect. The backcross B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6 litters did not differ significantly for any measure of teratogenesis, suggesting that differences in maternally transmitted cytoplasmic material are not the cause of the maternal effect. Factors that could account for the maternal effect are differences in the maternal uterine environment and genomic imprinting. Separating maternal from fetal-mediated mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis is needed for identifying mothers and infants at risk.

  5. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  6. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-06-01

    We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications.

  7. Atrial natriuretic factor in maternal and fetal sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.Y.; Gibbs, D.M.; Brace, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    To determine atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) concentrations in the circulation and body fluids of adult pregnant sheep and their fetuses, pregnant ewes were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and the fetuses were exteriorized for sampling. ANF concentration, as measured by radioimmunoassay, was 47 +/- 6 (SE) pg/ml in maternal plasma, which was significantly higher than the 15 +/- 3 pg/ml in maternal urine. In the fetus, plasma ANF concentration was 265 +/- 49 pg/ml, 5.6 times that in maternal plasma. No umbilical arterial and venous difference in ANF concentration was observed. Fetal urine ANF concentration was significantly lower than that in fetal plasma, and was similar to that measured in amniotic and allantoic fluid. In chronically catheterized maternal and fetal sheep, fetal plasma ANF was again 5.1 times that in maternal plasma, and these levels were not different from those measured in acutely anesthetized animals. These results demonstrate that immunoreactive ANF is present in the fetal circulation at levels higher than those found in the mother. The low concentration of ANF in fetal urine suggests that ANF is probably metabolized and/or reabsorbed by the fetal kidney.

  8. Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

    2000-01-01

    A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

  9. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  10. Risk Factors for Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms in a Cohort of Ukrainian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2006-01-01

    Potential risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms were tested in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old Ukrainian children (N = 544, 47.6% male). Risk factors examined were child emotional lability, child attention problems, poor mother-child communication, coercive maternal discipline, maternal depression, and low marital satisfaction.…

  11. Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschooler's psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E

    2012-08-01

    Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.

  12. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  13. Predicting change in parenting stress across early childhood: child and maternal factors.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2007-04-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine child and maternal factors predicting parenting stress at age 2 and changes in parenting stress across time. Results indicated that single parenthood, maternal psychopathology, child anger proneness, and child emotion dysregulation predicted 2-year parenting stress. Child externalizing behaviors predicted initial status and changes across time in parenting stress. Stability of parenting stress was dependent upon child externalizing problems, as well as interactions between child externalizing problems and gender, and child externalizing problems and emotion regulation. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms by which parenting stress may influence the development of child externalizing behaviors.

  14. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  15. Maternal Smoking and the Risk of Cancer in Early Life – A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Viluksela, Matti; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Gissler, Mika; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hänninen, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of the well-known harmful effects on the fetus, many women continue smoking during pregnancy. Smoking as an important source of toxic chemicals may contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. Objectives The aim of this work was to pursue the possible association between maternal smoking and cancer in early life. Specifically, we wanted to identify the associated early life cancer types, and to quantify the associations. Methods In a systematic literature search 825 articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science, and 55 more through the reference lists. Of these 62 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in meta-analyses. Using Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird method, depending on heterogeneity of the studies, pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals for eight cancer types were calculated. Results Smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for for brain and central nervous system tumors (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02–1.17). Although the risk for lymphoma was also associated (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.05–1.34), it did not hold up in subgroup analyses. Leukemia was not found to be associated with maternal smoking. Five other cancer types (bone, soft tissue, renal, hepatic, and germ cell cancer) were also examined, but the number of studies was too limited to exclude the possibility of maternal smoking as a risk factor for cancer in offspring. Conclusions According to our meta-analyses, maternal smoking is associated with nervous system cancers, but not with leukemia in early life. Confirming or rejecting associations of maternal smoking with lymphoma and the five other cancer types requires further studies. PMID:27824869

  16. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  17. [Maternal factors associated with low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Heredia-Olivera, Karen; Munares-García, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: En el Perú, el bajo peso al nacimiento es un indicador de riesgo de problemas perinatales y de la infancia, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los factores maternos asociados al bajo peso al nacimiento. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, en 123 recién nacidos de bajo peso (casos) y 123 recién nacidos de peso normal (controles) pareados por fecha de nacimiento y distrito. Se indagaron factores maternos asociados al bajo peso al nacimiento y se comparó entre casos y controles. Se aplicó Chi cuadrada, Odds ratio (OR) con sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%), regresión logística binaria y curva ROC. Resultados: Se encontraron asociaciones para antecedentes maternos de bajo peso (OR: 41.1; IC 95%: 5.5-306.7); prematuridad (OR: 12.0; IC 95%: 1.5-94.3), antecedente de eclampsia (OR: 5.8; IC 95%: 1.9-17.4), 1 a 3 controles prenatales (OR: 5.7; IC 95%: 2.6-12.3), gestación múltiple (OR: 4.7; IC 95%: 1.3-17.0) y consumo de tabaco (OR: 3.8; IC 95%: 1.5-9.8), el no ser adolescente (OR: 0.3; IC 95%: 0.1-0.6), y no tener un intervalo intergenésico corto (OR: 0.2; IC 95%: 0.1-0.7). El análisis multivariado nos indicó que el tener entre 1 a 3 controles prenatales, gestación múltiple, ser adolescente y un intervalo intergenésico corto se asocian al bajo peso al nacimiento, el modelo propuesto explicó el 18.6% del evento, el área bajo la curva fue 72.9% considerando que predice adecuadamente (p ˂ 0.001). Conclusiones: Existen factores de riesgo materno asociados al bajo peso al nacimiento en gestantes de zona urbana de la costa como el tener de 1 a 3 controles prenatales, gestación múltiple, ser adolescente y tener un periodo entre embarazos menor a dos años.

  18. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted analyses identified seven prenatal and seven perinatal risk factors significantly associated with autism. In the adjusted analysis, nine risk factors showed significant association with autism: maternal second-hand smoke exposure, maternal chronic or acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, gestational complications, edema, abnormal gestational age (<35 or >42 weeks), nuchal cord, gravidity >1, and advanced paternal age at delivery (>30 year-old). PMID:20358271

  19. Increased Waking Salivary Cortisol and Depression Risk in Preschoolers: The Role of Maternal History of Melancholic Depression and Early Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…

  20. Early-life factors and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study early-life factors in relation to endometriosis risk in adulthood. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study was conducted among female enrollees ages 18-49 years of a large, integrated healthcare system in western Washington State. Patients Cases (n=310) were women diagnosed for the first time with endometriosis between years 1996-2001 and controls (n=727) were women without a diagnosis of endometriosis randomly selected from the healthcare system population. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between intrauterine diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, maternal smoking, mother’s age at delivery, firstborn status, birth weight, fetal number, prematurity, and regular soy formula feeding during infancy and endometriosis were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching and confounding variables. Information on early-life factors was ascertained retrospectively by in-person interview, with information on maternal DES use and regular soy formula feeding directly gathered from the participant’s mother or other family member. Results We observed that women who were regularly fed soy formula as infants had over twice the risk of endometriosis compared to unexposed women (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9). Our data also suggested increased endometriosis risk with prematurity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and maternal use of DES (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-4.9, adjusting only for frequency matching variables), although these confidence intervals included the null. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that disruption of development during fetal and infant periods may increase the risk of endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:26211883

  1. Population attributable risks of patient, child and organizational risk factors for perinatal mortality in hospital births.

    PubMed

    Poeran, Jashvant; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; de Graaf, Johanna P; Birnie, Erwin; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the contributing role of maternal, child, and organizational risk factors in perinatal mortality by calculating their population attributable risks (PAR). The primary dataset comprised 1,020,749 singleton hospital births from ≥22 weeks' gestation (The Netherlands Perinatal Registry 2000-2008). PARs for single and grouped risk factors were estimated in four stages: (1) creating a duplicate dataset for each PAR analysis in which risk factors of interest were set to the most favorable value (e.g., all women assigned 'Western' for PAR calculation of ethnicity); (2) in the primary dataset an elaborate multilevel logistic regression model was fitted from which (3) the obtained coefficients were used to predict perinatal mortality in each duplicate dataset; (4) PARs were then estimated as the proportional change of predicted- compared to observed perinatal mortality. Additionally, PARs for grouped risk factors were estimated by using sequential values in two orders: after PAR estimation of grouped maternal risk factors, the resulting PARs for grouped child, and grouped organizational factors were estimated, and vice versa. The combined PAR of maternal, child and organizational factors is 94.4 %, i.e., when all factors are set to the most favorable value perinatal mortality is expected to be reduced with 94.4 %. Depending on the order of analysis, the PAR of maternal risk factors varies from 1.4 to 13.1 %, and for child- and organizational factors 58.7-74.0 and 7.3-34.3 %, respectively. In conclusion, the PAR of maternal-, child- and organizational factors combined is 94.4 %. Optimization of organizational factors may achieve a 34.3 % decrease in perinatal mortality.

  2. Wāhine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand Māori and non-Māori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of Māori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for Māori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-Māori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of Māori and non-Māori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for Māori and non-Māori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (≤ 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both Māori and non-Māori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to Māori women and infants born to non-Māori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which

  3. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  4. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  5. Orofacial Cleft Risk Is Increased with Maternal Smoking and Specific Detoxification-Gene Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Christensen, Kaare; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Romitti, Paul; Bathum, Lise; Lozada, Anthony; Morris, Richard W.; Lovett, Michael; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal smoking is a recognized risk factor for orofacial clefts. Maternal or fetal pharmacogenetic variants are plausible modulators of this risk. In this work, we studied 5,427 DNA samples, including 1,244 from subjects in Denmark and Iowa with facial clefting and 4,183 from parents, siblings, or unrelated population controls. We examined 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 16 genes in pathways for detoxification of components of cigarette smoke, to look for evidence of gene-environment interactions. For genes identified as related to oral clefting, we studied gene-expression profiles in fetal development in the relevant tissues and time intervals. Maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for clefting and showed dosage effects, in both the Danish and Iowan data. Suggestive effects of variants in the fetal NAT2 and CYP1A1 genes were observed in both the Iowan and the Danish participants. In an expanded case set, NAT2 continued to show significant overtransmission of an allele to the fetus, with a final P value of .00003. There was an interaction between maternal smoking and fetal inheritance of a GSTT1-null deletion, seen in both the Danish (P=.03) and Iowan (P=.002) studies, with a Fisher’s combined P value of <.001, which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Gene-expression analysis demonstrated expression of GSTT1 in human embryonic craniofacial tissues during the relevant developmental interval. This study benefited from two large samples, involving independent populations, that provided substantial power and a framework for future studies that could identify a susceptible population for preventive health care. PMID:17160896

  6. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ∼147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n = 856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n = 283), the effect of the ewes’ own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes. PMID:17244755

  7. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  8. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  9. Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106 546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97 095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor

  10. Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nilofer, Angadi Rajasab; Raju, V. S.; Dakshayini, B. R.; Zaki, Syed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care. PMID:22701851

  11. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  12. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  13. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  14. Preventable maternal mortality: Geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions. Methods Data were retrieved from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China. Each death was reviewed by three committees to determine whether it was avoidable. The preventable maternal mortality ratio (PMMR), the ratios of PMMR (risk ratio, RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to analyze regional disparities (coastal, inland and remote regions) and rural-urban variations. Time trends in the MMR, along with underlying causes and associated factors of death, were also analysed. Results Overall, 86.1% of maternal mortality was preventable. The RR of preventable maternal mortality adjusted by region was 2.79 (95% CI 2.42-3.21) and 2.38 (95% CI: 2.01-2.81) in rural areas compared to urban areas during the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods, respectively. Meanwhile, the RR was the highest in remote areas, which was 4.80(95%CI: 4.10-5.61) and 4.74(95%CI: 3.86-5.83) times as much as that of coastal areas. Obstetric haemorrhage accounted for over 50% of preventable deaths during the 2001-2005 period. Insufficient information about pregnancy among women in remote areas and out-of-date knowledge and skills of health professionals and substandard obstetric services in coastal regions were the factors frequently associated with MMR. Conclusions Preventable maternal mortality and the distribution of its associated factors in China revealed obvious regional differences. The PMMR was higher in

  15. Cumulative effects of mothers' risk and promotive factors on daughters' disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls' development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls' disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls' disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls' disruptive behavior.

  16. Cumulative Effects of Mothers’ Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls’ disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls’ disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls’ ages 7–12 in an urban community sample (N=2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls’ development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls’ disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls’ disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:22127641

  17. Maternal Genitourinary Infections and the Risk of Gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Genitourinary infections (GUIs) have been associated with increased risk of gastroschisis in 2 studies. Using data collected in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, we examined the association between GUI and gastroschisis. From 1998 to 2010, mothers of 249 gastroschisis cases and 7,104 controls were interviewed within 6 months of delivery about pregnancy events, including vaginal infections, genital herpes, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women were considered exposed if they reported at least 1 instance of a GUI in the first trimester. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Women who reported having any GUI had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.4). The highest risk was seen among women who reported a UTI only (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5), while the odds ratio for an STD only was slightly elevated (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5). Among women under 25 years of age, the odds ratio for UTI only was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.0), and among older women it was 1.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 5.9). When we considered the joint association of UTIs and young maternal age, a synergistic effect was observed. The results of this study add further evidence that UTIs may increase the risk of gastroschisis. PMID:25073472

  18. Children's intellectual and emotional-behavioral adjustment at 4 years as a function of cocaine exposure, maternal characteristics, and environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-09-01

    The authors examined 223 children at age 4 years for the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, maternal and environmental risk factors, and neonatal medical problems on IQ, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Regression analyses showed that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores, but only for boys. Cocaine exposure also predicted poorer short-term memory. Maternal harsh discipline, maternal depressive symptoms, and increased environmental risk predicted externalizing problems. In contrast, only maternal depressive symptoms predicted internalizing problems. These findings indicate that early exposure to substances is largely unrelated to subsequent IQ or adjustment, particularly for girls.

  19. Maternal and infant gene-folate interactions and the risk of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, Analee J; Finnell, Richard H; Carmichael, Suzan L; Lammer, Edward J; Zhu, Huiping; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common, serious malformations with a complex etiology that suggests involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The authors evaluated maternal or offspring folate-related gene variants and interactions between the gene variants and maternal intake of folates on the risk of NTDs in their offspring. A case-control study was conducted on mothers and/or their fetuses and infants who were born in California from 1999 to 2003 with an NTD (cases n = 222, including 24 mother-infant pairs) or without a major malformation (controls n = 454, including 186 mother-infant pairs). Maternal intake of folates was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and genotyping was performed on samples from mothers and infants. For mothers in the lowest folate-intake group, risk of NTDs in offspring was significantly decreased for maternal MTHFR SNPs rs1476413, rs1801131, and rs1801133 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 80% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20, 1.48; OR = 0.58, 80% CI: 0.24, 1.43; OR = 0.69, 80% CI: 0.41, 1.17, respectively), and TYMS SNPs rs502396 and rs699517 (OR = 0.91, 80% CI: 0.53, 1.56; OR = 0.70, 80% CI: 0.38, 1.29). A gene-only effect was observed for maternal SHMT1 SNP rs669340 (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.96). When there was low maternal folate intake, risk of NTDs was significantly increased for infant MTHFD1 SNPs rs2236224, rs2236225, and rs11627387 (OR = 1.58, 80% CI: 0.99, 2.51; OR = 1.53, 80% CI: 0.95, 2.47; OR = 4.25, 80% CI: 2.33, 7.75, respectively) and SHMT1 SNP rs12939757 (OR = 2.01, 80% CI: 1.20, 3.37), but decreased for TYMS SNP rs2847153 (OR = 0.73, 80% CI: 0.37, 1.45). Although power to detect interaction effects was low for this birth defects association study, the gene-folate interactions observed in this study represent preliminary findings that will be useful for informing future studies on the complex etiology of NTDs.

  20. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMI<18.5) and non-iron-taking women and in the first-born babies. The odds of having LBW newborns in older, taller, underweight, obese and irregular iron-taking women were 3.82, 4.00, 9.07, 3.50 and 2.50 times those of mid-age group, middle-height, overweight and regular iron-taking women, respectively. First-born newborns were 5.97 times more likely to be LBW compared with second-birth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  1. Multiple jeopardy: risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring.

    PubMed

    Luthar, S S; Cushing, G; Merikangas, K R; Rounsaville, B J

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research.

  2. Effects of Maternal Diet During Pregnancy on the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Behnaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Homa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia in children that can be affected by maternal diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal dietary risk factors of ALL. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Springer Link, Wiley Online, Science Direct, Mosby, ISI Web of Science, OVID, ProQuest, and Scopus from database inception until February 2, 2016. Two reviewers scanned titles, abstracts, and keywords of articles after excluding duplicates. We included case-control studies evaluating the relationship between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood ALL. The search resulted in 2,940 papers, of which 11 full-text articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review and were analyzed. The finding of these studies suggest that maternal diet composed largely of vegetables, fruits, and protein sources before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of ALL in offspring. Maternal alcohol intake had no effect. Nevertheless, inherent limitations of case-control studies like measurement error, random error, recall bias, and selection bias preclude conclusive evidence. Persuading pregnant women to follow a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and protein may reduce the risk of childhood ALL. Avoiding alcohol intake seems prudent.

  3. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  4. Maternal smoking and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Wang, Xianmin

    2013-05-01

    Maternal smoking is detrimental to the development of fetuses and neonates. This meta-analysis was performed to measure the accumulated association of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk with both prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking. The odds ratio (OR) corresponding to the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the associations between maternal smoking and SIDS risk. The statistical heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Q-test and I(2) statistics. The data for this meta-analysis were available from 35 case-control studies. The prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of SIDS (OR=2.25, 95% CI=2.03-2.50 for prenatal maternal smoking analysis, and OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.77-2.19 for postnatal maternal smoking analysis, respectively) by random effects model. After stratified analyses, regardless of prenatal or postnatal smoking, heavy cigarette consumption increased the risk of SIDS and significantly elevated SIDS risk was found to be associated with co-sleeping with postnatal smoking mothers. Our results suggested that maternal smoking were associated with elevated SIDS risk, the effects were dose-dependent. In addition, SIDS risk was significantly increased in infants co-sleeping with postnatal smoking mothers.

  5. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult

  6. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  7. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  8. Reciprocity among maternal distress, child behavior, and parenting: transactional processes and early childhood risk.

    PubMed

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Gerstein, Emily D; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Transactional theories support that parent-child processes are best studied in conjunction with one another, addressing their reciprocal influence and change across time. This study tested a longitudinal, autoregressive model exploring bidirectional relations among maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity during the preschool period (child ages 3 to 5 years), comparing relations among families of typically developing children and children with developmental risk. This study included 250 families, 110 of which had a child with early developmental delay. Analyses utilized data from maternal report, father report, and observational methods. The results indicated significant stability in maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity over time. Support for bidirectional effects between maternal symptomatology and child internalizing symptoms was found specifically for mothers of children with developmental risk. Maternal symptomatology was found to mediate the influence of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms on maternal sensitivity. The findings underscore critical transactional processes within families of children with early developmental risk that connect increased maternal symptomatology to emerging child internalizing symptoms during the preschool period.

  9. Related factors of insulin resistance in Korean children: adiposity and maternal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hur, Yang-Im; Song, Jihyun; Lee, Kang-Sook

    2011-12-01

    Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR) is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children's adiposity indices (r = 0.309-0.318, all P-value = 0.001) and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002) were positively correlated with children's HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children's HOMA-IR level according to children's lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children's HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001) and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children's HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002). This study shows that children's adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children's IR.

  10. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote

  11. A Multivariate Investigation of Maternal Risks and Their Relationship to Low-Income, Preschool Children's Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marlo A.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a developmental-ecological framework, the purpose of this study was to understand the unique impact of multiple maternal risks across time on ethnically diverse, low-income, preschool children's cognitive skills, pro-social behaviors, and behavior problems. Additionally, this study sought to understand the variability of maternal risks…

  12. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than normal in children who lived near Chernobyl, the site of a 1986 nuclear plant accident ... exposure was much, much lower than that around Chernobyl. A higher risk of thyroid cancer has not ...

  13. Stroke - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, and some types of arthritis. Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy. Both during and in the weeks right after ...

  14. Maternal and grandmaternal obesity and environmental factors as determinants of daughter's obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Na; Lee, Kyung Hea; Lee, Hye Sang; Sasaki, Satoshi; Oh, Hea Young; Lyu, Eun Soon

    2013-01-01

    Obesity may be the consequence of various environmental or genetic factors, which may be highly correlated with each other. We aimed to examine whether grandmaternal and maternal obesity and environmental risk factors are related to obesity in daughters. Daughters (n = 182) recruited from female students, their mothers (n = 147) and their grandmothers (n = 67) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the daughter's obesity and maternal, grandmaternal, and environmental factors. Maternal heights of 161-175cm (OD: 8.48, 95% CI: 3.61-19.93) and 156-160 cm (2.37, 1.14-4.91) showed positive associations with a higher height of daughter, compared to those of 149-155 cm. Mothers receiving a university or a higher education had a significant OR (3.82, 1.27-11.50) for a higher height of daughter compared to those having a low education (elementary school). Mother having the heaviest weight at current time (59-80 kg, 3.78, 1.73-8.28) and the heaviest weight at 20 years of age (51-65 kg, 3.17, 1.53-6.55) had significant associations with a higher height of daughters, compared to those having the lightest weight at the same times. There was no association between the height, weight, and BMI of daughters and the characteristics and education of her grandmothers. In conclusion, although genetic factors appear to influence the daughter's height more than environmental factors, the daughter's weight appears to be more strongly associated with individual factors than the genetic factors. PMID:24133620

  15. Survey of trend and factors in perinatal maternal fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chou, Yu-Hua; Wang, Panchalli; Tsai, Jung-Mei; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2014-05-18

    Few studies have investigated maternal fatigue, particularly fatigue throughout the duration of pregnancy and the postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to explore changes related to maternal fatigue from pregnancy to postpartum and the factors influencing fatigue. This prospective longitudinal study surveyed 197 pregnant women beyond 24 gestational weeks monthly until one month postpartum. The Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale and one question about fatigue were used. Women at late pregnancy experienced a significant increase in level of fatigue, which remained high after childbirth. Those who were not happy about the pregnancy or were multiparas experienced a higher level of prenatal fatigue than their counterparts. At postpartum, mothers who were unemployed, had no one to help with childcare, or felt that the baby's night-time sleep pattern was a serious problem had a higher level of fatigue. Interventions can be planned and implemented at early pregnancy to reduce the prevalence of fatigue. Encouraging pregnant women to share experiences and thoughts about pregnancy and being a mother is suggested. Further studies that evaluate culturally sensitive instruments for fatigue are needed.

  16. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jack, Susan; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-07-01

    Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women's and Children's Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula--fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women's and children's health towards 2015 and beyond.

  17. Maternal inheritance and familial fecundity factors in male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Collins, Anthony; Morrison, Martine; Orrells, Jennifer Claire; Cadinouche, Khatija; Greenfield, Sherene; Begum, Sabina

    2008-12-01

    This study, following Camperio-Ciani, Corna, and Capiluppi [(2004), Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 271, 2217-2221] aimed to examine the familial history of male homosexuality, and test the so-called "fertile female" hypothesis for this trait in a contemporary British sample. Using a comparative survey design, we found that white (comprising those of Anglo-European descent) and non-white (comprising ethnic "Blacks, "South Asians," "East Asians," "Hispanics," and "Others") homosexual men (n = 147) had a significant excess of maternal but not paternal line male homosexual relatives compared to heterosexual men (n = 155). We also found significantly elevated fecundity of maternal aunts of white homosexual men compared to white heterosexual men, whereas non-white heterosexual men showed elevated fecundities of almost every class of relative compared to non-white homosexual men. No significant excess of older brothers was found in homosexual compared to heterosexual men, irrespective of ethnic grouping. These data were discussed in relation to possible population-related factors in evolutionary explanations for human male homosexuality.

  18. Maternal Substance Use and HIV Status: Adolescent Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill

    2008-01-01

    We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…

  19. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  20. Predicting Emotional and Social Competence during Early Childhood from Toddler Risk and Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    The longitudinal associations between maternal parenting behavior and toddler risk with children’s emotional and social competence were examined during the transition to kindergarten, in a sample of 253 children. Toddler risk was characterized by early externalizing behavior and poor emotion regulation skills. Given that we were interested in the multiple pathways that may result in emotional and social competence, we examined the interactions among maternal parenting behavior and toddler risk. There were some significant interactions; although the pattern of results was not consistent across all competence outcomes. Maternal parenting behavior was not directly associated with children’s emotional and social competence. In some instances, maternal control has differential implications for children’s emotional and social competence dependent upon the child’s level of early risk and maternal positive parenting. Specifically, maternal control tended to be more detrimental for children’s emotional competence during the transition to kindergarten, when children exhibit higher levels of risk. Overall, it appears that there are multiple developmental pathways, depending on child and maternal characteristics that lead to early emotional and social competence. PMID:20102651

  1. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  2. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  3. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  4. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  5. Maternal factors, birthweight, and racial differences in infant mortality: a Georgia population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, J. F.; Taylor, B. D.; Blumenthal, D. S.; Sikes, K.; Davis-Floyd, V.; McGrady, G.; Lofton, T. C.; Wade, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Black infant mortality rates (IMRs) are approximately twice those of whites in Georgia and nationwide. This study evaluates maternal factors, particularly marital status, that influence racial differences in infant mortality. Population-based data on 565,730 live births and 7269 infant deaths in Georgia from 1980 to 1985 were examined. The IMR ratio for unmarried compared to married mothers was calculated and adjusted singly for maternal education, age and race, and infant birthweight. In addition, racial differences in IMR were estimated using stratified analysis on the basis of four factors: infant birthweight, maternal age, marital status, and education. When only normal birthweight infants were considered, the IMR, adjusted for maternal education level, was highest for infants born to unmarried black teens (9.5/1000 live births), followed by that for infants born to married black teens (9.1), unmarried black adults (7.5), married black adults (4.8), married white teens (4.4), married white adults (3.4), unmarried white adults (2.4), and unmarried white teens (1.3). When only low birthweight infants were considered, the highest IMR per 1000 was found in infants born to married black adults (119), followed by unmarried black adults (103), married black teens (99.9), unmarried black teens (92.5), married white adults (92.1), married white teens (79.0), unmarried white adults (38.0), and unmarried white teens (26.3). These differences led to a black-to-white IMR risk ratio from 1.3 for low birthweight infants born to unmarried teen or adult mothers to 3.7 for normal birthweight infants born to unmarried teen mothers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8078081

  6. Maternal and foetal outcome of 206 high risk pregnancy cases in border guard hospital, dhaka.

    PubMed

    Shapla, N R; Islam, M A; Shahida, S M; Parveen, Z; Lipe, Y S

    2015-04-01

    This observational study was carried out to identify the various types of high risk pregnancy and to determine the maternal and foetal outcome. The study was carried out on 206 pregnant high risk women in the Gynecology and Obstetrics department of Border Guard Hospital, Dhaka from January 2012 to December 2012. During mentioned period among 598 pregnant women 206 high risk pregnancy cases were randomly selected. Pregnant women (gestational age from 34 weeks upto 40 weeks) having medical condition and pregnancy related high risk factors were included and uncomplicated pregnancy, pregnancy before 37 weeks, post dated pregnancy were excluded from this study. Data was collected from semi structured history sheet and data analysis done by percentage. High risk pregnant women were grouped into three. Group A and Group B includes pregnant women having medical condition before and during pregnancy respectively. Group C consists of pregnant women had pregnancy related high risk issues. Among 206 high risk pregnancy cases majority 47.57% women had medical condition during pregnancy, 31.55% patient had medical condition before pregnancy. Among them majority 30.58% of the patient suffered from pregnancy induced hypertension, 15.04% patients suffered from gestational Diabetes Mellitus and premature rupture of membranes were 12.13%. In this study majority 43.68% of high risk pregnant patients were in age group of 30-35 years, 19.90% pregnant women were in age group of >35 years and 19.40% were in age group of upto 20 years. Among study groups maximum 65.04% of the patients were multiparous. Among 206 study population 60.19% high risk pregnant women were at term at the time of delivery and 39.8% women delivered their babies preterm. Caesarean section was done in 69.41% of high risk pregnant women. After delivery majority 77.66% women had no complication, only 10.19%, 8.25%, 2.91% and 0.97% high risk pregnant women suffered from fever, UTI, abdominal wound infection and post

  7. Maternal Hypertension During Pregnancy and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Lee, Laura J; Mitchell, Laura E; Agopian, A J

    2015-10-01

    Maternal hypertension is common during pregnancy, and multiple studies have reported on an association between maternal hypertension and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring; however, there is variability in the quality of these studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between untreated and treated maternal hypertension and the risk of CHDs, evaluating CHDs overall as well as specific CHD subtypes. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles published before August 2013 identified 16 studies evaluating the associations between untreated and treated maternal hypertension and CHDs. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using fixed-effects models and random-effects models. Significant associations were observed between maternal hypertension and overall CHDs, for both treated [RR 2.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5, 2.7] and untreated (RR 1.4; 95 % CI 1.2, 1.7) hypertension, as well as for overall hypertension regardless of treatment status (RR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.5, 2.2). The magnitude of effect was similar for the majority of CHD subtypes evaluated. The effects were also similar among women with hypertension who used one of multiple specific hypertension medications. There was no evidence of publication bias, and our results were robust to several factors considered in sensitivity analyses (e.g., source of exposure data, adjustment for potential confounders, and study design). Maternal hypertension was associated with CHDs. By understanding the specific mechanisms involved, appropriate strategies may be developed to reduce this risk, in order to prevent CHDs.

  8. Maternal age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Janerich, D T

    1990-03-01

    Data from a large case-control study of breast cancer were examined to test the hypothesis that maternal age at the birth of female offspring is related to the incidence of breast cancer in daughters. Participants were between the ages of 20 and 54 at the time of the study. Based on results for 2,492 parous women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 2,687 parous controls from the general population, a 15-year increase in maternal age was found to be associated with a 29% increase in the risk of breast cancer in daughters. Adjustment for the daughter's age, her own reproductive history, and other potential confounding factors yielded an estimate of 25% for this increase in risk (95% CI, 8% to 46%). The corresponding increase among 499 nulliparous cases and 457 nulliparous controls was 7%, which was not statistically significantly different in magnitude from the increase among parous women. These findings provide evidence for perinatal influences on the subsequent incidence of breast cancer during adulthood. Although specific mechanisms cannot be inferred directly, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in the genes of the human egg or sperm play a role in the etiology of breast cancer in female offspring.

  9. Dietary consumption of B vitamins, maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk for spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Guillén, María del Rosario; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Chen, Jia; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Hernández-Valero, María A.; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective To asses he association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). Material and Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. Results Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6). Conclusions Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins. PMID:19180309

  10. Risk of Placental Abruption in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    de Paz, Nicole C.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Huaman, Luis E.; Chang, Guillermo Diez; Pacora, Percy N.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Ananth, Cande V.; Qiu, Chungfang; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of psychiatric factors on the etiology of placental abruption (PA), an obstetrical condition that complicates 1-2% of pregnancies. We examined the risk of AP in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. Methods This case-control study included 373 AP cases and 368 controls delivered at five medical centers in Lima, Peru. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounders. Results Depressive symptoms of increasing severity (using the DASS depression subscale) was associated with AP (p for trend=0.02). Compared with women with no depressive symptoms, the aOR (95%CI) for AP associated with each level of severity of depression symptoms based on the DASS assessment were as follows: mild 1.84 (0.91-3.74); moderate 1.25 (0.67-2.33); and severe 4.68 (0.98-22.4). The corresponding ORs for mild, moderate, and moderately severe depressive symptoms based on the PHQ assessment were 1.10 (0.79-1.54), 3.31 (1.45-7.57), and 5.01 (1.06-23.6), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of AP with severity of anxiety (p for trend=0.002) and stress symptoms (p for trend=0.002). Limitations These cross-sectionally collected data may be subject to recall bias. Conclusions Maternal psychiatric disorders may be associated with an increased occurrence of AP. Larger studies that allow for more precise evaluations of maternal psychiatric health in relation to AP risk are warranted. PMID:20692040

  11. Juvenile respiratory papillomatosis: risk factors for severity.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Caroline; Lapointe, Annie; Coutlée, François; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Roger, Michel; Trottier, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused mainly by human papillomavirus genotypes 6 or 11, acquired at birth or during pregnancy from an infected mother. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is characterized by recurring warts growing most commonly in the larynx. Multiple surgical procedures and the risk of airway obstruction contribute to the devastating impact of this disease. Some children will go into remission after a few surgeries whereas others will require repeated interventions over several years. Further understanding of the risk factors associated with severity may contribute to tailored treatments. A retrospective study of cases diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2008 was conducted to study determinants of severe forms of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from children's medical charts and mothers' delivery charts. Viral factors (HPV genotyping and viral load) were studied from archived biopsies. Specific HLA class II alleles and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes were tested from saliva samples. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for severity. Overall, 31 pediatric cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were identified. The only significant factor associated with severe forms of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was the maternal history of condylomas during pregnancy (OR: 12.05 [P=0.05]). The analysis failed to identify risk factors that could be used clinically to identify recurrent respiratory papillomatosis cases likely to take a severe course. Although too early to determine, vaccination against the HPV types involved most commonly in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis may provide the best hope to prevent severe forms of this disease.

  12. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

  13. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  14. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous history of clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and livedo reticularis, a mottled purplish discoloration of the skin. “Risk factors are cumulative,” Dr. Kittner adds. “Reducing even one ...

  15. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  16. [Perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martinez, A M; Martínez-Sanchez, C; Pérez-Segura, J

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk perception on several factors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing an educational intervention based on detected needs. 405 women between 12 and 44 years were interviewed at home. 62.2% perceived the risk of pregnancy at 17 years and younger; 78.8% the risk of pregnancy at 35 years and older; 76.6% the risk of parity of 5 and higher; and 55.1% the risk of birth interval of 2 years and less. 60.5% recognized family history of birth defects, 80.2% age 35 years and older, and 84.4% rubella during pregnancy, as risk factors for newborns with congenital malformations. 27.7% identified history of a low birth weight and 61.0% birth interval of 1 year and less, as risk factors for low birth weight. The majority perceived the risk of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption during pregnancy, diseases with no treatment and deficient nutrition. There was an inconsistent influence of social and obstetric variables on risk perception. No linear correlation was detected. Health educators should recognize differences on knowledge and behavior of future receptors before an educational intervention starts.

  17. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  18. Association Between Neighborhood-Level Smoking and Individual Smoking Risk: Maternal Smoking Among Latina Women in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Weibe, Douglas; Camenga, Deepa R.; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether or not high maternal smoking rates at the neighborhood level increase the likelihood of individual smoking by Latina women in the three months prior to and during pregnancy, independent of other individual and neighborhood factors. Methods This study was observational in nature, using linked vital statistics records for 24,443 Latina women in Pennsylvania (2009–2010) and U.S. Census data for 2,398 census tracts. We used multilevel logistic regression models to determine the individual odds of self-reported maternal smoking given different census tract-level rates of maternal smoking in the previous three years (2006–2008), adjusting for maternal and census-tract characteristics, including ethnic density, population density, and poverty. Results Higher levels of maternal smoking at the census-tract level were associated with increased individual odds of smoking among Latina mothers. In the fully adjusted model, a 10% increase in the neighborhood smoking rate was associated with a 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.22, 1.34) increase in the individual odds of smoking. Conclusion Latina women living in census tracts where more women have smoked during or immediately prior to pregnancy are themselves at higher risk of smoking during this period. PMID:26556939

  19. Maternal Immunoreactivity to Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mahic, Milada; Mjaaland, Siri; Bøvelstad, Hege Marie; Gunnes, Nina; Susser, Ezra; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Levin, Bruce; Che, Xiaoyu; Hirtz, Deborah; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Surén, Pål; Hornig, Mady

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal infections during pregnancy are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Proposed pathogenetic mechanisms include fetal infection, placental inflammation, and maternal cytokines or antibodies that cross the placenta. The Autism Birth Cohort comprises mothers, fathers, and offspring recruited in Norway in 1999 to 2008. Through questionnaire screening, referrals, and linkages to a national patient registry, 442 mothers of children with ASD were identified, and 464 frequency-matched controls were selected. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and HSV-2 in plasma collected at midpregnancy and after delivery were measured by multiplexed immunoassays. High levels of HSV-2 IgG antibodies in maternal midpregnancy plasma were associated with increased risk of ASD in male offspring (an increase in HSV-2 IgG levels from 240 to 640 arbitrary units/ml was associated with an odds ratio of 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.06; P = 0.03) when adjusted for parity and child’s birth year. No association was found between ASD and the presence of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, CMV, or HSV-1. Additional studies are needed to test for replicability of risk and specificity of the sex effect and to examine risk associated with other infections. IMPORTANCE The cause (or causes) of most cases of autism spectrum disorder is unknown. Evidence from epidemiological studies and work in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders suggest that both genetic and environmental factors may be implicated. The latter include gestational infection and immune activation. In our cohort, high levels of antibodies to herpes simplex virus 2 at midpregnancy were associated with an elevated risk of autism spectrum disorder in male offspring. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that gestational infection

  20. Maternal Immunoreactivity to Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Mahic, Milada; Mjaaland, Siri; Bøvelstad, Hege Marie; Gunnes, Nina; Susser, Ezra; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Levin, Bruce; Che, Xiaoyu; Hirtz, Deborah; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Surén, Pål; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

    2017-01-01

    Maternal infections during pregnancy are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Proposed pathogenetic mechanisms include fetal infection, placental inflammation, and maternal cytokines or antibodies that cross the placenta. The Autism Birth Cohort comprises mothers, fathers, and offspring recruited in Norway in 1999 to 2008. Through questionnaire screening, referrals, and linkages to a national patient registry, 442 mothers of children with ASD were identified, and 464 frequency-matched controls were selected. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and HSV-2 in plasma collected at midpregnancy and after delivery were measured by multiplexed immunoassays. High levels of HSV-2 IgG antibodies in maternal midpregnancy plasma were associated with increased risk of ASD in male offspring (an increase in HSV-2 IgG levels from 240 to 640 arbitrary units/ml was associated with an odds ratio of 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.06; P = 0.03) when adjusted for parity and child's birth year. No association was found between ASD and the presence of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, CMV, or HSV-1. Additional studies are needed to test for replicability of risk and specificity of the sex effect and to examine risk associated with other infections. IMPORTANCE The cause (or causes) of most cases of autism spectrum disorder is unknown. Evidence from epidemiological studies and work in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders suggest that both genetic and environmental factors may be implicated. The latter include gestational infection and immune activation. In our cohort, high levels of antibodies to herpes simplex virus 2 at midpregnancy were associated with an elevated risk of autism spectrum disorder in male offspring. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that gestational infection may

  1. Maternal race, demography and health care disparities impact risk for IVH in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Lin, Aiping; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Zhang, Heping; O’Shea, T. Michael; Bada, Henrietta S.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.; Lifton, Richard P.; Bauer, Charles R.; Ment, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether risk factors associated with Grade (Gr) 2–4 intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) differs between African ancestry and white subjects. Study design Inborn, appropriate for gestational age (GA) infants with birth weights (BW) 500–1250 grams and exposed to >1 dose of antenatal steroids were enrolled in 24 neonatal intensive care units. Cases had Gr 2–4 IVH and controls matched for site, race and BW range had 2 normal ultrasounds read centrally. Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified factors associated with IVH across African ancestry and white race. Results Subjects included 579 African ancestry or white race infants with Gr 2–4 IVH and 532 controls. Mothers of African ancestry children were less educated, and white case mothers were more likely to have > 1 prenatal visit and have a multiple gestation (P ≤.01 for all). Increasing GA (P =.01), preeclampsia (P < .001), complete antenatal steroid exposure (P = .02), cesarean delivery (P < .001) and white race (P = .01) were associated with decreased risk for IVH. Chorioamnionitis (P = .01), Apgar< 3 at 5 min (P < .004), surfactant (P < .001) and high frequency ventilation (P < .001) were associated with increased risk for IVH. Among African ancestry infants, having >1 prenatal visit was associated with decreased risk (P = .02). Among white infants, multiple gestation was associated with increased risk (P < .001) and higher maternal education with decreased IVH risk (P < .05). Conclusion Risk for IVH differs between African ancestry and white infants and may be attributable to both race and health care disparities. PMID:24589078

  2. High Spending on Maternity Care in India: What Are the Factors Explaining It?

    PubMed Central

    Moradhvaj; Rammohan, Anu; Shruti; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives High maternity-related health care spending is often cited as an important barrier in utilizing quality health care during pregnancy and childbirth. This study has two objectives: (i) to measure the levels of expenditure on total maternity care in disaggregated components such as ANCs, PNCs, and Natal care expenditure; (ii) to quantify the extent of catastrophic maternity expenditure (CME) incurred by households and identify the factors responsible for it. Methods and Findings Data from the 71st round of the National Sample Survey (2014) was used to estimate maternity expenditure and its predictors. CME was measured as a share of consumption expenditure by different cut-offs. The two-part model was used to identify the factors associated with maternity spending and CME. The findings show that household spending on maternity care (US$ 149 in constant price) is much higher than previous estimates (US$ 50 in constant price). A significant proportion of households in India (51%) are incurring CME. Along with economic and educational status, type of health care and place of residence emerged as significant factors in explaining CME. Conclusion Findings from this study assume importance in the context of an emerging demand for higher maternity entitlements and government spending on public health care in India. To reduce CME, India needs to improve the availability and accessibility of better-quality public health services and increase maternity entitlements in line with maternity expenditure identified in this study. PMID:27341520

  3. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy. PMID:14758431

  4. Fetal and maternal MTHFR C677T genotype, maternal folate intake and the risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, Cécile; Perret, Claire; Bahuau, Michel; Zhu, Huiping; Nelva, Agnès; Herman, Christine; Francannet, Christine; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Finnell, Richard H; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2007-02-01

    The association between maternal folate intake and risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts has been studied among many populations with conflicting results. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism, and several polymorphisms, including C677T, are common in European populations. Data from a French study (1998-2001) let us investigate the roles of maternal dietary folate intake and the MTHFR polymorphism and their interaction on the risk of cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate only (CP). We used both case-control (164 CL/P, 76 CP, 236 controls; 148, 59, 168 of whom, respectively, had an available genotype) and case-parent (143 CL/P and 56 CP families) study designs and distinguished the role of the child's genotype and maternally mediated effects on risks. This study observed a beneficial effect of mothers' dietary folate intake on their offspring's risk (odds ratio (OR)(< or = 230 microg/day) = ref; for CL/P, OR([230-314 microg/day]) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.3-0.9, OR(>314 microg/day) = 0.64, 0.4-1.1; for CP, OR([230-314 microg/day]) = 1.15, 0.6-2.2, OR(>314 microg/day) = 0.70, 0.3-1.4). We observed a reduced risk associated with the TT genotype of the child in the case-control analysis (OR(CC) = ref; for CL/P, OR(TT) = 0.54, 0.3-1.1; for CP, OR(TT) = 0.33, 0.1-1.0); this genotype, either fetal or maternal, was not statistically significant in the case-parent analysis. A frequency of TT genotype higher in our control group than previously reported in France can partly explain the risk reduction observed in case-control comparison. Interactions were not statistically significant. Stratified case-parent analysis showed, however, slight heterogeneity in the role of TT genotype according to folate intake. The modest sample size limits this study, which nonetheless provides new estimate of the possible impact of dietary folate intake and MTHFR polymorphism on oral clefts.

  5. Levels and risk factors for perinatal mortality in Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed Central

    Mavalankar, D. V.; Trivedi, C. R.; Gray, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    To estimate levels and determinants of perinatal mortality, we conducted a hospital-based surveillance and case-control study, linked with a population survey, in Ahmedabad, India. The perinatal mortality rate was 79.0 per 1000, and was highest for preterm low-birth-weight babies. The case-control study of 451 stillbirths, 160 early neonatal deaths and 1465 controls showed that poor maternal nutritional status, absence of antenatal care, and complications during labour were independently associated with substantially increased risks of perinatal death. Multivariate analyses indicate that socioeconomic factors largely operate through these proximate factors and do not have an independent effect. Estimates of attributable risk derived from the prevalence of exposures in the population survey suggest that improvements in maternal nutrition and antenatal and intrapartum care could result in marked reductions of perinatal mortality. PMID:1934237

  6. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  7. Dyadic Taxonomy of Delinquent Youth: Exploring Risks and Outcomes Associated With Maternal-Youth Reporting Discrepancies of Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…

  8. Proportion of selected congenital heart defects attributable to recognized risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, Regina M.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Agopian, A.J.; Oster, Matthew E.; Devine, Owen J.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the contribution of multiple risk factors for two congenital heart defects—hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2011) to estimate average adjusted population attributable fractions for several recognized risk factors, including maternal prepregnancy overweight–obesity, pregestational diabetes, age, and infant sex. Results There were 594 cases of isolated simple HLHS, 971 cases of isolated simple TOF, and 11,829 controls in the analysis. Overall, 57.0% of HLHS cases and 37.0% of TOF cases were estimated to be attributable to risk factors included in our model. Among modifiable HLHS risk factors, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight–obesity accounted for the largest proportion of cases (6.5%). Among modifiable TOF risk factors, maternal prepregnancy overweight–obesity and maternal age of 35 years or older accounted for the largest proportions of cases (8.3% and 4.3%, respectively). Conclusions Approximately half of HLHS cases and one-third of TOF cases were estimated to be attributable to risk factors included in our models. Interventions targeting factors that can be modified may help reduce the risk of HLHS and TOF development. Additional research into the etiology of HLHS and TOF may reveal other modifiable risk factors that might contribute to primary prevention efforts. PMID:27894567

  9. Prenatal maternal immune disruption and sex-dependent risk for psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, J. M; Cherkerzian, S.; Seidman, L. J.; Donatelli, J.-A. L.; Remington, A. G.; Tsuang, M. T.; Hornig, M.; Buka, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that abnormalities in maternal immune activity during pregnancy alter the offspring’s brain development and are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (SCZ) dependent on sex. Method Using a nested case–control design and prospectively collected prenatal maternal sera from which interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 were assayed, we investigated sex-dependent associations between these cytokines and 88 psychotic cases [SCZ=44; affective psychoses (AP)=44] and 100 healthy controls from a pregnancy cohort followed for >40 years. Analyses included sex-stratified non-parametric tests adjusted for multiple comparisons to screen cytokines associated with SCZ risk, followed by deviant subgroup analyses using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results There were higher prenatal IL-6 levels among male SCZ than male controls, and lower TNF-α levels among female SCZ than female controls. The results were supported by deviant subgroup analyses with significantly more SCZ males with high IL-6 levels (>highest quartile) compared with controls [odd ratio (OR)75=3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–9.82], and greater prevalence of low TNF-α levels (risk for psychoses depending on psychosis subtype and offspring sex. PMID:25065485

  10. Maternal exposure to arsenic and cadmium and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Tian, Xiaoxian; Liu, Zhen; Hu, Hui; Li, Xiaohong; Deng, Ying; Li, Nana; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hair arsenic and cadmium from 339 women with congenital heart defect (CHD)-affected pregnancies (case women) and 333 women with normal live births (control women) in China were estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The median levels of hair arsenic and cadmium in the case women were 98.30 (74.30-136.30)ng/g and 14.60 (8.30-32.50)ng/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than the levels in the control group (P<0.05). Arsenic concentrations ≥62.03ng/g were associated with increased risk for almost every CHD subtype, with a dose-response relationship. However, only the group with the highest cadmium levels (≥25.85ng/g) displayed an increased risk of CHDs (AOR 1.96; 95% CI 1.24-3.09), with a 2.81-fold increase found for the occurrence of conotruncal defects in their offspring. Furthermore, an interaction between arsenic and cadmium was observed. Our findings suggest that maternal exposure to arsenic and cadmium may be a significant risk factor for CHDs in offspring. Cadmium may have an enhancing effect on the association between arsenic and the risk of CHDs in offspring.

  11. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities.

  12. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  13. Predation risk-mediated maternal effects in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Freinschlag, Julia; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, physiology, life history and/or behavior. As a prime stressor, predation risk may even induce trans-generational alterations, called maternal effects. Accordingly, maternal predation risk during offspring production may influence offspring life history and anti-predator behavior. Here, we assessed whether different levels of predation risk, posed by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, induce graded maternal effects in its prey, the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, we generated four types of predation risk-stressed spider mite mothers by exposing them to living predators, direct and indirect predator cue combinations or no predator cues, respectively. Then, we investigated the life history (offspring developmental time, sex) and anti-predator response (activity, position on the leaf) of their offspring on leaves with and without direct and indirect predator cues. Maternal stress, no matter of the predation risk level, prolonged the offspring developmental time, as compared to offspring from unstressed mothers. This pattern was more pronounced on leaves with than without predator cues. Offspring from stressed mothers resided more likely on the leaf blade than close to the leaf vein. Offspring sex ratio and activity were not influenced by maternal predation risk but activity was higher on leaves with than without predator cues. We argue that the prolonged developmental time is non-adaptive, yet the changed site preference is adaptive because reducing the encounter likelihood with predators. Our study represents a key example for predation risk-mediated maternal effects on developmental trajectories of offspring.

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism and Maternal Risk for Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balduino Victorino, Daniella; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Inconclusive results of the association between genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS) have been reported. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted. We searched electronic databases through May, 2014, for eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association, which was estimated by fixed or random effects models. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q-test and I2 statistic. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Publication bias was estimated using Begg's and Egger's tests. A total of 17 case-controls studies were included. There was evidence for an association between the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and maternal risk for DS. In the subgroup analysis, increased maternal risk for DS was found in Caucasians. Additionally, the polymorphic heterozygote MTHFD1 1958GA genotype was associated significantly with maternal risk for DS, when we limit the analysis by studies conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Finally, considering MTR c.2756A>G (rs1805087), TC2 c.776C>G (rs1801198), and CBS c.844ins68, no significant associations have been found, neither in the overall analyses nor in the stratified analyses by ethnicity. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and MTHFD1 c.1958G>A (rs2236225) were associated with increased maternal risk for DS. PMID:25544792

  15. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  16. Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: an examination among high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Kim, Hyoun K; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth.

  17. Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection with Maternal Infection or Colonization: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J.; Lee, Anne CC; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Tan, Jingwen; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, yet little is known about risk factors and pathways of transmission for early-onset neonatal sepsis globally. We aimed to estimate the risk of neonatal infection (excluding sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] or congenital infections) in the first seven days of life among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization during the intrapartum period. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies of maternal infection, vertical transmission, and neonatal infection published from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2013. Studies were included that reported effect measures on the risk of neonatal infection among newborns exposed to maternal infection. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool data and calculate the odds ratio estimates of risk of infection. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies (8.4%) were from high neonatal mortality settings. Considerable heterogeneity existed between studies given the various definitions of laboratory-confirmed and clinical signs of infection, as well as for colonization and risk factors. The odds ratio for neonatal lab-confirmed infection among newborns of mothers with lab-confirmed infection was 6.6 (95% CI 3.9–11.2). Newborns of mothers with colonization had a 9.4 (95% CI 3.1–28.5) times higher odds of lab-confirmed infection than newborns of non-colonized mothers. Newborns of mothers with risk factors for infection (defined as prelabour rupture of membranes [PROM], preterm <37 weeks PROM, and prolonged ROM) had a 2.3 (95% CI 1.0–5.4) times higher odds of infection than newborns of mothers without risk factors. Conclusions Neonatal infection in the first week of life is associated with maternal infection and colonization. High-quality studies, particularly from settings with high

  18. Risk of Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes by Maternal Age: Quantifying Individual and Population Level Risk Using Routine UK Maternity Data

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Nicole; Pipi, Maria; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Doyle, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether moderately increased maternal age is associated with obstetric and neonatal outcome in a contemporary population, and to consider the possible role of co-morbidities in explaining any increased risk. Study Design Secondary analysis of routinely collected data from a large maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 51,225 singleton deliveries (≥22 weeks) occurring to women aged ≥20 between 2004 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios for the association between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcome (delivery type, postpartum haemorrhage, stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal unit admission), using the reference group 20–24 years. Population attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the population impact. Results We found an association between increasing maternal age and major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml blood loss) (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.18–1.57 for age 25–29 rising to 2.41 95% CI 2.02–2.88 for age ≥40). Similar trends were observed for caesarean delivery, most notably for elective caesareans (RR 1.64 95% CI 1.36–1.96 for age 25–29 rising to 4.94 95% CI 4.09–5.96 for age ≥40). There was evidence that parity modified this association, with a higher prevalence of elective caesarean delivery in older nulliparous women. Women aged ≥35 were at increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We found no evidence that the risk of stillbirth, small for gestational age, or neonatal unit admission differed by maternal age. Conclusions Our results suggest a gradual increase in the risk of caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage from age 25, persisting after taking into account maternal BMI, hypertension and diabetes. The risk of low birthweight and preterm birth was elevated in women over 35. Further research is needed to understand the reasons behind the high prevalence of

  19. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others. PMID:20003411

  20. Risk Factors for Acute Leukemia in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belson, Martin; Kingsley, Beverely; Holmes, Adrianne

    2007-01-01

    Although overall incidence is rare, leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It accounts for 30% of all cancers diagnosed in children younger than 15 years. Within this population, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs approximately five times more frequently than acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and accounts for approximately 78% of all childhood leukemia diagnoses. Epidemiologic studies of acute leukemias in children have examined possible risk factors, including genetic, infectious, and environmental, in an attempt to determine etiology. Only one environmental risk factor (ionizing radiation) has been significantly linked to ALL or AML. Most environmental risk factors have been found to be weakly and inconsistently associated with either form of acute childhood leukemia. Our review focuses on the demographics of childhood leukemia and the risk factors that have been associated with the development of childhood ALL or AML. The environmental risk factors discussed include ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, hydrocarbons, pesticides, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and illicit drug use. Knowledge of these particular risk factors can be used to support measures to reduce potentially harmful exposures and decrease the risk of disease. We also review genetic and infectious risk factors and other variables, including maternal reproductive history and birth characteristics. PMID:17366834

  1. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  2. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-12

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  3. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females only.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike

    2014-10-01

    Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease

  4. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits were maternal smoking habits at one month (p < 0.001), paternal smoking habits one year later (p < 0.001), and younger maternal age (p = 0.02).

  5. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Christie A; Gold, Katherine J; Flynn, Heather A; Yoo, Harim; Marcus, Sheila M; Davis, Matthew M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for antepartum depressive symptoms that can be assessed in routine obstetric care. We evaluated articles in the English-language literature from 1980 through 2008. Studies were selected if they evaluated the association between antepartum depressive symptoms and > or =1 risk factors. For each risk factor, 2 blinded, independent reviewers evaluated the overall trend of evidence. In total, 57 studies met eligibility criteria. Maternal anxiety, life stress, history of depression, lack of social support, unintended pregnancy, Medicaid insurance, domestic violence, lower income, lower education, smoking, single status, and poor relationship quality were associated with a greater likelihood of antepartum depressive symptoms in bivariate analyses. Life stress, lack of social support, and domestic violence continued to demonstrate a significant association in multivariate analyses. Our results demonstrate several correlates that are consistently related to an increased risk of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  6. Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors

  7. Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.

    PubMed

    Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when

  8. Maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Li-Jie; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhong-Tang

    2015-04-24

    To study the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data collected from a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Shandong/Shanxi provinces including 459 mothers with NTDs-affected births and 459 mothers without NTDs-affected births. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of NTDs in offspring. The effects were evaluated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) with SAS9.1.3.software. Maternal consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester were protective factors for total NTDs. Compared with consumption frequency of ˂1 meal/week, the ORs for milk consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28-0.88), 0.56 (0.32-0.99), and 0.59 (0.38-0.90), respectively; the ORs for fresh fruits consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12-0.72), 0.22 (0.09-0.53), and 0.32 (0.14-0.71), respectively; the ORs for nuts consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94), 0.49 (0.31-0.79), and 0.63 (0.36-1.08), respectively. Different effects of above factors on NTDs were found for subtypes of anencephaly and spina bifida. Maternal non-staple food consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester was associated with reducing NTDs risk in offspring.

  9. Increased Risk of Asthma in Children with ADHD: Role of Prematurity and Maternal Stress during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Osmanlliu, Esli; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and asthma are prevalent conditions in childhood, with complex pathophysiology involving genetic-environmental interplay. The study objective is to examine the prevalence of asthma in our ADHD population and explore factors that may increase the risk of developing asthma in children with ADHD. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the presence of maternal stress during pregnancy and history of asthma in 201 children diagnosed with ADHD. Results: Chi-square analysis indicated significant higher presence of asthma in our ADHD sample compared to Quebec children, χ2(1, N = 201) = 15.37, P<0.001. Only prematurity and stress during pregnancy significantly predicted asthma in a logistic regression model, χ2(2)=23.70, P<0.001, with odds ratios of 10.6 (95% CI: 2.8–39.5) and 3.2 (95% CI: 1.4–7.3), respectively. Conclusion: Children with ADHD have a higher prevalence of asthma than the general Quebec pediatric population. Children with ADHD born prematurely and/or those whose mothers experienced stress during pregnancy have a significantly increased risk of developing asthma. The study highlights the importance of potentially offering social and psychological support to mothers who experienced stress during pregnancy and/or are at risk of delivering prematurely. PMID:26379722

  10. DNA interference-mediated screening of maternal factors in the chordate Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Omotezako, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Masaki; Onuma, Takeshi A.; Nishida, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    The maternal contribution to the oocyte cytoplasm plays an important role during embryogenesis because it is involved in early cell fate specification and embryonic axis establishment. However, screening projects targeting maternal factors have only been conducted in a limited number of animal models, such as nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish, while few maternal genes have been analysed because of difficulties encountered in inhibiting gene products already expressed in the ovaries. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for large-scale maternal screening are necessary. The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a planktonic tunicate member of the chordates. Gonadal microinjection and a novel gene knockdown method, DNA interference (DNAi), have been developed for use in this animal with the aim of inhibiting gene functions during oogenesis within the gonad. In this study, we adapted these methods for large-scale maternal factor screening, and observed malformation phenotypes related to some maternal factors. Approximately 2000 (56.9%) ovary-enriched gene products were screened, of which the knockdown of seven encoding genes resulted in various abnormalities during embryonic development. Most of these were related to microtubules and cell adhesion-related proteins. We conclude that DNAi is a potentially powerful screening tool for the identification of novel maternal factors in chordates. PMID:28281645

  11. Association of maternal chronic disease with risk of congenital heart disease in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Hsu; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Chen, Lea-Hua; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Chung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Information about known risk factors for congenital heart disease is scarce. In this population-based study, we aimed to investigate the relation between maternal chronic disease and congenital heart disease in offspring. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1 387 650 live births from 2004 to 2010. We identified chronic disease in mothers and mild and severe forms of congenital heart disease in their offspring from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance medical claims. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the associations of all cases and specific types of congenital heart disease with various maternal chronic diseases. Results: For mothers with the following chronic diseases, the overall prevalence of congenital heart disease in their children was significantly higher than for mothers without these diseases: diabetes mellitus type 1 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66–3.25), diabetes mellitus type 2 (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.60–3.12), hypertension (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.69–2.07), congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.45–3.80), anemia (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25–1.38), connective tissue disorders (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.19–1.62), epilepsy (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08–1.74) and mood disorders (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11–1.41). The same pattern held for mild forms of congenital heart disease. A higher prevalence of severe congenital heart disease was seen only among offspring of mothers with congenital heart defects or type 2 diabetes. Interpretation: The children of women with several kinds of chronic disease appear to be at risk for congenital heart disease. Preconception counselling and optimum treatment of pregnant women with chronic disease would seem prudent. PMID:27729382

  12. Low maternal serum vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk for postpartum depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Monique; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Newnham, John P; Gorman, Shelley; Jacoby, Peter; Holt, Barbara J; Serralha, Michael; Tearne, Jessica E; Holt, Pat G; Hart, Prue H; Kusel, Merci M H

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy is a time of vulnerability for vitamin D insufficiency, and there is an emerging literature associating low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D with depressive symptoms. However, the link between 25(OH)-vitamin D status in pregnancy and altered risk of postnatal depressive symptoms has not been examined. We hypothesise that low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D in maternal serum during pregnancy will be associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depressive symptoms. We prospectively collected sera at 18 weeks gestation from 796 pregnant women in Perth (1989-1992) who were enrolled in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and measured levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D. Women reported postnatal depressive symptoms at 3 days post-delivery. Women in the lowest quartile for 25(OH)-vitamin D status were more likely to report a higher level of postnatal depression symptoms than women who were in the highest quartile for vitamin D, even after accounting for a range of confounding variables including season of birth, body mass index and sociodemographic factors. Low vitamin D during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of postpartum depression symptoms.

  13. Rethinking How to Promote Maternity Care-Seeking: Factors Associated With Institutional Delivery in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Saidou; Kasse, Yaya; Millimono, Sita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study on women's delivery care-seeking in two regions of Guinea. We explored exposure to interventions promoting birth preparedness and complication readiness among women with recent live births and stillbirths. Using multivariate regression models, we identified factors associated with women's knowledge and practices related to birth preparedness, as well as their use of health facilities during childbirth. We found that women's knowledge about preparations for any birth (normal or complicated) was positively associated with increased preparation for birth, which itself was associated with institutional delivery. Knowledge about complication readiness, obstetric risks, and danger signs was not associated with birth preparation or with institutional delivery. The study findings highlight the importance of focusing on preparation for all births—and not simply obstetric emergencies—in interventions aimed at increasing women's use of skilled maternity care. PMID:24821280

  14. A test of maternal programming of offspring stress response to predation risk in threespine sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Mommer, Brett C; Bell, Alison M

    2013-10-02

    Non-genetic maternal effects are widespread across taxa and challenge our traditional understanding of inheritance. Maternal experience with predators, for example, can have lifelong consequences for offspring traits, including fitness. Previous work in threespine sticklebacks showed that females exposed to simulated predation risk produced eggs with higher cortisol content and offspring with altered anti-predator behavior. However, it is unknown whether this maternal effect is mediated via the offspring glucocorticoid stress response and if it is retained over the entire lifetime of offspring. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to simulated predation risk has long-lasting effects on the cortisol response to simulated predation risk in stickleback offspring. We measured circulating concentrations of cortisol before (baseline), 15 min after, and 60 min after exposure to a simulated predation risk. We compared adult offspring of predator-exposed mothers and control mothers in two different social environments (alone or in a group). Relative to baseline, offspring plasma cortisol was highest 15 min after exposure to simulated predation risk and decreased after 60 min. Offspring of predator-exposed mothers differed in the cortisol response to simulated predation risk compared to offspring of control mothers. In general, females had higher cortisol than males, and fish in a group had lower cortisol than fish that were by themselves. The buffering effect of the social environment did not differ between maternal treatments or between males and females. Altogether the results show that while a mother's experience with simulated predation risk might affect the physiological response of her adult offspring to a predator, sex and social isolation have much larger effects on the stress response to predation risk in sticklebacks.

  15. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.

    PubMed

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  16. Diet-induced changes in maternal gut microbiota and metabolomic profiles influence programming of offspring obesity risk in rats

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Heather A.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Vogel, Hans J.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation can program an increased risk of obesity in offspring. In this context, improving maternal metabolism may help reduce the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Here we show that, in Sprague-Dawley rats, selectively altering obese maternal gut microbial composition with prebiotic treatment reduces maternal energy intake, decreases gestational weight gain, and prevents increased adiposity in dams and their offspring. Maternal serum metabolomics analysis, along with satiety hormone and gut microbiota analysis, identified maternal metabolic signatures that could be implicated in programming offspring obesity risk and highlighted the potential influence of maternal gut microbiota on maternal and offspring metabolism. In particular, the metabolomic signature of insulin resistance in obese rats normalized when dams consumed the prebiotic. In summary, prebiotic intake during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal metabolism in diet-induced obese rats in a manner that attenuates the detrimental nutritional programming of offspring associated with maternal obesity. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of the maternal mechanisms influencing the developmental programming of offspring obesity and provide compelling pre-clinical evidence for a potential strategy to improve maternal and offspring metabolic outcomes in human pregnancy. PMID:26868870

  17. Identifying inequities in maternal and child health through risk stratification to inform health systems strengthening in Northern Togo

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Katharine J.; Braganza, Sandra; Fiori, Kevin; Gbeleou, Christophe; Kpakpo, Vivien; Lopez, Andrew; Schechter, Jennifer; Singham Goodwin, Alicia; Jones, Heidi E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective In Togo, substantial progress in maternal and child health is needed to reach global development goals. To better inform clinic and community-based health services, this study identifies factors associated with maternal and child health care utilization in the Kara region of Northern Togo. Methods We conducted a population-representative household survey of four health clinic catchment areas of 1,075 women of reproductive age in 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model individual and structural factors associated with utilization of four maternal and child health services. Key outcomes were: facility-based delivery, maternal postnatal health check by a health professional within the first six weeks of birth, childhood vaccination, and receipt of malaria medication for febrile children under age five within 72 hours of symptom onset. Results 83 percent of women who gave birth in the last 2 years delivered at a health facility. In adjusted models, the strongest predictor of facility delivery in the rural catchment areas was proximity to a health center, with women living under three kilometers having 3.7 (95% CI 1.7, 7.9) times the odds of a facility birth. Only 11 percent of women received a health check by a health provider at any time in the postnatal period. Postnatal health checks were less likely for women in the poorest households and for women who resided in rural areas. Children of polygamous mothers had half the odds of receiving malaria medication for fever within 72 hours of symptom onset, while children with increased household wealth status had increased odds of childhood vaccination and receiving treatment for malaria. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of risk stratification analysis to inform the delivery and scope of maternal and child health programs needed to reach those with the least access to care. PMID:28301539

  18. Risk factors of hypertensive disorders among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Li, Ying-xue; Di, Hai-hong; Li, Zhi-wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Shen, Xian-ping; Zhu, Jun-feng; Yan, Wei-rong

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in China was much higher than that in the United States. Considering the large population with wide geographic area of China, we aimed to add more information regarding the risk factors for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. A case-control study was performed on 373 hypertensive cases and 507 normotensive controls. Participants were recruited from 2008 to 2014 in Yichang Maternal and Child Health Care Center in Hubei province and Anyang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in Henan province, China. Socio-demographic factors, family- related factors, pregnancy-associated factors, factors related to daily life behaviors and psychosocial factors were investigated with respect to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy through well-designed questionnaire. Chi-square test, t-test, univariate logistic regression analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to find the possible risk factors behind hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The results showed that family history of cardiovascular diseases (OR=6.18, 95% CI, 2.37 to 16.14), history of pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR=16.64, 95% CI, 5.74 to 48.22), low maternal educational level (OR=2.81, 95% CI, 1.30 to 6.04), and poor relationship with their parents-in-law (OR=3.44, 95% CI, 1.55 to 7.59) had statistically significant associations with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Increased maternal age, increased pre-pregnancy body mass index, living in rural area, low paternal education level, family history of hypertension, passive smoking one year before and/or in pregnancy, and poor sleeping quality were significantly associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy from univariate logistic regression analysis while the associations became uncertain when they were entered for multivariate logistic regression analysis. It was concluded that family history of cardiovascular diseases, history of pregnancy

  19. Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 – 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children’s adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts. PMID:27041822

  20. Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.

  1. Developmental Risk Factors in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G.; Shin, Ki Eun; Zuellig, Andrea R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of clarity regarding specific risk factors discriminating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from panic disorder (PD). Goal This study investigated whether GAD and PD could be discriminated through differences in developmental etiological factors including childhood parental loss/separation, psychological disorders, and maternal and paternal attachment. Method Twenty people with adult generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 20 with adult panic disorder (PD), 11 with adult comorbid GAD and PD, and 21 adult non-anxious controls completed diagnostic interviews to assess symptoms of mental disorders in adulthood and childhood. Participants also reported on parental attachment, loss, and separation. Results Childhood diagnoses of GAD and PD differentiated clinical groups from controls as well as from each other, suggesting greater likelihood for homotypic over heterotypic continuity. Compared to controls, specific phobia was associated with all three clinical groups, and childhood depression, social phobia, and PTSD were uniquely associated with adult GAD. Both maternal and paternal attachment also differentiated clinical groups from controls. However, higher levels of subscales reflecting maternal insecure avoidant attachment (e.g., no memory of early childhood experiences and balancing/forgiving current state of mind) emerged as more predictive of GAD relative to PD. There were no group differences in parental loss or separation. Conclusions These results support differentiation of GAD and PD based on developmental risk factors. Recommendations for future research and implications of the findings for understanding the etiology and symptomatology of GAD and PD are discussed. PMID:27466747

  2. Monitoring challenges: A closer look at parental monitoring, maternal psychopathology, and adolescent sexual risk

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Wendy; Hunter, Heather L.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Lescano, Celia; Thompson, Ariel; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to examine associations between maternal psychopathology, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual activity among adolescents in mental health treatment. Method Seven hundred and ninety mother-adolescent dyads recruited from adolescent mental health treatment settings completed audio computer-assisted structured interview assessments examining parent psychiatric symptoms, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual risk behavior. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between variables of interest. Results Maternal caregivers who reported more mental health symptoms were more likely to have adolescents who reported recent sex and this relationship was mediated by less parental monitoring. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal caregivers with mental health symptoms may need specific interventions that provide assistance and support in monitoring their teens in order to reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents in mental health treatment. PMID:21417519

  3. Maternal PCMT1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of neural tube defects in a Chinese population of Lvliang high-risk area.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huizhi; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jianhua; Xie, Hua; Guo, Jin; Liu, Chi; Wang, Li; Lu, Xiaolin; Bao, Yihua; Wang, Guoliang; Zhong, Rugang; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2012-09-01

    Protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase 1 (PCMT1) gene encodes for the protein repair enzyme L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PIMT), which is known to protect certain neural cells from Bax-induced apoptosis. Previous study has shown that PCMT1 polymorphisms rs4552 and rs4816 of infant are associated with spina bifida in the Californian population. The association between maternal polymorphism and neural tube defects is still uncovered. A case-control study was conducted to investigate a possible association between maternal PCMT1 and NTDs in Lvliang high-risk area of Shanxi Province in China, using a high-resolution DNA melting analysis genotyping method. We found that increased risk for anencephaly in isolated NTDs compared with the normal control group was observed for the G (vs. A) allele (p=0.034, OR=1.896, 95% CI, 1.04-3.45) and genotypes GG+GA (p=0.025, OR=2.237, 95% CI, 1.09-4.57). Although the significance was lost after multiple comparison correction, the results implied that maternal polymorphisms in PCMT1 might be a potential genetic risk factor for isolated anencephaly in this Chinese population.

  4. Maternal HIV-1 envelope–specific antibody responses and reduced risk of perinatal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Permar, Sallie R.; Fong, Youyi; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Gilbert, Peter; Parks, Robert; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Pollara, Justin; Martelli, Amanda; Liebl, Brooke E.; Lloyd, Krissey; Yates, Nicole L.; Overman, R. Glenn; Shen, Xiaoying; Whitaker, Kaylan; Chen, Haiyan; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Marshall, Dawn J.; Whitesides, John F.; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Von Holle, Tarra; Martinez, David R.; Cai, Fangping; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Louzao, Raul; Wilkes, Samantha; Datta, Saheli; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S. Munir; Montefiori, David C.; Denny, Thomas N.; Moody, M. Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1–transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score–matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1–infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3–specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:26053661

  5. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  6. Maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific antibody responses and reduced risk of perinatal transmission.

    PubMed

    Permar, Sallie R; Fong, Youyi; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fouda, Genevieve G; Gilbert, Peter; Parks, Robert; Jaeger, Frederick H; Pollara, Justin; Martelli, Amanda; Liebl, Brooke E; Lloyd, Krissey; Yates, Nicole L; Overman, R Glenn; Shen, Xiaoying; Whitaker, Kaylan; Chen, Haiyan; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Von Holle, Tarra; Martinez, David R; Cai, Fangping; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Louzao, Raul; Wilkes, Samantha; Datta, Saheli; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Denny, Thomas N; Moody, M Anthony; Tomaras, Georgia D; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-07-01

    Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1-transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score-matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3-specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT.

  7. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shiming; Wang, Ying; Gong, Xuan; Wang, Gaohua

    2015-08-26

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. 15 observational studies (6 cohort studies and 9 case-control studies), with 17,890 ASD cases and 1,810,258 participants were included for analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.13) comparing mothers who smoked during pregnancy with those who did not. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with ASD risk in offspring. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings.

  9. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites

    PubMed Central

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments. PMID:26449645

  10. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-10-09

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments.

  11. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Bengt; Cnattingius, Sven

    1990-01-01

    Examines risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. Results indicate that maternal smoking doubles the risk of infant death, and infants of smokers also died sooner. The more the mother smoked the more likely her infant was to die. (JS)

  12. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  13. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  14. Maternal drug use: evaluation of risks to breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Kirksey, A; Groziak, S M

    1984-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of the literature, evaluates the risks to infants of maternal drug use during lactation. The potential harm of a particular drug to the breastfed infant is related both to the complex mechanism of milk synthesis and secretion and the mode of passage of the drug from plasma into milk. The 1st part of the paper discusses mammary cell and milk synthesis, milk secretion and composition, the mode of passage of drugs into milk, and factors influencing drug concentrations in milk. Drug concentrations in milk are dependent on 6 major factors: drug dosage, proportion bound in plasma, molecular weight, lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and pH difference between plasma and milk. Drugs that are weak acids are ionized to a greater extent and are more protein-bound than weak alkaline drugs. The 2nd part of the paper evaluates the risks to breastfed infants of selected pharmacons. Some categories of drugs that contain pharmacons that should be limited or avoided by nursing mothers are alkylating agents, analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, anti-infective agents, central nervous system stimulants, hormones, laxatives, minerals, provitamins, psychotherapeutic agents, thyroid affecting agents, and vitamins. The following precautions are suggested to minimize the risks of potentially harmful pharmacons: 1) all unnecessary medications should be avoided by nrusing mothers; 2) if medication is necessary during lactation, drug dosage should be controlled and the infant should be monitored for adverse symptoms; 3) drugs should be administered shortly after breastfeeding and the interval prolonged before the next feeding; and 4) if the infant must be fed soon after a potentially harmful drug has been taken by the mother, bottle feeding is recommended.

  15. Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

  16. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  17. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M; Zhou, Nan

    2014-10-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers' provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers' ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers' parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory.

  18. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Criss, Michael M.; Judah, Matt R.; Eagleton, Sally G.; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Methods Eighteen females (ages 12–16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Results Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Conclusions Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses. PMID:27158587

  19. Maternal Exposure to Domestic Hair Cosmetics and Occupational Endocrine Disruptors Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypospadias in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Haraux, Elodie; Braun, Karine; Buisson, Philippe; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Devauchelle, Camille; Ricard, Jannick; Boudailliez, Bernard; Tourneux, Pierre; Gouron, Richard; Chardon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to various chemical products at home and at work. Some of these products contain endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as cosmetics, pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, plastics or medications that could alter sexual differentiation and increase the risk of hypospadias. We evaluated maternal occupational and household exposures that could constitute risk factors for hypospadias. From 2011 to 2014, we enrolled 57 full-term newborns with hypospadias and three randomly selected controls per case (162 control newborns), matched for gestational age, from 11 maternity units in Picardy, France. Neonatal and parental data were collected at birth (personal characteristics, maternal lifestyle, and medical history). Maternal occupational exposure was assessed by a job-exposure matrix for EDCs from a job history questionnaire completed by mothers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression, and adjusted for relevant covariates. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between hypospadias and potential maternal occupational exposure to EDCs and maternal household use of hair cosmetics (OR 6.1, 95% CI: 1.1–34.9; OR: 9.6, 95% CI: 1.4–66.1, respectively). Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to EDCs is a risk factor for hypospadias and suggests a possible influence of household use of hair cosmetics during early pregnancy on the incidence of hypospadias in the offspring. A larger study with more accurate exposure assessment should evaluate the impact of EDCs in hair cosmetics on the incidence of hypospadias. PMID:28036072

  20. Interrelations Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Séguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children’s Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions.

  1. Maternal versus child risk and the development of parent-child and family relationships in five high-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Individual, dyadic, and triadic influences on the development of the family system were examined in the context of developmental risk. Participants were 145 couples and their 4-month-old first-born child in six groups: controls, three mother-risk groups (depressed, anxious, comorbid), and two infant-risk groups (preterm, intrauterine growth retardation). Dyadic and triadic interactions were observed. Differences in parent-infant reciprocity and intrusiveness were found, with mother-risk groups scoring less optimally than controls and infant-risk groups scoring the poorest. Similar results emerged for family-level cohesion and rigidity. Structural modeling indicated that father involvement had an influence on the individual level, by reducing maternal distress, as well as on the triadic level, by increasing family cohesion. Maternal emotional distress affected the reciprocity component of early dyadic and triadic relationships, whereas infant negative emotionality impacted on the intrusive element of parenting and family-level relationships. Discussion considered the multiple and pattern-specific influences on the family system as it is shaped by maternal and child risk conditions.

  2. Gene variants as risk factors for gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Tom, Lauren; Lin, Bin; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Lammer, Edward J.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    In a population‐based case‐control study in California of 228 infants, we investigated 75 genetic variants in 20 genes and risk of gastroschisis with regard to maternal age, race/ethnicity, vitamin use, and smoking exposure. We hypothesized that genes related to vascular compromise may interact with environmental factors to affect the risk of gastroschisis. Haplotypes were constructed for 75 gene variants using the HaploView program. Risk for gastroschisis associated with each gene variant was calculated for both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes, with the homozygous wildtypes as the referent. Risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. We found 11 gene variants with increased risk and four variants with decreased risk of gastroschisis for heterozygous (ORh) or homozygous variants (ORv) genotypes. These included NOS3 (rs1036145) ORh = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.7); NOS3 (rs10277237) ORv = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3–6.0); ADD1 (rs12503220) ORh = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.6–5.4), GNB3 (rs5443) ORh = 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.5), ORv = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.9); ICAM1 (rs281428) ORv = 6.9 (95% CI: 2.1–22.9), ICAM1 (rs3093030) ORv = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.6); ICAM4 (rs281438) ORv = 4.9 (95% CI: 1.4–16.6), ICAM5 (rs281417) ORh = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1–4.1), ORv = 4.8 (95% CI: 1.7–13.6); ICAM5 (rs281440) ORh = 23.7 (95% CI: 5.5–102.5), ORv = 20.6 (95% CI: 3.4–124.3); ICAM5 (rs2075741) ORv = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1–4.4); NAT1 ORv = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.9). There were additional associations between several gene variants and gastroschisis among women aged 20–24 and among mothers with and without vitamin use. NOS3, ADD1, ICAM1, ICAM4, and ICAM5 warrant further investigation in additional populations and with the interaction of additional environmental exposures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27616475

  3. Maternal Risk Exposure and Adult Daughters’ Health, Schooling, and Employment: A Constructed Cohort Analysis of 50 Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfeng; Tsui, Amy O.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between maternal risk factors present at the time of daughters’ births—namely, young mother, high parity, and short preceding birth interval—and their subsequent adult developmental, reproductive, and socioeconomic outcomes. Pseudo-cohorts are constructed using female respondent data from 189 cross-sectional rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 50 developing countries between 1986 and 2013. Generalized linear models are estimated to test the relationships and calculate cohort-level outcome proportions with the systematic elimination of the three maternal risk factors. The simulation exercise for the full sample of 2,546 pseudo-cohorts shows that the combined elimination of risk exposures is associated with lower mean proportions of adult daughters experiencing child mortality, having a small infant at birth, and having a low body mass index. Among sub-Saharan African cohorts, the estimated changes are larger, particularly for years of schooling. The pseudo-cohort approach can enable longitudinal testing of life course hypotheses using large-scale, standardized, repeated cross-sectional data and with considerable resource efficiency. PMID:27154342

  4. The suppression of maternal-fetal leukemia inhibitory factor signal relay pathway by maternal immune activation impairs brain development in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Tsuyoshi; Simamura, Eriko; Shimada, Hiroki; Arai, Takuma; Higashi, Nobuaki; Akai, Takuya; Iizuka, Hideaki; Hatta, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) by viral infection is associated with schizophrenia and autism in offspring. Although maternal IL-6 is though t to be a possible mediator relating MIA induced these neuropsychiatric disorders, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Previously, we reported that the maternal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-placental ACTH-fetal LIF signaling relay pathway (maternal-fetal LIF signal relay) promotes neurogenesis of fetal cerebrum in rats. Here we report that the maternal-fetal LIF signal relay in mice is suppressed by injection of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid into dams, which induces MIA at 12.5 days post-coitum. Maternal IL-6 levels and gene expression of placental suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) increased according to the severity of MIA and gene expression of placental Socs3 correlated with maternal IL-6 levels. Furthermore, we show that MIA causes reduction of LIF level in the fetal cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in the decreased neurogenesis in the cerebrum. These findings suggest that maternal IL-6 interferes the maternal-fetal LIF signal relay by inducing SOCS3 in the placenta and leads to decreased neurogenesis.

  5. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  6. Maternal exposure to predation risk decreases offspring antipredator behaviour and survival in threespined stickleback

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Suhr, Elissa L.; Bell, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Adaptive maternal programming occurs when mothers alter their offspring's phenotype in response to environmental information such that it improves offspring fitness. When a mother's environment is predictive of the conditions her offspring are likely to encounter, such transgenerational plasticity enables offspring to be better-prepared for this particular environment. However, maternal effects can also have deleterious effects on fitness. 2. Here, we test whether female threespined stickleback fish exposed to predation risk adaptively prepare their offspring to cope with predators. We either exposed gravid females to a model predator or not, and compared their offspring's antipredator behaviour and survival when alone with a live predator. Importantly, we measured offspring behaviour and survival in the face of the same type of predator that threatened their mothers (Northern pike). 3. We did not find evidence for adaptive maternal programming; offspring of predator-exposed mothers were less likely to orient to the predator than offspring from unexposed mothers. In our predation assay, orienting to the predator was an effective antipredator behaviour and those that oriented, survived for longer. 4. In addition, offspring from predator-exposed mothers were caught more quickly by the predator on average than offspring from unexposed mothers. The difference in antipredator behaviour between the maternal predator-exposure treatments offers a potential behavioural mechanism contributing to the difference in survival between maternal treatments. 5. However, the strength and direction of the maternal effect on offspring survival depended on offspring size. Specifically, the larger the offspring from predator-exposed mothers, the more vulnerable they were to predation compared to offspring from unexposed mothers. 6. Our results suggest that the predation risk perceived by mothers can have long-term behavioural and fitness consequences for offspring in response

  7. Maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and risk of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Philip J; Mitchell, Laura E; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in the Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina; Kermani, Akram Jabbari Nejad; Bakhshandeh, Marzieh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Mahmoudabadi, Zahra; Amirzadeh, Raheleh; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of low birth weight (LBW) in the Southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kerman province. Data were collected from Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network at public and private hospitals. All live births from March 2014 to March 2015 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, gravida, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternal education, maternity insurance, place of living, consanguinity, neonate sex, preterm labor, place of birth, delivery manager, and delivery type were compared between LBW and normal birth weight groups. Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P < 0.001), neonate female sex (OR: 1.41; P < 0.001), low parity (OR: 0.85; P < 0.001), pregnancy age <18 years (OR: 1.26; P = 0.012), pregnancy age >35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001), delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002), pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P < 0.001), maternal illiteracy (OR: 1.91; P < 0.001), living in the rural area (OR: 1.19; P < 0.001), consanguineous (OR: 1.08; P = 0.025), and delivery by obstetrician (OR: 1.12; P = 0.029) were identified as significant factors associated with LBW in this study. Conclusions: Prevention of preterm labor, consanguineous marriage, pregnancy age <18 and >35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW. PMID:28348722

  9. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  10. Socio-demographic and maternal factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwizu, E N; Iliyasu, Z; Ibrahim, S A; Galadanci, H S

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. The burden and underlying factors are varied even within countries. We studied the prevalence of anaemia at booking and underlying factors in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Using the capillary technique and blood film, the packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell morphology of 300 pregnant women was determined. Additional information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and past medical history using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 51 (17%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)=12.9%-21.7%] were anaemic. Specifically, 12.7% and 4.3% of the women had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed normochromic normocytic, haemolytic and microcytic hypochromic pictures respectively. Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low educational and economic status especially among women with background obstetric risk factors calls for vigilance, sustained health education and chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women.

  11. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In women, high triglycerides combined ... information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  12. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  13. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  14. Maternal factors associated with the duration of breast feeding in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shawky, Sherine; Abalkhail, Bahaa A

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing concern about the decline in breast-feeding pattern in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to document the recent breast-feeding trends in Jeddah during the first year of an infant's life and identify the probable maternal risk factors implicated in breast-feeding cessation. Data were collected from six randomly selected primary health care centres in Jeddah City. All married women with an infant maternal risk factors related to breast-feeding cessation. A total of 400 women were enrolled in the study. Their mean age at delivery was 28.0 years (SD = 4.1 years). Approximately 40.0% had never attended school, 43.0% had at least five children and 13.8% were smokers. Deliveries by caesarean section were reported by 13.0% of women and contraceptive use by 44.7%, among whom oral contraceptives were the commonest method. Around 94.0% of women ever initially breast fed their infants, and this proportion dropped to 40.0% by the infant's 12th month. Women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.3, 2.8]P = 0.001) and those who used oral contraceptives (OR = 1.5 [95% CI 1.1, 2.2]P = 0.031) were at higher risk of stopping breast feeding and lower probability of maintaining breast feeding to the 12th month post partum than those who delivered vaginally and did not use oral contraceptives. Breast-feeding practice seems to decline rapidly during the first year of the infant's life. Health care professionals should promote breast-feeding practice as early as the antenatal period. They should also take into consideration the impact of caesarean section deliveries and early oral contraceptive use to avoid their negative impact on breast-feeding practice.

  15. Bendectin (Debendox) as a risk factor for pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, B; Bracken, M B

    1982-12-15

    The maternal use of Bendectin (Debendox) in the first trimester of pregnancy was examined in a case-control (n = 1,427 and 3,001, respectively) study of malformed infants whose mothers were interviewed between 1974 and 1976. Mothers of infants with congenital malformation showed an increased likelihood (odds ratio = 1.40) of having used Bendectin, with a stronger association of Bendectin with birth defects for mothers who also smoked (odds ratio = 2.91). A significant association was observed between the occurrence of pyloric stenosis in the infant and exposure to Bendectin in utero (odds ratio = 4.33). When maternal sociodemographic factors, including smoking, and smoking alone, were controlled, the association between Bendectin and pyloric stenosis was further increased (odds ratio = 4.63 and 5.24, respectively). Except for a possible association of Bendectin with heart valve anomalies (odds ratio = 2.99), we were unable to document other significantly increased risks for congenital malformations.

  16. Maternal periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jian; Hua, Li; Zhang, Dan; Hu, Ting; Ge, Zi-Li

    2014-10-01

    Research on the association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia has generated inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia. A literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed to identify relevant papers published before March 2013. Only observational studies that assessed maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia were selected. Patients' periodontal status was examined at different time points during pregnancy or after delivery (at 14-32 weeks of gestation, within 48 h prior to or within 5 days after delivery). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for cases and controls. Cases were defined as women with concurrent hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Eleven studies involving 1118 women with preeclampsia and 2798 women without preeclampsia were identified and analyzed. Women with periodontal disease before 32 weeks of gestation had a 3.69-fold higher risk of developing preeclampsia than their counterparts without periodontal disease (OR=3.69; 95% CI=2.58-5.27). Periodontal disease within 48 h prior to delivery was associated with a 2.68-fold higher risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.68; 95% CI=1.39-5.18). Pregnant women with periodontal disease within 5 days after delivery had a 2.22-fold higher risk of preeclampsia than women without periodontal disease (OR=2.22; 95% CI=1.16-4.27). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that maternal periodontal disease is an independent predictor of preeclampsia.

  17. Pulmonary imaging in pregnancy. Maternal risk and fetal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Mason, G.R.; Kuperus, J.H.; Mena, I.

    1985-01-01

    A Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scan and a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation scan were performed for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE) in a patient who was ten weeks pregnant. There was considerable reluctance on the part of the obstetricians to permit this study. Standard MIRD dose estimates to the fetus were performed, which showed a maximum fetal exposure of about 50 mrem. It was concluded that the risk to mother and fetus from undiagnosed and untreated PE is much greater than the negligible risk to the fetus from the radiation exposure; fear of fetal radiation damage should not be a deterrent to performing these scans.

  18. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  19. Emergent patterns of risk for psychopathology: The influence of infant avoidance and maternal caregiving on trajectories of social reticence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie Ashley; Henderson, Heather A; Walker, Olga L; Ghera, Melissa M; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated the influential role of infant avoidance on links between maternal caregiving behavior and trajectories at risk for psychopathology. A sample of 153 children, selected for temperamental reactivity to novelty, was followed from infancy through early childhood. At 9 months, infant avoidance of fear-eliciting stimuli in the laboratory and maternal sensitivity at home were assessed. At 36 months, maternal gentle discipline was assessed at home. Children were repeatedly observed in the lab with an unfamiliar peer across early childhood. A latent class growth analysis yielded three longitudinal risk trajectories of social reticence behavior: a high-stable trajectory, a high-decreasing trajectory, and a low-increasing trajectory. For infants displaying greater avoidance, 9-month maternal sensitivity and 36-month maternal gentle discipline were both positively associated with membership in the high-stable social reticence trajectory, compared to the high-decreasing social reticence trajectory. For infants displaying lower avoidance, maternal sensitivity was positively associated with membership in the high-decreasing social reticence trajectory, compared to the low-increasing trajectory. Maternal sensitivity was positively associated with the high-stable social reticence trajectory when maternal gentle discipline was lower. These results illustrate the complex interplay of infant and maternal behavior in early childhood trajectories at risk for emerging psychopathology.

  20. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    PubMed

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language.

  1. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  2. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  3. Knockdown of Maternal Homeobox Transcription Factor SEBOX Gene Impaired Early Embryonic Development in Porcine Parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Zhong; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; JIA, Jia-Lin; HEO, Young-Tae; CUI, Xiang-Shun; OH, Jeong Su; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes. PMID:24018616

  4. Knockdown of maternal homeobox transcription factor SEBOX gene impaired early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jia, Jia-Lin; Heo, Young-Tae; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-12-17

    A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes.

  5. The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Demelza J; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.

  6. The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome. PMID:25538708

  7. Maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuying; Jiang, Jingxin; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Shuojia; Liu, Zeyu; Li, Minchao; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Fei, Ying; Li, Xiawei; Ding, Yongfeng; Wang, Zhaopin; Yu, Yunxian

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between maternal lipid levels and preterm birth (PTB). We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between maternal dyslipidemia and PTB. Overall, three nested case-control studies and eight cohort studies were eligible. Effect estimates [odds ratio(OR)/relative risk] were pooled using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and metaregression analyses were conducted to evaluate the sources of heterogeneity. Eleven studies involving 13,025 pregnant women were included. Compared with pregnant women with normal lipid levels, the women with elevated levels of lipids had an increased risk of PTB, and the pooled OR was 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-2.26)]; meanwhile, women with lower levels of lipids also had a trend of an increased risk of PTB (OR=1.52, 95% CI=0.60-3.82). The pooled ORs for elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.05-2.79), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13-2.12), 1.19 (95% CI: 0.95-1.48), and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.14-1.56), respectively. The present meta-analysis found that maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy, either the elevated total cholesterol or triglycerides, was associated with an increased risk of PTB. These findings indicate that a normal level of maternal lipid during pregnancy may reduce the risk of PTB.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullatif D; Mehrass, Amat Al-Khaleq O; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Al-Shammakh, Abdulqawi A; Amran, Adel A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) continues to be a significant health disorder triggering harmful complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Our knowledge of GDM epidemiology in Yemen is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM among pregnant women in Dhamar governorate, Yemen. Patients and methods A total of 311 subjects were randomly selected for this cross sectional survey. Health history data and blood samples were collected using a pretested questionnaire. To determine the prevalence of GDM, the fasting and random blood glucose techniques were applied according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, using alternative methods that are more convenient to the targeted population. Poisson’s regression model incorporating robust sandwich variance was utilized to assess the association of potential risk factors in developing GDM. Results The prevalence of GDM was found to be 5.1% among the study population. Multivariate analysis confirmed age ≥30 years, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and history of polycystic ovary syndrome as independent risk factors for GDM prevalence. However, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and previous macrosomic baby were found to be dependent risk factors. Conclusion This study reports new epidemiological information about the prevalence and risk factors of GDM in Yemen. Introduction of proper maternal and neonatal medical care and health education are important in order to save the mother and the baby. PMID:26869814

  9. Maternal body mass index and risk of birth and maternal health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Abe, S K; Kanda, M; Narita, S; Rahman, M S; Bilano, V; Ota, E; Gilmour, S; Shibuya, K

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies of maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the British Nursing Index were searched from inception to February 2014. Forty-two studies were included. Our study found that maternal underweight was significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27), low birthweight (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.50-1.84) and small for gestational age (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.69-2.02). Compared with mothers with normal BMI, overweight or obese mothers were at increased odds of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, caesarean delivery and post-partum haemorrhage. The population-attributable risk (PAR) indicated that if women were entirely unexposed to overweight or obesity during the pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy period, 14% to 35% fewer women would develop gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension in Brazil, China, India, Iran or Thailand. The highest PAR of low birthweight attributable to maternal underweight was found in Iran (20%), followed by India (18%), Thailand (10%) and China (8%). Treatment and prevention of maternal underweight, overweight or obesity may help reduce the burden on maternal and child health in developing countries.

  10. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, V.S.; Prentice, A.; Darboe, M.K.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2 years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn = 25,) and low (LIn = 25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104 weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P ≤ 0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52 wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P = 0.04] and from 24 wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P = 0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [− 21% (4%) RU/mL, P ≤ 0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [− 0.5% (0.5%), P = 0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets

  11. Reduced maternal and cord nerve growth factor levels in preterm deliveries.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Mehendale, Savita; Pisal, Hemlata; Nimbargi, Vandana; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin, which exerts an important role in the development and function of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is limited information regarding the levels of NGF during pregnancy and its role in fetal development. We have earlier reported increased oxidative stress in pregnancy complications. The present study examines the levels of NGF in maternal and cord samples in preterm deliveries and its association with oxidative stress marker. A total number of 96 women delivering preterm (<37 weeks gestation) and 94 women delivering at term (control group) (≥37 weeks gestation) were recruited. Plasma NGF levels were measured in both mother and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System Promega kit. Maternal and cord plasma NGF levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05 for both) in women delivering preterm as compared to term. There was a positive association between maternal and cord plasma NGF levels (p=0.022). Maternal NGF levels were negatively (p=0.017) associated with maternal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Reduced cord NGF levels may affect fetal growth in preterm deliveries which may have implications for the neurodevelopmental pathologies in later life. Circulating maternal NGF levels in preterm pregnancies may be a useful marker to predict NGF levels in the neonate.

  12. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Winder, Nicola R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Noonan, Kate; Boucher, Barbara J; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculo-skeletal health in children, but its relationship with offspring metabolic risk is not known. Objective We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometry, body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Design Serum 25-hydroxy D (25(OH)D ) concentrations were measured at 28-32 weeks gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Anthropometry, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 years of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer at 9.5 years. Arm-muscle-area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. Results 67% of women had vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l). At 5 and 9.5 years, children born to vitamin D deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle-area compared to children born to mothers without deficiency (P<0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 years, children of vitamin D deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than children of non-deficient women (P=0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age. Conclusions Intra-uterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with lower muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children. PMID:21228264

  13. Maternal and infant factors associated with infancy-onset hydrocephalus in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Hannah M; Capote, Raquel T; Saltzman, Babette S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hydrocephalus, a complex condition characterized by progressive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricular system of the brain, affects ~6 in 10,000 infants and is heterogeneous in nature. Previous investigations of risk factors have not considered etiologic heterogeneity. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 1,748 children with hydrocephalus identified through birth certificate check boxes and ICD-9 codes of linked hospital discharge records through the first year of life. Control infants were identified from birth records (n=19,700), frequency-matched to cases by year of birth. Three mutually exclusive, non-exhaustive subgroups were identified: hydrocephalus associated with a neural tube defect (NTD-H; n=332); prenatal-onset hydrocephalus (PO-H; n=402); and hydrocephalus associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH-H; n=446). Within each group, we examined associations with maternal age, race/ethnicity, parity, diabetes and hypertension; and infant sex and gestational age. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Asian ethnicity was independently associated with an inverse risk of all subtypes of hydrocephalus (NTD-H: OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23–0.84; PO-H: OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27–0.83; ICH-H: OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.07), compared to whites. Pre-existing diabetes was associated to varying degrees with all three subtypes (NTD-H: OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 0.61–6.17; PO-H: OR: 5.20; 95% CI: 2.60–10.40; ICH-H: OR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.85–9.69). Hypertension had a positive association with ICH-H (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.46–2.52) but an inverse association with NTD-H (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.36, 0.98). Gestational age ≤ 30 weeks was associated with all three subgroups, most notably ICH-H (OR: 443.56; 95% CI: 326.34–602.87); nearly two-thirds (64%) of ICH-H infants were born ≤ 30 weeks. Male sex was independently associated only with ICH-H (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.40–2.39). No

  14. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    PubMed

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.

  15. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes.

    PubMed

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index gestational age and index offspring birth size (birth weight adjusted for gestational age) was investigated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified according to young (≤33 years) and old age (>33 years). During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 2,021 women (2.0 %) were diagnosed as having diabetes. The risk of maternal diabetes was positively associated with increasing index birth size and negatively associated with increasing duration of index gestation in both age strata. Among young women, the highest hazard ratios were found for the exposure category of large index offspring birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes.

  16. Alpha 2 macroglobulin is a maternally-derived immune factor in amphioxus embryos: New evidence for defense roles of maternal immune components in invertebrate chordate.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, Anjalika; Diao, Mingyue; Huang, Shibo; Zuo, Lingling; Liang, Yujun

    2016-03-01

    In fish, a series of maternal derived immune components have been identified in their eggs or embryos at very early stages, which are proposed to provide protections to themselves against pathogenic attacks from hostile environment. The phenomenon of maternal immunity has been also recorded in several invertebrate species, however, so far, very limited information about the maternal immune molecules are available. In this study, it was demonstrated maternal alpha2 macroglobulin (A2m) protein, an important innate immune factor, exists in the fertilized eggs of amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, an invertebrate chordate. Maternal mRNA of A2m was also detected in amphioxus embryos at very early developing stages. In addition, it was recorded that the egg lysate prepared from the newly fertilized eggs can inhibit the growth of both Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in a concentration dependent manner. The bacteriostatic activity can be reduced notably after precipitated A2m with anti-A2m antibody. Thus maternal A2m is partly attributed to the bacteriostatic activity. It was further demonstrated that recombinant A2m can bind to E. coli cells directly. All these points come to a result that A2m is a maternal immune factor existing in eggs of invertebrate chordate, which may be involved in defense their embryos against harmful microbes' attacks.

  17. An Investigation of the Relations between School Concentrations of Student Risk Factors and Student Educational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Rouse, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the unique relations between school concentrations of student risk factors and measures of reading, mathematics, and attendance. It used an integrated administrative data system to create a combined data set of risks (i.e., birth risks, teen mother, low maternal education, homelessness, maltreatment, and lead exposure) for…

  18. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  20. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

  1. Maternal Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Down Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis from 34 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vandana; Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of folate metabolic pathway which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates methyl group for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Several studies have investigated maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a risk factor for DS, but the results were controversial and inconclusive. To come into a conclusive estimate, authors performed a meta-analysis. Aim A meta-analysis of published case control studies was performed to investigate the association between maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and Down syndrome. Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Springer Link databases were searched to select the eligible case control studies using appropriate keywords. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95%confidence interval were calculated for risk assessment. Results Thirty four studies with 3,098 DS case mothers and 4,852 control mothers were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled OR was estimated under five genetic models and significant association was found between maternal MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and Down syndrome under four genetic models except recessive model (for T vs. C, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.09–1.46, p = 0.001; for TT vs. CC, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13–1.97, p = 0.008; for CT vs. CC, OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.10–1.51, p = 0.001; for TT+CT vs. CC, OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60, p = 0.0008; for TT vs. CT+CC, OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60–0.94, p = 0.01). Conclusion The results of the present meta-analysis support that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for DS- affected pregnancy. PMID:25265565

  2. Maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, body mass index, and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, R.; Holly, J; Soothill, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.
METHODS—A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI); n = 25) or as being small for gestational age (SGA; normal umbilical artery PI, growth velocity and amniotic fluid; n = 27). Eighty nine controls had normal birthweights (5th-95th centile), umbilical artery PI, growth velocity, and amniotic fluid. IGFBP-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—Among the controls, there was no significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and birthweight after allowing for body mass index (BMI). Maternal BMI was high in FGR and after adjusting for this, IGFBP-1 was increased (109 ng/ml) compared with SGA babies (69ng/ml) and controls (57 ng/ml) and correlated with the umbilical artery PI.
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal IGFBP-1 is probably not part of normal placental function. Its increase in FGR could be the cause or consequence of impaired placental perfusion, but high IGFBP-1 concentrations might further reduce the availability of maternal IGF-I to the placenta. This could worsen placental function and so adversely affect fetal growth.
 PMID:10685983

  3. A longitudinal study to determine association of various maternal factors with neonatal birth weight at a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Akshay; Ray, Sougat; Patrikar, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal birth weight is a powerful predictor of infant growth and survival and maternal factors like poor knowledge and insufficient dietary intake are significant risk factors. Other preventable determinants like pre pregnant BMI <18.5, low gestational weight gain (GWG) and anemia are also associated with low birth weight. This study was carried out to identify the impact of these maternal factors with risk of low birth weight (LBW). Methods A longitudinal study was carried out on 124 booked antenatal cases at a tertiary care center. A validated protocol containing socio demography, food frequency and anthropometry was administered at the 3rd trimester. Birth weight of the newborn was noted after delivery. Results 26.28% children had low birth weight (<2500 g), 14.6% mothers were thin (BMI < 18.5), 55.3% mothers had a weight gain of less than 9 kgs and 45.5% were anemic. 81.81% mothers with BMI >18.5 and 28.92% women who were educated till high school had a baby with LBW. Most mothers consumed milk and vegetables daily and a few consumed non vegetarian foods but quality and quantity of food were grossly inadequate. GWG levels and Hb levels were significantly different in different birth weight groups and also were significantly associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Quality and quantity of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, even in normal weight mothers (BMI > 18.5), are important determinants of birth weight. Nutritional counseling for mothers during the antenatal period is the cornerstone for healthy mother and healthy child. PMID:26288495

  4. Suicide Risk Factors in Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motto, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    A current focus in evaluating suicide risk is the "clinical model" approach, which determines those factors associated with high risk for suicide. The sociological factors identified as estimators of suicide risk included impaired health, job instability, multiple unit residence, no change in living setting, and modest financial resources. (JAC)

  5. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  6. Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Skadhauge, Lars R; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Frydenberg, Morten; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration. Design The study is a prospective follow-up of a birth cohort. Setting and participants A total of 41 724 women and their children from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy and 18 months after pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was parent-reported asthma among their 7-year-old children in an internet-based questionnaire. Secondary outcome was asthma among the same children with or without atopic dermatitis and among boys and girls, respectively. Results Prenatal exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) agents was borderline associated with asthma in children with OR 1.17 (0.95 to 1.44) for children with atopic dermatitis and 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) for children without. Maternal postnatal exposure was associated with asthma (OR 1.15 (1.04 to 1.28). After mutual adjustment,postnatal exposure (OR 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) and the combined effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure (OR 1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)) seem to increase the risk of asthma in children. No significant associations were observed for other prenatal or postnatal exposures. The gender of the child did not modify the aforementioned associations. Conclusions Maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy do not seem to be a substantial risk factor for the development of asthma in 7-year-old children. Maternal prenatal and postnatal exposures to LMW agents may predispose the propensity of the children to develop asthma. Future studies should prioritise the characterisation of the timing of exposure in relation to the birth. PMID:23585388

  7. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rennae S.; Thompson, John M. D.; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Kenny, Louise C.; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive”) based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity. PMID:24995130

  8. Maternal Obesity, Uterine Activity, and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberg, Hugh M.; Iams, Jay D.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Newman, Roger B.; Weiner, Steven J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Dombrowski, Mitchell P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the associations between maternal obesity, uterine contraction frequency, and spontaneous preterm birth in at-risk women. METHODS In a secondary analysis, we analyzed data from 253 at-risk women (prior spontaneous preterm birth, vaginal bleeding) enrolled in a multi-center observational study of home uterine activity monitoring at 11 centers. All women wore a uterine activity monitor twice daily from 22 through 34 weeks of gestation. Mean and maximal contractions/hour at 22-24, 25-26, 27-28, 29-30, 31-32, and at or after 33 weeks of gestation were compared between overweight/obese women (a BMI at 22-24 weeks greater than 25 kg/m2) and normal/underweight women (a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2) at each gestational age interval. Multivariable analysis evaluated the influences of BMI, contractions, fetal fibronectin and transvaginal cervical length on spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks. RESULTS Obese/overweight women (n=156) were significantly less likely to experience spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks (8.3 vs 21.7%, p<0.01). For each gestational age interval before 32 weeks, obese/overweight women had fewer mean contractions/hour (P<0.01 for each) and maximal contractions/hour (p<0.01 for each) than normal/underweight women, although their mean cervical lengths (34.3 vs 33.1 mm, p=0.25), and fetal fibronectin levels (7.1% vs. 7.2% ≥50 ng/mL, p=0.97) were similar at study enrollment. Obese/overweight status was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks after controlling for contraction frequency and other factors evaluated at 22-24 and 31-32 weeks, but not at later time periods. CONCLUSION Obese/overweight women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth exhibit less uterine activity and less frequent spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks of gestation than normal/underweight women. PMID:19104359

  9. Reported maternal postpartum depression and risk of childhood psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Meghan J; Davis, Caroline; Al-Sahab, Ban; Tamim, Hala

    2013-07-01

    Childhood emotional and behavioural disorders are prevalent, can cause significant maladaptation and often persist into adulthood. Previous literature investigating the potential influence of postpartum depression (PPD) is inconsistent. The present study examined the association between PPD and childhood behavioural/emotional outcomes, while considering a number of potentially important factors. Data were analyzed prospectively from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth at two follow-up periods (ages 2-3, N = 1,452 and ages 4-5, N = 1,357). PPD was measured using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV-TR. Four behavioural/emotional outcomes were analyzed at each follow-up. For both age groups, logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between PPD and each of the behavioural and emotional outcomes adjusting for child, obstetric, environmental and socio-demographic factors. PPD was associated with the Emotional Disorder-Anxiety among 2-3 year olds [OR = 2.38, 95 % CI 1.15, 4.91]. Among 2-3 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.11] and Physical Aggression-Opposition [OR = 2.95, 95 % CI 1.77, 4.92]. Among 4-5 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.22, 4.47], Emotional Disorder-Anxiety [OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.00, 4.67], Physical Aggression-Conduct Disorder [OR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.53] and Indirect Aggression [OR = 1.87, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.21]. The findings of the present study do not suggest that PPD is independently associated with any enduring sequelae in the realm of child behavioural/emotional psychology, though the symptoms of PPD may be giving way to other important mediating factors such as parenting style.

  10. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  11. Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

  12. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  13. Factors influencing maternal nutrition in rural Nepal: an exploratory research project.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Jean E; Bernell, Stephanie L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Long, Marie L

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot project we examined factors contributing to maternal nutrition among women of child-bearing age in the Western Region of Nepal. We found that rural women are interested in learning about nutrition regardless of educational attainment and that level of education is strongly associated with interest in learning about nutrition (p <.001). Although the majority of women with no education expressed interest in learning about nutrition (71%), a substantial percentage (22%) were not interested. Education and the teaching of basic health messages may hold important benefits for improving maternal and child health.

  14. Risk Factors For Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, Yüksel; KURT, Semiha; KARAER ÜNALDI, Hatice; ERKORKMAZ, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for distal symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Method Sixty seven patients with type 2 DM (33 males and 34 females) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was administered to all patients and their total neuropathy scores were calculated. Nerve conduction examinations were performed for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.83±.87 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value was 8.56±2.07% (normal: 3–6.5%). The total neuropathy score significantly correlated with diabetes duration, hypertension, retinopathy, and HbA1C. Conclusion This study confirms the previous reports regarding the association of neuropathy with poor glycaemic control and duration of the disease. The association of neuropathy with retinopathy and hypertension is important.

  15. High maternal serum ferritin in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Collins, Clare E; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan M; Powell, Katie L; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2015-08-14

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between maternal serum ferritin concentrations and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Fe biomarkers, including serum ferritin concentrations, and the risk of total ( 75th percentile ( ≥ 43 μg/l) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) and >90th percentile ( ≥ 68 μg/l) (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.25, 2.96). Increased odds of early and moderate-to-late sPTB were associated with ferritin levels >90th percentile (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32, 4.73) and >75th percentile (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03, 2.37), respectively. No association was found between the risk of sPTB and elevated sTfR levels or Fe deficiency. In conclusion, elevated maternal serum ferritin levels in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of sPTB from 34 weeks of gestation. The usefulness of early pregnancy ferritin levels in identifying women at risk of sPTB warrants further investigation.

  16. Maternal folate and other vitamin supplementation during pregnancy and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Milne, Elizabeth; Royle, Jill A; Miller, Margaret; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Bailey, Helen D; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Attia, John; Scott, Rodney J; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle; Thompson, Judith R; Fritschi, Lin; Marshall, Glenn M; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2010-06-01

    The Australian Study of Causes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children (Aus-ALL) was designed to test the hypothesis, raised by a previous Western Australian study, that maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy might reduce the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Aus-ALL was a national, population-based, multicenter case-control study that prospectively recruited 416 cases and 1,361 controls between 2003 and 2007. Detailed information was collected about maternal use of folic acid and other vitamin supplements before and during the index pregnancy. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. A meta-analysis with the results of previous studies of folic acid supplementation was also conducted. We found weak evidence of a protective effect of maternal folate supplementation before pregnancy against risk of childhood ALL, but no evidence for a protective effect of its use during pregnancy. A meta-analysis including this and 2 other studies, but not the study that raised the hypothesis, also found little evidence that folate supplementation during pregnancy protects against ALL: the summary odds ratios (ORs) for folate supplementation were 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.48] with reference to no folate supplementation and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.86-1.20) with reference to no vitamin supplementation. For vitamin supplementation in general, the summary OR from a meta-analysis of 5 studies-including Aus-ALL-was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73-0.94). Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy may protect against childhood ALL, but this effect is unlikely to be large or, if real, specifically due to folate.

  17. Maternal Glycemia and Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Babies in a Population-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kerényi, Zsuzsa; Tamás, Gyula; Kivimäki, Mika; Péterfalvi, Andrea; Madarász, Eszter; Bosnyák, Zsolt; Tabák, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns, but many LGA babies are born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance. We aimed to clarify the association of maternal glycemia across the whole distribution with birth weight and risk of LGA births in mothers with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a population-based gestational diabetes screening in an urban area of Hungary in 2002–2005. All singleton pregnancies of mothers ≥18 years of age, without known diabetes or gestational diabetes (World Health Organization criteria) and data on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 22–30 weeks of gestation, were included (n = 3,787, 78.9% of the target population). LGA was determined as birth weight greater than the 90th percentile using national sex- and gestational age–specific charts. RESULTS Mean ± SD maternal age was 30 ± 4 years, BMI was 22.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose was 4.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l, and postload glucose was 5.5 ± 1.0 mmol/l. The mean birth weight was 3,450 ± 476 g at 39.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation. There was a U-shaped association of maternal fasting glucose with birth weight (Pcurve = 0.004) and risk of having an LGA baby (lowest values between 4 and 4.5 mmol/l, Pcurve = 0.0004) with little change after adjustments for clinical characteristics. The association of postload glucose with birth weight (P = 0.03) and the risk of an LGA baby (P = 0.09) was weaker and linear. CONCLUSIONS Both low and high fasting glucose values at 22–30 weeks of gestation are associated with increased risk of an LGA newborn. We suggest that the excess risk related to low glucose reflects the increased use of nutrients by LGA fetuses that also affects the mothers' fasting glucose. PMID:19729526

  18. Comorbidities of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Pregnancy Risk Factors and Parent Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Silva, Desiree; Houghton, Stephen; Hagemann, Erika; Bower, Carol

    2015-08-01

    Our study examined the risk of maternal smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy associated with child comorbidity in a community sample of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a cross sectional community retrospective questionnaire of 321 children diagnosed with ADHD. Our results suggest that maternal smoking increased the risk of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) in children with ADHD twofold (OR 2.27; CI 1.29-4.11). Maternal alcohol consumption increased the risk although not significantly for ADHD child comorbid ODB, anxiety disorder and depression. Parent mental health significantly impacted on child comorbidity. Our study suggests that smoking in pregnancy is associated with comorbid ODB, independent of parent mental health, family history of ADHD and socioeconomic factors. Parent mental health is independently associated with comorbid ODB, anxiety disorder and depression.

  19. "It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-04-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development.

  20. Maternal Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Women with Preeclampsia in Maceió, Alagoas

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque; Bezerra, Alexandra Rodrigues; de Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne Machado

    2016-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia has been associated with several risk factors and events. However, it still deserves further investigation, considering the multitude of related factors that affect different populations. Objective To evaluate the maternal factors and adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women with preeclampsia receiving care in the public health network of the city of Maceió. Methods Prospective cohort study carried out in 2014 in the public health network of the city with a sample of pregnant women calculated based on a prevalence of preeclampsia of 17%, confidence level of 90%, power of 80%, and ratio of 1:1. We applied a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic, personal, and anthropometric data, and retrieved perinatal variables from medical records and certificates of live birth. The analysis was performed with Poisson regression and chi-square test considering p values < 0.05 as significant. Results We evaluated 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP). A previous history of preeclampsia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.47 - 1.67, p = 0.000) and black skin color (PR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 - 1.33, p = 0.040) were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Among the newborns of PWP and PWoP, respectively, 12.5% and 13.1% (p = 0.907) were small for gestational age and 25.0% and 23.2% (p = 0.994) were large for gestational age. There was a predominance of cesarean delivery. Conclusion Personal history of preeclampsia and black skin color were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. There was a high frequency of birth weight deviations and cesarean deliveries. PMID:26761076

  1. Scheduled cesarean delivery: maternal and neonatal risks in primiparous women in a community hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Chang, Howard; Blomquist, Joan L; Okoh, Yvonne K; Handa, Victoria L

    2009-04-01

    We compared the short-term maternal and neonatal outcomes of women who deliver by cesarean without labor compared with women who deliver by cesarean after labor or by vaginal birth. This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivering a first baby from 1998 to 2002. Hospital discharge diagnostic coding identified unlabored cesarean deliveries (UCDs), labored cesarean deliveries (LCDs), and vaginal births (VBs). Medical records were abstracted and mode of delivery confirmed. The three outcomes of interest were maternal bleeding complications, maternal febrile morbidity, and neonatal respiratory complications. Using logistic regression for each outcome, we investigated whether mode of delivery was associated with the outcome, independent of other factors. The study groups included 513 UCDs, 261 LCDs, and 251 VBs. Compared with the UCD group, the adjusted odds of bleeding complications was higher in the LCD comparison group (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21, 4.53) and the VB comparison group (OR 1.96; 95% CI 0.95, 4.02). The incidence of febrile morbidity was similar for both cesarean groups but lower in the VB group. Both comparison groups had lower odds of neonatal complications than the UCD group (OR for LCD comparison group 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.95 and OR for VB comparison group 0.26; 95% CI 0.098, 0.59). Scheduled cesarean is associated with increased odds of neonatal respiratory complications but decreased odds of maternal bleeding complications.

  2. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  3. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  4. Maternal growth factor regulation of human placental development and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Karen; Westwood, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Normal development and function of the placenta is critical to achieving a successful pregnancy, as normal fetal growth depends directly on the transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus via this organ. Recently, it has become apparent from both animal and human studies that growth factors within the maternal circulation, for example the IGFs, are important regulators of placental development and function. Although these factors act via distinct receptors to exert their effects, the downstream molecules activated upon ligand/receptor interaction are common to many growth factors. The expression of numerous signaling molecules is altered in the placentas from pregnancies affected by the fetal growth complications, fetal growth restriction, and macrosomia. Thus, targeting these molecules may lead to more effective treatments for complications of pregnancy associated with altered placental development. Here, we review the maternal growth factors required for placental development and discuss their mechanism of action.

  5. Fetal exposure to maternal stress and risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders among offspring: Differential influences of fetal sex

    PubMed Central

    Fineberg, Anna M.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Maxwell, Seth D.; Shen, Ling; Chaudhury, Nashid; Cook, Aundrea L.; Bresnahan, Michaeline A.; Susser, Ezra S.; Brown, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to adverse life events during pregnancy has been linked to increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) in offspring. Nevertheless, much of the previous work inferred maternal stress from severe life events rather than directly assessing maternal reports of stress. The present study aimed to examine maternal reports of stress during pregnancy and risk for offspring SSD. Participants were 95 SSD cases and 206 controls who were offspring from a large birth cohort study that followed pregnant women from 1959–1966. During pregnancy interviews, women were asked if anything worrisome had occurred recently. Interviews were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes, including reports of daily life stress, by two independent raters. None of the maternal psychosocial stress themes were significantly associated with increased odds of offspring SSD in analyses of the full sample. However, results indicated a significant daily life stress by infant sex interaction. Maternal daily life stress during pregnancy was associated with significantly increased odds of SSD among male offspring. Findings suggest sex-specific fetal sensitivity to maternal reported daily life stress during pregnancy on risk for SSD, with males appearing to be more vulnerable to the influences of maternal stress during pregnancy. PMID:26753951

  6. Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-04-01

    The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB.

  7. MATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, DEPRESSION AND PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATION USE IN RELATION TO RISK OF PRETERM DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amelia R.; Holzman, Claudia; Siefert, Kristine; Tian, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examined associations among maternal depression, measured in several ways, psychiatric medication use in pregnancy, and preterm delivery (PTD). Methods Data were from 3,019 women enrolled in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (1998–2004), a prospective study of pregnant women in five Michigan communities. Information on depressive symptoms, history of depression and psychiatric medication use was ascertained through interviews at mid-pregnancy. These variables and other relevant covariates were incorporated into regression models with a binary outcome, i.e., term (≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) as referent and PTD (< 37 weeks’ gestation). A second set of models used a multi-category outcome, i.e., term as referent and PTD further subdivided by gestational weeks and clinical circumstances. Main Findings The odds of overall PTD was increased among women who used psychiatric medication during pregnancy and had either elevated levels of depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0 [95% CI 1.1, 3.6]) or a history of depression prior to pregnancy (AOR= 1.6 [95% CI 1.1, 2.5]). The combination of psychiatric medication use in pregnancy and depression, prior to pregnancy or within pregnancy, was most strongly linked to a medically indicated delivery at < 35 weeks’ gestation (AOR 2.9 and 3.6 respectively). Conclusions There are at least two plausible explanations for these findings. First, psychiatric medication use in pregnancy may pose an excess risk of PTD. Second, medication use may be an indicator of depressive symptom severity, which is a direct or indirect (i.e., alters behavior) contributing factor to PTD. PMID:19733802

  8. Maternal-Fetal Cancer Risk Assessment of Ochratoxin A during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Chit Shing Jackson; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-03-23

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that in utero exposure to environmental chemicals may interfere with fetal development and increase the risk of disease and cancer development later in life. Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been proven to induce diverse toxic effects including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity and potential endocrine disruption. Due to the continuous and widespread occurrence of OTA as a potential contaminant of staple foods, there is increasing concern of in utero exposure of fetus to this mycotoxin. In this study, maternal-fetal risk assessment of OTA during pregnancy was conducted using the benchmark dose approach for genotoxic carcinogens. The daily intake of OTA for Egyptian pregnant women was estimated based on their serum OTA level using the refined Klaassen equation for pregnancy. Fetal exposure level was also estimated based on the maternal data. Comparison between the estimated daily exposure and the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and the calculation of margin of exposure (MOE) implicated that OTA exposure from dietary intake would be of low health concern for this general subpopulation of Egyptian women. This subpopulation of pregnant women was generally estimated not to be in high-risk for toxicity induced by OTA.

  9. Conjugated Bisphenol A (BPA) in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Liebert, Cara A.; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Julia A.; Saal, Frederick S. vom; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration at the time of the missed period and miscarriage risk. Design Retrospective cohort of prospectively collected serum samples. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients Women presenting for early pregnancy monitoring with singleton pregnancies. Intervention Stored serum samples from 4-5 weeks gestation were analyzed for conjugated serum BPA concentrations. Main Outcomes Live birth, miscarriage, and chromosome content of miscarriage. Results Of the 115 included subjects, there were 47 live births and 68 clinical miscarriages (46 aneuploid and 22 euploid). Median conjugated BPA concentrations were higher in women with miscarriages than those with live births (0.101 vs 0.075 ng/ml). Women with the highest quartile of conjugated BPA had an increased relative risk of miscarriage (1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.96) compared to women in the lowest quartile. We found a similar increase risk for both euploid and aneuploid miscarriages. Conclusions Maternal conjugated BPA was associated with higher risk of aneuploid and euploid miscarriage in this cohort. The impact of reducing individual exposures on future pregnancy outcomes deserves further study. PMID:24746738

  10. Maternal-Fetal Cancer Risk Assessment of Ochratoxin A during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chit Shing Jackson; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that in utero exposure to environmental chemicals may interfere with fetal development and increase the risk of disease and cancer development later in life. Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been proven to induce diverse toxic effects including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity and potential endocrine disruption. Due to the continuous and widespread occurrence of OTA as a potential contaminant of staple foods, there is increasing concern of in utero exposure of fetus to this mycotoxin. In this study, maternal-fetal risk assessment of OTA during pregnancy was conducted using the benchmark dose approach for genotoxic carcinogens. The daily intake of OTA for Egyptian pregnant women was estimated based on their serum OTA level using the refined Klaassen equation for pregnancy. Fetal exposure level was also estimated based on the maternal data. Comparison between the estimated daily exposure and the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and the calculation of margin of exposure (MOE) implicated that OTA exposure from dietary intake would be of low health concern for this general subpopulation of Egyptian women. This subpopulation of pregnant women was generally estimated not to be in high-risk for toxicity induced by OTA. PMID:27023600

  11. Breaking cycles of risk: The mitigating role of maternal working memory in associations among socioeconomic status, early caregiving, and children's working memory.

    PubMed

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Skibo, Michael A

    2016-12-20

    Previous research has documented socioeconomic-related disparities in children's working memory; however, the putative proximal caregiving mechanisms that underlie these effects are less known. The present study sought to examine whether the effects of early family socioeconomic status on children's working memory were mediated through experiences of caregiving, specifically maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness. Utilizing a psychobiological framework of parenting, the present study also tested whether maternal working memory moderated the initial paths between the family socioeconomic context and maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness in the mediation model. The sample included 185 socioeconomically diverse mother-child dyads assessed when children were 3.5 and 5 years old. Results demonstrated that maternal harsh discipline was a unique mediator of the relation between early experiences of family socioeconomic adversity and lower working memory outcomes in children. Individual differences in maternal working memory emerged as a potent individual difference factor that specifically moderated the mediating influence of harsh discipline within low socioeconomic contexts. The findings have implications for early risk processes underlying deficits in child working memory outcomes and potential targets for parent-child interventions.

  12. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  13. The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth.

  14. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Preterm Birth and Its Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Anna K.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is a biological measure predictive of a normal or pathogenic process or response. Biomarkers are often useful for making clinical decisions and determining treatment course. One area where such biomarkers would be particularly useful is in identifying women at risk for preterm delivery and related pregnancy complications. Neonates born preterm have significant morbidity and mortality, both in the perinatal period and throughout the life course, and identifying women at risk of delivering preterm may allow for targeted interventions to prevent or delay preterm birth (PTB). In addition to identifying those at increased risk for preterm birth, biomarkers may be able to distinguish neonates at particular risk for future complications due to modifiable environmental factors, such as maternal smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. Currently, there are no such biomarkers available, though candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies have identified DNA methylation differences associated with PTB, its risk factors and its long-term outcomes. Further biomarker development is crucial to reducing the health burden associated with adverse intrauterine conditions and preterm birth, and the results of recent DNA methylation studies may advance that goal. PMID:27089367

  15. Preimplantation embryo-secreted factors modulate maternal gene expression in rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Kazuki; Islam, M Rashedul; Yoshii, Yuka; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian reproduction, embryo implantation into the uterus is spatiotemporally regulated by a complex process triggered by a number of factors. Although previous studies have suggested that uterine receptivity is mediated by blastocyst-derived factors, specific functions of embryos remain to be defined during preimplantation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify the maternal genes regulated by embryo-secreted factors in the rat uterus. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that 10 genes are up-regulated in the delayed implantation uterus compared with the pseudopregnancy uterus. The RNA-seq results were further verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Sulf1 expression is significantly (P < 0.05) induced in the delayed implantation uterus, although Areg, Calca, Fxyd4 and Lamc3 show a definite but non-statistically significant increase in their expression levels. During early pregnancy, the levels of Areg, Calca, Fxyd4, Lamc3 and Sulf1 expression at 3.5 days post coitus (dpc) are significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those at 1.5 dpc. Treatment with embryo-conditioned media revealed that Lamc3 and Sulf1 are up-regulated compared with the other genes studied. Thus, embryo-derived factors regulate maternal gene expression, with Lamc3 and Sulf1 possibly being suitable markers for a response study of embryo-secreted factors to improve our understanding of embryo-maternal communication.

  16. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  17. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  18. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  19. Risk factors for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Weeda, Wouter D; Buitelaar, Jan K; Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-03-10

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with both ADHD and ODD (ADHD + ODD) show a considerably worse prognosis compared with individuals with either ADHD or ODD. Therefore, identification of risk factors for ADHD + ODD is essential and may contribute to the development of (early) preventive interventions. Participants were matched for age, gender, and ADHD-subtype (diagnostic groups), and did not differ in IQ. Predictors included pre- and perinatal risk factors (pregnancy duration, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy), transgenerational factors (parental ADHD; parental warmth and criticism in diagnostic groups), and postnatal risk factors (parental socioeconomic status [SES], adverse life events, deviant peer affiliation). Three models were assessed, investigating risk factors for ADHD-only versus controls (N = 86), ADHD + ODD versus controls (N = 86), and ADHD + ODD versus ADHD-only (N = 90). Adverse life events and parental ADHD were risk factors for both ADHD + ODD and ADHD-only, and more adverse life events were an even stronger risk factor for comorbid ODD compared with ADHD-only. For ADHD + ODD, but not ADHD-only, parental criticism, deviant peer affiliation, and parental SES acted as risk factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy acted as minor risk factor for ADHD-only, while higher birth weight acted as minor risk factor for ADHD + ODD. No effects of age were present. Findings emphasise the importance of these factors in the development of comorbid ODD. The identified risk factors may prove to be essential in preventive interventions for comorbid ODD in ADHD, highlighting the need for parent-focused interventions to take these factors into account.

  20. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  1. What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... at some workplaces that increase risk include asbestos, arsenic, diesel exhaust, and some forms of silica and ... For more information, visit Lung Cancer Prevention. Also, arsenic in drinking water (primarily from private wells) can ...

  2. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  3. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  4. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  5. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  6. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-05-25

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.

  7. Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

  8. Antiangiogenic factors and maternal hemodynamics during intensive hemodialysis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc; Beerenhout, Charles; Perschel, Frank H; Verlohren, Stefan; Schalkwijk, Casper G; van der Sande, Frank M; Kooman, Jeroen P; Hladunewich, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    We report on a 21-year-old pregnant patient with IgA nephropathy who was initiated on intensive hemodialysis (8 hours of hemodialysis 3 times a week) at a gestational age of 26 weeks on the basis of worsening kidney function resulting in rapidly progressive fatigue and difficulties in metabolic control. Throughout the pregnancy, and while on intensive hemodialysis, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure control was within the target, and results of weekly 24-hour measurement of central hemodynamics and pulse wave velocity, and of serial levels of circulating (anti-)angiogenic factors were comparable to normal pregnancies. Estimated fetal growth evolved along the 50th percentile, and no polyhydramnios was detected. After induction for a sudden, unexplained increase in blood pressure, she delivered a healthy boy of 2480 g at a gestational age of 36 weeks. This case adds to the expanding literature that supports the use of intensive hemodialysis in pregnant patients with end-stage renal disease and illustrates, for the first time, the potential use of serial (anti-) angiogenic factors and 24-hour measurements of blood pressure and hemodynamic indices in order to facilitate monitoring of these complicated patients.

  9. Maternal and foetal outcome after epidural labour analgesia in high-risk pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sukhen; Jain, Kajal; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Vanita; Samanta, Sujay; Saha, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Low concentration local anaesthetic improves uteroplacental blood flow in antenatal period and during labour in preeclampsia. We compared neonatal outcome after epidural ropivacaine plus fentanyl with intramuscular tramadol analgesia during labour in high-risk parturients with intrauterine growth restriction of mixed aetiology. Methods: Forty-eight parturients with sonographic evidence of foetal weight <1.5 kg were enrolled in this non-randomized, double-blinded prospective study. The epidural (E) group received 0.15% ropivacaine 10 ml with 30 μg fentanyl incremental bolus followed by 7–15 ml 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl in continuous infusion titrated until visual analogue scale was three. Tramadol (T) group received intramuscular tramadol 1 mg/kg as bolus as well as maintenance 4–6 hourly. Neonatal outcomes were measured with cord blood base deficit, pH, ionised calcium, sugar and Apgar score after delivery. Maternal satisfaction was also assessed by four point subjective score. Results: Baseline maternal demographics and neonatal birth weight were comparable. Neonatal cord blood pH, base deficit, sugar, and ionised calcium levels were significantly improved in the epidural group in comparison to the tramadol group. Maternal satisfaction (P = 0.0001) regarding labour analgesia in epidural group was expressed as excellent by 48%, good by 52% whereas it was fair in 75% and poor in 25% in the tramadol group. Better haemodynamic and pain scores were reported in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural labour analgesia with low concentration local anaesthetic is associated with less neonatal cord blood acidaemia, better sugar and ionised calcium levels. The analgesic efficacy and maternal satisfaction are also better with epidural labour analgesia. PMID:27013750

  10. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  11. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  12. Prenatal exposure to elevated maternal body temperature and risk of epilepsy in childhood: a population-based pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Elevated maternal body temperature during pregnancy is of clinical concern as side effects have been reported. We estimated the association between maternal fever and sauna bathing during pregnancy and risk of epilepsy in the offspring. We identified 86,810 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and followed them for up to 9 years of age. Information on fever including number, timing, level, duration, and symptoms of each fever episodes was collected in two computer-assisted telephone interviews around 17 and 32 gestational weeks; information on maternal use of a sauna was collected in the latter interview, and information on epilepsy was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register. We applied Cox regression models to estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of epilepsy for children exposed to maternal fever and sauna bathing during pregnancy. Maternal sauna bathing during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. Maternal fever during pregnancy in general was not associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in the offspring [IRR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85, 1.19], and no dose-response pattern was found according to number, level and duration of fever. However we did find an increased risk of epilepsy among children exposed to at least 3 fever episodes (IRR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.19, 2.98), to maternal fever with symptoms in the urinary system (IRR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.56, 15.17), and to one-day maternal fever of 39.0-39.4°C (IRR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.60, 4.84). Our findings do not support a strong association between hyperthermia and epilepsy but the associations between underlying causes of fever, especially prenatal infections, call for more research.

  13. Differential Genetic Susceptibility to Child Risk at Birth in Predicting Observed Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Keren; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mankuta, David; Kaitz, Marsha; Avinun, Reut; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4). Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE). Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk) on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others. PMID:21603618

  14. Risk factors for isolated biliary atresia, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2002.

    PubMed

    The, Natalie S; Honein, Margaret A; Caton, Alissa R; Moore, Cynthia A; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2007-10-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare birth defect that affects 1 in 12,000 to 1 in 19,500 live births. We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate case-control study, to identify potential risk factors for isolated biliary atresia (no additional unrelated major birth defects diagnosed). Infants were identified from eight states from 1997 to 2002, with clinical information abstracted from medical records. Potential risk factors assessed include: demographic factors, seasonality, preterm birth, maternal smoking, maternal alcohol use, maternal illicit drug use, maternal health, maternal medication use, maternal vitamin use, and maternal nutrition. Infants of non-Hispanic black mothers were more likely to have biliary atresia than infants of non-Hispanic white mothers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-4.93) and infants conceived during the spring season were more likely to have biliary atresia than infants conceived in winter (aOR = 2.33, 95%CI 1.05-5.16). Low intakes of vitamin E, copper, phosphorus, and beta tocopherol were associated with the occurrence of isolated biliary atresia (borderline significance). Low iron intake had a borderline inverse association with biliary atresia. While this analysis provides support for previous reports of a possible association between seasonal variation and the occurrence of biliary atresia, more data are needed to evaluate whether the seasonal variation is related to infectious agents. The role of nutrients in the development of biliary atresia remains unclear. Further studies of genetic, infectious, and nutrient exposures and the association of biliary atresia are warranted.

  15. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    PubMed

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  16. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  17. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  18. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  19. Low Birth Weight and Its Related Risk Factors in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi; Ajami, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Sadeghian, Afsaneh; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and its related risk factors in an appropriate sample of neonates in Shahroud, northeast Iran. Methods At this study, a random sample of 1000 neonates were selected of which 72 neonates were LBWs. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to evaluate the LBW risk factors in LBWs compared to normal weight infants. Findings 7.2% of neonates were LBWs and 6.1% born before 37 weeks of gestation. Prematurity, high-risk pregnancy and maternal age have significant statistical association with LBW. Odds Ratio (OR) for prematurity was 42.82 (95%CI; 21.93-83.57), for high risk pregnancy 2.76 (95%CI; 1.47-5.19) and for maternal age group more than 35 years in comparison to 19-35 years age group 0.2 (95%CI; 0.05-0.71). Conclusion Based on this study; prematurity and high risk pregnancy were the most important risk factors for LBW. There was also a reverse association between maternal age and LBW. PMID:24910751

  20. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a New Jersey cohort.

    PubMed

    Maramara, Lauren A; He, Wenzhuan; Ming, Xue

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of pre- and perinatal risk factors in a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders compared with the New Jersey population. Our cohort included 268 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Birth histories were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The autism spectrum disorders cohort rates of 7 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher than New Jersey state rates: mother's age 35 years or older, low birth weight, multiple gestation, prematurity, vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, and hypoxia. Analysis of clustering of risk factors in the cohort showed no significant differences across maternal and paternal age groups. Older mothers in the cohort had a higher risk of infant hypoxia. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy appear to be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring, supporting the hypothesis that environmental influences in conjunction with genetics contribute to the causes of autism spectrum disorders.

  1. Maternal heme oxygenase 1 regulates placental vasculature development via angiogenic factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Azuma, Junya; Kalish, Flora; Wong, Ronald J; Stevenson, David K

    2011-11-01

    The placental vasculature is critical for nutrient, gas, and waste exchange between the maternal and fetal systems. Its development depends on the proper expression and interaction of angiogenesis and associated growth factors. Heme oxygenase (HMOX), the enzyme for heme degradation, plays a role in angiogenesis and is highly expressed in the placenta. To evaluate the role of maternal HMOX1, the inducible HMOX isozyme, on placental vasculature formation, mice with a partial deficiency in Hmox1 (Hmox1(+/-)) were used. Three-dimensional images of placental vasculatures as well as spiral arteries from Hmox1(+/+) or Hmox1(+/-) placentas were created by vascular corrosion casting technique and imaged by micro-computerized tomography (microCT). The structures and morphologies of fetomaternal interfaces were observed by histological staining and the ultrastructure of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, a major regulator in spiral artery remodeling, was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A group of growth factors and angiogenic factors from the decidua/mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) as well as labyrinth regions were quantified using an angiogenesis PCR array kit and compared between Hmox1(+/+) or Hmox1(+/-) placentas. In conclusion, a partial deficiency of maternal Hmox1 resulted in the malformation of fetomaternal interface, insufficiency of spiral artery remodeling, and alteration of uNK cell differentiation and maturation. These changes were independent of the fetal genotype, but relied on the maternal HMOX1 level, which determined the balance of expression levels of pro- and antiangiogenic factors in the decidua/MLAp region. These results implied that Hmox1 polymorphisms among the human population might contribute to some unexplained cases of pregnancy disorders, such as fetal growth retardation and preeclampsia.

  2. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation.

  3. Understanding early contextual and parental risk factors for the development of limited prosocial emotions

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on ‘limited prosocial emotions’ (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10–12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10–12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10–12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10–12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  4. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment.

  5. Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include tobacco use, physical inactivity, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients never achieve adequate control of CVD risk factors even when these factors have been identified. In addition, the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) threatens to undermine the improvements in CVD that have been achieved. In the United States, approximately two thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and even modest excess body weight is associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD-related mortality. Lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss reduce the risk of CVD-related illness but are difficult for patients to sustain over long periods of time. The increased incidence of obesity has also contributed to significant increases in the prevalence of other important CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 DM. Pharmacologic therapies are currently available to address individual CVD risk factors, and others are being evaluated, including endocannabinoid receptor antagonists, inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes alpha and gamma, and several agents that modulate the activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. The new agents have the potential to significantly improve several CVD risk factors with a single medication and may provide clinicians with several new strategies to reduce the long-term risk of CVD.

  6. Atherosclerosis risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from initial endothelial dysfunction to rupture of atheromatous plaques. The increased frequency of atherosclerosis in SLE is likely due to a complex interplay among traditional risk factors, disease-related factors such as medications and disease activity, and inflammatory and immunogenic factors. Identification of these novel risk factors will lead to a better understanding of CVD pathogenesis and may also provide targets for potential treatment strategies. When caring for SLE patients, clinicians should be aware of the increased CVD risk and treat the known modifiable risk factors in addition to controlling disease activity and inflammation.

  7. Risk factors for perinatal mortality in Murmansk County, Russia: a registry-based study

    PubMed Central

    Usynina, Anna A.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Krettek, Alexandra; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.; Anda, Erik Eik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Factors contributing to perinatal mortality (PM) in Northwest Russia remain unclear. This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry. Objective: This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry. Methods: The study population consisted of all live- and stillbirths registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry during 2006–2011 (n = 52,806). We excluded multiple births, births prior to 22 and after 45 completed weeks of gestation, infants with congenital malformations, and births with missing information regarding gestational age (a total of n = 3,666) and/or the studied characteristics (n = 2,356). Possible associations between maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, maternal pre-pregnancy characteristics, pregnancy characteristics, and PM were studied by multivariable logistic regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 49,140 births eligible for prevalence analysis, 338 were identified as perinatal deaths (6.9 per 1,000 births). After adjustment for other factors, maternal low education level, prior preterm delivery, spontaneous or induced abortions, antepartum hemorrhage, antenatally detected or suspected fetal growth retardation, and alcohol abuse during pregnancy all significantly increased the risk of PM. We observed a higher risk of PM in unmarried women, as well as overweight or obese mothers. Maternal underweight reduced the risk of PM. Conclusions: Our results suggest that both social and medical factors are important correlates of perinatal mortality in Northwest Russia. PMID:28156197

  8. Maternal Age at First Birth and Boys' Risk for Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Green, Stephanie M.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2000-01-01

    Studied multigenerational links between maternal history of problem behavior, mother's age at birth of first child, and child conduct disorder in boys. Found that maternal age at first birth was associated with child's conduct disorder, and maternal history of problem behavior was also associated with early maternal age at first birth and the…

  9. First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term. PMID:18539259

  10. Maternal risk behavior and caries incidence in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Soares, Felipe Fagundes; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Carvalho, Anderson Santos; Brito, Maria Goretti Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. A total of 295 children aged 6 to 60 months participated in this cohort conducted from August 2007 to December 2008. They were diagnosed and monitored by the referral service of the state. Interviews were made with families to identify sociodemographic variables, and an oral exam was performed to determine dental caries. The SRQ (Self Report Questionnaire) scale was used to diagnose the presence of common mental disorders, and the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye opener) was applied to determine abusive use of alcohol. The absolute and relative frequencies of the variables of interest were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann-Whitney, with a 5% significance level. The incidence variables were analyzed according to the logistic regression model, with a confidence interval of 95%. Caries incidence (1.98; SD = 4.68) was higher in the HbSS genotype. There was a statistically significant association between caries incidence and both abusive use of alcohol (32.43%, RR = 1.99; 1.05-3.78; 95%CI) and common mental disorders (8.77% RR = 0.37; 0.15-0.93; 95%CI). There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior, indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease.

  11. Maternal infection and risk of intrapartum death: a population based observational study in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.2 million stillbirths occur in the intrapartum period, and a further 717,000 annual neonatal deaths are caused by intrapartum events, most of which occur in resource poor settings. We aim to test the ‘double-hit’ hypothesis that maternal infection in the perinatal period predisposes to neurodevelopmental sequelae from an intrapartum asphyxia insult, increasing the likelihood of an early neonatal death compared with asphyxia alone. This is an observational study of singleton newborn infants with signs of intrapartum asphyxia that uses data from three previously conducted cluster randomized controlled trials taking place in rural Bangladesh and India. Methods From a population of 81,778 births in 54 community clusters in rural Bangladesh and India, we applied mixed effects logistic regression to data on 3890 singleton infants who had signs of intrapartum asphyxia, of whom 769 (20%) died in the early neonatal period. Poor infant condition at five minutes post-delivery was our proxy measure of intrapartum asphyxia. We had data for two markers of maternal infection: fever up to three days prior to labour, and prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM). Cause-specific verbal autopsy data were used to validate our findings using previously mentioned mixed effect logistic regression methods and the outcome of a neonatal death due to intrapartum asphyxia. Results Signs of maternal infection as indicated by PROM, combined with intrapartum asphyxia, increased the risk of an early neonatal death relative to intrapartum asphyxia alone (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.59). Results from cause-specific verbal autopsy data verified our findings where there was a significantly increased odds of a early neonatal death due to intrapartum asphyxia in newborns exposed to both PROM and intrapartum asphyxia (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.15 – 2.02). Conclusions Our data support the double-hit hypothesis for signs of maternal infection as indicated by

  12. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  13. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Helena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited prior studies have evaluated circulating androgens and risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one prior study. Further, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histologic subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations with the histologic subtypes of EOC. We identified 1,052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2,694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI]. Associations between hormones and EOC differed by tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors, however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with ~40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% risk increase for mucinous tumors. Risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher estradiol concentrations (OR: 1.89 [1.20-2.98]). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries. PMID:25270324

  14. Is there an association between maternal weight and the risk of testicular cancer? An epidemiologic study of Norwegian data with emphasis on World War II.

    PubMed

    Aschim, Elin L; Grotmol, Tom; Tretli, Steinar; Haugen, Trine B

    2005-08-20

    Since registration started in the 1950s, the incidence of testicular cancer (TC) in the Western world has increased, which is also the case in Norway. Men born in Norway during World War II (WWII), however, have a lower TC incidence than men born in the years before or after WWII. Increased fetal exposure to estrogen during the first trimester of pregnancy has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of TC later in life. Increased maternal weight is associated with higher insulin levels, leading to lower sex hormone-binding globulin levels and thereby increased levels of bioavailable estrogens for transplacental transfer from mother to fetus. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine whether there was an association between maternal weight and the incidence of TC among those who were born in a time period where the nutritional conditions changed, i.e., around the time of WWII. We compared data for a random sample of women giving birth in Oslo, Norway, in the years 1931 to 1955 with the TC incidence among men born in the whole country in the same time period. Maternal weight at delivery was used as a proxy for first-trimester weight. We found a correlation (Spearman's rho = 1.00, p < 0.01; Pearson's r = 0.95, p = 0.02) between the TC incidence and maternal weight adjusted for birth weight and maternal age. Although one cannot draw firm conclusions from ecologic correlations, these findings suggest that the increase in TC incidence over the past decades could be at least partly attributed to the increased maternal body weight observed in most populations in the relevant time period since TC is thought to be associated with in utero conditions.

  15. Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

  16. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  17. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  18. Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of hypospadias - a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wogelius, Pia; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Czeizel, Andrew E; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based case-control study was to examine the risk of isolated hypospadias in boys born to mothers who have used oral contraceptives in early pregnancy. The study was based on data from the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities from 1980 to 1996, and included 3,038 boys with hypospadias (cases), 24,799 boys without congenital abnormalities (CA-free controls), and 11,881 boys with abnormalities other than hypospadias. We used unconditional logistic regression to adjust for birth order, maternal age, maternal employment status, maternal diabetes, and pre-eclampsia. When comparing cases with CA-free controls the OR for maternal use of OC was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.67-2.17). When comparing cases with boys with other abnormalities, the OR for maternal use of OC was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.46-1.50). Our data showed that self-reported maternal use of oral contraceptives during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in the offspring.

  19. [An association of the occupational risk factors from greenhouses with allergic diseases in their female workers' children: results of analysis].

    PubMed

    Imamov, A A; Troshina, I V; Fomicheva, G B; Zamalieva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes an association between occupational risk factors in the female workers of greenhouses and allergic diseases in their children. The major factors contributing to the occurrence of allergic disease in children are their maternal employment in greenhouses with harmful working conditions, much dust in an apartment, a family history of allergic diseases, and unfavorable family lifestyle.

  20. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  1. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Namazi, Shole; Amiri, Shahrokh; Zare, Shahram; Rastikerdar, Najme; Hesam, Ali Akbar; Rahami, Zahra; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Namazi, Seyyed Shojaeddin; Paknahad, Abbas; Mahmudi, Forugh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Niknejad, Bahareh; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Asadi, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls). All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001). The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001), history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039), abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001), unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001), and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor. PMID:24319465

  2. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  3. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  4. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  5. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    PubMed

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  6. Trends in maternal and infant health factors associated with low infant birth weight, United States, 1972 and 1980.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, V; Kessel, S S; Placek, P J

    1984-01-01

    Today, low birth weight--weight less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces)--is recognized as the single most significant characteristic of the newborn associated with a greater risk of mortality and morbidity. This paper highlights maternal and infant health factors associated with low birth weight, using data from the 1972 and 1980 National Natality Surveys. Both surveys provide important information related to low birth weight that is not typically available from standard birth certificates and therefore not part of the usual natality vital statistics. In addition, induction of labor and cesarean section deliveries (first and repeat cesareans) were examined for 1980 to assess whether their use has exerted an influence on low birth weight. PMID:6424165

  7. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  8. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  9. Perinatal and early childhood risk factors associated with rheumatoid factor positivity in a healthy paediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kendra A; Parrish, Lezlie A; Zerbe, Gary O; Rewers, Marian; Deane, Kevin D; Holers, V Michael; Norris, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine perinatal and childhood risk factors for the presence of rheumatoid factor in healthy children. Methods The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) is a longitudinal study of children at increased risk of type 1 diabetes, based on possession of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐DR4 and DR3 alleles or a family history of diabetes. 651 children who participated in DAISY, with an average age of 6.4 (range 1–15) years, were tested for the presence of rheumatoid factor in their most recent serum sample. 23 children were positive for rheumatoid factor. Exposure data were collected prospectively by interview. HLA‐DR4 alleles were identified using polymerase chain reaction‐based Class II genotyping. Results While exploring risk factors for rheumatoid factor positivity in a multivariate model, several important interaction terms involving HLA‐DR4 status suggested the need to evaluate risk factors in HLA‐DR4‐positive and HLA‐DR4‐negative children separately. In HLA‐DR4‐negative children, rheumatoid factor‐positive infants were less likely to have been breast fed for >3 months (odds ratio (OR) 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 0.99), more likely to have been exposed to non‐parental tobacco smoke (OR 5.38; 95% CI 0.93 to 31.27) and more likely to be a race/ethnicity other than non‐Hispanic white (OR 6.94; 95% CI 1.10 to 43.88) compared with rheumatoid factor‐negative children, after adjusting for age, sex and maternal education. In HLA‐DR4‐positive children, there were no significantly associated risk factors for rheumatoid factor positivity. Conclusions Risk factors for rheumatoid factor positivity in children vary by HLA‐DR4 genotype. In HLA‐DR4‐negative children, breast feeding may decrease the risk, and environmental tobacco smoke may increase the risk, of autoimmunity. PMID:17242018

  10. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  11. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  12. Maternal nerve growth factor levels during pregnancy in women with preeclampsia: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Vandita; Kilari, Anitha; Pisal, Hemlata; Patil, Vidya; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Improper development of the placenta due to altered angiogenesis is the main culprit in PE. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an angiogenic factor which is expressed and localized in the placenta. Our earlier cross sectional study has shown altered NGF levels at delivery in women with PE. However, there are no studies on NGF levels in PE early in pregnancy before manifestation of the disease. Thus, there is a need to examine the role of NGF in vascular development during different stages of gestation in PE. A longitudinal study was carried out where pregnant women were enrolled from two major hospitals from Pune, Bharati hospital and Gupte hospital. They were followed at three different time points [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at delivery (T3)] during pregnancy and maternal blood at every time point and cord blood at delivery was collected and processed. This study included normotensive women (n=88) and women with PE (n=48). NGF levels were measured from maternal and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System (Promega). The data was analyzed using the SPSS/PC+ package (Version 20.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Maternal NGF levels did not change at all time points while cord NGF levels were higher (p<0.05) in women with PE. Further, maternal NGF levels were negatively associated with blood pressure while cord NGF levels were positively associated with baby head circumference. Our data suggests that there may possibly be a compensatory role for NGF in the foeto-placental circulation in PE.

  13. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  14. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  15. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular dementia is diagnosed, place the pathophysiological consequences of cerebrovascular disease on cognition in the context of clinical and pathological Alzheimer’s disease, and then to consider the evidence for the role of major vascular risk factors in late-life cognitive impairment, changes in brain imaging and neuropathological changes. Midlife diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are established risk factors for clinically defined Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia. The basis for these relationships could either be that the risk factors lead to microvascular brain disease, promote Alzheimer pathology or both. The associations of late-life onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment are either attenuated or reversed. The role of vascular risk factors in midlife should be the focus of public health efforts to reduce the burden of late-life cognitive impairment. PMID:20182020

  16. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  17. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  18. Maternal obesity: implications for pregnancy outcome and long-term risks-a link to maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aviram, Amir; Hod, Moshe; Yogev, Yariv

    2011-11-01

    As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, its prevalence during reproductive age is also increased. Alarming reports state that two-thirds of adults in the USA are overweight or obese, with half of them in the latter category, and the rate of obese pregnant women is estimated at 18-38%. These women are of major concern to women's health providers because they encounter numerous pregnancy-related complications. Obesity-related reproductive health complications range from infertility to a wide spectrum of diseases such as hypertensive disorders, coagulopathies, gestational diabetes mellitus, respiratory complications, and fetal complications such as large-for-gestational-age infants, congenital malformations, stillbirth, and shoulder dystocia. Recent reports suggest that obesity during pregnancy can be a risk factor for developing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases in the newborn later in life. This review will address the implication of obesity on pregnancy and child health, and explore recent literature on obesity during pregnancy.

  19. Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

  20. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  1. Maternal and infant genetic variants, maternal periconceptional use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: population based study.

    PubMed

    Nembhard, Wendy N; Tang, Xinyu; Hu, Zhuopei; MacLeod, Stewart; Stowe, Zachary; Webber, Daniel

    2017-03-06

    Objective To evaluate whether the association between maternal periconceptional use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring is modified by maternal or infant genetic variants in folate, homocysteine, or transsulfuration pathways.Design Population based study. DNA from mothers, fathers, and infants was genotyped with an Illumina GoldenGate custom single nucleotide polymorphism panel. A hybrid design based on a log linear model was used to calculate relative risks and Bayesian false discovery probabilities (BFDP) to identify polymorphisms associated with congenital heart defects modified by SSRI use.Data sources Data from the US National Birth Defects Prevention Study on 1180 liveborn infants with congenital heart defects and 1644 controls, born 1997-2008.Main outcome measures Cases included infants with selected congenital heart defects and control infants had no major defects. SSRI use was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers.Results For women who reported taking SSRIs periconceptionally, maternal SHMT1 (rs9909104) GG and AGgenotypes were associated with a 5.9 and 2.4 increased risk of select congenital heart defects in offspring, respectively, versus the AA genotype (BFDP=0.69). Compared with the AA genotype, BHMT (rs492842 and rs542852) GG and AG genotypes were associated with twice the riskof congenital heart defects (BFDP=0.74 and 0.79, respectively). MGST1 (rs2075237) CC and ACgenotypes were associated with an increased risk compared with the GG genotype (8.0 and 2.8, respectively; BFDP=0.79). Single nucleotide polymorphism in infant genes in the folate (MTHFS rs12438477), homocysteine (TRDMT1 rs6602178 and GNMT rs11752813) and transsulfuration (GSTP1 rs7941395 and MGST1 rs7294985) pathways were also associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects.Conclusions Common maternal or infant genetic variants in folate, homocysteine, or transsulfuration pathways are

  2. Maternal weight gain, smoking and other factors in pregnancy as predictors of infant birth-weight in Sydney women.

    PubMed

    Ash, S; Fisher, C C; Truswell, A S; Allen, J R; Irwig, L

    1989-08-01

    Two hundred and four (204) women attending a Sydney maternity hospital and their babies were followed throughout pregnancy in a study, which aimed: 1) to describe the distribution of maternal weight gain in present day Australian women and 2) to determine the effect of weight gain and other factors on birth-weight. Maternal weights and skinfold thicknesses were measured serially to give an indication of weight gain. Mean weight gain from conception to term was 14.2kg and mean birth-weight was 3,442g. Maternal predictors of birth-weight such as maternal weight gain, parity, age, education, height, public or private booking status, smoking, prepregnancy weight, and sex of the infant and gestational age were explored using simple and multiple regression analysis. Weight gain was predictive of birth-weight, each kg increase in total weight gain resulting in about a 30g increase in birthweight. Other strong predictors were gestational age, maternal smoking, sex of the infant and maternal parity. Maternal height was less strongly predictive and age and prepregnant weight were not predictive. Smoking mothers had infants who were 268g lighter than those of nonsmoking mothers. However, smokers were also younger, shorter, had less education and were more likely to book as public patients than nonsmokers. After adjusting for all other predictors, the birth-weight of infants whose mothers smoked, was still 224g less than that for nonsmoking mothers.

  3. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  4. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  5. Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.

    PubMed

    Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size.

  6. Frequency, Risk Factors, and Adverse Fetomaternal Outcomes of Placenta Previa in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Senkoro, Elizabeth Eliet; Mwanamsangu, Amasha H.; Chuwa, Fransisca Seraphin; Msuya, Sia Emmanuel; Mnali, Oresta Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective. Placenta previa (PP) is a potential risk factor for obstetric hemorrhage, which is a major cause of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine frequency, risk factors, and adverse fetomaternal outcomes of placenta previa in Northern Tanzania. Methodology. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using maternally-linked data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre birth registry spanning 2000 to 2015. All women who gave birth to singleton infants were studied. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors and adverse fetomaternal outcomes associated with PP were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models. Result. A total of 47,686 singleton deliveries were analyzed. Of these, the frequency of PP was 0.6%. Notable significant risk factors for PP included gynecological diseases, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, malpresentation, and gravidity ≥5. Adverse maternal outcomes were postpartum haemorrhage, antepartum haemorrhage, and Caesarean delivery. PP increased odds of fetal Malpresentation and early neonatal death. Conclusion. The prevalence of PP was comparable to that found in past research. Multiple independent risk factors were identified. PP was found to have associations with several adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Early identification of women at risk of PP may help clinicians prevent such complications. PMID:28321338

  7. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  8. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  9. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a case-control study in France, with special focus on infectious factors.

    PubMed

    Coste, J; Job-Spira, N; Fernandez, H; Papiernik, E; Spira, A

    1991-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted in 1988 in seven Paris area maternity hospitals to evaluate the role of several risk factors, particularly infectious factors, in ectopic pregnancy. A total of 279 cases and 279 controls were compared for sociodemographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, sexual, reproductive and surgical histories, and conditions of conception. Pelvic inflammatory disease confirmed by celioscopy (odds ratio (OR) = 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-13.9) and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 2.3-6.7) appeared to be important risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Other risk factors found to be associated with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy were dose-related cigarette smoking at the time of conception (ORs 1.3 to 2.5), appendectomy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5), prior tubal surgery (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.4), induced conception cycle (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.3), and prior ectopic pregnancy (OR = 13.3, 95% CI 4.5-39.2). However, some of the latter risk factors, i.e., prior tubal surgery, prior ectopic pregnancy, and perhaps appendectomy, may be considered to be the results of pelvic inflammatory disease and sexually transmitted diseases. Maternal age, parity, prior induced abortion, and prior spontaneous abortion were not associated with ectopic pregnancy. Use of intrauterine device, progestagen micropill, and also combined estroprogestative pill at the time of conception were associated with a better prevention of intrauterine pregnancy than of ectopic pregnancy. These findings confirm the importance of several previously reported risk factors of ectopic pregnancy: sexually transmitted diseases, cigarette smoking, and prior ectopic pregnancy. They also identified new risk factors, appendectomy and induced conception cycle, and revealed that the combined estroprogestative pill does not prevent ectopic pregnancy as effectively as it does intrauterine pregnancy.

  10. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  11. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service

  12. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  13. [Effect of sociocultural factors on maternal and perinatal morbidity with or without mortality among adolescents seen in 3 states of the Mexican Republic].

    PubMed

    León Carmona, Julio César; Hernández Alvarez, Luis Alfredo Ignacio; Hernández Hernández, Ma Adriana Cecilia

    2002-07-01

    This study was aimed on comparing the degree of association between social-cultural factors and maternal or perinatal morbidity and/or mortality of the adolescent. A paired case-control study was designed with adolescent in puerperal immediate stage affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security from Tabasco, Tlaxcala and Northern Veracruz, that were adjusted to the selection criteria of the sample, between June of 1998 and February of 1999. Two groups were integrated, cases, with adolescent in puerperal immediate stage affected (with maternal or perinatal morbidity and/or mortality) and controls, with adolescent not affected in puerperal immediate stage. Information concerned to biological and social-cultural risk factors from each subject was obtained applying a validated survey (EFRASEMA 1) and checking their clinical file, whose information was poured in a database (EFRASEMA 2). Interviewers did not know the outcome of the study, which in turn assured the blindness of the information. Once data was obtained, subjects were assigned to each group of study. Matching factors were age, nutritional status, intergenesic interval and previous pregnancy systemic pathology. Proportion of subjects, cases and controls; with or without social-cultural risk factors was determined. The risk of maternal or perinatal morbidity and/or mortality in the exposed subjects was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and the differences inferred through Mantel and Haenszel chi 2 and Fisher's exact tests (confidence intervals alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.2). There was a sample of 486 subject, 44 were eliminated due to insufficient data. Studied population was integrated finally with 221 cases and 221 paired controls 1: 1. 71.950% of participants were married, 22.62% in free union, 4.98% single and 0.45% separate, average global age was 17.98 +/- 1.39 years. The inferential analysis showed an OR 0.64 (Cornfield 95% confidence limits: 0.40 < OR < 1.03, p = 0.0510600) concerning desired

  14. Overweight and Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity in a Low-Risk Pregnant Population in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Witteveen, Tom; Zwart, Joost J.; Gast, Karin B.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between overweight and severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in a low-risk pregnant population. Design Nationwide case-control study. Setting The Netherlands, august 2004 to august 2006. Population 1567 cases from initially primary care and 2994 women from primary care practices as controls, out of 371 012 women delivering in the Netherlands during the study period Methods Cases were women with SAMM obtained from a nationwide prospective study. All women in this cohort who initially had low-risk pregnancies were compared with low-risk women without SAMM to calculate odd ratios (ORs) to develop SAMM by body mass index (BMI) category. We divided body mass index in three overweight categories and calculated the ORs (95% CI) of total SAMM and per specific endpoint by logistic regression, with normal weight as reference. We adjusted for age, parity and socio-economic status. Main Outcome Measures SAMM, defined as Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-admission, Uterine Rupture, Eclampsia or Major Obstetric Haemorrhage (MOH) Results SAMM was reported in 1567 cases which started as low-risk pregnancies. BMI was available in 1097 (70.0%) cases and 2994 control subjects were included. Analysis showed a dose response relation for overweight (aOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), obese (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and morbidly obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2) women to develop SAMM compared to normal weight. Sub analysis showed the same dose response relation for ICU-admission, Uterine Rupture and Eclampsia. We found no association for MOH. Conclusion Overweight without pre-existent co-morbidity is an important risk-indicator for developing SAMM. This risk increases with an increasing body mass index. PMID:24069316

  15. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  16. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  17. Potential risks of maternal administration of Mucophylline on the pups of albino rats during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Hamida; Ali, Heba

    2017-03-02

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential risks of the mucolytic and broncholytic drug, Theophylline derivatives (Mucophylline) maternally administered on the pups. The nursing rats orally administered from 1st postpartum day (PPD) to 21th PPD with two different doses 30.83mg/kg (low dose) and 66.61mg/kg (Human equivalent dose (HED)). On the 21th PPD, the postnatal developmental signs, skeletal malformation and the histopathology of neonatal liver, kidney and brain were examined. Our results showed that Mucophylline induced a significant reduction in the neonatal weight and length, delayed, weak and incomplete ossification, wavy ribs and the neonatal liver revealed histopathological changes, pyknotic hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated sinusoid and necrotic area. Kidney revealed alternation changes, enlargement of the glomerulus, renal tubules degeneration and lymphatic infiltration. Brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) showed neurodegenerative changes, vacuolization of neuropil, congested and dilated blood vessel and dark stain neurons. Our results showed that the activities of non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (GST, CAT) antioxidants were insignificantly decrease in both neonatal brain and liver tissues of rats administered with 30.83mg/kg and 61.66mg/kg of Mucophylline and insignificant increase in MDA levels in both neonatal brain and liver tissues. However, significant reduction (P≤0.05) in the content of GR was recorded in neonatal brain tissue of rats administered with 30.83mg/kg and 61.66mg/kg of Mucophylline during lactation period in comparison with control. These support and proof the potential risks of the maternal administration of Mucophylline on pups.

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Lymphocytic Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  2. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  3. Retinopathy of prematurity: Revisiting incidence and risk factors from Oman compared to other countries

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Zenaida Soriano; Al-Mulaabed, Sharef Waadallah; Bataclan, Flordeliz; Montemayor, Cheryl; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Zuhaibi, Sanaa; Al-Waili, Huda; Al-Wahibi, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and the maternal/neonatal risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, compared to other countries. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of premature neonates born with gestational age (GA) 24–32 weeks at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, from January 2007 to December 2010. Maternal and neonatal in-hospital course was retrieved. The incidence of ROP was reported. Risk factors analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistics. Results: A total of 171 neonates (57% males, 43% females) were included for analysis. The incidence of ROP (any stage) was 69/171 (40.4%). Infants with ROP had significantly lower GA (27.7±2 weeks) compared to non-ROP group (30.2±1.7 weeks), P < 0.001),P < 0.001) and significantly lower birth weight (BW) (948 ± 242 g in ROP group vs. 1348 ± 283 g in non-ROP group;P < 0.001). Other significant risk factors associated with ROP were: small for GA, respiratory distress syndrome, requirement for ventilation, duration of ventilation or oxygen therapy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hyperglycemia, late onset sepsis (clinical or proven), necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, seizures, and number of blood transfusions. There was no significant difference in maternal characteristics between the ROP and non-ROP groups except that mothers of infants with ROP were found to be significantly younger. Logistic regression analysis revealed early GA, low BW, duration of Oxygen therapy, and late-onset clinical or proven sepsis as independent risk factors. Conclusion: ROP is still commonly encountered in neonatal practice in Oman and other countries. Early GA, low BW, and prolonged oxygen therapy continue to be the main risk factors associated with the occurrence of ROP in our setting. In addition, an important preventable risk factor identified in our cohort includes clinical or proven late-onset sepsis

  4. Maternal Experience with Predation Risk Influences Genome-Wide Embryonic Gene Expression in Threespined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mommer, Brett C.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for nongenetic effects of maternal experience on offspring. For example, previous studies have shown that female threespined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to predation risk produce offspring with altered behavior, metabolism and stress physiology. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal exposure to predation risk on the embryonic transcriptome in sticklebacks. Using RNA-sequencing we compared genome-wide transcription in three day post-fertilization embryos of predator-exposed and control mothers. There were hundreds of differentially expressed transcripts between embryos of predator-exposed mothers and embryos of control mothers including several non-coding RNAs. Gene Ontology analysis revealed biological pathways involved in metabolism, epigenetic inheritance, and neural proliferation and differentiation that differed between treatments. Interestingly, predation risk is associated with an accelerated life history in many vertebrates, and several of the genes and biological pathways that were identified in this study suggest that maternal exposure to predation risk accelerates the timing of embryonic development. Consistent with this hypothesis, embryos of predator-exposed mothers were larger than embryos of control mothers. These findings point to some of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie maternal effects. PMID:24887438

  5. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

  6. Potential Climate Change Health Risks from Increases in Heat Waves: Abnormal Birth Outcomes and Adverse Maternal Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cil, Gulcan; Cameron, Trudy Ann

    2017-02-23

    We investigate the risks presented by heat waves for adverse health conditions for babies and expectant mothers when these mothers have been exposed to heat waves during gestation or during the period just prior to conception. Rather than just birth weight and gestational age, we focus on less common metrics such as abnormal conditions in the newborn (fetal distress, reliance on a ventilator, and meconium aspiration) and adverse health conditions in the mother (pregnancy-related hypertension, uterine bleeding during pregnancy, eclampsia, and incompetent cervix). We use monthly panel data for over 3,000 U.S. counties, constructed from the confidential version of the U.S. Natality Files for 1989-2008. Our models control for sociodemographic factors and include county, month, and state-by-year fixed effects to control for unobserved spatial and timewise heterogeneity in the data. Even within the United States, where there is widespread access to air conditioning, heat waves increase the fraction of babies with abnormal conditions related to maternal stress, as well as the fraction of mothers who experience pregnancy-related adverse health conditions. The scope for these risks in developing countries is likely to be even greater.

  7. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein- Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan–McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter < 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are

  8. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  9. Phenotypic effects of maternal immune activation and early postnatal milieu in mice mutant for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin-1.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Petit, E; Tighe, O; Lai, D; Harvey, R; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C

    2014-09-26

    Risk of schizophrenia is likely to involve gene × environment (G × E) interactions. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a schizophrenia risk gene, hence any interaction with environmental adversity, such as maternal infection, may provide further insights into the basis of the disease. This study examined the individual and combined effects of prenatal immune activation with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (Poly I:C) and disruption of the schizophrenia risk gene NRG1 on the expression of behavioral phenotypes related to schizophrenia. NRG1 heterozygous (NRG1 HET) mutant breeding pairs were time-mated. Pregnant dams received a single injection (5mg/kg i.p.) of Poly I:C or vehicle on gestation day 9 (GD9). Offspring were then cross-fostered to vehicle-treated or Poly I:C-treated dams. Expression of schizophrenia-related behavioral endophenotypes was assessed at adolescence and in adulthood. Combining NRG1 disruption and prenatal environmental insult (Poly I:C) caused developmental stage-specific deficits in social behavior, spatial working memory and prepulse inhibition (PPI). However, combining Poly I:C and cross-fostering produced a number of behavioral deficits in the open field, social behavior and PPI. This became more complex by combining NRG1 deletion with both Poly I:C exposure and cross-fostering, which had a robust effect on PPI. These findings suggest that concepts of G × E interaction in risk of schizophrenia should be elaborated to multiple interactions that involve individual genes interacting with diverse biological and psychosocial environmental factors over early life, to differentially influence particular domains of psychopathology, sometimes over specific stages of development.

  10. Risk Factors for the Requirement of Antenatal Insulin Treatment in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Akihiro; Kagawa, Hidetoshi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Wada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poor maternal glycemic control increases maternal and fetal risk for adverse outcomes, and strict management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is recommended to prevent neonatal and maternal complications. However, risk factors for the requirement of antenatal insulin treatment (AIT) are not well-investigated in the pregnant women with GDM. We enrolled 37 pregnant women with GDM and investigated the risk for AIT by comparing the patients with AIT (AIT group; n = 10) and without insulin therapy (Diet group; n = 27). The 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose levels and the number of abnormal values in 75 g OGTT were significantly higher in AIT group compared with Diet group. By logistic regression analysis, plasma glucose level at 1-h was significant predictor for AIT and the odds ratios were 1.115 (1.004–1.239) using forward selection method and 1.192 (1.006–1.413) using backward elimination method. There were no significant differences in obstetrical outcomes and neonatal complications. 1-h plasma glucose levels in 75 g OGTT are useful parameters in predicting the requirement for AIT in GDM. Both maternal and neonatal complications are comparable in GDM patients with and without insulin therapy. PMID:27995150

  11. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  12. Risk factors and mortality among newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Razzaq, Athar; Iqbal Quddusi, Ahmed; Nizami, Naila

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) and their influence on mortality. Methods: This was an observational study conducted at The Children’s Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from July 2011 to June 2012.All admitted babies who had respiratory distress, cyanosis and evidence of hypoxia on ABG,s were diagnosed provided that they were having right- to- left or bidirectional hemodynamic shunting at the ductus arteriosus or at patent foramen ovale along with Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet >40 mm of Hg on echocardiography. All the demographic, maternal, antenatal, natal and postnatal data were recorded on a predesigned Performa. Results: There were 79 patients, including 61 males and 18 females. The most common risk factors observed in our study were male sex (72.1%), cesarean section mode of delivery (54.2%), positive pressure ventilation while resuscitation (44.2%) birth asphyxia (40.4%) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)35.4%. It was found that male sex (88.8%), cesarean-section delivery (77.7%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) 44.8% and sepsis (44.4%) were more associated with PPHN in premature infants than with term and post term infants. Out of the total 79 patients, death occurred among 7 preterm and 14 terms and post term infants. As a whole, cesarean section mode of delivery (71.4%), birth asphyxia (57.1%) and female sex (52.4%) were found major risk factors associated with mortality. However, respiratory distress syndrome (Relative Risk RR=5), birth asphyxia (RR=2.5) and male sex (RR=2)were found to be associated with increased risk of mortality in preterm than term and post term infants. Conclusion: Male gender, cesarean section mode of delivery, MAS and RDS are the major risk factors for PPHN in any age group. RDS, Birth asphyxia and male sex are associated with increased risk of mortality in pre term than term and post term infants. PMID:24353699

  13. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  14. Sudden infant death syndrome: risk factor profiles for distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Kohlendorfer, U; Kiechl, S; Sperl, W

    1998-05-15

    The authors investigated risk profiles of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as a function of age at death. A case-control study carried out in the Tyrol region of Austria enrolled 99 infants who died of SIDS between 1984 and 1994 and 136 randomly selected controls. Early and late SIDS (< 120 days of age vs. > or = 120 days) were defined according to the clear-cut bimodal age-at-death distribution. Inadequate antenatal care, low parental social and educational level, and the prone sleeping position were risk conditions that applied to both early and late SIDS. A marked seasonal variation (winter preponderance) was the most outstanding feature of late SIDS. A gestational age of < 37 weeks (odds ratio (OR) = 8.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-26.0), repeated episodes of apnea (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-27.0), low birth weight (< 2,500 g) (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-11.0), a family history of sudden infant death (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.5), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) were associated with early SIDS. This study identified two distinct subgroups of SIDS infants characterized by different risk conditions and ages at death. These results underline a multiple-cause hypothesis for SIDS etiology which involves a genetic predisposition, immaturity in the first months of life, and environmental factors acting at various ages.

  15. Maternal depression and intimate partner violence exposure: Longitudinal analyses of the development of aggressive behavior in an at-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A

    2017-01-27

    A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior. Longitudinal analyses (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) examining three time points (toddler: age 2-3 years, preschool/kindergarten: age 4-5 years, and elementary school: age 6-8 years) were conducted using 1,399 at-risk children drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). IPV exposure during age 2-3 years was significantly related to concurrent aggressive behavior and aggressive behavior during age 4-5 years. At all three time points, IPV was significantly associated with maternal depression, which in turn, was significantly related to higher levels of aggressive behavior. There was also a significant indirect lagged effect of IPV exposure at age 2-3 years through maternal depression on aggressive behavior at age 4-5 years. Results indicated that maternal depression was a strong predictor of increased reports of overt aggressive behavior, suggesting that interventions to buffer the effects of IPV exposure should focus on relieving maternal depression and fostering productive social behavior in children. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-11, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Maternal use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Alwan, S; Bandoli, G; Chambers, C D

    2016-07-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in late pregnancy has been associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), a rare condition with substantial infant mortality and morbidity. Although the increase in absolute risk is small on a population level, it may be of concern to many patients. It remains unclear the extent to which the increased risks reported for PPHN are explained by the underlying maternal illness rather than the use of SSRIs.

  17. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India.

  18. Maternal Sensitivity and Anxiety: Impacts on Child Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz, Sarah J.; Smith, Carrie L.; Chapman, L. Kevin; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Children of anxious parents have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing an anxiety disorder. Thus, it is critically important to identify factors that increase or decrease that risk. The depression literature has shown that maternal sensitivity decreases negative child outcome associated with maternal depression. The current study was…

  19. Impact of maternal and neonatal factors on parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Al-Deghaither, Sara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine characteristics of laboratory parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood and their association with maternal and neonatal factors. Methods: This prospective analysis was performed on 206 umbilical cord blood donations (50-200 ml) from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and September 2014. Samples were processed and analyzed for total nucleated cells (TNC’s), cluster designation (CD)45+, CD34+ counts, nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) count, and viability testing. Results: Most of the study participants (63.6%) were on their first 3 deliveries and from women with age between 17 and 30 years (80.6%). The donated volume was 50.4-192.4 ml, TNCs ranged from 500.2×106 to 9430.3 ×106 cells, and CD34+ cells ranged from 1.25×106 to 12.82×106/unit. The volume was positively affected by bigger birth weight of the baby (p<0.0001), larger placenta (p=0.001), TNCs (p<0.0001), CD34+ (p<0.0001), NRBCs (p<0.0001), and viability (p=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between baby boys and girls for laboratory variables. Conclusion: In the selection and identification of a possible donor of umbilical cord blood, several maternal and neonatal factors should be considered, as younger maternal age, neonatal birth weight >3300 grams, larger placental size, and first or second-born babies, were shown to be associated with higher TNCs, CD34+, CD45+, NRBCs, and viability. PMID:25987113

  20. Epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut

    2014-05-01

    This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

  1. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

  2. Parental risk factors for oral clefts among Central Africans, Southeast Asians, and Central Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Stephanie; Magee, Kathleen S.; Ihenacho, Ugonna; Baurley, James W.; Sanchez‐Lara, Pedro A.; Brindopke, Frederick; Nguyen, Thi‐Hai‐Duc; Nguyen, Viet; Tangco, Maria Irene; Giron, Melissa; Abrahams, Tamlin; Jang, Grace; Vu, Annie; Zolfaghari, Emily; Yao, Caroline A.; Foong, Athena; DeClerk, Yves A.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Magee, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Several lifestyle and environmental exposures have been suspected as risk factors for oral clefts, although few have been convincingly demonstrated. Studies across global diverse populations could offer additional insight given varying types and levels of exposures. Methods We performed an international case–control study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (133 cases, 301 controls), Vietnam (75 cases, 158 controls), the Philippines (102 cases, 152 controls), and Honduras (120 cases, 143 controls). Mothers were recruited from hospitals and their exposures were collected from interviewer‐administered questionnaires. We used logistic regression modeling to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Family history of clefts was strongly associated with increased risk (maternal: OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 3.0–7.2; paternal: OR = 10.5; 95% CI, 5.9–18.8; siblings: OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4–19.9). Advanced maternal age (5 year OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0–1.3), pregestational hypertension (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3–5.1), and gestational seizures (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1–7.4) were statistically significant risk factors. Lower maternal (secondary school OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2–2.2; primary school OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.6–2.8) and paternal education (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4–2.5; and OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9, respectively) and paternal tobacco smoking (OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1–1.9) were associated with an increased risk. No other significant associations between maternal and paternal factors were found; some environmental factors including rural residency, indoor cooking with wood, chemicals and water source appeared to be associated with an increased risk in adjusted models. Conclusion Our study represents one of the first international studies investigating risk factors for clefts among multiethnic underserved populations. Our findings suggest a multifactorial etiology including both maternal and paternal factors. Birth Defects Research (Part

  3. Risk factors analysis of consecutive exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qianwen; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate clinical factors associated with the onset of consecutive exotropia (XT) following esotropia surgery. By a retrospective nested case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of 193 patients who had undergone initial esotropia surgery between 2008 and 2015, and had follow-up longer than 6 months. The probable risk factors were evaluated between groups 1 (consecutive XT) and 2 (non-consecutive exotropia). Pearson chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used for univariate analysis, and conditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring the potential risk factors of consecutive XT. Consecutive exotropia occurred in 23 (11.9%) of 193 patients. Patients who had undergone large bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) (P = 0.017) had a high risk of developing consecutive XT. Oblique dysfunction (P = 0.001), adduction limitation (P = 0.000) were associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which was confirmed in the conditional logistic regression analysis. In addition, large amount of BMR (6 mm or more) was associated with higher incidence of adduction limitation (P = 0.045). The surgical methods and preoperative factors did not appear to influence the risk of developing consecutive XT (P > 0.05). The amount of surgery could be optimized to reduce the risk of consecutive XT. The presence of oblique overaction and postoperative adduction limitation may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which may require close supervision, and/or even earlier operation intervention. PMID:27977611

  4. Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant women and postnatal depression: rates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Collins, Catherine H; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M

    2011-02-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is recognised as a common maternal health problem, but little evidence examines PND among refugee, asylum seeker and immigrant women in developed country settings. This review aimed to identify the rates of PND and highlight common risk factors among this group of women. An iterative and dynamic literature search was conducted across ten databases to identify published articles on PND among immigrant, asylum-seeking and refugee women in developed country settings. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and 'free text' search terms, as well as thesaurus terms, acronyms and truncation were used where appropriate. Findings suggest that PND may affect up to 42% of migrant women, compared to around 10-15% of native-born women. Common risk factors for PND among migrant women include history of stressful life events, lack of social support and cultural factors. With a growing number of babies born to immigrant mothers, greater awareness of PND among this group is needed in order to respond to their particular maternal mental health needs. Maternity care providers should regard all recent immigrants as at high risk of PND and give closer observation and support as necessary.

  5. Dietary patterns in infancy and their associations with maternal socio-economic and lifestyle factors among 758 Japanese mother-child pairs: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    Dietary habits established in early childhood contribute to lifelong dietary pattern and the development of early risk factors for disease in adulthood. Although a large body of epidemiologic data from Western countries show that the dietary pattern of children is influenced by maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, information on this topic in non-Western countries is absolutely lacking. The present study identified dietary patterns among infants aged 16-24 months, and then examined the influence of maternal socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics on identified dietary patterns. Subjects were 758 Japanese mother-child pairs. Dietary data of infants were collected from the mothers using a questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted from the consumption of 15 foods (times week(-1)) by cluster analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' (n = 483) and 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' (n = 275) patterns. After adjustment for all other predictors, maternal educational level, number of infants' siblings and maternal dietary patterns were independently associated with dietary patterns of infants. Infants whose mothers had a higher educational level and the 'rice, fish and vegetables' dietary pattern were less likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' pattern, whereas infants whose mothers had a higher number of children and the 'wheat product' dietary pattern were more likely to belong to the 'confectionaries and sweetened beverages' than the 'fruits, vegetables and high-protein foods' pattern. In conclusion, the mother's socio-economic position and dietary patterns were associated with the dietary patterns of infants in the Japanese pairs as observed in the Western populations.

  6. Variants in maternal COMT and MTHFR genes and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Jin, Lei; Li, Guoxing; Wang, Linlin; Bao, Yanping; Fu, Yunting; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) G158A are associated with a risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. This study examined the effect of a MTHFR × COMT interaction on the risk of NTDs in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs. A total of 576 fetuses or newborns with NTDs and 594 controls were genotyped for MTHFRrs1801133, MTHFRrs1801131, and COMTrs4680 and COMTrs737865. Information on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, and related behavior was collected through face-to-face interviews. Possible interactions between genetic variants of MTHFR and COMT were examined. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT was associated with an elevated risk of total NTDs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-2.03) and of anencephaly (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI = 0.98-2.84) compared with the CC genotype. There was a COMT rs737865 CC × MTHFR rs1801133 TT interaction for total NTDs (OR = 3.02, 95 % CI = 1.00-9.14) and for anencephaly (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI = 0.94-12.18). No interaction was found between COMT rs4680 AA/AG and MTHFR CT/TT genotypes for total NTDs or any subtype of NTD. The interaction of COMT rs737865 and MTHFR C677T was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, especially anencephaly, in a Chinese population with a high prevalence of NTDs.

  7. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Results Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Conclusions Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE. PMID:27097772

  8. Does maternal behaviour influence the risk of perinatal death in Jamaica?

    PubMed

    Greenwood, R; McCaw-Binns, A

    1994-04-01

    Features of behaviour of mothers of singleton perinatal deaths collected over the 12-month period from 1 September 1986 to 31 August 1987 were compared with 9919 mothers of singleton infants born in September and October 1986 and surviving the first week of life, as part of the Jamaican Perinatal Mortality Survey. For perinatal deaths as a whole, and in the presence of maternal age and social and environmental features, logistic regression analyses showed that the following were ind