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Sample records for risk surgical patients

  1. [Anesthesiological management of the high-risk surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, G; Avalle, M

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of the anaesthesiological risk in surgical patients is described and an account is given of results obtained with an association of ketamin and NLA II in 57 high-risk patients subjected to general surgical management.

  2. Surgical jejunostomy in aspiration risk patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899

  3. Reducing mortality for high risk surgical patients in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rogers, B A; Carrothers, A D; Jones, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Over 40 million surgical procedures are performed per annum in the USA and Europe, including several million patients who are considered to be high risk (Bennett-Guerrero et al 2003). Overall, the risk of death or major complications after surgery in the general surgical patient population is low, with a post-operative mortality rate of less than1% during the same hospital admission (Niskanen et al 2001).

  4. Surgical risk in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Amanda

    2012-10-01

    Surgery in the patient with cirrhosis is problematic, as encephalopathy, ascites, sepsis and bleeding are common in the postoperative period. Accurate preoperative assessment and planning, and careful postoperative management have the potential to reduce the frequency and severity of such complications, and reduce the length of hospital stay, but there is little literature evidence to prove this. Operative mortality and other risks correlate with the severity of the liver disease, co-morbidities and the type of surgery. The Child-Turcott-Pugh (CTP) score or model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score may be used to determine the severity of the liver disease, but must also take into account recent changes in the patient's condition. Surgery that does not involve opening the peritoneum may have slightly better outcomes, as the risk of ascitic leak, sepsis and difficult fluid management are reduced. Mortality rates range from 10% in CTP-A patients to 82% in CTP-C patients. The presence of portal hypertension is an important negative predictor, especially in abdominal surgery, as refractory ascites may occur. Careful monitoring in the postoperative period and early intervention of complications are essential. Hepatic resections in cirrhosis are associated with other considerations such as leaving sufficient liver tissue to prevent liver failure, and are beyond the scope of this review.

  5. Patients at High-Risk for Surgical Site Infection.

    PubMed

    Mueck, Krislynn M; Kao, Lillian S

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant healthcare quality issue, resulting in increased morbidity, disability, length of stay, resource utilization, and costs. Identification of high-risk patients may improve pre-operative counseling, inform resource utilization, and allow modifications in peri-operative management to optimize outcomes. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. High-risk surgical patients may be identified on the basis of individual risk factors or combinations of factors. In particular, statistical models and risk calculators may be useful in predicting infectious risks, both in general and for SSIs. These models differ in the number of variables; inclusion of pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative variables; ease of calculation; and specificity for particular procedures. Furthermore, the models differ in their accuracy in stratifying risk. Biomarkers may be a promising way to identify patients at high risk of infectious complications. Although multiple strategies exist for identifying surgical patients at high risk for SSIs, no one strategy is superior for all patients. Further efforts are necessary to determine if risk stratification in combination with risk modification can reduce SSIs in these patient populations.

  6. Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infections in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Jacob R.; Isbell, James M.; Michaels, Alex D.; Lau, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgical procedures have been well documented. However, the variables associated with CAUTIs in the cardiac surgical population have not been clearly defined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with CAUTIs in patients undergoing cardiac procedures. Methods: All patients undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution from 2006 through 2012 (4,883 patients) were reviewed. Patients with U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for CAUTI were identified from the hospital's Quality Assessment database. Pre-operative, operative, and post-operative patient factors were evaluated. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to identify significant correlations between perioperative characteristics and CAUTIs. Results: There were 55 (1.1%) documented CAUTIs in the study population. On univariate analysis, older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, cardiogenic shock, urgent or emergent operation, packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused, and intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) were all significantly associated with CAUTI [p<0.05]. On multivariable logistic regression, older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, and ICU LOS remained significantly associated with CAUTI. Additionally, there was a significant association between CAUTI and 30-d mortality on univariate analysis. However, when controlling for common predictors of operative mortality on multivariable analysis, CAUTI was no longer associated with mortality. Conclusions: There are several identifiable risk factors for CAUTI in patients undergoing cardiac procedures. CAUTI is not independently associated with increased mortality, but it does serve as a marker of sicker patients more likely to die from other comorbidities or complications. Therefore, awareness of the high-risk nature of these patients should lead to

  7. Applying risk assessment models in non-surgical patients: effective risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Eldor, A

    1999-08-01

    Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are serious complications of non-surgical patients, but scarcity of data documenting prophylaxis means antithrombotic therapy is rarely used. Prediction of risk is complicated by the variation in the medical conditions associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and lack of data defining risk in different groups. Accurate risk assessment is further confounded by inherited or acquired factors for VTE, additional risk due to medical interventions, and interactions between risk factors. Acquired and inherited risk factors may underlie thromboembolic complications in a range of conditions, including pregnancy, ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer. Risk stratification may be feasible in non-surgical patients by considering individual risk factors and their cumulative effects. Current risk assessment models require expansion and modification to reflect emerging evidence in the non-surgical field. A large on-going study of prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in non-surgical patients will clarify our understanding of the components of risk, and assist in developing therapy recommendations.

  8. Nutritional risk and status of surgical patients; the relevance of nutrition training of medical students.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C; Lavinhas, C; Fernandes, L; Camilo, Ma; Ravasco, P

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among surgical patients is thought to be high, and negatively influencing outcomes. However, recent evidence shows the increase of overweight/obesity in hospitalised patients. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 patients of a Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (CHLN) that aimed: 1) to assess nutritional risk and status through validated methods; 2) to explore the presence of overweight/obesity; 3) to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic risk associated with obesity. Nutritional risk was assessed by Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), nutritional status by Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), & Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Statistical significance was set for p < 0.05. 58% of patients were overweight/obese and 54% had high cardio-metabolic risk, according to waist circumference; 30% of patients had significantly lost weight (≥ 5%), whereas 28% gained weight. By MUST, 46% of patients were at low risk and 34% at high risk. By SGA, 58% patients were well nourished and 40% had moderate/severe undernutrition. A longer length of stay was associated with moderate/high risk by MUST, and undernutrition by SGA (p = 0.01). Undernutrition or obesity pose surgical risks. The lack of nutrition discipline in the medical curricula, limits the multiprofessional management and a better understanding of the more adequate approaches to these patients. Further, the change in the clinical scenario argues for more studies to clarify the prevalence and consequences of sarcopenic obesity in surgical patients.

  9. Risk of major nonemergent inpatient general surgical procedures in patients on long-term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Gajdos, Csaba; Hawn, Mary T; Kile, Deidre; Robinson, Thomas N; Henderson, William G

    2013-02-01

    Patients on long-term dialysis undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures are thought to have high rates of postoperative complications and death. Retrospective cohort study. Academic and private hospitals. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to select dialysis and nondialysis patients who had undergone nonemergent major general surgical procedures between 2005 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of dialysis on 30-day surgical outcomes adjusted for age, race, sex, work relative value units, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and recent operations (within the past 30 days). Patient morbidity, mortality, and failure-to-rescue rates. Dialysis patients undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependence, and need for a reoperation within 30 days from the index procedure. Dialysis patients also had a higher risk of vascular complications and postoperative death. Older dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years) had a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate compared with their younger counterparts. Dialysis patients were significantly more likely to die after any complication occurred, and mortality rates were especially high following stroke, myocardial infarction, and reintubation. Abnormalities in potentially modifiable preoperative variables (blood urea nitrogen level, albumin level, and hematocrit) did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or death in dialysis patients compared with nondialysis patients. Dialysis patients undergoing nonemergent general surgery have significantly elevated risks of postoperative complications and death, particularly if they are aged 65 years or older.

  10. Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement in Intermediate-Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Michael J; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Popma, Jeffrey J; Kleiman, Neal S; Søndergaard, Lars; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Adams, David H; Deeb, G Michael; Maini, Brijeshwar; Gada, Hemal; Chetcuti, Stanley; Gleason, Thomas; Heiser, John; Lange, Rüdiger; Merhi, William; Oh, Jae K; Olsen, Peter S; Piazza, Nicolo; Williams, Mathew; Windecker, Stephan; Yakubov, Steven J; Grube, Eberhard; Makkar, Raj; Lee, Joon S; Conte, John; Vang, Eric; Nguyen, Hang; Chang, Yanping; Mugglin, Andrew S; Serruys, Patrick W J C; Kappetein, Arie P

    2017-04-06

    Although transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is an accepted alternative to surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk, less is known about comparative outcomes among patients with aortic stenosis who are at intermediate surgical risk. We evaluated the clinical outcomes in intermediate-risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis in a randomized trial comparing TAVR (performed with the use of a self-expanding prosthesis) with surgical aortic-valve replacement. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause or disabling stroke at 24 months in patients undergoing attempted aortic-valve replacement. We used Bayesian analytical methods (with a margin of 0.07) to evaluate the noninferiority of TAVR as compared with surgical valve replacement. A total of 1746 patients underwent randomization at 87 centers. Of these patients, 1660 underwent an attempted TAVR or surgical procedure. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 79.8±6.2 years, and all were at intermediate risk for surgery (Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality, 4.5±1.6%). At 24 months, the estimated incidence of the primary end point was 12.6% in the TAVR group and 14.0% in the surgery group (95% credible interval [Bayesian analysis] for difference, -5.2 to 2.3%; posterior probability of noninferiority, >0.999). Surgery was associated with higher rates of acute kidney injury, atrial fibrillation, and transfusion requirements, whereas TAVR had higher rates of residual aortic regurgitation and need for pacemaker implantation. TAVR resulted in lower mean gradients and larger aortic-valve areas than surgery. Structural valve deterioration at 24 months did not occur in either group. TAVR was a noninferior alternative to surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis at intermediate surgical risk, with a different pattern of adverse events associated with each procedure. (Funded by Medtronic; SURTAVI ClinicalTrials.gov number

  11. Risk factors for gallbladder contractility after cholecystolithotomy in elderly high-risk surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Luo, Hao; Yan, Hong-tao; Zhang, Guo-hu; Liu, Wei-hui; Tang, Li-jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease in the elderly patient. The routine therapy is open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the previous study, we designed a minimally invasive cholecystolithotomy based on percutaneous cholecystostomy combined with a choledochoscope (PCCLC) under local anesthesia. Methods To investigate the effect of PCCLC on the gallbladder contractility function, PCCLC and laparoscope combined with a choledochoscope were compared in this study. Results The preoperational age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, as well as postoperational lithotrity rate and common biliary duct stone rate in the PCCLC group, were significantly higher than the choledochoscope group. However, the pre- and postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction was not significantly different. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that the preoperational thickness of gallbladder wall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.540; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.317–0.920; P=0.023) and lithotrity (OR: 0.150; 95% CI: 0.023–0.965; P=0.046) were risk factors for postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.714 (P=0.016; 95% CI: 0.553–0.854). Conclusion PCCLC strategy should be carried out cautiously. First, restricted by the diameter of the drainage tube, the PCCLC should be used only for small gallstones in high-risk surgical patients. Second, the usage of lithotrity should be strictly limited to avoid undermining the gallbladder contractility and increasing the risk of secondary common bile duct stones. PMID:28138229

  12. [Objective assessment of symptoms and informing patients of surgical risks].

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent; Marès, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Genital prolapse is a functional pathology presenting with numerous urinary, genito-sexual, and anorectal symptoms. These symptoms are responsible for an alteration of the quality of life, sometimes associated to a real anxiety-depressive syndrome. Because of these complex intricacies, the management of these disorders became multidisciplinary. Tools to measure the impact of prolapse symptoms on the quality of life became a necessity. Such instruments should allow a correlation of the functional symptomatology at the anatomic stage, raise a surgical indication based on the functional disturbance and evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of the various therapeutic procedures. Two validated self-questionnaires in French (short versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory [PFDI-20] and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire [PFIQ-7]) are presently available. Moreover, the physician has the legal obligation to provide detailed presurgical information on frequent and severe hazards, expected benefits, functional consequences, therapeutic alternatives and the consequences of nonintervention. Before surgery takes place, the surgical approach, the benefit of using synthetic prostheses, the possibility of uterine and/or ovarian conservation, and some risky conditions such as smoking, obesity and estrogen deficiency should be discussed.

  13. Midregional Proadrenomedullin Improves Risk Stratification beyond Surgical Risk Scores in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Philipp; Huber, Andreas; Müller, Beat; Maisano, Francesco; Taramasso, Maurizio; Moarof, Igal; Obeid, Slayman; Stähli, Barbara E.; Cahenzly, Martin; Binder, Ronald K.; Liebetrau, Christoph; Möllmann, Helge; Kim, Won-Keun; Hamm, Christian; Lüscher, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional surgical risk scores lack accuracy in risk stratification of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Elevated levels of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) levels are associated with adverse outcome not only in patients with manifest chronic disease states, but also in the general population. Objectives We investigated the predictive value of MR-proADM for mortality in an unselected contemporary TAVR population. Methods We prospectively included 153 patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVR from September 2013 to August 2014. This population was compared to an external validation cohort of 205 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR. The primary endpoint was all cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 258 days, 17 out of 153 patients who underwent TAVR died (11%). Patients with MR-proADM levels above the 75th percentile (≥ 1.3 nmol/l) had higher mortality (31% vs. 4%, HR 8.9, 95% CI 3.0–26.0, P < 0.01), whereas patients with EuroSCORE II scores above the 75th percentile (> 6.8) only showed a trend towards higher mortality (18% vs. 9%, HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.8–5.6, P = 0.13). The Harrell’s C-statistic was 0.58 (95% CI 0.45–0.82) for the EuroSCORE II, and consideration of baseline MR-proADM levels significantly improved discrimination (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–0.92, P = 0.01). In bivariate analysis adjusted for EuroSCORE II, MR-proADM levels ≥1.3 nmol/l persisted as an independent predictor of mortality (HR 9.9, 95% CI (3.1–31.3), P <0.01) and improved the model’s net reclassification index (0.89, 95% CI (0.28–1.59). These results were confirmed in the independent validation cohort. Conclusions Our study identified MR-proADM as a novel predictor of mortality in patients undergoing TAVR. In the future, MR-proADM should be added to the commonly used EuroSCORE II for better risk stratification of patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis. PMID

  14. Malnutrition risk predicts surgical outcomes in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations: Results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Judy W C; Wu, Arthur H W; Lee, Michelle W K; Lau, So-ying; Lam, Pui-shan; Lau, Wai-shan; Kwok, Sam S S; Kwan, Rosa Y H; Lam, Cheuk-fan; Tam, Chun-kit; Lee, Suk-on

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations are at risk of malnutrition which may increase the chance of adverse surgical outcomes. This prospective study aimed at correlating nutritional status of patients having gastrointestinal operations with their short-term surgical outcomes captured by a territory-wide Surgical Outcomes Monitoring and Improvement Program. The preoperative malnutrition risk of Chinese adult patients undergoing elective/emergency ultra-major/major gastrointestinal operations in two surgical departments over a 12-month period were assessed by Chinese version of Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Their perioperative risk factors and clinical outcomes, including length of hospital stay, mortality and morbidity, were retrieved from the above mentioned program. Correlation of malnutrition risk with clinical outcomes was assessed by logistic regression analysis after controlling for known confounders. 943 patients (58% male; mean age 65.9 ± 14.8 years) underwent gastrointestinal operations (40.3% emergency operation; 52.7% ultra-major procedures; 66.9% bowel resections) had analyzable data. 15.8% and 17.1% of patients were at medium and high risk of malnutrition, respectively. Malnutrition risk score according to the screening tool was an independent predictor of length of hospital stay, 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality and minor medical complications. Similar correlations were found for various sub-scores of malnutrition risk. Weight loss sub-score was predictive of 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality and minor medical complications. Body mass index was predictive of mortality (30- and 60- day) whereas the acute disease sub-score was predictive of length of hospital stay. Preoperative malnutrition was an important predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for surgical infections.

    PubMed

    Dominioni, Lorenzo; Imperatori, Andrea; Rotolo, Nicola; Rovera, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Many risk factors for postoperative infections have been identified that can be used individually or in combination as scoring indices. Infection risk scores can be applied in clinical practice to identify high-risk surgical patients, to indicate the need to implement risk-reduction strategies, and to stratify risk for comparison of outcome among different patient series. In the hierarchy of patient-related risk factors, serum albumin concentration and advanced age rank at the top of the list. Among the treatment-related factors, the quality of the surgical technique is a most important determinant, although most surgical site infections are attributable to patient-related risk factors rather than to flawed surgical care. Scoring systems can identify the patients at highest risk, thus prompting the implementation of therapy to improve modifiable conditions, but most clinicians outside the academic and research setting do not use them. Risk assessment also can be performed by expert clinical judgment. Discussion with the patient and informed consent are essential. Carefully collected scores of patient risk factors may be valuable to document the relations between the risk and the outcome of surgery. Ideally, each institution should select a validated scoring system to audit postoperative infectious morbidity and surgical performance in the various specialties.

  16. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig R; Leon, Martin B; Mack, Michael J; Miller, D Craig; Moses, Jeffrey W; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, E Murat; Webb, John G; Fontana, Gregory P; Makkar, Raj R; Williams, Mathew; Dewey, Todd; Kapadia, Samir; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Thourani, Vinod H; Corso, Paul; Pichard, Augusto D; Bavaria, Joseph E; Herrmann, Howard C; Akin, Jodi J; Anderson, William N; Wang, Duolao; Pocock, Stuart J

    2011-06-09

    The use of transcatheter aortic-valve replacement has been shown to reduce mortality among high-risk patients with aortic stenosis who are not candidates for surgical replacement. However, the two procedures have not been compared in a randomized trial involving high-risk patients who are still candidates for surgical replacement. At 25 centers, we randomly assigned 699 high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to undergo either transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a balloon-expandable bovine pericardial valve (either a transfemoral or a transapical approach) or surgical replacement. The primary end point was death from any cause at 1 year. The primary hypothesis was that transcatheter replacement is not inferior to surgical replacement. The rates of death from any cause were 3.4% in the transcatheter group and 6.5% in the surgical group at 30 days (P=0.07) and 24.2% and 26.8%, respectively, at 1 year (P=0.44), a reduction of 2.6 percentage points in the transcatheter group (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, 3.0 percentage points; predefined margin, 7.5 percentage points; P=0.001 for noninferiority). The rates of major stroke were 3.8% in the transcatheter group and 2.1% in the surgical group at 30 days (P=0.20) and 5.1% and 2.4%, respectively, at 1 year (P=0.07). At 30 days, major vascular complications were significantly more frequent with transcatheter replacement (11.0% vs. 3.2%, P<0.001); adverse events that were more frequent after surgical replacement included major bleeding (9.3% vs. 19.5%, P<0.001) and new-onset atrial fibrillation (8.6% vs. 16.0%, P=0.006). More patients undergoing transcatheter replacement had an improvement in symptoms at 30 days, but by 1 year, there was not a significant between-group difference. In high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, transcatheter and surgical procedures for aortic-valve replacement were associated with similar rates of survival at 1 year, although there were important differences in

  17. Surgical errors and risks – the head and neck cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Harréus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972

  18. Changes in quality of life associated with surgical risk in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paola Severo; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Rodrigues, Juliane; Moraes, Maria Antonieta

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to verify quality of life of elderly patients submitted to cardiac surgery, and correlating surgical risk to health-related quality of life instrument domains. Prospective cohort study, performed at a cardiology hospital. It included elderly patients who had undergone elective cardiac surgery. Pre- and postoperative quality of life was evaluated by applying the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old (WHOQOL-OLD) scale and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Surgical risk was stratified using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE). Fifty-four patients, mostly men (64.8%), were included, with a mean age of 69.3 ± 5.7 years. The eight domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, and the four facets presented for the WHOQOL-OLD scale showed improved quality of life 6 months after surgery (P < 0.001). No difference was found in the association of EuroSCORE with the domains of the health-related quality of life instruments. The data showed improved quality of life of elderly people submitted to cardiac surgery, unrelated to surgical risk. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Management of chronic empyema with unexpandable lung in poor surgical risk patients using an empyema tube

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Abhishek; Jantz, Michael A; Penley, Andrea M; Mehta, Hiren J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: High preoperative risk precludes decortication and other surgical interventions in some patients with chronic empyema. We manage such patients by converting the chest tube into an “empyema tube,” cutting the tube near the skin and securing the end with a sterile clip to allow for open pleural drainage. The patient is followed serially, and the tube gradually withdrawn based on radiological resolution and amount of drainage. Methods: Between 2010 and 2014, patients with chronic empyema and unexpandable lung, deemed high-risk surgical candidates, had staged chest tube removal, and were included for the study. The volume of fluid drained, culture results, duration of drainage, functional status, and comorbidities were recorded. Measurements and Results: Eight patients qualified. All had resolution of infection. The tube was removed after an average of 73.6 ± 49.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]) days. The mean duration of antibiotic treatment was 5.37 ± 1.04 (95% CI) weeks. None required surgery or experienced complications from an empyema tube. Conclusion: A strategy of empyema tube drainage with staged removal is an option in appropriately selected patients with chronic empyema, unexpandable lung, and poor surgical candidacy. PMID:27185989

  20. Usefulness of administrative databases for risk adjustment of adverse events in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo-Rincón, Isabel; Martin-Vizcaíno, Marta P; Tirapu-León, Belén; Zabalza-López, Pedro; Abad-Vicente, Francisco J; Merino-Peralta, Asunción; Oteiza-Martínez, Fabiola

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of clinical-administrative databases for the development of risk adjustment in the assessment of adverse events in surgical patients. The study was conducted at the Hospital of Navarra, a tertiary teaching hospital in northern Spain. We studied 1602 hospitalizations of surgical patients from 2008 to 2010. We analysed 40 comorbidity variables included in the National Surgical Quality Improvement (NSQIP) Program of the American College of Surgeons using 2 sources of information: The clinical and administrative database (CADB) and the data extracted from the complete clinical records (CR), which was considered the gold standard. Variables were catalogued according to compliance with the established criteria: sensitivity, positive predictive value and kappa coefficient >0.6. The average number of comorbidities per study participant was 1.6 using the CR and 0.95 based on CADB (p<.0001). Thirteen types of comorbidities (accounting for 8% of the comorbidities detected in the CR) were not identified when the CADB was the source of information. Five of the 27 remaining comorbidities complied with the 3 established criteria; 2 pathologies fulfilled 2 criteria, whereas 11 fulfilled 1, and 9 did not fulfil any criterion. CADB detected prevalent comorbidities such as comorbid hypertension and diabetes. However, the CABD did not provide enough information to assess the variables needed to perform the risk adjustment proposed by the NSQIP for the assessment of adverse events in surgical patients. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Polish surgical patients over 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Kołtuniuk, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality among adults in Poland. A number of risk factors have significant influence on CVD incidence. Early identification of risk factors related to our lifestyle facilitates taking proper actions aiming at the reduction of their negative impact on health. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors between patients aged over 65 years and patients of other age groups in surgical wards. Material and methods The study was conducted for assessment and finding the distribution of major risk factors of CVD among 420 patients aged 18–84 years who were hospitalized in surgical wards. Interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were conducted in all subjects. Statistical analysis of the material was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and analysis of variance. Results While abdominal obesity (83.3%), overweight and obesity (68%), hypertension (65.1%), hypercholesterolemia (33.3%), and low level of physical activity (29.1%) were the most common CVD risk factors among patients over 65 years old, abdominal obesity (36.2%), overweight and obesity (36.1%), and current smoking were the most common CVD risk factors among patients up to the age of 35. In the age group over 65, the least prevalent risk factors for CVD were diabetes mellitus (14.8%), depressive episodes (13.6%), abuse of alcohol (11.4%), and smoking (7.8%). In the group under 35 years, we have not reported any cases of hypercholesterolemia and a lesser number of patients suffered from diabetes and HTN. Conclusion Distribution of the major risk factors for CVD is quite high in the adult population, especially in the age group over 65, which can result in serious problems of health and increased rates of chronic diseases, especially CVDs. PMID:27257376

  2. Image-defined Risk Factors Correlate with Surgical Radicality and Local Recurrence in Patients with Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pohl, A; Erichsen, M; Stehr, M; Hubertus, J; Bergmann, F; Kammer, B; von Schweinitz, D

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid pediatric tumor and the most common cancer to be detected in children younger than 12 months of age. To date, 2 different staging systems describe the extent of the disease: the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) and the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System (INRGSS). The INRGSS-system is characterized by the presence or absence of so called image-defined risk factors (IDRFs), which are described as surgical risk factors. We hypothesized that IDRFs correlate with surgical complications, surgical radicality, local recurrence and overall survival (OS). Between 2003 and 2010, 102 patients had neuroblastoma surgery performed in our department. We analyzed medical records for IDRF-status and above named data. 16 patients were IDRF-negative, whereas 86 patients showed one or more IDRF. Intra- or postoperative complications have been reported in 21 patients (21%). 19 of them showed one or more IDRF and 2 patients were IDRF-negative (p=n.s.). Patients who suffered from intra- or postoperative complications demonstrated a decreased OS (p=0.011). Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the extent of macroscopical removal and IDRF-status (p=0.001). Furthermore, the number of IDRFs were associated with a decreased likelihood of radical tumor resection (p<0.001). 19 patients had local recurrence; all of them were IDRF-positive (p=0.037). Pediatric surgeons should consider IDRFs as a useful tool for risk assessment and therefore planning for neuroblastoma surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Risk factors of surgical site infections in patients with Crohn's disease complicated with gastrointestinal fistula.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Ren, Jianan; Li, Guanwei; Hu, Qiongyuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2017-05-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication following surgical procedures. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with SSI in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with gastrointestinal fistula. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical resection in gastrointestinal fistula patients with CD between January 2013 and January 2015, identified from a prospectively maintained gastrointestinal fistula database. Demographic information, preoperative medication, intraoperative findings, and postoperative outcome data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to assess possible risk factors for SSI. A total of 118 patients were identified, of whom 75.4% were men, the average age of the patients was 34.1 years, and the average body mass index (BMI) was 18.8 kg/m(2). The rate of SSI was 31.4%. On multivariate analysis, preoperative anemia (P = 0.001, OR 7.698, 95% CI 2.273-26.075), preoperative bacteria present in fistula tract (P = 0.029, OR 3.399, 95% CI 1.131-10.220), and preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) <3 months (P < 0.001, OR 11.531, 95% CI 3.086-43.079) were predictors of SSI. Notably, preoperative percutaneous abscess drainage was shown to exert protection against SSI in fistulizing CD (P = 0.037, OR 0.258, 95% CI 0.073-0.920). Preoperative anemia, bacteria present in fistula tract, and preoperative EN <3 months significantly increased the risk of postoperative SSI in gastrointestinal fistula complicated with CD. Preoperative identification of these risk factors may assist in risk assessment and then to optimize preoperative preparation and perioperative care.

  4. Identification of the high risk emergency surgical patient: Which risk prediction model should be used?

    PubMed Central

    Stonelake, Stephen; Thomson, Peter; Suggett, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the ‘high risk’ patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Methods Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and CR-POSSUM) risk calculation tools. Morbidity risk scores were calculated using the POSSUM predicted morbidity and compared against actual morbidity according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The actual mortality was 10.5%. The average predicted risk scores for all laparotomies were: ASA 26.5%, Lee Index 2.5%, POSSUM 29.5%, P-POSSUM 18.5%, CR-POSSUM 10.5%. Complications occurred following 67 laparotomies (78%). The majority (51%) of complications were classified as Clavien–Dindo grade 2–3 (non-life-threatening). Patients having a POSSUM morbidity risk of greater than 50% developed significantly more life-threatening complications (CD 4–5) compared with those who predicted less than or equal to 50% morbidity risk (P = 0.01). Discussion Pre-operative risk stratification remains a challenge because the Lee Index under-predicts and ASA over-predicts mortality risk. Post-operative risk scoring using the CR-POSSUM is more accurate and we suggest can be used to identify patients who require intensive care post-operatively. Conclusions In the absence of accurate risk scoring tools that can be used on admission to hospital it is not possible to reliably audit the achievement of national standards of care for the ‘high-risk’ patient. PMID:26468369

  5. TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT AND SERUM ALBUMIN AS PREDICTORS OF NUTRITIONAL RISK IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA, Naruna Pereira; FORTES, Renata Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early detection of changes in nutritional status is important for a better approach to the surgical patient. There are several nutritional measures in clinical practice, but there is not a complete method for determining the nutritional status, so, health professionals should only choose the best method to use. Aim: To evaluate the total lymphocyte count and albumin as predictors of identification of nutritional risk in surgical patients. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 69 patients undergoing surgery of the gastrointestinal tract. The assessment of nutritional status was evaluated by objective methods (anthropometry and biochemical tests) and subjective methods (subjective global assessment). Results: All parameters used in the nutritional assessment detected a high prevalence of malnutrition, with the exception of BMI which detected only 7.2% (n=5). The albumin (p=0.01), the total lymphocytes count (p=0.02), the percentage of adequacy of skinfolds (p<0.002) and the subjective global assessment (p<0.001) proved to be useful as predictors of risk of postoperative complications, since the smaller the values of albumin and lymphocyte count and higher the score the subjective global assessment were higher risks of surgical complications. Conclusions: A high prevalence of malnutrition was found, except for BMI. The use of albumin and total lymphocyte count were good predictor for the risk of postoperative complications and when used with other methods of assessing the nutritional status, such as the subjective global assessment and the percentage of adequacy of skinfolds, can be useful for identification of nutritional risk and postoperative complications. PMID:26537145

  6. Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic-Valve Replacement in Intermediate-Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Leon, Martin B; Smith, Craig R; Mack, Michael J; Makkar, Raj R; Svensson, Lars G; Kodali, Susheel K; Thourani, Vinod H; Tuzcu, E Murat; Miller, D Craig; Herrmann, Howard C; Doshi, Darshan; Cohen, David J; Pichard, Augusto D; Kapadia, Samir; Dewey, Todd; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Szeto, Wilson Y; Williams, Mathew R; Kereiakes, Dean; Zajarias, Alan; Greason, Kevin L; Whisenant, Brian K; Hodson, Robert W; Moses, Jeffrey W; Trento, Alfredo; Brown, David L; Fearon, William F; Pibarot, Philippe; Hahn, Rebecca T; Jaber, Wael A; Anderson, William N; Alu, Maria C; Webb, John G

    2016-04-28

    Previous trials have shown that among high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, survival rates are similar with transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic-valve replacement. We evaluated the two procedures in a randomized trial involving intermediate-risk patients. We randomly assigned 2032 intermediate-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, at 57 centers, to undergo either TAVR or surgical replacement. The primary end point was death from any cause or disabling stroke at 2 years. The primary hypothesis was that TAVR would not be inferior to surgical replacement. Before randomization, patients were entered into one of two cohorts on the basis of clinical and imaging findings; 76.3% of the patients were included in the transfemoral-access cohort and 23.7% in the transthoracic-access cohort. The rate of death from any cause or disabling stroke was similar in the TAVR group and the surgery group (P=0.001 for noninferiority). At 2 years, the Kaplan-Meier event rates were 19.3% in the TAVR group and 21.1% in the surgery group (hazard ratio in the TAVR group, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 1.09; P=0.25). In the transfemoral-access cohort, TAVR resulted in a lower rate of death or disabling stroke than surgery (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P=0.05), whereas in the transthoracic-access cohort, outcomes were similar in the two groups. TAVR resulted in larger aortic-valve areas than did surgery and also resulted in lower rates of acute kidney injury, severe bleeding, and new-onset atrial fibrillation; surgery resulted in fewer major vascular complications and less paravalvular aortic regurgitation. In intermediate-risk patients, TAVR was similar to surgical aortic-valve replacement with respect to the primary end point of death or disabling stroke. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; PARTNER 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01314313.).

  7. Efficacy of Seprafilm for reducing reoperative risk in pediatric surgical patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2005-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Seprafilm (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, Mass) in adult surgery patients have been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Seprafilm in pediatric surgical patients. One hundred twenty-two pediatric abdominal surgery patients were enrolled. Sixty-seven patients received Seprafilm application. Of these patients, 18 again received Seprafilm at abdominal closure during a second surgery, and of the 18, 4 received Seprafilm at closure after a third surgery. Of the 55 control patients who did not receive Seprafilm, 14 had a second surgery, and of these 14 patients, 4 had a third surgery. Adverse events, operation time, and blood loss were compared with assessed Seprafilm safety. Seprafilm efficacy evaluations included incidence and severity of adhesions in those patients who required relaparotomy. The incidence (Seprafilm, 40.9%; control, 82.4%) and severity (Seprafilm: 59.1%, grade 0; control: 17.6%, grade 0) of adhesions under the abdominal incision site were significantly reduced in the Seprafilm group (P = .007 and P = .0009, respectively). In addition, mean relaparotomy operation time was significantly shorter for Seprafilm patients (P = .004). At relaparotomy, blood loss/body weight ratio for Seprafilm patients compared with control patients showed a trend toward but did not reach significance (P = .09). Decreased incidence and severity of postsurgical adhesions with Seprafilm in pediatric patients may lead to reduction of the risks associated with subsequent operation.

  8. Mortality risk factors in critical post-surgical patients treated using continuous renal replacement techniques.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-Jiménez, J C; Castro-Rincón, J M; González, O; Lora, D; López, E; Pérez-Cerdà, F

    2015-04-01

    To determine the influence of demographics, medical, and surgical variables on 30-day mortality in patients who need continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A retrospective-following study was conducted using the data of 112 patients admitted to the postoperative intensive care unit who required CRRT, between August 2006 and August 2011, and followed-up for 30 days. The following information was collected: age, gender, history of HBP, DM, cardiovascular disease, and CKD, urgent surgery, surgical speciality, organic dysfunction according to the SOFA scale, the number of organs with dysfunction, use of mechanical ventilation, diagnostic and origin of sepsis, type of CRRT, and 30-day mortality. General linear models were used for estimating the strength of association (relative risk [RR], and 95% confidence interval [CI] between variables and 30-day mortality. In the univariant analysis, the following variables were identified as risk factors for 30-day mortality: age (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.06; P=.0005), and history of cardiovascular disease (RR 1.57; 95% CI 1.02-2.41; P=.039). Among the variables included in the multivariable analysis (age, history of cardiovascular disease, sepsis, and number of organs with dysfunction), only age was identified as an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality (RR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; P=.007). Thirty-day mortality in postoperative, critically ill patients who require CRRT is high (41.07%). Age has been identified as an independent risk factor, with renal failure as the most common indication for the use of these therapies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity in surgical intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Anthony T; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Cook, Charles H; Murphy, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aminoglycosides are commonly used antibiotics in the intensive care unit (ICU), but are associated with nephrotoxicity. This study evaluated the development of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity (AAN) in a single surgical intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: Adult patients in our surgical ICU who received more than two doses of aminoglycosides were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, serum creatinine, receipt of nephrotoxins [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, vasopressors, vancomycin and intravenous iodinated contrast] and the need for dialysis. AAN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL on at least 2 consecutive days. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Sixty-one patients (43 males) receiving aminoglycoside were evaluated. Mean age, weight, initial serum creatinine, and duration of aminoglycoside therapy were 58.7 (±15) years, 83.3 (±24.4) kg, 0.9 (±0.5) mg/dL, and 4 (±2.3) days, respectively. Thirty-one (51%) aminoglycoside recipients also received additional nephrotoxins. Seven aminoglycoside recipients (11.5%) developed AAN, four of whom required dialysis and all had received additional nephrotoxins. Only concurrent use of vasopressors (P = 0.041) and vancomycin (P = 0.002) were statistically associated with AAN. Receipt of vasopressors or vancomycin were independent predictors of acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) with odds ratios of 19.9 (95% CI: 1.6–245, P = 0.019) and 49.8 (95% CI: 4.1–602, P = 0.002), respectively. Four patients (6.6%) required dialysis. Conclusions: In critically ill surgical patients receiving aminoglycosides, AAN occurred in 11.5% of the patients. Concurrent use of aminoglycosides with other nephrotoxins increased the risk of AAN. PMID:22096769

  10. Patient-prosthesis mismatch: surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high risk patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Irving L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM. PMID:27867654

  11. Patient-prosthesis mismatch: surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high risk patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Kron, Irving L

    2016-10-01

    Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM.

  12. Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk.

    PubMed

    Jie, Bin; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Nolan, Marie T; Zhu, Shai-Nan; Yu, Kang; Kondrup, Jens

    2012-10-01

    This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002). A consecutive series of patients admitted for selective abdominal surgery in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital and the Beijing University Third Hospital in Beijing, China were recruited from March 2007 to July 2008. Data were collected on the nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002), the application of perioperative nutritional support, surgery, complications, and length of stay. A minimum of 7 d of parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition before surgery was considered adequate preoperative nutritional support. In total 1085 patients were recruited, and 512 of them were at nutritional risk. Of the 120 patients with an NRS score at least 5, the complication rate was significantly lower in the preoperative nutrition group compared with the control group (25.6% versus 50.6%, P = 0.008). The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the preoperative nutrition group than in the control group (13.7 ± 7.9 versus 17.9 ± 11.3 d, P = 0.018). Of the 392 patients with an NRS score from 3 to 4, the complication rate and the postoperative hospital stay were similar between patients with and those without preoperative nutritional support (P = 1.0 and 0.770, respectively). This finding suggests that preoperative nutritional support is beneficial to patients with an NRS score at least 5 by lowering the complication rate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Risk of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor Alfa Therapy

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Bernardo Matos; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. International guidelines recommend interruption of anti-TNF medications in the perioperative period, but there are no randomized trials to support such recommendation. Objectives. To study literature evidence assessing the risk of surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery patients with RA using anti-TNF drugs, compared to untreated patients or those using conventional DMARD. Methods. Systematic review of cohort studies is concerning surgical site infections in orthopedic procedures in patients with RA. Results. Three studies were selected. Only one was considered of high-quality, albeit with low statistical power. The review resulted in inconclusive data, since the best quality study showed no significant differences between groups, while others showed increased risk of infections in patients using anti-TNF medications. Conclusion. It is unclear whether patients with RA using anti-TNF medications are at increased risk of surgical site infections. Randomized controlled trials or new high quality observational studies are needed to clarify the issue. PMID:22500176

  14. Surgical Site Infection following Cesarean Delivery: Patient, Provider, and Procedure-Specific Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Shree, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H; Dunn, Shannon L; Krans, Elizabeth E

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). study design: Retrospective analysis of 2,739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square test and t-test were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Of 2,739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class of ≥ 3, chorioamnionitis, tobacco use, and labor before CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65-3.38), chorioamnionitis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.25-3.83), resident teaching service (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.54-3.00), tobacco use (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.70), ASA class ≥ 3 (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.39), and CDs performed for nonreassuring fetal status (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Multiple patient, provider, and procedure-specific risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection-control efforts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Surgical site infection following cesarean delivery: patient, provider and procedure specific risk factors

    PubMed Central

    SHREE, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H.; Dunn, Shannon L.; Krans, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). Study Design Retrospective analysis of 2739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSI’s were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square and t tests were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Results Of 2739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an ASA class of ≥3, chorioamnionitis, use tobacco and labor prior to CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (2.35;1.65–3.38), chorioamnionitis (2.24;1.25–3.83), resident teaching service (2.15;1.54–3.00), tobacco use (1.70; 1.04–2.70), ASA class ≥3 (1.61; 1.06–2.39) and CDs performed for non-reassuring fetal status (0.43; 0.26–0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Conclusion Multiple patient, provider and procedure specific-risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection control efforts. PMID:26344010

  16. Can the American College of Surgeons NSQIP surgical risk calculator identify patients at risk of complications following microsurgical breast reconstruction?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Anne C; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Barandun, Marina; Hofer, Stefan O P; Zhong, Toni

    2016-10-01

    The American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Surgical Risk Calculator is an open access online tool that estimates the risk of adverse post-operative events for a wide range of surgical procedures. This study evaluates the predictive value of the ACS NSQIP calculator in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction. Details of 759 microvascular breast reconstructions in 515 patients were entered into the online calculator. The predicted rates of post-operative complications were recorded and compared to observed complications identified on chart review. The calculator was validated using three statistical measures described in the original development of the ACS NSQIP model. The calculator predicted that complications would occur in 11.1% of breast reconstructions while the observed rate was 10.5%. Hosmer-Lemeshow test did not find any statistical difference between these rates (p = 0.69) indicating that the calculator accurately measured what is was intended to measure. The area under the receiver operating curve or c-statistic (measure of discrimination) was found to be low at 0.548, indicating the model has random performance in this patient population. The Brier score was higher than that reported in the original ACS calculator development (0.094 vs 0.069) demonstrating poor correlation between predicted probability and actual probability. This study demonstrates that while the ACS NSQIP Universal risk calculator can predict the proportion of patients that will develop complications it cannot effectively discriminate between patients who are at risk of complications and those who are not. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinases and risk stratification in patients undergoing surgical revascularisation for critical limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Spinelli, Francesco; David, Antonio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Fugetto, Francesco; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; Stefanelli, Roberta; Colosimo, Manuela; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Critical limb ischaemia (CLI) is the most advanced form of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and it is often associated with foot gangrene, which may lead to major amputation of lower limbs, and also with a higher risk of death due to fatal cardiovascular events. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) seem to be involved in atherosclerosis, PAD and CLI. Aim of this study was to evaluate variations in MMP serum levels in patients affected by CLI, before and after lower limb surgical revascularisation through prosthetic or venous bypass. A total of 29 patients (7 females and 22 males, mean age 73·4 years, range 65-83 years) suffering from CLI and submitted to lower extremity bypass (LEB) in our Institution were recruited. Seven patients (group I) underwent LEB using synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft material and 22 patients (group II) underwent LEB using autogenous veins. Moreover, 30 healthy age-sex-matched subjects were also enrolled as controls (group III). We documented significantly higher serum MMPs levels (P < 0·01) in patients with CLI (groups I and II) with respect to control group (group III). Finally, five patients with CLI (17·2%) showed poor outcomes (major amputations or death), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test showed very high levels of MMP-1 and MMP-8. MMP serum levels seem to be able to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with CLI.

  18. Patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection following eight types of gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H

    2016-08-01

    To identify patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) following eight types of gastrointestinal surgery that could be collected as part of infection surveillance efforts. Record linkage from existing datasets comprising the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) and Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) programmes. Patient data from 35 hospitals were retrieved using JANIS and DPC from 2007 to 2011. Patient-related factors and the incidence of SSI were recorded and analysed. Risk factors associated with SSI were examined using multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression models. In total, 2074 appendectomies; 2084 bile duct, liver or pancreatic procedures; 3460 cholecystectomies; 7273 colonic procedures; 482 oesophageal procedures; 4748 gastric procedures; 2762 rectal procedures and 1202 small bowel procedures were analysed. Using multi-variate analyses, intra-operative blood transfusion was found to be a risk factor for SSI following all types of gastrointestinal surgery, except appendectomy and small bowel surgery. In addition, diabetes was found to be a risk factor for SSI following colon surgery [odds ratio (OR) 1.23, P=0.028] and gastric surgery (OR 1.70, P<0.001). Use of steroids was significantly associated with a higher incidence of SSI following cholecystectomy (OR 2.83, P=0.003) and colon surgery (OR 1.27, P=0.040). Intra-operative blood transfusion, diabetes and use of steroids are risk factors for SSI following gastrointestinal surgery, and should be included as part of SSI surveillance for these procedures. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with Core Valve: First Indian experience of three high surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Ashok; Rastogi, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Maqbool, Syed; Mustaqueem, Arif; Sekar, V. Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of aortic stenosis is increasing with aging population. However with multiple co-morbidities and prior procedures in this aging population, more and more patients are being declared unfit for the ‘Gold Standard’ treatment i.e. surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Among the patients who are unfit or high risk for aortic valve replacement (AVR) by open heart surgery, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been proven to be a valuable alternative improving survival and quality of life. We report first Indian experience of Core Valve (Medtronic Inc.) implantation in three high surgical risk patients performed on 22nd and 23rd February 2012. PMID:23993000

  20. Surgical site infection rates and risk factors in orthopedic pediatric patients in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Viqueira, Almudena Quintás; Caravaca, Gil Rodríguez; Quesada Rubio, José Antonio; Francés, Victoria Soler

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study is to study surgical site infection (SSI) rates and risk factors in a pediatric population. We conducted a prospective cohort study to estimate the SSI rate at a national pediatric referral center, covering all patients managed at the Orthopedic Surgery Department of the Niño Jesús Children's University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 through December 2012. Risk factors and antibiotic prophylaxis were monitored. A comparison between Spanish and US data was performed, with a breakdown by National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk indices. We also conducted a comparative study of SSI rates from 2010 to 2012 to assess the impact of the epidemiologic surveillance system. The study population of 1079 patients had a SSI rate of 2.8%. SSI rates were calculated for spinal fusion and other musculoskeletal procedures according to the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk index. In the case of other musculoskeletal procedures, our SSI rates were 0.8 times lower than the overall Spanish rate, but higher than US rates for all risk categories. For spinal fusion procedures, our SSI rates were 1.2 times higher than the Spanish rates and 3.5 times higher than National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance rates. This latter finding should be interpreted with caution because it was based on a small sample. The multivariate analysis indicated that the only predictive factors of SSI were American Society of Anesthesiologists score and age. The surveillance program showed that for clean procedures, SSI incidence decreased from 4% in 2010 to 3.2% in 2011 and to 2.4% in 2012.

  1. Using bispectral index and cerebral oximetry to guide hemodynamic therapy in high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Bidd, Heena; Tan, Audrey; Green, David

    2013-05-19

    High-risk surgery represents 12.5% of cases but contributes 80% of deaths in the elderly population. Reduction in morbidity and mortality by the use of intervention strategies could result in thousands of lives being saved and savings of up to £400m per annum in the UK. This has resulted in the drive towards goal-directed therapy and intraoperative flow optimization of high-risk surgical patients being advocated by authorities such as the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.Conventional intraoperative monitoring gives little insight into the profound physiological changes occurring as a result of anesthesia and surgery. The build-up of an oxygen debt is associated with a poor outcome and strategies have been developed in the postoperative period to improve outcomes by repayment of this debt. New monitoring technologies such as minimally invasive cardiac output, depth of anesthesia and cerebral oximetry can minimize oxygen debt build-up. This has the potential to reduce complications and lessen the need for postoperative optimization in high-dependency areas.Flow monitoring has thus emerged as essential during intraoperative monitoring in high-risk surgery. However, evidence suggests that current optimization strategies of deliberately increasing flow to meet predefined targets may not reduce mortality.Could the addition of depth of anesthesia and cerebral and tissue oximetry monitoring produce a further improvement in outcomes?Retrospective studies indicate a combination of excessive depth of anesthesia hypotension and low anesthesia requirement results in increased mortality and length of hospital stay.Near infrared technology allows assessment and maintenance of cerebral and tissue oxygenation, a strategy, which has been associated with improved outcomes. The suggestion that the brain is an index organ for tissue oxygenation, especially in the elderly, indicates a role for this

  2. TIMP2•IGFBP7 biomarker panel accurately predicts acute kidney injury in high-risk surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Gunnerson, Kyle J.; Shaw, Andrew D.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Bihorac, Azra; Al-Khafaji, Ali; Kashani, Kianoush; Lissauer, Matthew; Shi, Jing; Walker, Michael G.; Kellum, John A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in surgical patients. Existing biomarkers and clinical prediction models underestimate the risk for developing AKI. We recently reported data from two trials of 728 and 408 critically ill adult patients in whom urinary TIMP2•IGFBP7 (NephroCheck, Astute Medical) was used to identify patients at risk of developing AKI. Here we report a preplanned analysis of surgical patients from both trials to assess whether urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) accurately identify surgical patients at risk of developing AKI. STUDY DESIGN We enrolled adult surgical patients at risk for AKI who were admitted to one of 39 intensive care units across Europe and North America. The primary end point was moderate-severe AKI (equivalent to KDIGO [Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes] stages 2–3) within 12 hours of enrollment. Biomarker performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, integrated discrimination improvement, and category-free net reclassification improvement. RESULTS A total of 375 patients were included in the final analysis of whom 35 (9%) developed moderate-severe AKI within 12 hours. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] alone was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.90; p < 0.0001). Biomarker performance was robust in sensitivity analysis across predefined subgroups (urgency and type of surgery). CONCLUSION For postoperative surgical intensive care unit patients, a single urinary TIMP2•IGFBP7 test accurately identified patients at risk for developing AKI within the ensuing 12 hours and its inclusion in clinical risk prediction models significantly enhances their performance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prognostic study, level I. PMID:26816218

  3. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Sacral Nerve Modulation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Brueseke, Taylor; Livingston, Briana; Warda, Hussein; Osann, Kathryn; Noblett, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infection in patients undergoing sacral nerve modulation (SNM) surgery. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 290 patients undergoing a total of 669 SNM procedures between 2002 and 2012 by 2 fellowship-trained female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery attending physicians at the University of California-Irvine Medical Center. Infection was defined as a charted abnormal examination finding at the implantation site (erythema, induration, purulent discharge) resulting in prescription of antibiotics, hospitalization, or explantation. We extracted information from the medical record regarding possible risk factors for infection including age, body mass index, immunosuppression (diabetes mellitus, chronic steroid use, smoker, chemotherapy), number of procedures per patient, and number of days between stages 1 and 2. In addition, we compared infection rates before and after 2008 when a clinical practice change was made with the implementation of home chlorhexidine washing (CHW) prior to SNM surgery. Thirty infections occurred, 25 of which were managed with oral antibiotics. Nine required intravenous antibiotics, and 11 required removal of the implanted device. Three patients experienced infection on 2 separate occasions. Seventeen infections had culture data available. Nine of the patients who underwent explantation had wound cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Thirteen of the 26 patients who developed infection had medical histories significant for immunosuppression. Three patients developed late-onset abscess formation at 234, 257, and 687 days after stage 2, respectively. The median time between the most recent SNM procedure and development of infection was 14 days (range, 6-88 days).Body mass index and immunosuppression were significant predictors of infection, whereas age, parity, indication for procedure, and number of days between stages 1 and 2 were

  4. Cervical spine surgery performed in ambulatory surgical centers: Are patients being put at increased risk?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spine surgeons are being increasingly encouraged to perform cervical operations in outpatient ambulatory surgical centers (ASC). However, some studies/data coming out of these centers are provided by spine surgeons who are part or full owners/shareholders. In Florida, for example, there was a 50% increase in ASC (5349) established between 2000–2007; physicians had a stake (invested) in 83%, and outright owned 43% of ASC. Data regarding “excessive” surgery by ASC surgeon-owners from Idaho followed shortly thereafter. Methods: The risks/complications attributed to 3279 cervical spine operations performed in 6 ASC studies were reviewed. Several studies claimed 99% discharge rates the day of the surgery. They also claimed major complications were “picked up” within the average postoperative observation window (e.g., varying from 4–23 hours), allowing for appropriate treatment without further sequelae. Results: Morbidity rates for outpatient cervical spine ASC studies (e.g. some with conflicts of interest) varied up to 0.8–6%, whereas morbidity rates for 3 inpatient cervical studies ranged up to 19.3%. For both groups, morbidity included postoperative dysphagia, epidural hematomas, neck swelling, vocal cord paralysis, and neurological deterioration. Conclusions: Although we have no clear documentation as to their safety, “excessive” and progressively complex cervical surgical procedures are increasingly being performed in ASC. Furthermore, we cannot rely upon ASC-based data. At least some demonstrate an inherent conflict of interest and do not veridically report major morbidity/mortality rates for outpatient procedures. For now, cervical spine surgery performed in ASC would appear to be putting patients at increased risk for the benefit of their surgeon-owners. PMID:27843687

  5. The Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effectiveness of STRONGkids Tool in the Identification of Malnutrition Risks among Pediatric Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Durakbaşa, Çiğdem Ulukaya; Fettahoğlu, Selma; Bayar, Ahu; Mutus, Murat; Okur, Hamit

    2014-01-01

    Background: High prevalence of malnutrition along with the risk for the development of malnutrition in hospitalised children has been reported. However, this problem remains largely unrecognised by healthcare workers. Aims: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and effectiveness of STRONGkids nutritional risk screening (NRS) tool in the identification of malnutrition risk among pediatric surgical patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 494 pediatric surgical patients (median age 59 months, 75.8% males) were included in this prospective study conducted over 3 months. SD-scores <−2 for Body Mass Index (BMI) for age or weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA) were considered to indicate acute and chronic malnutrition, respectively. The STRONGkids NRS tool was used to determine risk for malnutrition. Results: Malnutrition was detected in 13.4% in this group of pediatric surgical patients. Acute malnutrition was identified in 10.1% of patients and more commonly in patients aged ≤60 months than aged >60 months (13.4 vs. 6.6%, p=0.012). Chronic malnutrition was identified in 23 (4.6%) of patients with no significant difference between age groups. There were 7 (1.4%) children with coexistent acute and chronic malnutrition. The STRONGkids tool revealed that 35.7% of patients were either in the moderate or high risk group for malnutrition. Malnutrition, as revealed by anthropometric measurements, was more likely in the presence of gastrointestinal (26.9%, p=0.004) and inguinoscrotal/penile surgery (4.0%, p=0.031), co-morbidities affecting nutritional status (p<0.001) and inpatient admissions (p=0.014). Among patients categorized as low risk for malnutrition, there were more outpatients than inpatients (89.3 vs. 10.7%, p<0.001) and more elective surgery cases than emergency surgery cases (93.4 vs. 6.6%, p<0.001). Conclusion: Providing data on the prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in a prospectively recruited group

  6. Health Status after Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis at Increased Surgical Risk. Results from the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Suzanne J.; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M.; Reardon, Michael J.; Tadros, Peter N.; Zorn, George L.; Maini, Brij; Mumtaz, Mubashir A.; Brown, John M.; Kipperman, Robert M.; Adams, David H.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Cohen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients at increased surgical risk, TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is associated with improved 1-year survival compared with AVR. However, elderly patients may be just as concerned with quality of life improvement as with prolonged survival as a goal of treatment. Objectives To compare the health status outcomes for patients treated with either self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 795 patients with severe aortic stenosis at increased surgical risk were randomized to TAVR or AVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), SF-12, and EQ-5D; growth curve models were used to examine changes over time. Results Over the 1-year follow-up period, disease-specific and generic health status improved substantially for both treatment groups. At 1-month, there was a significant interaction between the benefit of TAVR over AVR and access site. Among surviving patients eligible for iliofemoral (IF) access, there was a clinically relevant early benefit with TAVR across all disease-specific and generic health status measures. Among the non-IF cohort; however, most health status measures were similar for TAVR and AVR, although there was a trend toward early benefit with TAVR on the SF-12 physical health scale. There were no consistent differences in health status between TAVR and AVR at the later time points. Conclusions Health status improved substantially in surviving patients with increased surgical risk who were treated with either self-expanding TAVR or AVR. TAVR via the IF route was associated with better early health status compared with AVR, but there was no early health status benefit with non-IF TAVR compared with AVR. PMID:26292584

  7. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Joo; Shin, Tae Beom

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Materials and Methods Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Results Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Conclusion Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:21430938

  8. Development and validation of a risk score for predicting operative mortality in heart failure patients undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Ranucci, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Different risk models have been introduced and refined in the past in order to improve standards of care. However, the predictive power of any risk algorithms can decline over time due to changes in surgical practice and the population's risk profile. The present study aimed to develop and validate a risk model for predicting operative mortality in patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF) undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR). The study population included 525 patients with previous myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodelling referred to our centre for SVR. All patients underwent surgical reshaping; coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 489 (93%) patients and mitral valve (MV) repair in 142 (27%). Operative mortality was defined as death within 30 days after surgery. All patients received an operative risk assessment using the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score. Better accuracy was achieved by the ACEF score (0.771) compared with the EuroSCORE (0.747). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, forcing the ACEF score in the model, three additional factors remained as independent predictors of operative mortality: atrial fibrillation, NYHA Class 3-4 and MV surgery (odds ratio 2.2, 2.6 and 2.1, respectively) and were computed in the ACEF-SVR. The ACEF-SVR score demonstrated an improved accuracy in respect of the ACEF score (from 0.771 to 0.792) and a better calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2) of 5.40, P = 0.714). The ACEF-SVR score, starting from a simplified model of risk enabled improvement in the accuracy and calibration of the model, tailoring the risk to a specific population of patients with HF undergoing a specific surgical procedure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of bleeding in surgical patients treated with topical bovine thrombin sealants: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew W; Clark, John; Crean, Sheila; Samudrala, Srinath

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the most anticipated, but potentially serious complications during or after surgery are bleeding events. Among the many potential factors associated with bleeding complications in surgery, the use of bovine thrombin has been anecdotally identified as a possible cause of increased bleeding risk. Most of these reports of bleeding events in association with the use of topical bovine thrombin have been limited to case reports lacking clear cause and effect relationship determination. Recent studies have failed to establish significant differences in the rates of bleeding events between those treated with bovine thrombin and those treated with either human or recombinant thrombin. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE for the most recent past 10 years (1997–2007) and identified all published studies that reported a study of surgical patients with a clear objective to examine the risk of bleeding events in surgical patients. We also specifically noted the reporting of any topical bovine thrombin used during surgical procedures. We aimed to examine whether there were any differences in the risk of bleeds in general surgical populations as compared to those studies that reported exposure to topical bovine thrombin. Results We identified 21 clinical studies that addressed the risk of bleeding in surgery. Of these, 5 studies analyzed the use of bovine thrombin sealants in surgical patients. There were no standardized definitions for bleeding events employed across these studies. The rates of bleeds in the general surgery studies ranged from 0.1%–20.2%, with most studies reporting rates between 2.6%–4%. The rates of bleeding events ranged from 0.0%–13% in the bovine thrombin studies with most studies reporting between a 2%–3% rate. Conclusion The risk of bleeds was not clearly different in those studies reporting use of bovine thrombin in all patients compared to the other surgical populations studied. A well-designed and well-controlled study

  10. Nutritional screening in surgical patients of a teaching hospital from Southern Brazil: the impact of nutritional risk in clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rosane Scussel; Tavares, Léa Regina da Cunha; Pastore, Carla Alberici

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of nutritional risk in surgical patients of a teaching hospital and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study with secondary data of surgical ward patients of the Hospital Escola da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, from April to October, 2010. Patients were evaluated up to 36 hours after admission using the Malnutrition Screening Tool. Results: The study included 565 patients, with a mean age of 52.8±15.6 years, and the majority (51%) was female. More than 30% of the patients presented with an average or high nutritional risk, and 7% of them were at high risk. Associated with the greater risk were aging, cancer surgery, and mortality. The length of hospital stay showed a linear increase according to nutritional risk. Conclusion: The Malnutrition Screening Tool is a simple and effective tool for nutritional screening that does not require anthropometric measurements. In this study, average or high nutritional risk was prevalent in one third of the sample, and was related to increased mortality, hospital stay, cancer, and aging. Nutritional care outpatients’ protocols could be used prior to elective surgery to reduce the nutritional risk of these patients, improving clinical outcomes and reducing length and costs of hospital stay. PMID:23843052

  11. Incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in high-risk patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Bodem, Jens Philipp; Kargus, Steffen; Eckstein, Stefanie; Saure, Daniel; Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2015-05-01

    As the most suitable approach for preventing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction is still under discussion, the present study evaluates the incidence of BRONJ after surgical tooth extraction using a standardized surgical protocol in combination with an adjuvant perioperative treatment setting in patients who are at high-risk for developing BRONJ. High-risk patients were defined as patients who received intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) due to a malignant disease. All teeth were removed using a standardized surgical protocol. The perioperative adjuvant treatment included intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis starting at least 24 h before surgery, a gastric feeding tube and mouth rinses with chlorhexidine (0.12%) three times a day. In the follow-up period patients were examined every 4 weeks for the development of BRONJ. Minimum follow-up was 12 weeks. In 61 patients a total number of 184 teeth were removed from 102 separate extraction sites. In eight patients (13.1%) BRONJ developed during the follow-up. A higher risk for developing BRONJ was found in patients where an additional osteotomy was necessary (21.4% vs. 8.0%; p = 0.0577), especially for an osteotomy of the mandible (33.3% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.0268). Parameters including duration of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, the use of a gastric feeding tube and the duration of intravenous BP therapy showed no statistical impact on the development of BRONJ. Furthermore, patients currently undergoing intravenous BP therapy showed no higher risk for BRONJ compared with patients who have paused or completed their intravenous BP therapy (p = 0.4232). This study presents a protocol for surgical tooth extraction in high-risk BP patients in combination with a perioperative adjuvant treatment setting, which reduced the risk for postoperative BRONJ to a minimum. However, the risk for BRONJ increases significantly if an additional osteotomy is necessary

  12. Risk Models of Operative Morbidities in 16,930 Critically Ill Surgical Patients Based on a Japanese Nationwide Database

    PubMed Central

    Saze, Zenichiro; Miyata, Hiroaki; Konno, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Anazawa, Takayuki; Tomotaki, Ai; Wakabayashi, Go; Mori, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate preoperative variables predictive of lethal morbidities in critically ill surgical patients at a national level. There is no report of risk stratification for morbidities associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP). We examined data from 16,930 patients operated during 2011 and 2012 in 1546 different hospitals for ADP identified in the National Clinical Database of Japan. We analyzed morbidities significantly associated with operative mortality. Based on 80% of the population, we calculated independent predictors for these morbidities. The risk factors were validated using the remaining 20%. The operative mortality was 14.1%. Morbidity of any grade occurred in 40.2% of patients. Morbidities correlated with mortality, including septic shock, progressive renal insufficiency, prolonged ventilation >48 hours, systemic sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) morbidities, acute renal failure and pneumonia, and surgical site infection (SSI), were selected for risk models. A total of 18 to 29 preoperative variables were selected per morbidity and yielded excellent C-indices for each (septic shock: 0.851; progressive renal insufficiency: 0.878; prolonged ventilation >48 h: 0.849; systemic sepsis: 0.839; CNS morbidities: 0.848; acute renal failure: 0.868; pneumonia: 0.830; and SSI: 0.688). We report the first risk stratification study on lethal morbidities in critically ill patients with ADP using a nationwide surgical database. These risk models will contribute to patient counseling and help predict which patients require more aggressive surgical and novel pharmacological interventions. PMID:26222854

  13. Health Status After Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis at Increased Surgical Risk: Results From the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Reynolds, Matthew R; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Baron, Suzanne J; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M; Reardon, Michael J; Tadros, Peter N; Zorn, George L; Maini, Brij; Mumtaz, Mubashir A; Brown, John M; Kipperman, Robert M; Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Cohen, David J

    2015-08-17

    This study sought to compare the health status outcomes for patients treated with either self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). In patients at increased surgical risk, TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is associated with improved 1-year survival compared with AVR. However, elderly patients may be just as concerned with quality-of-life improvement as with prolonged survival as a goal of treatment. Between 2011 and 2012, 795 patients with severe aortic stenosis at increased surgical risk were randomized to TAVR or AVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 Questionnaire, and EuroQOL 5-dimension questionnaire; growth curve models were used to examine changes over time. Over the 1-year follow-up period, disease-specific and generic health status improved substantially for both treatment groups. At 1 month, there was a significant interaction between the benefit of TAVR over AVR and access site. Among surviving patients eligible for iliofemoral (IF) access, there was a clinically relevant early benefit with TAVR across all disease-specific and generic health status measures. Among the non-IF cohort, however, most health status measures were similar for TAVR and AVR, although there was a trend toward early benefit with TAVR on the Short-Form 12 Questionnaire's physical health scale. There were no consistent differences in health status between TAVR and AVR at the later time points. Health status improved substantially in surviving patients with increased surgical risk who were treated with either self-expanding TAVR or AVR. TAVR via the IF route was associated with better early health status compared with AVR, but there was no early health status benefit with non-IF TAVR compared with AVR. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic Core

  14. Nutritional assessment of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Stegman, M R

    1988-10-01

    In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies.

  15. Risk factors for surgical site infection and delayed wound healing after orthopedic surgery in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasutaka; Nishida, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Kenzo; Nasu, Yoshihisa; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Kanazawa, Tomoko; Ozawa, Masatsugu; Harada, Ryozo; Machida, Takahiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of surgical-site infection (SSI) and delayed wound healing (DWH) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) underwent orthopedic surgery. We reviewed the records of 1036 elective orthopedic procedures undertaken in RA patients. Risk factors for SSI and DWH were assessed by logistic regression analysis using age, body mass index, disease duration, pre-operative laboratory data, surgical procedure, corticosteroid use, co-morbidity, and use of conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) as variables. SSI and DWH were identified in 19 cases and 15 cases, respectively. One case of SSI and three cases of DWH were recorded among 196 procedures in patients using bDMARDs. Foot and ankle surgery was associated with an increased risk of SSI (odds ratio (OR), 3.167; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.256-7.986; p = 0.015). Total knee arthroplasty (TKA; OR, 4.044; 95% CI, 1.436-11.389; p = 0.008) and disease duration (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.000-1.007; p = 0.029) were associated with an increased risk of DWH. Our results indicated foot and ankle surgery, and TKA and disease duration as risk factors for SSI and DWH, respectively. bDMARDs was not associated with an increased risk of SSI and DWH.

  16. The risk of post-operative complications in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients on biologic therapy undergoing surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Bakkour, W; Purssell, H; Chinoy, H; Griffiths, C E M; Warren, R B

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence as to whether biologic therapy should be stopped or continued in patients with psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who are undergoing surgical procedures. Current guidelines of care recommend a planned break from biologic therapy in those undergoing major surgical procedures. To audit current practice of managing biologic therapy peri-operatively in a tertiary referral psoriasis clinic against guidelines of care and to investigate the effects of continuing/stopping biologic therapy in psoriasis and PsA patients. A retrospective audit of psoriasis and PsA patients who had a surgical procedure whilst on biologic therapy. A proforma was used to collect information on the biologics used, whether they were stopped peri-operatively and whether patients developed post-operative complications and/or disease flare. A total of 42 patients who had 77 procedures were identified. Procedures ranged from skin surgery to orthopaedic and cardiothoracic surgery. Biologic therapy was continued in the majority of procedures (76%). There was no significant difference in post-operative risk of infection and delayed wound healing between those patients who continued and those who stopped biologic therapy, including those undergoing major surgery. Interrupting biologic therapy peri-operatively was associated with a significant (P = 0.003) risk of flare of psoriasis or PsA. Continuing biologic therapy in psoriasis and PsA patients peri-operatively did not increase the risk of post-operative complications. Interrupting biologic therapy peri-operatively significantly increased the risk of disease flare. This study is limited by cohort size and requires replication, ideally in a prospective randomized controlled manner. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Risk of surgical site infection in older patients in a cohort survey: targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Agodi, Antonella; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Barchitta, Martina; Adornetto, Veronica; Cocuzza, Aldo; Latino, Rosalia; Li Destri, Giovanni; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) assess surgical site infection (SSI) incidence in a cohort of surgical patients and (2) estimate the compliance with national guidelines for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). SSIs, among the most common health care-associated infections, are an important target for surveillance and an official priority in several European countries. SSI commonly complicates surgical procedures in older people and is associated with substantial attributable mortality and costs. The implementation of PAP guidelines is difficult among surgeons, and failure to comply with the standard of care has been widely reported. A 12-month prospective survey was performed in accordance with the methods, protocols, and definitions of the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) protocol. The compliance of the current PAP practices with the published national guidelines was assessed. A total of 249 patients were enrolled. The cumulative SSI incidence was 3.2 per 100 operative procedures. Cumulative compliance for PAP was 12.4%. Overall, only infection risk index ≥ 1 was confirmed as a significant risk factor for SSI (odds ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-42.59; P = 0.045). When only older patients (age >65 years) were considered, no significant risk factors for SSI were identified. Our study indicates an overall inadequate compliance with PAP recommendations, thus highlighting the need to develop multimodal and targeted intervention programs to improve compliance with PAP guidelines.

  18. Existing general population models inaccurately predict lung cancer risk in patients referred for surgical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Isbell, James M; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B; Nesbitt, Jonathan C; Lambright, Eric S; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R; Grogan, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    Patients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9% to 55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005 to 2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and solitary pulmonary nodules prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. A total of 189 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into four subgroups based on age, smoking history, and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET-nonavid lesions, PET-avid lesions with age less than 50 years, or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the Mayo and solitary pulmonary nodules models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients referred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce nontherapeutic resections. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program risk calculator does not adequately stratify risk for patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Samson, Pamela; Robinson, Clifford G; Bradley, Jeffrey; Lee, Audrey; Broderick, Stephen; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, A Sasha; Patterson, G Alexander; Puri, Varun; Meyers, Bryan F; Crabtree, Traves

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to validate the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Risk Calculator in stratifying risk estimates for patients who received surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer undergoing surgery (N = 279) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (N = 206) from 2009 to 2012 was performed. NSQIP complication risk estimates were calculated for both surgical and stereotactic body radiation therapy cases using the NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator. NSQIP complication risk estimates were compared as continuous variables and by quartile ranges. Compared with patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery wedge resection, patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy were older, had larger tumors, had lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1) in 1 second and diffusing capacity of the lungs (DLCO) for carbon monoxide values, had higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, had higher rates of dyspnea, and had higher NSQIP serious complication risk estimates (all P < .05). Compared with patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy, patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy had similar disparities, along with higher Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE) scores comorbidity scores, higher rates of cardiac comorbidities, and worse functional status (all P < .05). Variables associated with receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment, rather than wedge resection, included increasing age, higher Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE)-27 comorbidity score, dyspnea status, and decreasing FEV1 in 1 second and DLCO for carbon monoxide, but NSQIP serious complication risk score. In addition, surgical patients' actual serious complication rate (16.6% vs 8.8%) and pneumonia rate (6.0% vs 3.2%) were significantly higher than the NSQIP risk calculator predicted

  20. Existing General Population Models Inaccurately Predict Lung Cancer Risk in Patients Referred for Surgical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Isbell, James M.; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P.; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R.; Grogan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background atients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9-55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005-2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and SPN prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. Results 89 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into 4 subgroups based on age, smoking history and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET- non-avid lesions, or PET-avid lesions with age<50 years or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the ROC curve for the Mayo and SPN models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients ref erred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce non-therapeutic resections. PMID:21172518

  1. Surgical mortality score: risk management tool for auditing surgical performance.

    PubMed

    Hadjianastassiou, Vassilis G; Tekkis, Paris P; Poloniecki, Jan D; Gavalas, Manolis C; Goldhill, David R

    2004-02-01

    Existing methods of risk adjustment in surgical audit are complex and costly. The present study aimed to develop a simple risk stratification score for mortality and a robust audit tool using the existing resources of the hospital Patient Administration System (PAS) database. This was an observational study for all patients undergoing surgical procedures over a two-year period, at a London university hospital. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictive factors of in-hospital mortality, the study outcome. Odds ratios were used as weights in the derivation of a simple risk-stratification model-the Surgical Mortality Score (SMS). Observed-to-expected mortality risk ratios were calculated for application of the SMS model in surgical audit. There were 11,089 eligible cases, under five surgical specialties (maxillofacial, orthopedic, renal transplant/dialysis, general, and neurosurgery). Incomplete data were 3.7% of the total, with no evidence of systematic underreporting. The SMS model was well calibrated [Hosmer-Lemeshow C-statistic: development set (3.432, p = 0.33), validation set (6.359, p = 0.10) with a high discriminant ability (ROC areas: development set [0.837, S.E.=0.013] validation set [0.816, S.E. = 0.016]). Subgroup analyses confirmed that the model can be used by the individual specialties for both elective and emergency cases. The SMS is an accurate risk- stratification model derived from existing database resources. It is simple to apply as a risk-management, screening tool to detect aberrations from expected surgical outcomes and to assist in surgical audit.

  2. THE IMPACT OF BREAST MRI ON SURGICAL DECISION-MAKING: ARE PATIENTS AT RISK FOR MASTECTOMY?

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Kelli; Swatske, Mary Ellen; Gao, Feng; Salavaggione, Lorena; Gillanders, William E.; Aft, Rebecca L.; Monsees, Barbara S.; Eberlein, Timothy J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The goal of the current study was to determine whether MRI impacts multidisciplinary treatment planning and if it leads to increased mastectomy rates. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of 441 patients treated for breast cancer between January 2005 and May 2008 who underwent breast MRI. Data included number of additional findings and their imaging and pathologic work-up. This was analyzed to determine impact of MRI on treatment planning. Results Of 441 patients, 45% had ≥1 additional finding on MRI. Of 410 patients with complete records, 29% had changes in the treatment plan, including 36 patients who were initially considered for breast conservation but proceeded directly to mastectomy based on MRI findings of suspected multicentricity. Twenty-three of those patients did not have a biopsy of the MRI lesion, with 87% having unicentric disease on final pathology. Overall, the mastectomy rate was 44%, which was significantly increased compared to patients not undergoing MRI (32%, p<0.05). Conclusions Breast MRI alters the treatment planning for many patients with newly-diagnosed breast cancer. Mastectomy rates are increased when MRI results alone direct surgical planning. Biopsy of MRI-identified lesions should be performed to avoid over-treatment. PMID:19757442

  3. CyberKnife with Tumor Tracking: An Effective Treatment for High-Risk Surgical Patients with Single Peripheral Lung Metastases.

    PubMed

    Snider, James W; Oermann, Eric K; Chen, Viola; Rabin, Jennifer; Suy, Simeng; Yu, Xia; Vahdat, Saloomeh; Collins, Sean P; Banovac, Filip; Anderson, Eric; Collins, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    Standard treatment for operable patients with single peripheral lung metastases is metastasectomy. We report mature CyberKnife outcomes for high-risk surgical patients with biopsy proven single peripheral lung metastases. Twenty-four patients (median age 73 years) with a mean maximum tumor diameter of 2.5 cm (range, 0.8-4.5 cm) were treated over a 6-year period extending from September 2004 to September 2010 and followed for a minimum of 1 year or until death. A mean dose of 52 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy) was delivered to the prescription isodose line in three fractions over a 3-11 day period (mean, 7 days). At a median follow-up of 20 months, the 2-year Kaplan-Meier local control and overall survival rates were 87 and 50%, respectively. CyberKnife with fiducial tracking is an effective treatment for high-risk surgical patients with single small peripheral lung metastases. Trials comparing CyberKnife with metastasectomy for operable patients are necessary to confirm equivalence.

  4. Competing Risk Analysis for Evaluation of Dalteparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin for Venous Thromboembolism in Medical-Surgical Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Cook, Deborah J; Levine, Mitchell A H; Guyatt, Gordon; Crowther, Mark; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Holbrook, Anne; Lamontagne, Francois; Walter, Stephen D; Ferguson, Niall D; Finfer, Simon; Arabi, Yaseen M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cooper, D Jamie; Thabane, Lehana

    2015-09-01

    Failure to recognize the presence of competing risk or to account for it may result in misleading conclusions. We aimed to perform a competing risk analysis to assess the efficacy of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical-surgical critically ill patients, taking death as a competing risk.This was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized study of the Prophylaxis for Thromboembolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) database. A total of 3746 medical-surgical critically ill patients from 67 intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 countries receiving either subcutaneous UFH 5000 IU twice daily (n = 1873) or dalteparin 5000 IU once daily plus once-daily placebo (n = 1873) were included for analysis.A total of 205 incident proximal leg deep vein thromboses (PLDVT) were reported during follow-up, among which 96 were in the dalteparin group and 109 were in the UFH group. No significant treatment effect of dalteparin on PLDVT compared with UFH was observed in either the competing risk analysis or standard survival analysis (also known as cause-specific analysis) using multivariable models adjusted for APACHE II score, history of VTE, need for vasopressors, and end-stage renal disease: sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.21, P-value = 0.56 for the competing risk analysis; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.23, P-value = 0.57 for cause-specific analysis. Dalteparin was associated with a significant reduction in risk of pulmonary embolism (PE): SHR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.94, P-value = 0.02 for the competing risk analysis; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30-0.88, P-value = 0.01 for the cause-specific analysis. Two additional sensitivity analyses using the treatment variable as a time-dependent covariate and using as-treated and per-protocol approaches demonstrated similar findings.This competing risk analysis yields no

  5. Competing Risk Analysis for Evaluation of Dalteparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin for Venous Thromboembolism in Medical-Surgical Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guowei; Cook, Deborah J.; Levine, Mitchell A.H.; Guyatt, Gordon; Crowther, Mark; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Holbrook, Anne; Lamontagne, Francois; Walter, Stephen D.; Ferguson, Niall D.; Finfer, Simon; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cooper, D. Jamie; Thabane, Lehana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Failure to recognize the presence of competing risk or to account for it may result in misleading conclusions. We aimed to perform a competing risk analysis to assess the efficacy of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical-surgical critically ill patients, taking death as a competing risk. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized study of the Prophylaxis for Thromboembolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) database. A total of 3746 medical-surgical critically ill patients from 67 intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 countries receiving either subcutaneous UFH 5000 IU twice daily (n = 1873) or dalteparin 5000 IU once daily plus once-daily placebo (n = 1873) were included for analysis. A total of 205 incident proximal leg deep vein thromboses (PLDVT) were reported during follow-up, among which 96 were in the dalteparin group and 109 were in the UFH group. No significant treatment effect of dalteparin on PLDVT compared with UFH was observed in either the competing risk analysis or standard survival analysis (also known as cause-specific analysis) using multivariable models adjusted for APACHE II score, history of VTE, need for vasopressors, and end-stage renal disease: sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70–1.21, P-value = 0.56 for the competing risk analysis; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68–1.23, P-value = 0.57 for cause-specific analysis. Dalteparin was associated with a significant reduction in risk of pulmonary embolism (PE): SHR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94, P-value = 0.02 for the competing risk analysis; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30–0.88, P-value = 0.01 for the cause-specific analysis. Two additional sensitivity analyses using the treatment variable as a time-dependent covariate and using as-treated and per-protocol approaches demonstrated similar findings. This competing risk analysis

  6. Health Status Benefits of Transcatheter vs Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis at Intermediate Surgical Risk: Results From the PARTNER 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Baron, Suzanne J; Arnold, Suzanne V; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Chinnakondepali, Khaja; Makkar, Raj; Herrmann, Howard C; Kodali, Susheel; Thourani, Vinod H; Kapadia, Samir; Svensson, Lars; Brown, David L; Mack, Michael J; Smith, Craig R; Leon, Martin B; Cohen, David J

    2017-08-01

    In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at intermediate surgical risk, treatment with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) results in similar 2-year survival. The effect of TAVR vs SAVR on health status in patients at intermediate surgical risk is unknown. To compare health-related quality of life among intermediate-risk patients with severe AS treated with either TAVR or SAVR. Between December 2011 and November 2013, 2032 intermediate-risk patients with severe AS were randomized to TAVR with the Sapien XT valve or SAVR in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve 2 Trial and were followed up for 2 years. Data analysis was conducted between March 1, 2016, to April 30, 2017. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) (23 items covering physical function, social function, symptoms, self-efficacy and knowledge, and quality of life on a 0- to 100-point scale; higher scores indicate better quality of life), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (36 items covering 8 dimensions of health status as well as physical and mental summary scores; higher scores represent better health status), and EuroQOL-5D (assesses 5 dimensions of general health on a 3-level scale, with utility scores ranging from 0 [death] to 1 [ideal health]). Analysis of covariance was used to examine changes in health status over time, adjusting for baseline status. Of the 2032 randomized patients, baseline health status was available for 1833 individuals (950 TAVR, 883 SAVR) who formed the primary analytic cohort. A total of 1006 (54.9%) of the population were men; mean (SD) age was 81.4 (6.8) years. Over 2 years, both TAVR and SAVR were associated with significant improvements in both disease specific (16-22 points on the KCCQ-OS scale) and generic health status (3.9-5.1 points on the SF-36 physical summary scale). At 1 month, TAVR was associated with better

  7. Vasospasm Risk in Surgical ICU Patients With Grade I Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lessen, Samantha; Keene, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high mortality. The initial hemorrhage causes death in approximately 25% of patients, with most subsequent mortality being attributable to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Delayed cerebral ischemia generally occurs on post-bleed days 4 through 20, with the incidence peaking at day 8. Because of the risks of DCI, patients with SAH are usually monitored in an intensive care unit (ICU) for 14 to 21 days. Unfortunately, prolonged ICU admissions are expensive and are associated with well-documented risks to patients. We hypothesized that a subset of patients who are at low risk of DCI should be safe to transfer out of the ICU early. All patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center from 2008 to 2013 with grade I SAH who had their aneurysms successfully protected, had an uncomplicated postoperative course, and had no clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of DCI after day 8 were retrospectively studied. The primary outcome was clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of the development of DCI after day 8. Secondary outcomes included length of ICU and hospital stay and hospital mortality. Forty patients who met the above-mentioned criteria were identified. Of these, only 1 (2.5%) developed ultrasonographic evidence of DCI after day 8 but required no intervention. The mean length of stay in the ICU was until post-bleed day 13, and the mean hospital length of stay was until post-bleed day 14. The in-hospital mortality was 0 of 40. Thus, we identified a low-risk subset of patients with grade I SAH who may be candidates for early transfer out of the ICU. PMID:26740854

  8. Methods and related drawbacks in the estimation of surgical risks in cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sheung-Tat

    2002-01-01

    There has been a dramatic improvement in recent results of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients. Hospital mortality rates of less than 5% are frequently reported. The improvement is largely a result of better techniques and performance of surgeons in hepatectomy, and reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirement. Better selection of patients is perhaps a more significant contributory factor. Careful identification of risk factors related to the medical condition of the patient, functional reserve of the liver and volume of the remnant liver is essential for the prevention of postoperative liver failure. Indocyanine green clearance test is the most accurate test for assessment of liver function reserve. An indocyanine green retention rate of 14% at 15 minutes is the safety limit for major hepatectomy for cirrhotic patients. A maximum of 60% of the nontumorous liver can be resected safely. Computed tomography is therefore an important assessment parameter. The liver function reserve also reveals the suitability for hepatectomy. Liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase can reflect the hepatic activity, which could be responsible for the impaired liver function. Steatosis is another factor that influences hepatic function reserve. Age is also an important risk factor in hepatectomy because elderly patients may harbor occult heart disease, reduced respiratory and liver function reserves. After recognizing the risk factors, surgeons should eliminate operative morbidity and mortality by making appropriate decisions based on the assessments. In conclusion, preoperative risk assessment involves evaluation of hepatic function reserve, remnant liver volume, liver status, age and the medical condition of the patient. A 0% hospital mortality rate is considered the objective.

  9. Post-pericardiotomy syndrome in pediatric patients following surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defects: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Heching, Howard J; Bacha, Emile A; Liberman, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    Surgical repair for atrial septal defects (ASD) generally occurs during childhood. Post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) after cardiac surgery has a reported incidence of 1-40 %. We focused exclusively on secundum ASD repair to evaluate the incidence of PPS. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of PPS after surgical repair of secundum ASD and investigate what risk factors may be predictive of its development. A retrospective study was performed, and 97 patients who underwent surgical closure of a secundum ASD were identified. 27 (28 %) were diagnosed with PPS within the first postoperative year. Diagnosis was made if they had evidence of new or worsening pericardial effusion and the presence of ≥2 of the following criteria: fever >72 h postoperatively, irritability, pleuritic chest pain, or pericardial friction rub. Closure of secundum ASDs was performed at a median age of 3.8 years (Interquartile Range (IQR): 2.2-6.0 years) and a median weight of 14.3 kilograms (IQR: 10.9-19.3 kilograms). The median time for development of PPS was 8 days post-op (IQR: 5-14). Significantly, 19 (27 %) of 70 patients in the non-PPS group had a small pericardial effusion on their discharge echocardiogram, while of the 27 patients who developed PPS, 17 (63 %) had a small pericardial effusion on their discharge echocardiogram (p = 0.001). PPS is relatively common following surgical closure of secundum ASDs. A small pericardial effusion on discharge echocardiogram is predictive of development of PPS postoperatively. In patients who develop PPS, there is a good response to therapy with a benign course.

  10. Carotid Stenting with Distal Protection in High-Surgical-Risk Patients: One-Year Results of the ASTI Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bosiers, Marc; Scheinert, Dierk; Mathias, Klaus; Langhoff, Ralf; Mudra, Harald; Diaz-Cartelle, Juan

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized study evaluated the periprocedural and 1-year outcomes in high-surgical-risk patients with carotid artery stenosis treated with the Adapt Carotid Stent plus FilterWire EZ distal protection catheter (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA).Materials and MethodsThe study enrolled 100 patients (32 symptomatic, 63 asymptomatic, 5 unknown) at high risk for carotid endarterectomy due to prespecified anatomical criteria and/or medical comorbidities. Thirty-day and 1-year follow-up included clinical evaluation, carotid duplex ultrasound, and independent neurologic and NIH stroke scale assessments. One-year endpoints included the composite rate of major adverse events (MAE), defined as death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) and the rates of late ipsilateral stroke (31–365 days), target lesion revascularization, and in-stent restenosis.ResultsOf the 100 enrolled patients, technical success was achieved in 90.9 % (90/99). The 30-day MAE rate (5.1 %) consisted of major stroke (2.0 %) and minor stroke (3.1 %); no deaths or MIs occurred. The 1-year MAE rate (12.2 %) consisted of death, MI, and stroke rates of 4.4, 3.3, and 8.9 %, respectively. Late ipsilateral stroke (31–365 days) rate was 1.1 %. Symptomatic patients had higher rates of death (11.1 vs. 1.7 %) and MI (7.4 vs. 1.7 %), but lower rates of major (7.4 vs. 10.0 %) and minor stroke (0.0 vs. 6.7 %), compared with asymptomatic patients.ConclusionResults through 1 year postprocedure demonstrated that carotid artery stenting with Adapt Carotid Stent and FilterWire EZ is safe and effective in high-risk-surgical patients.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization reduces the risk of surgical site infections in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, J; Buffet-Bataillon, S; Henaux, P L; Riffaud, L; Morandi, X; Haegelen, C

    2017-02-01

    In a controlled before-and-after study in a single centre, it was aimed to determine whether identification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers followed by nasal mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine soap reduced surgical site infections (SSIs) among 182 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation. In all, 119 patients were included in the control group and 63 in the screening group. There was a significant SSI decrease from 10.9% to 1.6% between the two groups (P<0.04; relative risk: 0.13; 95% confidence interval: 0.003-0.922). There were eight SSIs involving S. aureus in the control group, none in the screening group. No specific risk factors for SSI were identified. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality of life after transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical replacement in high-risk elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Kala, Petr; Tretina, Martin; Poloczek, Martin; Ondrasek, Jiri; Malik, Petr; Pokorny, Petr; Parenica, Jiri; Spinar, Jindrich; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Nemec, Petr

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical replacement (SAVR) at one year. The study included 45 consecutive high-risk patients (average age 82.0 years; logistic Euroscore 22.3%) with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis allocated to TAVI transfemoral, TAVI transapical using the Edwards-Sapien valve or SAVR with the Edwards Perimount bioprosthesis (n=15 in each). The pre-operative characteristics were similar except for more myocardial infarctions in TAVI. The quality of life was assessed using the standardized EQ-5D questionnaire at baseline and on days 30, 90 and 360. The protocol was approved by the local ethics committee and an informed consent was signed. A total of 7 patients (15.5%) died during follow-up. At baseline no significant differences in any of the quality-of-life parameters were found except for usual activities described as "best" (46.7% in SAVR vs. 10.0% in TAVI; P=0.002). At 30 and 90 days surviving patients were similar and at 360 days only the anxiety/depression score was "best" in 83.3% SAVR vs. 59.1% (P=0.046). Functional status improved in all patients (NYHA class I-II in 13.3% at baseline vs. 78.9% at 360-days) and the general health median significantly improved in TAVI patients (from 50 to 67; P=0.001) with a positive trend in SAVR patients (P=0.060). At one year, the general quality of life of high-risk patients had significantly improved after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a positive trend in surgically treated patients.

  13. Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Using the 2005 Caprini Score to Identify the Benefits and Harms of Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Swistun, Lukasz; MacDonald, John K; Henke, Peter K; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2017-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried. Eligible studies contained data on postoperative VTE and/or bleeding events with and without chemoprophylaxis. Primary outcomes included rates of VTE and clinically relevant bleeding after surgical procedures, stratified by Caprini score. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. Among 13 included studies, 11 (n = 14,776) contained data for VTE events and 8 (n = 7590) contained data for clinically relevant bleeding with and without chemoprophylaxis. The majority of patients received mechanical prophylaxis. A 14-fold variation in VTE risk (from 0.7% to 10.7%) was identified among surgical patients who did not receive chemoprophylaxis, and patients at increased levels of Caprini risk were significantly more likely to have VTE. Patients with Caprini scores of 7 to 8 [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.37-0.97] and >8 (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.65) had significant VTE risk reduction after surgery with chemoprophylaxis. Patients with Caprini scores ≤6 comprised 75% of the overall population, and these patients did not have a significant VTE risk reduction with chemoprophylaxis. No association between postoperative bleeding risk and Caprini score was identified. The benefit of peri-operative VTE chemoprophylaxis was only found among surgical patients with Caprini scores ≥7. Precision medicine using individualized VTE risk stratification helps ensure that chemoprophylaxis is used only in appropriate surgical patients and may minimize bleeding complications.

  14. Fracture risk assessment: improved evaluation of vertebral integrity among metastatic cancer patients to aid in surgical decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Camp, Jon J.; Holmes, David R.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Failure of the spine's structural integrity from metastatic disease can lead to both pain and neurologic deficit. Fractures that require treatment occur in over 30% of bony metastases. Our objective is to use computed tomography (CT) in conjunction with analytic techniques that have been previously developed to predict fracture risk in cancer patients with metastatic disease to the spine. Current clinical practice for cancer patients with spine metastasis often requires an empirical decision regarding spinal reconstructive surgery. Early image-based software systems used for CT analysis are time consuming and poorly suited for clinical application. The Biomedical Image Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic, Rochester has developed an image analysis computer program that calculates from CT scans, the residual load-bearing capacity in a vertebra with metastatic cancer. The Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) program is built on a platform designed for clinical practice, with a workflow format that allows for rapid selection of patient CT exams, followed by guided image analysis tasks, resulting in a fracture risk report. The analysis features allow the surgeon to quickly isolate a single vertebra and obtain an immediate pre-surgical multiple parallel section composite beam fracture risk analysis based on algorithms developed at Mayo Clinic. The analysis software is undergoing clinical validation studies. We expect this approach will facilitate patient management and utilization of reliable guidelines for selecting among various treatment option based on fracture risk.

  15. An Early Warning Score Predicts Risk of Death after In-hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alexander P; Maciel, Robert C; Sheppard, William; Sacks, Greg; Hines, O Joe

    2015-10-01

    In-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest can contribute significantly to publicly reported mortality rates. Systems to improve mortality are being implemented across all specialties. A review was conducted for all surgical patients >18 years of age who experienced a "Code Blue" event between January 1, 2013 and March 9, 2014 at a university hospital. A previously validated Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) using routine vital signs and neurologic status was calculated at regular intervals preceding the event. In 62 patients, the most common causes of arrest included respiratory failure, arrhythmia, sepsis, hemorrhage, and airway obstruction, but remained unknown in 27 per cent of cases. A total of 56.5 per cent of patients died before hospital discharge. In-hospital death was associated with American Society of Anesthesiologists status (P = 0.039) and acute versus elective admission (P = 0.003). Increasing MEWS on admission, 24 hours before the event, the event-day, and a maximum MEWS score on the day of the event increased the odds of death. Max MEWS remained associated with death after multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.39, P = 0.025). Simple and easy to implement warning scores such as MEWS can identify surgical patients at risk of death after arrest. Such recognition may provide an opportunity for clinical intervention resulting in improved patient outcomes and hospital mortality rates.

  16. Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference as a prognostic tool in high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Robin, Emmanuel; Futier, Emmanuel; Pires, Oscar; Fleyfel, Maher; Tavernier, Benoit; Lebuffe, Gilles; Vallet, Benoit

    2015-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of high values of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (PCO2 gap) in high-risk surgical patients admitted to a postoperative ICU. We hypothesized that PCO2 gap could serve as a useful tool to identify patients still requiring hemodynamic optimization at ICU admission. One hundred and fifteen patients were included in this prospective single-center observational study during a 1-year period. High-risk surgical inclusion criteria were adapted from Schoemaker and colleagues. Demographic and biological data, PCO2 gap, central venous oxygen saturation, lactate level and postoperative complications were recorded for all patients at ICU admission, and 6 hours and 12 hours after admission. A total of 78 (68%) patients developed postoperative complications, of whom 54 (47%) developed organ failure. From admission to 12 hours after admission, there was a significant difference in mean PCO2 gap (8.7 ± 2.8 mmHg versus 5.1 ± 2.6 mmHg; P = 0.001) and median lactate values (1.54 (1.1-3.2) mmol/l versus 1.06 (0.8-1.8) mmol/l; P = 0.003) between patients who developed postoperative complications and those who did not. These differences were maximal at admission to the ICU. At ICU admission, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for occurrence of postoperative complications was 0.86 for the PCO2 gap compared to Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0.82), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score (0.67), and lactate level (0.67). The threshold value for PCO2 gap was 5.8 mmHg. Multivariate analysis showed that only a high PCO2 gap and a high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score were independently associated with the occurrence of postoperative complications. A high PCO2 gap (≥6 mmHg) was associated with more organ failure, an increase in duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. A high PCO2 gap at admission in the postoperative ICU

  17. Identification of Risk Factors for Acute Surgical Site Infections in Musculoskeletal Tumor Patients Using CDC/NHSN Criteria.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Daniel M; Blank, Alan T; Billig, Jessica I; Karia, Raj; Rapp, Timothy B

    2015-12-01

    Acute surgical site infections (SSI) are well-recognized postoperative complications, representing a significant source of patient morbidity and cost to the healthcare system. This study is among the first to use standardized criteria for the diagnosis of acute SSI in orthopaedic oncology. The medical records of 165 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the occurrence of superficial or deep SSI as defined by the Center for Disease Control's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) criteria. Patient, disease, and procedure-specific variables were evaluated as potential risk factors for infection. The overall rate of acute SSI was 10.3%. Univariate analysis demonstrated the significance of malignant pathology (p < 0.001), ASA classification (p = 0.009), operative duration (p < 0.001), intraoperative RBC transfusions (p = 0.03), the performance of an amputation (p = 0.016), and race (p = 0.008) on the incidence of SSI. Prolonged operative duration (p = 0.014) and race (p = 0.005) were found to be independent risk factors with odds ratios of 1.89 (95%, CI: 1.14 to 3.14) and 0.047 (95%, CI: 0.006 to 0.387), respectively. By using the CDC/NHSN guidelines for the diagnosis of acute SSI, we identified prolonged operative time and non-Caucasian race as independent risk factors for infection in musculoskeletal tumor patients.

  18. Clinical outcome after triple-valve operations in the modern era: are elderly patients at increased surgical risk?

    PubMed

    Pagni, Sebastian; Ganzel, Brian L; Singh, Ramesh; Austin, Erle H; Mascio, Christopher; Williams, Matthew L; Akella, Phani V; Trivedi, Jaimin R

    2014-02-01

    Despite modern advances in surgical care, triple-valve surgery (TVS) remains a challenge and carries a mortality of 10% to 20%. No validated risk score is available for TVS, and the effect of advanced age is unknown. This study examined our results in the modern era with the aim of identifying perioperative predictors of adverse outcomes. Between 1997 and 2013, 131 patients (mean age, 67.2±13.4 years) underwent TVS at our institution. Sixty-eight patients (51.9%) were aged 70 years and older. The most common etiology for aortic and mitral disease was degenerative (77.1%), rheumatic (10%), and endocarditis or prosthetic-related, or both, in the rest. Tricuspid valve disease was functional in 96%. New York Heart Association functional class III/IV was present in 69.4%, and 24% had had previous cardiac operations. One or more concomitant cardiac procedures were performed in 77 patients (58.8%), including coronary revascularization in 54. All aortic procedures were replacements, 14 patients required a prosthetic root conduit and 7 thoracic aorta replacement. Mitral replacements were used in 55%, repairs in 45%, and 96.2% of tricuspid procedures were repairs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of adverse outcomes. The 30-day and hospital mortality was 10.6% (n=14). Major complications occurred in 70 (53.4%). Univariate analysis identified New York Heart Association functional class III/IV (p=0.04), preoperative renal failure requiring dialysis (p=0.04), urgent operation (p=0.04), intraaortic balloon pump placement (p=0.02), and postoperative low cardiac output (p<0.0001) as predictors for early death. Proximal aortic operations, urgent operation, and New York Heart Association class IV correlated with increased early mortality (p<0.04) in patients aged 70 and older in addition to their decreased overall survival and decreased likelihood of discharge to home. Overall actuarial survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 84.5%, 75%, and 45

  19. Prophylactic beta-blockade to prevent myocardial infarction perioperatively in high-risk patients who undergo general surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca C; Pagliarello, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    The benefit of administering beta-adrenergic blocking agents perioperatively to surgical patients at high risk for myocardial ischemia has been demonstrated in several well-designed randomized controlled trials. These benefits have included a reduction in the incidence of myocardial complications and an improvement in overall survival for patients with evidence of or at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed a retrospective study at the Ottawa Civic Hospital to investigate the use of beta-blockers in the perioperative period for high-risk general surgery patients who underwent laparotomy and to explore the reasons for failure to prescribe or administer beta-blockers when indicated. All 236 general surgery patients over the age of 50 years who underwent laparotomy for major gastrointestinal surgery between Jan. 1, 2001, and Dec. 31, 2001, were assigned a cardiac risk classification using the risk stratification described by Mangano and colleagues. The perioperative prescription and administration of beta-blockers were noted as were the patient's heart rate and blood pressure parameters for the first postoperative week, in-hospital adverse cardiac events and death. Of the 143 patients classified as being at risk for CAD or having definite evidence of CAD, 87 (60.8%) did not receive beta-blockers perioperatively. Of those who did, 43 were previously on beta-blockers and 13 had them ordered preoperatively. Patients with definite CAD were significantly more likely than others to receive beta-blockers perioperatively (p < 0.001), as were patients seen by an anesthesiologist or an internist preoperatively (p < 0.001). Twenty (33%) of the 61 patients who were already taking beta-blockers preoperatively had them inappropriately discontinued postoperatively. Once prescribed by the physician, beta-blockers were administered by the nurses irrespective of nil par os status. The mean heart rate and blood pressure parameters for patients receiving beta

  20. A cost-effectiveness analysis of postoperative goal-directed therapy for high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ebm, Claudia; Cecconi, Maurizio; Sutton, Les; Rhodes, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Patients undergoing major surgery are at high risk of increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Goal-directed therapy has been shown to improve outcomes when commenced in the early postoperative period, yet the economic impact remains unclear. The aim of our study was to assess the cost effectiveness of goal-directed therapy as part of postoperative management. Cost-effectiveness analysis to determine short and long term clinical and financial benefits. A decision tree was constructed to determine short-term "in-hospital" costs, based on outcome data derived from a previous study. For a long-term cost-effectiveness analysis, we created a simulation model to estimate life expectancy (quality-adjusted) and lifetime costs for a hypothetical cohort of major noncardiac surgical patients. Cost and outcome comparisons were made between postoperative goal-directed therapy and best standard therapy and described as cost/hospital survivor and cost/patient for the short-term analysis and as incremental cost/quality-adjusted life year for the long-term model. One-way, multiway, and probabilistic analyses were performed to address uncertainties in the model input values, and results were presented graphically in a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Simulation of a tertiary care department in the United Kingdom. A hypothetical cohort of high risk surgical patients. Patients undergoing high-risk surgery were stratified to receive goal-directed therapy or standard best practice to improve tissue oxygenation in the postoperative setting. In our short-term model, goal-directed therapy decreased costs by £2,631.77/patient and by £2,134.86/hospital survivor. The most sensitive variables were relative risk of complication and length of stay. When assuming the worst-case scenario (prolonged ICU and in-hospital stay, highest complication costs, and maximum cost for monitoring), goal-directed therapy still achieved cost savings (£471.70). Our findings also predict that goal

  1. Review of MRSA screening and antibiotics prophylaxis in orthopaedic trauma patients; The risk of surgical site infection with inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients colonized with MRSA.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, H J; Ponniah, N; Long, S; Rath, N; Kent, M

    2017-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether orthopaedic trauma patients receive appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis keeping in view the results of their MRSA screening. The secondary aim was to analyse the risk of developing MRSA surgical site infection with and without appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis in those colonized with MRSA. We reviewed 400 consecutive orthopaedic trauma patient episodes. Preoperative MRSA screening results, operative procedures, prophylactic antibiotics and postoperative course were explored. In addition to these consecutive patients, the hospital MRSA database over the previous 5 years identified 27 MRSA colonized acute trauma patients requiring surgery. Of the 400 consecutive patient episodes, 395(98.7%) had MRSA screening performed on admission. However, in 236 (59.0%) cases, the results were not available before the surgery. Seven patient episodes (1.8%) had positive MRSA colonization. Analysis of 27 MRSA colonized patients revealed that 20(74%) patients did not have the screening results available before the surgery. Only 5(18.5%) received Teicoplanin and 22(81.4%) received cefuroxime for antibiotic prophylaxis before their surgery. Of those receiving cefuroxime, five (22.73%) patients developed postoperative MRSA surgical site infection (SSI) but none of those (0%) receiving Teicoplanin had MRSA SSI. The absolute risk reduction for SSI with Teicoplanin as antibiotic prophylaxis was 22.73% (CI=5.22%-40.24%) and NNT (Number Needed to Treat) was 5 (CI=2.5-19.2) CONCLUSION: Lack of available screening results before the surgery may lead to inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis increasing the risk of MRSA surgical site infection. Glycopeptide (e.g.Teicoplanin) prophylaxis should be considered when there is history of MRSA colonization or MRSA screening results are not available before the surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of Pre-Operative Use of Medications on the Risk of Surgical Site Infections in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eton, Vic; Sinyavskaya, Liliya; Langlois, Yves; Morin, Jean François; Suissa, Samy; Brassard, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Median sternotomy, the most common means of accessing the heart for cardiac procedures, is associated with higher risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). A limited number of studies reporting the impact of medication use prior to cardiac surgery on the subsequent risk of SSIs usually focused on antibacterial prophylaxis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of medications prescribed commonly to cardiac patients on the risk of incident SSIs. The study analyzed data on consecutive cardiac surgery patients undergoing median sternotomy at a McGill University teaching hospital between April 1, 2011 and October 31, 2013. Exposure of interest was use of medications for heart disease and cardiovascular conditions in the seven days prior to surgery and those for comorbid conditions. The main outcome was SSIs occurring within 90 d after surgery. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]) was used to evaluate the effect. The cohort included 1,077 cardiac surgery patients, 79 of whom experienced SSIs within 90 d of surgery. The rates for sternal site infections and harvest site infections were 5.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.3) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-3.7) per 100 procedures, respectively. The risk of SSI was increased with the pre-operative use of immunosuppressors/steroids (AOR 3.47, 95% CI: 1.27-9.52) and α-blockers (AOR 3.74, 95% CI: 1.21-1.47). Our findings support the effect of immunosuppressors/steroids on the risk of SSIs and add evidence to the previously reported association between the use of anti-hypertensive medications and subsequent development of infection/sepsis.

  3. Length of surgery and pressure ulcers risk in cardiovascular surgical patients: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Shen, Wang-Qin; Liu, Peng; Liu, Kun

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between length of surgery (LOS) and pressure ulcer (PU) risk in cardiovascular surgery patients. PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched. We compared LOS difference between PU (+) group and PU (-) group. We also examined the dose-response effect of this relationship. The mean LOS in the PU(+) groups ranged from 252·5 to 335·7 minutes, compared with 233·0 to 298·3 minutes in PU(-) groups. The LOS was higher in PU(+) groups compared with PU(-) groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 36·081 minutes; 95% CI: 21·640-50·522 minutes; Z = 4·90, P = 0·000]. The funnel plot showed no publication bias. A significant dose-response association was also found between the LOS and the risk of surgery-related pressure ulcers (SRPU, model χ(2)  = 9·29, P = 0·000). In the linear model, the PU OR was 1·296 (95% CI 1·097-1·531) for a 60-minute increase in the LOS intervals and 13·344 (95% CI 2·521-70·636) for a 600-minute increase. In a spline model, the OR of PU increased almost linearly along with the LOS. Our meta-analysis indicated that LOS was an important risk factor for pressure ulcers in cardiovascular surgical patients.

  4. Conventional surgery and transcatheter closure via surgical transapical approach for paravalvular leak repair in high-risk patients: results from a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Taramasso, Maurizio; Maisano, Francesco; Latib, Azeem; Denti, Paolo; Guidotti, Andrea; Sticchi, Alessandro; Panoulas, Vasileios; Giustino, Gennaro; Pozzoli, Alberto; Buzzatti, Nicola; Cota, Linda; De Bonis, Michele; Montorfano, Matteo; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Blasio, Andrea; La Canna, Giovanni; Colombo, Antonio; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2014-10-01

    Paravalvular leaks (PVL) occur in up to 17% of all surgically implanted prosthetic valves. Re-operation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Transcatheter closure via a surgical transapical approach (TAp) is an emerging alternative for selected high-risk patients with PVL. The aim of this study was to compare the in-hospital outcomes of patients who underwent surgery and TA-closure for PVL in our single-centre experience. From October 2000 to June 2013, 139 patients with PVL were treated in our Institution. All the TA procedures were performed under general anaesthesia in a hybrid operative room: in all but one case an Amplatzer Vascular Plug III device was utilized. Hundred and thirty-nine patients with PVL were treated: 122 patients (87.3%) underwent surgical treatment (68% mitral PVL; 32% aortic PVL) and 17 patients (12.2%) underwent a transcatheter closure via a surgical TAp approach (all the patients had mitral PVL; one case had combined mitral and aortic PVLs); in 35% of surgical patients and in 47% of TAp patients, multiple PVLs were present. The mean age was 62.5 ± 11 years; the Logistic EuroScore was 15.4 ± 3. Most of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III-IV (57%). Symptomatic haemolysis was present in 35% of the patients, and it was particularly frequent in the TAp (70%). Many patients had >1 previous cardiac operation (46% overall and 82% of TAp patients were at their second of re-operation). Acute procedural success was 98%. In-hospital mortality was 9.3%; no in-hospital deaths occurred in patients treated through a TAp approach. All the patients had less than moderate residual valve regurgitation after the procedure. Surgical treatment was identified as a risk factor for in-hospital death at univariate analysis (OR: 8, 95% CI: 1.8-13; P = 0.05). Overall actuarial survival at follow-up was 39.8 ± 7% at 12 years and it was reduced in patients who had >1 cardiac re-operation (42 ± 8 vs. 63 ± 6% at 9

  5. Patient-reported Limitations to Surgical Buy-in: A Qualitative Study of Patients Facing High-risk Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nabozny, Michael J; Kruser, Jacqueline M; Steffens, Nicole M; Pecanac, Kristen E; Brasel, Karen J; Chittenden, Eva H; Cooper, Zara; McKneally, Martin F; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2017-01-01

    To characterize how patients buy-in to treatments beyond the operating room and what limits they would place on additional life-supporting treatments. During a high-risk operation, surgeons generally assume that patients buy-in to life-supporting interventions that might be necessary postoperatively. How patients understand this agreement and their willingness to participate in additional treatment is unknown. We purposively sampled surgeons in Toronto, Ontario, Boston, Massachusetts, and Madison, Wisconsin, who are good communicators and routinely perform high-risk operations. We audio-recorded their conversations with patients considering high-risk surgery. For patients who were then scheduled for surgery, we performed open-ended preoperative and postoperative interviews. We used directed qualitative content analysis to analyze the interviews and surgeon visits, specifically evaluating the content about the use of postoperative life support. We recorded 43 patients' conversations with surgeons, 34 preoperative, and 27 postoperative interviews. Patients expressed trust in their surgeon to make decisions about additional treatments if a serious complication occurred, yet expressed a preference for significant treatment limitations that were not discussed with their surgeon preoperatively. Patients valued the existence or creation of an advance directive preoperatively, but they did not discuss this directive with their surgeon. Instead they assumed it would be effective if needed and that family members knew their wishes. Patients implicitly trust their surgeons to treat postoperative complications as they arise. Although patients may buy-in to some additional postoperative interventions, they hold a broad range of preferences for treatment limitations that were not discussed with the surgeon preoperatively.

  6. Evaluating the use of antibiotic prophylaxis during open reduction and internal fixation surgery in patients at low risk of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng-Gen; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Liu, Bin-Sheng; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Widespread overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics contribute to increasingly antibiotic-resistant pathogens and higher health care costs. It is not clear whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) in low-risk patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. We designed a simple scorecard to grade SSI risk factors and determined whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis affects SSI occurrence during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) orthopaedic surgeries in trauma patients at low risk of developing SSI. The SSI risk scorecard (possible total points ranged from 5 to 25) was designed to take into account a patient's general health status, the primary cause of fractures, surgical site tissue condition or wound class, types of devices implanted, and surgical duration. Patients with a low SSI risk score (≤8 points) who were undergoing clean ORIF surgery were divided into control (routine antibiotic treatment, cefuroxime) and evaluation (no antibiotic treatment) groups and followed up for 13-17 months after surgery. The infection rate was much higher in patients with high SSI risk scores (≥9 points) than in patients with low risk scores assigned to the control group (10.7% vs. 2.2%, P<0.0001). SSI occurred in 11 of 499 patients in the control group and in 13 of 534 patients in the evaluation group during the follow-up period of 13-17 months. The SSI occurrence rate did not differ significantly (2.2% vs. 2.4%, P=0.97) between the control and evaluation groups. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis does not significantly decrease the rate of SSI in ORIF surgical patients with a low risk score. Implementation of this scoring system could guide the rational use of perioperative antibiotics and ultimately reduce antibiotic resistance, health care costs, and adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in High-Risk Surgical Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pavon, Juliessa M; Adam, Soheir S; Razouki, Zayd A; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Lachiewicz, Paul F; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Beadles, Christopher A; Ortel, Thomas L; Nagi, Avishek; Williams, John W

    2016-02-01

    Thromboprophylaxis regimens include pharmacologic and mechanical options such as intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPCDs). There are a wide variety of IPCDs available, but it is uncertain if they vary in effectiveness or ease of use. This is a systematic review of the comparative effectiveness of IPCDs for selected outcomes (mortality, venous thromboembolism [VTE], symptomatic or asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis, major bleeding, ease of use, and adherence) in postoperative surgical patients. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL from January 1, 1995, to October 30, 2014, for randomized controlled trials, as well as relevant observational studies on ease of use and adherence. We identified 14 eligible randomized controlled trials (2633 subjects) and 3 eligible observational studies (1724 subjects); most were conducted in joint arthroplasty patients. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices were comparable to anticoagulation for major clinical outcomes (VTE: risk ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-2.64). Limited data suggest that concurrent use of anticoagulation with IPCD may lower VTE risk compared with anticoagulation alone, and that IPCD compared with anticoagulation may lower major bleeding risk. Subgroup analyses did not show significant differences by device location, mode of inflation, or risk of bias elements. There were no consistent associations between IPCDs and ease of use or adherence. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices are appropriate for VTE thromboprophylaxis when used in accordance with current clinical guidelines. The current evidence base to guide selection of a specific device or type of device is limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular events and hospital resource utilization pre- and post-transcatheter mitral valve repair in high-surgical risk patients.

    PubMed

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Lippmann, Steven J; Krucoff, Mitchell; Hernandez, Adrian F; Curtis, Lesley H; Foster, Elyse; Qasim, Atif; Wang, Andrew; Glower, Donald D; Feldman, Ted; Hammill, Bradley G

    2017-07-01

    MitraClip is an approved therapy for mitral regurgitation (MR); however, health care resource utilization pre- and post-MitraClip remains understudied. Patients with functional and degenerative MR at high surgical risk in the EVEREST II High-Risk Registry and REALISM Continued-Access Study were linked to Medicare data. Pre- and post-MitraClip all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure (HF), and bleeding hospitalizations were identified. Inpatient costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars, were calculated, and event rate ratios and cost ratios were estimated with multivariable modeling. Among 403 linked patients, the mean age was 80 years, 60% were male, mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 49.6%, 83.3% were New York Heart Association class III/IV, 78.2% were MR grade 3+/4+, and 63.3% had functional MR. All-cause hospitalization decreased from 1,854 to 1,435/1,000 person-years (P<.001). HF hospitalization decreased following MitraClip (749 vs 332/1000 person-years, P<.001), but bleeding increased (199 vs 298/1000 person-years, P<.001). Changes in stroke and myocardial infarction were not statistically significant. Overall mean Medicare costs per patient were similar pre- and post-MitraClip, although there was a significant decrease in mean costs among those that survived a full year after MitraClip ($18,131 [SD $25,130] vs $11,679 [SD $22,486], P=.02). MitraClip was associated with a reduced rate of all-cause and HF hospitalizations and an increased rate of bleeding hospitalizations. One-year Medicare costs were reduced in those who survived a full year after the MitraClip procedure. Payors and providers seeking to reduce HF hospitalizations and associated Medicare costs may consider MitraClip among appropriate patients likely to survive 1 year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transfemoral aortic valve replacement with the repositionable Lotus Valve System in high surgical risk patients: the REPRISE I study.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ian T; Worthley, Stephen G; Whitbourn, Robert J; Antonis, Paul; Montarello, Joseph K; Newcomb, Andrew E; Lockwood, Siohban; Haratani, Nicole; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2014-03-20

    To assess outcomes with a new fully repositionable and retrievable valve for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The Lotus Aortic Valve System is designed to facilitate precise positioning and minimise paravalvular regurgitation. REPRISE I enrolled symptomatic, high-surgical-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. The primary endpoint (clinical procedural success) included successful implantation without major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (MACCE). In all patients (N=11) the first Lotus Valve was successfully deployed. Partial resheathing to facilitate accurate placement was attempted and successfully performed in four patients; none required full retrieval. The primary endpoint was achieved in 9/11 with no in-hospital MACCE in 10/11. There was one major stroke; in another patient, discharge mean aortic gradient was 22 mmHg (above the primary endpoint threshold of 20 mmHg), but improved to 15 mmHg at 30 days. The cohort's mean aortic gradient decreased from 53.9±20.9 mmHg at baseline to 15.4±4.6 mmHg (p<0.001) at one year; valve area increased from 0.7±0.2 cm2 to 1.5±0.2 cm2 (p<0.001). Discharge paravalvular aortic regurgitation, adjudicated by an independent core laboratory, was mild (n=2), trivial (n=1), or absent (n=8). Four patients required a permanent pacemaker post-procedure. There were no deaths, myocardial infarctions or new strokes through one year. Initial results support proof-of-concept with the Lotus Valve for TAVR.

  10. Nutritional screening in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J S; Burrough, C A; Green, J L; Brown, G L

    1984-03-01

    Routine nutritional screening of patients admitted to the surgical services confirms a substantial prevalence of malnutrition. Identification of the malnourished patient and the patient who is likely to become malnourished should be done as early as possible in the hospital stay and usually requires only simple, readily available parameters. Nutritional screening is only the first step in the optimal nutritional management of surgical patients. This information should be used to determine the need for further nutritional assessment, the appropriate consultation, and nutritional therapy.

  11. Dysphagia and associated risk factors following extubation in cardiovascular surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Skoretz, Stacey A; Yau, Terrence M; Ivanov, Joan; Granton, John T; Martino, Rosemary

    2014-12-01

    Following cardiovascular (CV) surgery, prolonged mechanical ventilation of >48 h increases dysphagia frequency over tenfold: 51 % compared to 3-4 % across all durations. Our primary objective was to identify dysphagia frequency following CV surgery with respect to intubation duration. Our secondary objective was to explore characteristics associated with dysphagia across the entire sample. Using a retrospective design, we stratified all consecutive patients who underwent CV surgery in 2009 at our institution into intubation duration groups defined a priori: I (≤ 12 h), II (>12 to ≤ 24 h), III (>24 to ≤ 48 h), and IV (>48 h). Eligible patients were >18 years old who survived extubation following coronary artery bypass alone or cardiac valve surgery. Patients who underwent tracheotomy were excluded. Pre-, peri-, and postoperative patient variables were extracted from a pre-existing database and medical charts by two blinded reviewers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Across the entire sample, multivariable logistic regression analysis determined independent predictors of dysphagia. Across the entire sample, dysphagia frequency was 5.6 % (51/909) but varied by group: I, 1 % (7/699); II, 8.2 % (11/134); III, 16.7 % (6/36); and IV, 67.5 % (27/40). Across the entire sample, the independent predictors of dysphagia included intubation duration in 12-h increments (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.63-2.29) and age in 10-year increments (p = 0.004; OR 2.12, 95 % CI 1.27-3.52). Patients had a twofold increase in their odds of developing dysphagia for every additional 12 h with endotracheal intubation and for every additional decade in age. These patients should undergo post-extubation swallow assessments to minimize complications.

  12. Relationship between patient complaints and surgical complications

    PubMed Central

    Murff, H J; France, D J; Blackford, J; Grogan, E L; Yu, C; Speroff, T; Pichert, J W; Hickson, G B

    2006-01-01

    Background Patient complaints are associated with increased malpractice risk but it is unclear if complaints might be associated with medical complications. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between patient complaints and surgical complications. Methods A retrospective analysis of 16 713 surgical admissions was conducted over a 54 month period at a single academic medical center. Surgical complications were identified using administrative data. The primary outcome measure was unsolicited patient complaints. Results During the study period 0.9% of surgical admissions were associated with a patient complaint. 19% of admissions associated with a patient complaint included a postoperative complication compared with 12.5% of admissions without a patient complaint (p = 0.01). After adjusting for surgical specialty, co‐morbid illnesses and length of stay, admissions with complications had an odds ratio of 1.74 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.98) of being associated with a complaint compared with admissions without complications. Conclusions Admissions with surgical complications are more likely to be associated with a complaint than surgical admissions without complications. Further research is necessary to determine if patient complaints might serve as markers for poor clinical outcomes. PMID:16456204

  13. Patient-Based and Surgical Risk Factors for 30-Day Postoperative Complications and Mortality After Ankle Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Davey, Shaunette; Rensing, Nicholas; Bader, Julia O; Waterman, Brian R; Orr, Justin D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to calculate the incidence rates and determine risk factors for 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity after ankle fracture open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The NSQIP database was queried to identify patients undergoing ankle fracture ORIF from 2006 to 2011, with extraction patient-based or surgical variables and a 30-day clinical course. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified significant predictors on outcome measures. Mean age was 50.3 (±18.2) years while diabetes mellitus (12.8%) and body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2) (9.2%) were documented from a total of 3328 patients identified. The 30-day mortality rate was 0.30%, and complications occurred in 5.1%. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [odds ratio (OR): 4.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-15.06] and a nonindependent functional status before surgery (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.13-4.51) were the sole independent predictors of mortality and major local complications, respectively. Major local complications occurred in 2.2% of patients, and significant predictors were peripheral vascular disease (OR: 6.14; 95% CI: 1.95-19.35), open wound (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.25-11.27), nonclean wound classification (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.31-6.93), and smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.42-5.70). Independent predictors of hospital stay >3 days were cardiac disease, age 70 years or older, open wound, partially/totally dependent functional status, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification ≥3, body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2), bimalleolar or trimalleolar ankle fracture pattern, female sex, and diabetes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased the risk of mortality after ankle fracture ORIF. Risk factors for postoperative complications included peripheral vascular disease, open wound, nonclean wound classification, age 70 years or older, and ASA classification ≥3. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Risk factors associated with the surgical management of craniopharyngiomas in pediatric patients: analysis of 1961 patients from a national registry database.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Jin, Diana L; Chang, Ki-Eun; Strickland, Ben A; Donoho, Dan A; Cen, Steven; Mack, William J; Attenello, Frank; Christian, Eisha A; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Patient demographic characteristics, hospital volume, and admission status have been shown to impact surgical outcomes of sellar region tumors in adults; however, the data available following the resection of craniopharyngiomas in the pediatric population remain limited. The authors sought to identify potential risk factors associated with outcomes following surgical management of pediatric craniopharyngiomas. METHODS The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database and Kids' Inpatient Database were analyzed to include admissions for pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) who underwent a transcranial or transsphenoidal craniotomy for resection of a craniopharyngioma. Patient-level factors, including age, race, comorbidities, and insurance type, as well as hospital factors were collected. Outcomes analyzed included mortality rate, endocrine and nonendocrine complications, hospital charges, and length of stay. A multivariate model controlling for variables analyzed was constructed to examine significant independent risk factors. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2011, 1961 pediatric patients were identified who underwent a transcranial (71.2%) or a transsphenoidal (28.8%) craniotomy for resection of a craniopharyngioma. A major predilection for age was observed with the selection of a transcranial (23.4% in < 7-year-olds, 28.1% in 7- to 12-year-olds, and 19.7% in 13- to 18-year-olds) versus transphenoidal (2.9% in < 7-year-olds, 7.4% in 7- to 12-year-olds, and 18.4% in 13- to 18-year-olds) approach. No significant outcomes were associated with a particular surgical approach, except that 7- to 12-year-old patients had a higher risk of nonendocrine complications (relative risk [RR] 2.42, 95% CI 1.04-5.65, p = 0.04) with the transsphenoidal approach when compared with 13- to 18-year-old patients. The overall inpatient mortality rate was 0.5% and the most common postoperative complication was diabetes insipidus (64.2%). There were no independent factors associated with inpatient

  15. PTEN Protein Loss by Immunostaining: Analytic Validation and Prognostic Indicator for a High Risk Surgical Cohort of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, Tamara L.; Gurel, Bora; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Esopi, David; Liu, Wennuan; Xu, Jianfeng; Hicks, Jessica L.; Park, Ben H.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Partin, Alan W.; Han, Misop; Netto, George J.; Isaacs, William B.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Analytically validated assays to interrogate biomarker status in clinical samples are crucial for personalized medicine. PTEN is a tumor suppressor commonly inactivated in prostate cancer that has been mechanistically linked to disease aggressiveness. Though deletion of PTEN, as detected by cumbersome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) spot counting assays, is associated with poor prognosis, few studies have validated immunohistochemical (IHC) assays to determine whether loss of PTEN protein is associated with unfavorable disease. Experimental Design PTEN IHC was validated by employing formalin fixed and paraffin embedded isogenic human cell lines containing or lacking intact PTEN alleles. PTEN IHC was 100% sensitive and 97.8% specific for detecting genomic alterations in 58 additional cell lines. PTEN protein loss was then assessed on 376 prostate tumor samples, and PTEN FISH or high resolution SNP microarray analysis was performed on a subset of these cases. Results PTEN protein loss, as assessed as a dichotomous IHC variable, was highly reproducible, correlated strongly with adverse pathologic features (e.g. Gleason score and pathological stage), detected between 75% and 86% of cases with PTEN genomic loss, and was found at times in the absence of apparent genomic loss. In a cohort of 217 high risk surgically treated patients, PTEN protein loss was associated with decreased time to metastasis. Conclusions These studies validate a simple method to interrogate PTEN status in clinical specimens and support the utility of this test in future multi-center studies, clinical trials and ultimately perhaps for routine clinical care. PMID:21878536

  16. Prevention of VTE in Nonorthopedic Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David A.; Wren, Sherry M.; Karanicolas, Paul J.; Arcelus, Juan I.; Heit, John A.; Samama, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: VTE is a common cause of preventable death in surgical patients. Methods: We developed recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in nonorthopedic surgical patients by using systematic methods as described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines. Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: We describe several alternatives for stratifying the risk of VTE in general and abdominal-pelvic surgical patients. When the risk for VTE is very low (< 0.5%), we recommend that no specific pharmacologic (Grade 1B) or mechanical (Grade 2C) prophylaxis be used other than early ambulation. For patients at low risk for VTE (∼1.5%), we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C). For patients at moderate risk for VTE (∼3%) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (Grade 2B), low-dose unfractionated heparin (Grade 2B), or mechanical prophylaxis with IPC (Grade 2C) over no prophylaxis. For patients at high risk for VTE (∼6%) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis with LMWH (Grade 1B) or low-dose unfractionated heparin (Grade 1B) over no prophylaxis. In these patients, we suggest adding mechanical prophylaxis with elastic stockings or IPC to pharmacologic prophylaxis (Grade 2C). For patients at high risk for VTE undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer, we recommend extended-duration, postoperative, pharmacologic prophylaxis (4 weeks) with LMWH over limited-duration prophylaxis (Grade 1B). For patients at moderate to high risk for VTE who are at high risk for major bleeding complications or those in whom the consequences of bleeding are believed to be particularly severe, we suggest

  17. Risk Factors for the Development and Progression of Atlantoaxial Subluxation in Surgically Treated Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Considering the Time Interval between Rheumatoid Arthritis Diagnosis and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Na, Min-Kyun; Bak, Koang-Hum; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Ryu, Je Il; Han, Myung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease that can affect the cervical spine, especially the atlantoaxial region. The present study evaluated the risk factors for atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) development and progression in patients who have undergone surgical treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 62 patients with RA and surgically treated AAS between 2002 and 2015. Additionally, we identified 62 patients as controls using propensity score matching of sex and age among 12667 RA patients from a rheumatology registry between 2007 and 2015. We extracted patient data, including sex, age at diagnosis, age at surgery, disease duration, radiographic hand joint changes, and history of methotrexate use, and laboratory data, including presence of rheumatoid factor and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Results The mean patient age at diagnosis was 38.0 years. The mean time interval between RA diagnosis and AAS surgery was 13.6±7.0 years. The risk factors for surgically treated AAS development were the serum CRP level (p=0.005) and radiographic hand joint erosion (p=0.009). The risk factors for AAS progression were a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion (p<0.001) and young age at RA diagnosis (p=0.04). Conclusion The CRP level at RA diagnosis and a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion might be risk factors for surgically treated AAS development in RA patients. Additionally, a short time interval between RA diagnosis and radiographic hand joint erosion and young age at RA diagnosis might be risk factors for AAS progression. PMID:27847572

  18. Surgical Risks Associated with Winter Sport Tourism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. Methods We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. Results A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists’ influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Conclusion Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies. PMID:25970625

  19. Surgical risks associated with winter sport tourism.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists' influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies.

  20. High Risk of Surgical Glove Perforation From Surgical Rotatory Instruments.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ashton H; Haug, Emanuel; Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S; Golladay, Gregory J

    2016-11-01

    Surgical gloves can be damaged during the course of a procedure, which can place the surgeon and patient at risk. Glove perforation may not always be readily apparent, and determining the risk factors for glove perforation can aid the surgeon in deciding when a glove change is advisable. Time of wear and needle sticks have been well studied; however, other mechanisms including mechanical stress from surgical equipment have had limited evaluation to date. We evaluated the risk of glove perforation in gloves that were caught in a surgical rotatory device (such as drills and reamers). The aims of our study were (1) to determine the percentage of undetected microperforations after entanglement on a rotatory tool during orthopaedic procedures, (2) to determine which kinds of rotatory devices most commonly cause such microperforations, and (3) to assess whether time of wear had an effect on the risk of perforation. From July 2014 to September 2015, 33 gloves were obtained from all orthopaedic subspecialties at our Level I trauma center if they were caught in a rotatory device greater than one revolution. Time of glove wear and location of the glove that was caught in a rotatory device were recorded. After an evaluation for macroperforations (≥ 5 mm), the gloves were evaluated for microperforations (< 5 mm) via the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) one-liter load test. Time of wear was compared among gloves with macroperforations, microperforations, and no perforations. The 33 gloves obtained came from 33 procedures. Seventeen of 33 (52 %) gloves had perforations. Seven of the 17 perforated gloves had macroperforations while 10 had microperforations. Eleven of 33 entanglements were caught by drills, nine by reamers, eight by K-wires, and the remaining five gloves were caught by various other instruments. Eight of 17 perforations were caused by drills, three by reamers, three by K-wires, and three by various other instruments. The average time of wear was

  1. Risk Factors for Local and Distant Recurrence After Surgical Treatment in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Dariusz Adam; Rudzinski, Piotr; Langfort, Renata; Orlowski, Tadeusz

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify independent perioperative and pathologic variables associated with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recurrence after complete surgical resection. A retrospective examination was performed of a prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent resection for NSCLC from January 2009 to January 2014 at a multi-institution. Clinicopathologic variables were evaluated for their influence on frequency of recurrence. Cox proportional regression hazard model analysis examined the association of recurrence in NSCLC. Of these patients, 2816 (19.3%) experienced recurrence of primary cancer. Local or distant recurrence was found in 20.5% and 79.5% of patients, respectively. Median follow-up was 27.9 months (range, 11.4-66.0 months). The analysis indicated independent effects of the following risk factors on the risk of recurrence: age 64-90 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.136; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024-1.261), histologic type adenocarcinoma (HR, 1.117; 95% CI 1.005-1.24), blood vessel invasion (HR, 1.236; 95% CI, 1.124-1.359), lymphatic vessel invasion (HR, 1.287; 95% CI, 1.176-1.409), visceral pleural invasion (HR, 1.641; 95% CI, 1.215-2.218), N1 disease (HR, 1.142; 95% CI, 0.99-1.316), N2 disease (HR, 1.596; 95% CI, 1.271-1.649), tumor size of 20-30 mm (HR, 1.235; 95% CI, 1.081-1.41), 30-50 mm (HR, 1.544; 95% CI, 1.33-1.792), 50-70 mm (HR, 1.521; 95% CI, 1.275-1.815), and 70-100 mm (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.385-2.11), pneumonectomy (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.97-1.203), and sublobar resection (HR, 1.762; 95% CI, 1.537-2.019). In the largest series reported to date on postresection recurrence of NSCLC, increasing pathologic stage, advanced age, pneumonectomy, sublobar resection, lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, and visceral pleural invasion were independently associated with local and distant recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical treatment with segmental instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Trobisch, Per D; Samdani, Amer F; Betz, Randal R; Bastrom, Tracey; Pahys, Joshua M; Cahill, Patrick J

    2013-06-01

    Iatrogenic flattening of lumbar lordosis in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was a major downside of first generation instrumentation. Current instrumentation systems allow a three-dimensional scoliosis correction, but flattening of lumbar lordosis remains a significant problem which is associated with decreased health-related quality of life. This study sought to identify risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical correction of AIS with the use of segmental instrumentation. Patients were included if they had surgical correction for AIS with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation Lenke type 1 or 2 and if they had a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Two groups were created, based on the average loss of lumbar lordosis. The two groups were then compared and multivariate analysis was performed to identify parameters that correlated to loss of lumbar lordosis. Four hundred and seventeen patients were analyzed for this study. The average loss of lumbar lordosis at 24 months follow-up was an increase of 10° lordosis for group 1 and a decrease of 15° for group 2. Risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis included a high preoperative lumbar lordosis, surgical decrease of thoracic kyphosis, and the particular operating surgeon. The lowest instrumented vertebra or spinopelvic parameters were two of many parameters that did not seem to influence loss of lumbar lordosis. This study identified important risk factors for decrease of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical treatment for AIS with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, including a high preoperative lumbar lordosis, surgical decrease of thoracic kyphosis, and factors attributable to a particular operating surgeon that were not quantified in this study.

  3. Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenting in Surgically High-Risk Patients Using the Carotid Wallstent Endoprosthesis:Midterm Clinical and Ultrasound Follow-Up Results

    SciTech Connect

    Maleux, Geert Bernaerts, Pauwel; Thijs, Vincent; Daenens, Kim; Vaninbroukx, Johan; Fourneau, Inge; Nevelsteen, Andre

    2003-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and midterm outcome of elective implantation of the Carotid Wallstent (registered) in patients considered to be at high surgical risk. In a prospective study, 54 carotid artery stenoses in 51 patients were stented over a 24-month period. Three patients underwent bilateral carotid artery stenting. Institutional inclusion criteria for invasive treatment of carotid occlusive disease (carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting) are patients presenting with a 70% or more symptomatic stenosis and those with an 80% or more asymptomatic stenosis having a life-expectancy of more than 1 year. All patients treated by carotid artery stenting were considered at high risk for carotid endarterectomy because of a hostile neck (17 patients-31.5%) or because of severe comorbidities (37 patients-68.5%). No cerebral protection device was used. Of the 54 lesions, 33 (61.1%) were symptomatic and 21 (38.8%) were asymptomatic. Follow-up was performed by physical examination and by duplex ultrasonography at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after the procedure. All 54 lesions could be stented successfully without periprocedural stroke. Advert events during follow-up (mean 13.9 {+-} 5.7 months) were non-stroke-related death in 6 patients (11.1%), minor stroke in 4 stented hemispheres(7.4%), transient ipsilateral facial pain in 1 patient (1.8%),infection of the stented surgical patch in 1 patient (1.8%) and asymptomatic in stent restenosis in 4 patients (7.4%). The percutaneous implantation of the Carotid Wallstent (registered) , even without cerebral protection device, appears to be a safe procedure with acceptable clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up results in patients at high surgical risk. But some late adverse events such as ipsilateral recurrence of non-disabling (minor) stroke or in stent restenosis still remain real challenging problems.

  4. Distinguishing predictive profiles for patient-based risk assessment and diagnostics of plaque induced, surgically and prosthetically triggered peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Canullo, Luigi; Tallarico, Marco; Radovanovic, Sandro; Delibasic, Boris; Covani, Ugo; Rakic, Mia

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether specific predictive profiles for patient-based risk assessment/diagnostics can be applied in different subtypes of peri-implantitis. This study included patients with at least two implants (one or more presenting signs of peri-implantitis). Anamnestic, clinical, and implant-related parameters were collected and scored into a single database. Dental implant was chosen as the unit of analysis, and a complete screening protocol was established. The implants affected by peri-implantitis were then clustered into three subtypes in relation to the identified triggering factor: purely plaque-induced or prosthetically or surgically triggered peri-implantitis. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and risk factors between peri-implantitis and healthy implants, as well as to compare clinical parameters and distribution of risk factors between plaque, prosthetically and surgically triggered peri-implantitis. The predictive profiles for subtypes of peri-implantitis were estimated using data mining tools including regression methods and C4.5 decision trees. A total of 926 patients previously treated with 2812 dental implants were screened for eligibility. Fifty-six patients (6.04%) with 332 implants (4.44%) met the study criteria. Data from 125 peri-implantitis and 207 healthy implants were therefore analyzed and included in the statistical analysis. Within peri-implantitis group, 51 were classified as surgically triggered (40.8%), 38 as prosthetically triggered (30.4%), and 36 as plaque-induced (28.8%) peri-implantitis. For peri-implantitis, 51 were associated with surgical risk factor (40.8%), 38 with prosthetic risk factor (30.4%), 36 with purely plaque-induced risk factor (28.8%). The variables identified as predictors of peri-implantitis were female sex (OR = 1.60), malpositioning (OR = 48.2), overloading (OR = 18.70), and bone reconstruction (OR = 2.35). The predictive model showed 82.35% of accuracy and

  5. Is there an increased risk of post-operative surgical site infection after orthopaedic surgery in HIV patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kigera, James W M; Straetemans, Masja; Vuhaka, Simplice K; Nagel, Ingeborg M; Naddumba, Edward K; Boer, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    There is dilemma as to whether patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) requiring implant orthopaedic surgery are at an increased risk for post-operative surgical site infection (SSI). We conducted a systematic review to determine the effect of HIV on the risk of post-operative SSI and sought to determine if this risk is altered by antibiotic use beyond 24 hours. We searched electronic databases, manually searched citations from relevant articles, and reviewed conference proceedings. The risk of postoperative SSI was pooled using Mantel-Haenszel method. We identified 18 cohort studies with 16 mainly small studies, addressing the subject. The pooled risk ratio of infection in the HIV patients when compared to non-HIV patients was 1.8 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.3-2.4), in studies in Africa this was 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.5). In a sensitivity analysis the risk ratio was reduced to 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.8). The risk ratio of infection in patients receiving prolonged antibiotics compared to patients receiving antibiotics for up to 24 hours was 0.7 (95% CI 0.1-4.2). The results may indicate an increased risk in HIV infected patients but these results are not robust and inconclusive after conducting the sensitivity analysis removing poor quality studies. There is need for larger good quality studies to provide conclusive evidence. To better develop surgical protocols, further studies should determine the effect of reduced CD4 counts, viral load suppression and prolonged antibiotics on the risk for infection.

  6. Assessment of the risk of haemorrhage and its control following minor oral surgical procedures in patients on anti-platelet therapy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Girotra, C; Padhye, M; Mandlik, G; Dabir, A; Gite, M; Dhonnar, R; Pandhi, V; Vandekar, M

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists concerning the suspension or maintenance of anti-platelet drugs before elective surgical procedures. We assessed the association of the risk of prolonged postoperative bleeding with anti-platelet therapy by type of minor surgical procedure and the association between anti-platelet therapy and the level of hemostatic measures required. Five hundred and forty-six patients were included in the study group: those on aspirin (n = 310), clopidogrel (n = 97), and aspirin + clopidogrel dual therapy (n = 139); the control group comprised 575 healthy individuals. Cramer's V test was significant (P < 0.05) but showed a weak association between anti-platelet therapy and prolonged immediate postoperative bleeding. Compared to controls, the odds ratio revealed that the risk of prolonged bleeding in the immediate postoperative period was significantly higher with dual therapy, followed by clopidogrel and aspirin. Prolonged bleeding occurred in 22 patients in the study group and 20 in the control group, and was successfully controlled with local hemostatic measures. Fisher's exact test showed a significant association between dual therapy and higher levels of hemostatic measures (P = 0.004; P = 0.035). Prolonged bleeding in patients on anti-platelet therapy was independent of the type of minor surgical procedure. The greatest risk of prolonged bleeding was found in patients on dual therapy; this required higher levels of hemostatic measures. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient-specific risk factors are predictive for postoperative adverse events in colorectal surgery: an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Adrian Y; Liu, James J; Stein, David E; Sensenig, Richard; Poggio, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    Pay-for-performance measures incorporate surgical site infection rates into reimbursement algorithms without accounting for patient-specific risk factors predictive for surgical site infections and other adverse postoperative outcomes. Using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data of 67,445 colorectal patients, multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine independent risk factors associated with various measures of adverse postoperative outcomes. Notable patient-specific factors included (number of models containing predictor variable; range of odds ratios [ORs] from all models): American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3, 4, or 5 (7 of 7 models; OR 1.25 to 1.74), open procedures (7 of 7 models; OR .51 to 4.37), increased body mass index (6 of 7 models; OR 1.15 to 2.19), history of COPD (6 of 7 models; OR 1.19 to 1.64), smoking (6 of 7 models; OR 1.15 to 1.61), wound class 3 or 4 (6 of 7 models; OR 1.22 to 1.56), sepsis (6 of 7 models; OR 1.14 to 1.89), corticosteroid administration (5 of 7 models; OR 1.11 to 2.24), and operation duration more than 3 hours (5 of 7 models; OR 1.41 to 1.76). These findings may be used to pre-emptively identify colorectal surgery patients at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of Local Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Lobular Carcinoma In Situ at the Final Surgical Margins: Is Re-excision Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Sadek, Betro T.; Shenouda, Mina N.; Abi Raad, Rita F.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Keruakous, Amany R.; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the outcome of patients with invasive breast cancer both with and without lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)-positive/close surgical margins after breast-conserving treatment. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 2358 patients with T1-T2 invasive breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy from January 1980 to December 2009. Median age was 57 years (range, 24-91 years). There were 82 patients (3.5%) with positive/close LCIS margins (<0.2 cm) and 2232 patients (95.7%) with negative margins. A total of 1789 patients (76%) had negative lymph nodes. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. A total of 1783 patients (76%) received adjuvant systemic therapy. Multivariable analysis (MVA) was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of locoregional recurrence (LRR) was 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-4.1%) for the 2232 patients with LCIS-negative surgical margins (median follow-up 104 months) and 2.8% (95% CI 0.7%-10.8%) for the 82 patients with LCIS-positive/close surgical margins (median follow-up 90 months). This was not statistically significant (P=.5). On MVA, LCIS-positive margins after the final surgery were not associated with increased risk of LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 3.4, 95% CI 0.5-24.5, P=.2). Statistically significant prognostic variables on Cox's MVA for risk of LRR included systemic therapy (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.33-0.75, P=.001), number of positive lymph nodes (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18, P=.001), menopausal status (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, P=.001), and histopathologic grade (grade 3 vs grade 1/2) (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.7, P=.003). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the presence of LCIS at the surgical margin after lumpectomy does not increase the risk of LRR or the final outcome. These findings suggest that re-excision or mastectomy in patients with LCIS-positive/close final surgical margins is unnecessary.

  9. Stroke volume variation to guide fluid therapy: is it suitable for high-risk surgical patients? A terminated randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jammer, Ib; Tuovila, Mari; Ulvik, Atle

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) may improve outcome after high-risk surgery. Minimal invasive measurement of stroke volume variation (SVV) has been recommended to guide fluid therapy. We intended to study how perioperative GDFT with arterial-based continuous SVV monitoring influences postoperative complications in a high-risk surgical population. From February 1st 2012, all ASA 3 and 4 patients undergoing abdominal surgery in two university hospitals were assessed for randomization into a control group or GDFT group. An arterial-line cardiac output monitor was used to measure SVV, and fluid was given after an algorithm in the intervention group. Restrictions of the method excluded patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, patients with atrial fibrillation and patients with severe mitral/aortal stenosis. To detect a decrease in number of complication from 40 % in the control group to 20 % in the GDFT group, n = 164 patients were needed (power 80 %, alpha 0.05, two-sided test). To include the needed amount of patients, the study was estimated to last for 2 years. After 1 year, 30 patients were included and the study was halted due to slow inclusion rate. Of 732 high-risk patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, 391 were screened for randomization. Of those, n = 249 (64 %) were excluded because a laparoscopic technique was preferred and n = 95 (24 %) due to atrial fibrillation. Our study was stopped due to a slow inclusion rate. Methodological restrictions of the arterial-line cardiac output monitor excluded the majority of patients. This leaves the question if this method is appropriate to guide fluid therapy in high-risk surgical patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01473446.

  10. Urinary tract infections in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Duane, Therese M

    2014-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are common in surgical patients. CAUTI are associated with adverse patient outcomes, and negatively affects public safety reporting and reimbursement. Inappropriate catheter use and prolonged catheter duration are major risk factors for CAUTI. CAUTI pathogenesis and treatment are complicated by the presence of biofilms. Prevention strategies include accurate identification and tracking of CAUTIs, and the development of institutional guidelines for the appropriate use, duration, alternatives, and removal of indwelling urinary catheters.

  11. Behind the Curtain: Keeping Surgical Patients Warmer Fights Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... found that just a few degrees of body cooling tripled the risk of surgical wound infection. His ... of wound infections. Sessler has found simple, risk-free and inexpensive interventions that improve patient health after ...

  12. [Anemia as a surgical risk factor].

    PubMed

    Moral García, Victoria; Ángeles Gil de Bernabé Sala, M; Nadia Diana, Kinast; Pericas, Bartolomé Cantallops; Nebot, Alexia Galindo

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative anemia is common in patients undergoing surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased quality of life. The main causes of anemia in the perioperative context are iron deficiency and chronic inflammation. Anemia can be aggravated by blood loss during surgery, and is most commonly treated with allogeneic transfusion. Moreover, blood transfusions are not without risks, once again increasing patient morbidity and mortality. Given these concerns, we propose to review the pathophysiology of anemia in the surgical environment, as well as its treatment through the consumption of iron-rich foods and by oral or intravenous iron therapy (iron sucrose and iron carboxymaltose). In chronic inflammatory anemia, we use erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (erythropoietin alpha) and, in cases of mixed anemia, the combination of both treatments. The objective is always to reduce the need for perioperative transfusions and speed the recovery from postoperative anemia, as well as decrease the patient morbidity and mortality rate.

  13. Length of Stay in Ambulatory Surgical Oncology Patients at High Risk for Sleep Apnea as Predicted by STOP-BANG Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Saadia A.; Hernandez, Mike; Bashoura, Lara; Cherian, Sujith V.; French, Katy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The STOP-BANG questionnaire has been used to identify surgical patients at risk for undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by classifying patients as low risk (LR) if STOP-BANG score < 3 or high risk (HR) if STOP-BANG score ≥ 3. Few studies have examined whether postoperative complications are increased in HR patients and none have been described in oncologic patients. Objective. This retrospective study examined if HR patients experience increased complications evidenced by an increased length of stay (LOS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Methods. We retrospectively measured LOS and the frequency of oxygen desaturation (<93%) in cancer patients who were given the STOP-BANG questionnaire prior to cystoscopy for urologic disease in an ambulatory surgery center. Results. The majority of patients in our study were men (77.7%), over the age of 50 (90.1%), and had BMI < 30 kg/m2 (88.4%). STOP-BANG results were obtained on 404 patients. Cumulative incidence of the time to discharge between HR and the LR groups was plotted. By 8 hours, LR patients showed a higher cumulative probability of being discharged early (80% versus 74%, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Urologic oncology patients at HR for OSA based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire were less likely to be discharged early from the PACU compared to LR patients. PMID:27610133

  14. Length of Stay in Ambulatory Surgical Oncology Patients at High Risk for Sleep Apnea as Predicted by STOP-BANG Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Diwakar D; Faiz, Saadia A; Hernandez, Mike; Kowalski, Alicia M; Bashoura, Lara; Goravanchi, Farzin; Cherian, Sujith V; Rebello, Elizabeth; Kee, Spencer S; French, Katy E

    2016-01-01

    Background. The STOP-BANG questionnaire has been used to identify surgical patients at risk for undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by classifying patients as low risk (LR) if STOP-BANG score < 3 or high risk (HR) if STOP-BANG score ≥ 3. Few studies have examined whether postoperative complications are increased in HR patients and none have been described in oncologic patients. Objective. This retrospective study examined if HR patients experience increased complications evidenced by an increased length of stay (LOS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Methods. We retrospectively measured LOS and the frequency of oxygen desaturation (<93%) in cancer patients who were given the STOP-BANG questionnaire prior to cystoscopy for urologic disease in an ambulatory surgery center. Results. The majority of patients in our study were men (77.7%), over the age of 50 (90.1%), and had BMI < 30 kg/m(2) (88.4%). STOP-BANG results were obtained on 404 patients. Cumulative incidence of the time to discharge between HR and the LR groups was plotted. By 8 hours, LR patients showed a higher cumulative probability of being discharged early (80% versus 74%, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Urologic oncology patients at HR for OSA based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire were less likely to be discharged early from the PACU compared to LR patients.

  15. Risk factors for surgical site infection after posterior cervical spine surgery: an analysis of 5,441 patients from the ACS NSQIP 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Arjun; Huddleston, Paul; Kakar, Sanjeev; Habermann, Elizabeth; Wagie, Amy; Nassr, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) following posterior cervical surgery has been reported as high as 18% in the literature. Few large studies have specifically examined posterior cervical procedures. The study aims to examine the incidence, timing, and risk factors for SSI following posterior cervical surgery. This is a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data in a national surgical outcomes database. The sample includes patients who underwent posterior cervical spine surgery between 2005 and 2012 identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Data File. The 30-day rate of postoperative SSI, timing of diagnosis, and associated risk factors were determined. The ACS NSQIP was used to identify 5,441 patients who underwent posterior cervical spine surgery by Current Procedural Terminology codes from 2005 to 2012. Thirty-day readmission data were obtained for 2011-2012. The incidence and timing of SSI were determined. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify significant risk factors. Of the 5,441 patients identified as having undergone posterior cervical surgery, 3,724 had a posterior cervical decompression, 1,310 had a posterior cervical fusion, and 407 underwent cervical laminoplasty. Surgical site infection within 30 days was identified in 160 patients (2.94%), with 80 of those cases being superficial SSI. There was no significant difference in SSI rate among the three procedure groups. The average time for diagnosis of SSI was over 2 weeks. In 2011-2012, 36.9% of patients with SSI were readmitted within 30 days. Several significant predictors of SSI were identified in univariate analysis, including body mass index (BMI) >35, chronic steroid use, albumin <3, hematocrit <33, platelets <100, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class, longer operative time, and longer hospital admission. Independent risk factors, including BMI

  16. Chemical composition of surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy--assessment of the risk to the patient.

    PubMed

    Dobrogowski, Miłosz; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Kucharska, Małgorzata; Sapota, Andrzej; Pomorski, Lech Sylwester

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of patients to organic substances produced and identified in surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Identification of these substances in surgical smoke was performed by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The selected biomarkers of exposure to surgical smoke included benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their concentrations in the urine samples collected from each patient before and after the surgery were determined by SPME-GC/MS. Qualitative analysis of the smoke produced during laparoscopic procedures revealed the presence of a wide variety of potentially toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dioxins and other substances. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene in the urine of the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in contrast to the other determined compounds, were significantly higher after the surgery than before it, which indicates that they were absorbed. The source of the compounds produced in the abdominal cavity during the surgery is tissue pyrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide atmosphere. All patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at risk of absorbing and excreting smoke by-products. Exposure of the patient to emerging chemical compounds is usually a one-time and short-term incident, yet concentrations of benzene and toluene found in the urine were significantly higher after the surgery than before it.

  17. Differences in risk factors associated with surgical site infections following two types of cardiac surgery in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Morikane, K; Honda, H; Yamagishi, T; Suzuki, S

    2015-05-01

    Differences in the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) following open heart surgery and coronary artery bypass graft surgery are not well described. To identify and compare risk factors for SSI following open heart surgery and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. SSI surveillance data on open heart surgery (CARD) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CBGB) submitted to the Japan Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS) system between 2008 and 2010 were analysed. Factors associated with SSI were analysed using univariate modelling analysis followed by multi-variate logistic regression analysis. Non-binary variables were analysed initially to determine the most appropriate category. The cumulative incidence rates of SSI for CARD and CBGB were 2.6% (151/5895) and 4.1% (160/3884), respectively. In both groups, the duration of the operation and a high American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) score were significant in predicting SSI risk in the model. Wound class was independently associated with SSI in CARD but not in CBGB. Implants, multiple procedures and emergency operations predicted SSI in CARD, but none of these factors predicted SSI in CBGB. There was a remarkable difference in the prediction of risk for SSI between the two types of cardiac surgery. Risk stratification in CARD could be improved by incorporating variables currently available in the existing surveillance systems. Risk index stratification in CBGB could be enhanced by collecting additional variables, because only two of the current variables were found to be significant for the prediction of SSI. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute cholecystitis in high risk surgical patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CHOCOLATE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kortram, Kirsten; van Ramshorst, Bert; Bollen, Thomas L; Besselink, Marc G H; Gouma, Dirk J; Karsten, Tom; Kruyt, Philip M; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Kelder, Johannes C; Tromp, Ellen; Boerma, Djamila

    2012-01-12

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous cholecystostomy may be an alternative treatment option but the current literature does not provide the surgical community with evidence based advice. The CHOCOLATE trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. High risk patients, defined as APACHE-II score 7-14, with acute calculous cholecystitis will be randomised to laparoscopic cholecystectomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. During a two year period 284 patients will be enrolled from 30 high volume teaching hospitals. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of major complications within three months following randomization and need for re-intervention and mortality during the follow-up period of one year. Secondary endpoints include all other complications, duration of hospital admission, difficulty of procedures and total costs. The CHOCOLATE trial is designed to provide the surgical community with an evidence based guideline in the treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2666.

  19. Acute cholecystitis in high risk surgical patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CHOCOLATE trial): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous cholecystostomy may be an alternative treatment option but the current literature does not provide the surgical community with evidence based advice. Methods/Design The CHOCOLATE trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. High risk patients, defined as APACHE-II score 7-14, with acute calculous cholecystitis will be randomised to laparoscopic cholecystectomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. During a two year period 284 patients will be enrolled from 30 high volume teaching hospitals. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of major complications within three months following randomization and need for re-intervention and mortality during the follow-up period of one year. Secondary endpoints include all other complications, duration of hospital admission, difficulty of procedures and total costs. Discussion The CHOCOLATE trial is designed to provide the surgical community with an evidence based guideline in the treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2666 PMID:22236534

  20. Risk management: correct patient and specimen identification in a surgical pathology laboratory. The experience of Infermi Hospital, Rimini, Italy.

    PubMed

    Fabbretti, G

    2010-06-01

    Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology practice is prone to error. In this report, we describe our methods for reducing error as much as possible during the pre-analytical and analytical phases. This was achieved by revising procedures, and by using computer technology and automation. Most mistakes are the result of human error in the identification and matching of patient and samples. To avoid faulty data interpretation, we employed a new comprehensive computer system that acquires all patient ID information directly from the hospital's database with a remote order entry; it also provides label and request forms via-Web where clinical information is required before sending the sample. Both patient and sample are identified directly and immediately at the site where the surgical procedures are performed. Barcode technology is used to input information at every step and automation is used for sample blocks and slides to avoid errors that occur when information is recorded or transferred by hand. Quality control checks occur at every step of the process to ensure that none of the steps are left to chance and that no phase is dependent on a single operator. The system also provides statistical analysis of errors so that new strategies can be implemented to avoid repetition. In addition, the staff receives frequent training on avoiding errors and new developments. The results have been shown promising results with a very low error rate (0.27%). None of these compromised patient health and all errors were detected before the release of the diagnosis report.

  1. Risk factors for superficial surgical site infection after elective rectal cancer resection: a multivariate analysis of 8880 patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elie; Miyagaki, Hiromichi; Bellini, Geoffrey; Shantha Kumara, H M C; Yan, Xiaohong; Howe, Brett; Feigel, Amanda; Whelan, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Superficial surgical site infection (sSSI) is one of the most common complications after colorectal resection. The goal of this study was to determine the comorbidities and operative characteristics that place patients at risk for sSSI in patients who underwent rectal cancer resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried (via diagnosis and Current Procedural Terminology codes) for patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective resection between 2005 and 2012. Patients for whom data concerning 27 demographic factors, comorbidities, and operative characteristics were available were eligible. A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify possible risk factors for sSSI. A total of 8880 patients met the entry criteria and were included. sSSIs were diagnosed in 861 (9.7%) patients. Univariate analysis found 14 patients statistically significant risk factors for sSSI. Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors: male gender, body mass index (BMI) >30, current smoking, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), American Society of Anesthesiologists III/IV, abdominoperineal resection (APR), stoma formation, open surgery (versus laparoscopic), and operative time >217 min. The greatest difference in sSSI rates was noted in patients with COPD (18.9 versus 9.5%). Of note, 54.2% of sSSIs was noted after hospital discharge. With regard to the timing of presentation, univariate analysis revealed a statistically significant delay in sSSI presentation in patients with the following factors and/or characteristics: BMI <30, previous radiation therapy (RT), APR, minimally invasive surgery, and stoma formation. Multivariate analysis suggested that only laparoscopic surgery (versus open) and preoperative RT were risk factors for delay. Rectal cancer resections are associated with a high incidence of sSSIs, over half of which are noted after discharge. Nine patient and

  2. [Risk factors related to surgical site infection in elective surgery].

    PubMed

    Angeles-Garay, Ulises; Morales-Márquez, Lucy Isabel; Sandoval-Balanzarios, Miguel Antonio; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Maldonado-Torres, Lulia; Méndez-Cano, Andrea Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for surgical site infections in surgery should be measured and monitored from admission to 30 days after the surgical procedure, because 30% of Surgical Site Infection is detected when the patient was discharged. Calculate the Relative Risk of associated factors to surgical site infections in adult with elective surgery. Patients were classified according to the surgery contamination degree; patient with surgery clean was defined as no exposed and patient with clean-contaminated or contaminated surgery was defined exposed. Risk factors for infection were classified as: inherent to the patient, pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative. Statistical analysis; we realized Student t or Mann-Whitney U, chi square for Relative Risk (RR) and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards. Were monitored up to 30 days after surgery 403 patients (59.8% women), 35 (8.7%) developed surgical site infections. The factors associated in multivariate analysis were: smoking, RR of 3.21, underweight 3.4 hand washing unsuitable techniques 4.61, transfusion during the procedure 3.22, contaminated surgery 60, and intensive care stay 8 to 14 days 11.64, permanence of 1 to 3 days 2.4 and use of catheter 1 to 3 days 2.27. To avoid all risk factors is almost impossible; therefore close monitoring of elective surgery patients can prevent infectious complications.

  3. A risk to himself: attitudes toward psychiatric patients and choice of psychosocial strategies among nurses in medical-surgical units.

    PubMed

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Scott, P Anne; Treacy, Margaret; Hyde, Abbey; O'Mahony, Rebecca

    2012-04-01

    Psychiatric patients are liable to stereotyping by healthcare providers. We explored attitudes toward caring for psychiatric patients among 13 nurses working in general hospitals in Ireland. Participants thought aloud in response to a simulated patient case and described a critical incident of a patient for whom they had cared. Two attitudinal orientations were identified that correspond to stereotypical depictions of risk and vulnerability. The nurses described psychosocial care strategies that were pragmatic rather than authentically person-centered, with particular associations between risk-oriented attitudes and directive nursing care. Nurses had expectations likely to impede relationship building and collaborative care. Implications arising include the need for improved knowledge about psychiatric conditions and for access to professional development in targeted therapeutic communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Post-surgical thyroid ablation with low or high radioiodine activities results in similar outcomes in intermediate risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Maria Grazia; Cevenini, Gabriele; Theodoropoulou, Alexandra; Maino, Fabio; Memmo, Silvia; Claudia, Cipri; Belardini, Valentina; Brianzoni, Ernesto; Pacini, Furio

    2013-07-01

    In differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at intermediate risk of recurrences, no evidences are provided regarding the optimal radioactive iodine (RAI) activity to be administered for post-surgical thyroid ablation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of RAI activities on the outcome of 225 DTC patients classified as intermediate risk, treated with low (1110-1850  MBq) or high RAI activities (≥3700  MBq). Six to 18 months after ablation, remission was observed in 60.0% of patients treated with low and in 60.0% of those treated with high RAI activities, biochemical disease was found in 18.8% of patients treated with low and in 14.3% of patients treated with high RAI activities, metastatic disease was found in 21.2% of patients treated with low and in 25.7% of patients treated with high RAI activities (P=0.56). At the last follow-up (low activities, median 4.2 years; high activities, median 6.9 years), remission was observed in 76.5% of patients treated with low and in 72.1% of patients treated with high RAI activities, persistent disease was observed in 18.8% of patients treated with low and in 23.5% of patients treated with high RAI activities, recurrent disease was 2.4% in patients treated with low and 2.1% in patients treated with high RAI activities, deaths occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with low and in 2.1% of patients treated with high RAI activities (P=0.87). Our study provides the first evidence that in DTC patients at intermediate risk, high RAI activities at ablation have no major advantage over low activities.

  5. Pre-operative unintentional weight loss as a risk factor for surgical outcomes after elective surgery in patients with disseminated cancer.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukarasu, Pragatheeshwar; Sanghera, Sartaj; Singla, Smit; Attwood, Kristopher; Nurkin, Steven

    2015-06-01

    With improvement in survival, elective surgical procedures are being increasingly performed on patients with metastatic disease. We aimed to study the association of pre-operative unintentional weight loss (UWL) with operative outcomes in this patient population. We extracted data on all patients with disseminated cancer undergoing elective surgeries between 2005 and 2011 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), along with the Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes. Based on the presence of unintentional weight loss of >10% body weight in the 6-month period preceding surgery, patients were divided into 2 cohorts - (1) patients with UWL ('UWL' cohort) and (2) patients without UWL ('No UWL') cohort. Differences in patient characteristics, co-morbid conditions and outcomes were compared. There were 30,669 surgeries recorded under 1,638 CPT codes, with 8,436 surgeries involving the eight most common CPT codes. UWL was present in 11.5% of all patients. UWL patients were more commonly (P < 0.05) male, African-American, of higher ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) class, and had multiple associated comorbidities. Nearly all complications, including wound infections, prolonged ventilator requirement, unplanned intubation, cardiac arrest, DVT, sepsis and mortality were more common in UWL patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that UWL was independently associated with 21%, 22% and 49% higher risk of overall morbidity, serious morbidity and 30-day mortality, respectively. UWL is an independent risk factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality following elective surgeries in patients with disseminated cancer. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Irradiation enhanced risks of hospitalised pneumonopathy in lung cancer patients: a population-based surgical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lo, Yuan-Chen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Chien, Nai-Chuan; Li, Szu-Chi; Liu, Dai-Wei; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Chan, Michael Wy; Lin, Hon-Yi

    2017-09-27

    Pulmonary radiotherapy has been reported to increase a risk of pneumonopathy, including pneumonitis and secondary pneumonia, however evidence from population-based studies is lacking. The present study intended to explore whether postoperative irradiation increases occurrence of severe pneumonopathy in lung cancer patients. The nationwide population-based study analysed the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (covered >99% of Taiwanese) in a real-world setting. From 2000 to 2010, 4335 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients were allocated into two groups: surgery-RT (n=867) and surgery-alone (n=3468). With a ratio of 1:4, propensity score was used to match 11 baseline factors to balance groups. Irradiation was delivered to bronchial stump and mediastinum according to peer-audited guidelines. Hospitalised pneumonia/pneumonitis-free survival was the primary end point. Risk factors and hazard effects were secondary measures. Multivariable analysis identified five independent risk factors for hospitalised pneumonopathy: elderly (>65 years), male, irradiation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Compared with surgery-alone, a higher risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy was found in surgery-RT patients (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.93-2.51; 2-year hospitalised pneumonia/pneumonitis-free survival, 85.2% vs 69.0%; both p<0.0001), especially in elderly males with COPD and CKD (HR, 13.74; 95% CI, 6.61-28.53; p<0.0001). Unexpectedly, we observed a higher risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy in younger irradiated-CKD patients (HR, 13.07; 95% CI, 5.71-29.94; p<0.0001) than that of elderly irradiated-CKD patients (HR, 4.82; 95% CI, 2.88-8.08; p<0.0001). A high risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy is observed in irradiated patients, especially in elderly males with COPD and CKD. For these patients, close clinical surveillance and aggressive pneumonia/pneumonitis prevention should be considered. Further investigations are required to

  7. Influence of surgical implantation angle of left ventricular assist device outflow graft and management of aortic valve opening on the risk of stroke in heart failure patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, V. Keshav; McGah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony; Beckman, Jennifer; Mokadam, Nanush; Mahr, Claudius; Aliseda, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Flow in the aortic vasculature may impact stroke risk in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) due to severely altered hemodynamics. Patient-specific 3D models of the aortic arch and great vessels were created with an LVAD outflow graft at 45, 60 and 90° from centerline of the ascending aorta, in order to understand the effect of surgical placement on hemodynamics and thrombotic risk. Intermittent aortic valve opening (once every five cardiac cycles) was simulated and the impact of this residual native output investigated for the potential to wash out stagnant flow in the aortic root region. Unsteady CFD simulations with patient-specific boundary conditions were performed. Particle tracking for 10 cardiac cycles was used to determine platelet residence times and shear stress histories. Thrombosis risk was assessed by a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian metrics and a newly developed thrombogenic potential metric. Results show a strong influence of LVAD outflow graft angle on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta and consequently on stroke risk, with a highly positive impact of aortic valve opening, even at low frequencies. Optimization of LVAD implantation and management strategies based on patient-specific simulations to minimize stroke risk will be presented

  8. Interaction Effects of Acute Kidney Injury, Acute Respiratory Failure, and Sepsis on 30-Day Postoperative Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Intraabdominal General Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory failure, and sepsis are distinct but related pathophysiologic processes. We hypothesized that these 3 processes may interact to synergistically increase the risk of short-term perioperative mortality in patients undergoing high-risk intraabdominal general surgery procedures. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study of data (2005-2011) from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a high-quality surgical outcomes data set. High-risk procedures were those with a risk of AKI, acute respiratory failure, or sepsis greater than the average risk in all intraabdominal general surgery procedures. The effects of AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis on 30-day mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Additive interactions were assessed with the relative excess risk due to interaction. Of 217,994 patients, AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis developed in 1.3%, 3.7%, and 6.8%, respectively. The 30-day mortality risk with sepsis, acute respiratory failure, and AKI were 11.4%, 24.1%, and 25.1%, respectively, compared with 0.85% without these complications. The adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for a single complication (versus no complication) on mortality were 7.24 (6.46-8.11), 10.8 (8.56-13.6), and 14.2 (12.8-15.7) for sepsis, AKI, and acute respiratory failure, respectively. For 2 complications, the adjusted hazard ratios were 30.8 (28.0-33.9), 42.6 (34.3-52.9), and 65.2 (53.9-78.8) for acute respiratory failure/sepsis, AKI/sepsis, and acute respiratory failure/AKI, respectively. Finally, the adjusted hazard ratio for all 3 complications was 105 (92.8-118). Positive additive interactions, indicating synergism, were found for each combination of 2 complications. The relative excess risk due to interaction for all 3 complications was not statistically significant. In high-risk general surgery patients, the development of AKI

  9. Impact of nutritional support that does and does not meet guideline standards on clinical outcome in surgical patients at nutritional risk: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Lin, Yue-Ying; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2016-08-19

    To investigate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk who receive nutritional support that meets guideline standards and those who do not. This prospective cohort study enrolled hospitalized patients from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from February 2010 to June 2012. The research protocols were approved by the university's ethics committee, and the patients signed informed consent forms. The clinical data were collected based on nutritional risk screening, administration of enteral and parenteral nutrition, surgical information, complications, and length of hospital stay. During the study period, 525 patients at nutritional risk were enrolled in the cohorts. Among patients who received nutritional support that met the guideline standards (Cohort 1), the incidence of infectious complications was lower than that in patients who did not meet guideline standards (Cohort 2) (17.1 % vs. 26.9 %, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that individuals who received a combination of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) for 7 or more days had a significantly lower incidence of infectious complications (P = 0.001) than those who received only PN for 7 or more days or those who received nutritional support for less than 7 days or at less than 10 kcal/kg/d. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for confounding factors, nutritional support that met guideline standards for patients with nutritional risk was a protective factor for complications (OR: 0.870, P < 0.002). In patients at nutritional risk after abdominal surgery, nutritional support that meets recommended nutrient guidelines (especially regimens involving PN + EN ≥ 7 days) might decrease the incidence of infectious complications and is worth recommending; however, well-designed trials are needed to confirm our findings. Nutritional support that does not meet the guideline standards is considered

  10. Patient hand hygiene practices in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Laura L; Smolowitz, Janice; Kline, Nancy; Thom, Bridgette; Larson, Elaine L

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the hand hygiene practices of surgical patients. Most of the research has been directed at the health care worker, and this may discount the role that hand hygiene of the surgical patient might play in surgical site infections. A quasiexperimental, pretest/post-test study was conducted in which patients (n = 72) and nurses (n = 42) were interviewed to examine perceptions and knowledge about patient hand hygiene. Concurrently, observations were conducted to determine whether surgical patients were offered assistance by the nursing staff. Following an initial observation period, nursing staff received an educational session regarding general hand hygiene information and observation results. One month after the education session, patient/nurse dyads were observed for an additional 6 weeks to determine the impact of the educational intervention. Eighty observations, 72 patient interviews, and 42 nurse interviews were completed preintervention, and 83 observations were completed postintervention. In response to the survey, more than half of patients (n = 41, 55%) reported that they were not offered the opportunity to clean their hands, but a majority of the nursing staff reported (n = 25, 60%) that they offered patients the opportunity to clean their hands. Prior to the educational intervention, nursing staff assisted patients in 14 of 81 hand hygiene opportunities. Following the intervention, nursing staff assisted patients 37 out of 83 opportunities (17.3% vs 44.6%, respectively, [χ(2)1 = 13.008, P = .0003]). This study suggests that efforts to increase hand hygiene should be directed toward patients as well as health care workers. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical treatment for patients with periodontal disease reduces risk of end-stage renal disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The association between periodontal disease treatment and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains unclear. This study aims to determine whether surgical periodontal treatment reduces ESRD risk. From the insurance claims data of patients with periodontal disease who were free of ESRD from 1997 to 2009, 35,496 patients were identified who underwent surgery for subgingival curettage and/or periodontal flap and are considered the treatment cohort. For comparison, 141,824 patients who did not undergo these treatments were considered the no-treatment cohort. Follow-ups were performed until the end of 2009 to estimate the incidence and risk of ESRD in these two cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the related hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of ESRD. The incidence of ESRD was lower in the treatment cohort than in the no-treatment cohort (4.66 versus 7.38 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.46 to 0.75). Sex- and age-specific analysis showed that the incidence rate ratio of the treatment cohort to the no-treatment cohort was higher for women than for men and declined with age. The risks of ESRD were consistently lower in the treatment cohort even when compared by comorbidity. Patients with periodontal disease who undergo procedures for subgingival curettage and/or periodontal flap have a remarkably decreased risk of ESRD.

  12. Albumin synthesis in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hülshoff, Ansgar; Schricker, Thomas; Elgendy, Hamed; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    Albumin plasma concentrations are being used as indicators of nutritional status and hepatic function based on the assumption that plasma levels reflect the rate of albumin synthesis. However, it has been shown that albumin levels are not reliable markers of albumin synthesis under a variety of clinical conditions including inflammation, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and surgical tissue trauma. To date, only a few studies have measured albumin synthesis in surgical and critically ill patients. This review summarizes the findings from these studies, which used different tracer methodology in various surgical or critically ill patient populations. The results indicate that the fractional synthesis rate of albumin appears to decrease during surgery, followed by an increase during the postoperative phase. In the early postoperative phase, albumin fractional synthesis rate can be stimulated by perioperative nutrition, if enough amino acids are being provided and if nutrition is being initiated before the operation. The physiologic meaning of albumin synthesis after surgery, however, still needs to be further clarified.

  13. Does diabetes mellitus increase immediate surgical risk in octogenarian patients submitted to coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    PubMed

    Pivatto Júnior, Fernando; Pereira, Edemar M C; Valle, Felipe H; Teixeira Filho, Guaracy F; Nesralla, Ivo A; Sant'anna, João R M; Prates, Paulo R; Kalil, Renato A K

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes is a well known risk factor for early and late adverse outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG); however, few studies have investigated the impact of this risk factor in the group of older patients, especially octogenarians. To compare in-hospital mortality and morbidity of diabetic and nondiabetic patients aged > 80 years submitted to CABG. A total of 140 consecutive cases were studied, of whom 37 (26.4%) were diabetics, in a retrospective cross-sectional study, that included all patients aged > 80 years submitted to isolated/associated CABG. The patients' mean age was 82.5 ± 2.2 years and 55.7% were males. The hospital mortality rate did not significantly differ in multivariate analysis: 16.2% diabetic x 13.6% nondiabetic (P = 0.554), as well as morbidity: 43.2% x 37.9%, respectively (P = 0.533). Regarding to operative morbidity, the occurrence of stroke was significantly higher in diabetic patients in the univariate analysis (10.8% x 1.9%, P = 0.042). In multivariate analysis, however, the incidence of stroke was not associated with the presence of diabetes (P = 0.085), but it was associated with atrial fibrillation (P = 0.044). There was no significant difference related to other complications. In this small consecutive retrospectively analyzed series, there was no significant increase in hospital mortality and morbidity related to diabetes for CABG in octogenarian patients. The impact of the results of this study is limited by the sample size and might be confirmed by future randomized clinical trials.

  14. Treatment of Acute Visceral Aortic Pathology with Fenestrated-Branched Endovascular Repair in High Surgical Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Salvatore T.; Waterman, Alyson; Feezor, Robert J.; Martin, Tomas D.; Hess, Philip; Huber, Thomas S.; Beck, Adam W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The safety and feasibility of fenestrated/branched endovascular repair of acute visceral aortic disease in high risk patients is unknown. The purpose of this report is to describe our experience with surgeon-modified endografts(sm-EVAR) for the urgent or emergent treatment of pathology involving the branched segment of the aorta in patients deemed to have prohibitively high medical and/or anatomic risk for open repair. METHODS A retrospective review was performed on all patients treated with sm-EVAR for acute indications. Planning was based on 3D-CTA reconstructions and graft configurations included various combinations of branch, fenestration, or scallop modifications. RESULTS Sixteen patients [mean age(±SD)68±10 years; 88% male] deemed high risk for open repair underwent urgent or emergent repair using sm-EVAR. Indications included: degenerative suprarenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysm (6), presumed or known mycotic aneurysm(4), anastomotic pseudoaneurysm (3), false lumen rupture of type B dissection(2), and penetrating aortic ulceration(1). Nine (56%) had previous aortic surgery and all patients were either ASA class IV(N=9) or IV-E(N=7). A total of 40 visceral vessels (celiac=10, SMA=10, RRA=10, LRA=10) were revascularized with a combination of fenestrations (33), directional graft branches (6), and graft scallops (1). Technical success was 94% (N=15/16), with one open conversion. Median contrast use was 126mL (range 41–245) and fluoroscopy time was 70 minutes(range 18–200). Endoleaks were identified intra-operatively in 4 patients [type II(N=3); IV(N=1)] but none have required remediation. Mean LOS was 12±15 days (median 5.5; range 3–59). Single complications occurred in 5(31%) patients: brachial sheath hematoma (1), stroke(1), ileus(1), respiratory failure(1), and renal failure(1). An additional patient experienced multiple complications including spinal cord ischemia(1) and multi-organ failure resulting in death(N=1;in-hospital mortality 6

  15. Single-port versus conventional multiport access prophylactic laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in high-risk patients for ovarian cancer: a comparison of surgical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Angioni, Stefano; Pontis, Alessandro; Sedda, Federica; Zampetoglou, Theodoros; Cela, Vito; Mereu, Liliana; Litta, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is widely recommended as part of a risk-reduction strategy for ovarian or breast cancer due to an underlying genetic predisposition. BSO is also performed as a therapeutic intervention for patients with hormone-positive premenopausal breast cancer. BSO may be performed via a minimally invasive approach with the use of three to four 5 mm and/or 12 mm ports inserted through a skin incision. To further reduce the morbidity associated with the placement of multiple port sites and to improve cosmetic outcomes, single-port laparoscopy has been developed with a single access point from the umbilicus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes associated with reducing the risks of salpingo-oophorectomy performed in a single port, while comparing multiport laparoscopy in women with a high risk for ovarian cancer. Single-port laparoscopy–BSO is feasible and safe, with favorable surgical and cosmetic outcomes when compared to conventional laparoscopy. PMID:26170692

  16. Phase angle and handgrip strength are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2015-03-11

    The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early

  17. Nerve Transfer for Facial Paralysis Under Intravenous Sedation and Local Analgesia for the High Surgical Risk Elderly Patient.

    PubMed

    Rubi, Carlos; Cardenas Mejia, Alexander; Cavadas, Pedro Carlos; Thione, Alessandro; Aramburo Garcia, Rigoberto; Rozen, Shai

    2016-07-01

    This case report describes an 86-year-old woman with complete peripheral right-sided facial paralysis resulting from resection of a cervical lipoma 14 months before surgery. Because of the high anesthetic risk, a masseter to facial nerve transfer was performed under combined light sedation and local anesthetic. Good functional and aesthetic outcomes were noted without complications. To our knowledge, nerve transfers under light sedation and local anesthesia have not been described in the literature and may be useful in elderly patients with significant comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-operative acute kidney injury and five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among elective cardiac surgical patients: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Malene Kærslund; Gammelager, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Martin Majlund; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth; Layton, J Bradley; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2013-12-12

    The prognostic impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term clinical outcomes remains controversial. We examined the five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke after elective cardiac surgery complicated by AKI. We conducted a cohort study among adult elective cardiac surgical patients without severe chronic kidney disease and/or previous heart or renal transplant surgery using data from population-based registries. AKI was defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria as a 50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline level, acute creatinine rise of ≥26.5 μmol/L (0.3 mg/dL) within 48 hours, and/or initiation of renal replacement therapy within five days after surgery. We followed patients from the fifth post-operative day until myocardial infarction, stroke or death within five years. Five-year risk was computed by the cumulative incidence method and compared with hazards ratios (HR) from a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for propensity score. A total of 287 (27.9%) of 1,030 patients developed AKI. Five-year risk of death was 26.5% (95% CI: 21.2 to 32.0) among patients with AKI and 12.1% (95% CI: 10.0 to 14.7) among patients without AKI. The corresponding adjusted HR of death was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2). Five-year risk of myocardial infarction was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.9 to 8.1) among patients with AKI and 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.8) among patients without AKI. Five-year risk of stroke was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.8 to 7.9) among patients with AKI and 4.2% (95% CI: 2.9 to 5.8) among patients without AKI. Adjusted HRs were 1.5 (95% CI: 0.7 to 3.2) of myocardial infarction and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5 to 1.8) of stroke. AKI, within five days after elective cardiac surgery, was associated with increased five-year mortality and a statistically insignificant increased risk of myocardial infarction. No association was seen with the risk of stroke.

  19. Risk-factors for surgical delay following hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Reig, J; Salvador Marín, J; Ferrández Martínez, J; Orozco Beltrán, D; Martínez López, J F

    To identify pre-operative risk factors for surgical delay of more than 2 days after admission in patients older than 65 years with a hip fracture. A prospective observational study was conducted on 180 hip fractures in patients older than 65 years of age admitted to our hospital from January 2015 to April 2016. The data recorded included, patient demographics, day of admission, pre-fracture comorbidities, mental state, level of mobility and physical function, type of fracture, antiaggregant and anticoagulant medication, pre-operative haemoglobin value, type of treatment, and surgical delay. The mean age of the patients was 83.7 years. The mean Charlson Index was 2.8. The pre-fracture baseline co-morbidities were equal or greater than 2 in 70% of cases. Mean timing of surgery was 3.1 days. At the time of admission, 122 (67.7%) patients were fit for surgery, of which 80 (44.4%) underwent surgery within 2 days. A Charlson index greater than 2, anticoagulant therapy, and admission on Thursday to Saturday, were independently associated with a surgical delay greater than 2 days. The rate of hip fracture patients undergoing surgery within 2 days is low. Risk factors associated to surgical delay are non-modifiable. However, their knowledge should allow the development of protocols that can reduce surgical delay in this group of patients. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical Nasal Implants: Indications and Risks.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery.

  1. [Surgical smoke: risks and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Rodríguez, Hilario; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Soria-Aledo, Víctor; García-López, Concepción

    2009-05-01

    The application of the advanced technologies in medicine has led to the appearance of new risk factors for health personnel. One of these could be the surgical smoke produced by electrosurgical instruments, ultrasounds or laser. However, there is still insufficient evidence in the published population studies on the detrimental effects of chronic exposure to surgical smoke. The main concern on the possible damage to the health of operating room staff is mainly based on the components currently detected until the date and laboratory experiments. Caution must also be used when extrapolating the results of in vitro studies to daily clinical practice. The organisations responsible for protecting the health of the workers in different countries have still not issued guidelines for the treatment and removal of the surgical smoke generated in both open and laparoscopic procedures. In this article we try to present a view of the consequences that surgical smoke has on health and the preventive measures that can be adopted.

  2. Risk factors for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli versus susceptible E. coli in surgical site infections among cancer patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montes, Claudia V; Vilar-Compte, Diana; Velazquez, Consuelo; Golzarri, Maria Fernanda; Cornejo-Juarez, Patricia; Larson, Elaine L

    2014-10-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are of increasing concern as a cause of healthcare-associated infections. Using a matched case-control design, demographics, antibiotic use, and relevant surgical data were obtained for 173 cases (ESBL E. coli surgical site infections, [SSI]) and 173 controls (antibiotic-susceptible E. coli SSI) in an oncology hospital in Mexico City. Conditional logistic regression modeling was used to calculate odds ratios (OR). The mean age of patients was 53.6 years, 214 (62%) were female. Demographics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Although antibiotic prophylaxis was common among both cases and controls (84% and 89%), more than one-half of cases (53%) were given prophylaxis outside the recommended window or were exposed for more than 24 h in comparison to 29% of controls. Patients who received untimely (OR=3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-6.4) and discontinued inappropriately (OR 6.38, 95% CI=2.5-16.2) prophylaxis were more likely to develop an ESBL SSI. In addition, patients with an organ/space infection compared with superficial had a higher rate of a resistant infection (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.3-13.9). Among patients not given timely or appropriately discontinued prophylaxis, post-operative cephalosporin use (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.7) was associated with ESBL E. coli SSIs. The appropriate timing and duration of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis were associated with lower risk of ESBL E. coli in SSIs. Even though compliance to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines is of the utmost importance, reduced exposure to cephalosporins may also potentially decrease the risk of ESBL SSI.

  3. The PER (Preoperative Esophagectomy Risk) Score: A Simple Risk Score to Predict Short-Term and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Surgically Treated Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reeh, Matthias; Metze, Johannes; Uzunoglu, Faik G.; Nentwich, Michael; Ghadban, Tarik; Wellner, Ullrich; Bockhorn, Maximilian; Kluge, Stefan; Izbicki, Jakob R.; Vashist, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal resection in patients with esophageal cancer (EC) is still associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We aimed to develop a simple preoperative risk score for the prediction of short-term and long-term outcomes for patients with EC treated by esophageal resection. In total, 498 patients suffering from esophageal carcinoma, who underwent esophageal resection, were included in this retrospective cohort study. Three preoperative esophagectomy risk (PER) groups were defined based on preoperative functional evaluation of different organ systems by validated tools (revised cardiac risk index, model for end-stage liver disease score, and pulmonary function test). Clinicopathological parameters, morbidity, and mortality as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were correlated to the PER score. The PER score significantly predicted the short-term outcome of patients with EC who underwent esophageal resection. PER 2 and PER 3 patients had at least double the risk of morbidity and mortality compared to PER 1 patients. Furthermore, a higher PER score was associated with shorter DFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P < 0.001). The PER score was identified as an independent predictor of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1; P < 0.001) and OS (HR 2.2; P < 0.001). The PER score allows preoperative objective allocation of patients with EC into different risk categories for morbidity, mortality, and long-term outcomes. Thus, multicenter studies are needed for independent validation of the PER score. PMID:26886613

  4. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Manja, Veena; Devji, Tahira; Chang, Yaping; Bala, Malgorzata M; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk of perioperative death. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis Data sources Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Study selection Randomized trials of TAVI compared with SAVR in patients with a mean perioperative risk of death <8%. Review methods Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for outcomes important to patients that were selected a priori by a parallel guideline committee, including patient advisors. We used the GRADE system was used to quantify absolute effects and quality of evidence. Results 4 trials with 3179 patients and a median follow-up of two years were included. Compared with SAVR, transfemoral TAVI was associated with reduced mortality (risk difference per 1000 patients: −30, 95% confidence interval −49 to −8, moderate certainty), stroke (−20, −37 to 1, moderate certainty), life threatening bleeding (−252, −293 to −190, high certainty), atrial fibrillation (−178, −150 to −203, moderate certainty), and acute kidney injury (−53, −39 to −62, high certainty) but increased short term aortic valve reintervention (7, 1 to 21, moderate certainty), permanent pacemaker insertion (134, 16 to 382, moderate certainty), and moderate or severe symptoms of heart failure (18, 5 to 34, moderate certainty). Compared with SAVR, transapical TAVI was associated higher mortality (57, −16 to 153, moderate certainty, P=0.015 for interaction between transfemoral versus transapical TAVI) and stroke (45, −2 to 125, moderate certainty, interaction P=0.012). No study reported long term follow-up, which is particularly important for structural valve deterioration. Conclusions Many patients, particularly those who have a shorter life expectancy or place a lower value on the risk of long term valve

  5. A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fluid loading in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery--the FOCCUS study.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Brian H; Campbell, Marion K; Stott, Stephen A; Elders, Andrew; Hernández, Rodolfo; Boyers, Dwayne; Norrie, John; Kinsella, John; Brittenden, Julie; Cook, Jonathan; Rae, Daniela; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Alcorn, David; Addison, Jennifer; Grant, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fluid strategies may impact on patient outcomes in major elective surgery. We aimed to study the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-operative fluid loading in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery. This was a pragmatic, non-blinded, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial. We sought to recruit 128 consecutive high-risk surgical patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients underwent pre-operative fluid loading with 25 ml/kg of Ringer's solution in the six hours before surgery. The control group had no pre-operative fluid loading. The primary outcome was the number of hospital days after surgery with cost-effectiveness as a secondary outcome. A total of 111 patients were recruited within the study time frame in agreement with the funder. The median pre-operative fluid loading volume was 1,875 ml (IQR 1,375 to 2,025) in the fluid group compared to 0 (IQR 0 to 0) in controls with days in hospital after surgery 12.2 (SD 11.5) days compared to 17.4 (SD 20.0) and an adjusted mean difference of 5.5 days (median 2.2 days; 95% CI -0.44 to 11.44; P = 0.07). There was a reduction in adverse events in the fluid intervention group (P = 0.048) and no increase in fluid based complications. The intervention was less costly and more effective (adjusted average cost saving: £2,047; adjusted average gain in benefit: 0.0431 quality adjusted life year (QALY)) and has a high probability of being cost-effective. Pre-operative intravenous fluid loading leads to a non-significant reduction in hospital length of stay after high-risk major surgery and is likely to be cost-effective. Confirmatory work is required to determine whether these effects are reproducible, and to confirm whether this simple intervention could allow more cost-effective delivery of care. Prospective Clinical Trials, ISRCTN32188676.

  6. Risk factors for 30-day postoperative complications and mortality after below-knee amputation: a study of 2,911 patients from the national surgical quality improvement program.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Davey, Shaunette; Orr, Justin D; Ochoa, Leah M; Bader, Julia O; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    This investigation sought to evaluate risk factors for morbidity and mortality from a large series of below-knee amputees prospectively entered in a national database. All patients undergoing below-knee amputations in the years 2005-2008 were identified in the database of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Demographic data, medical comorbidities, and medical history were obtained. Mortality and postoperative complications within 30 days of the below-knee amputation were also documented. Chi-square test, univariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of specific risk factors on mortality, as well as the likelihood of developing major, minor, or any complications developing. Below-knee amputations were performed in 2,911 patients registered in the NSQIP database between 2005 and 2008. The average age of patients was 65.8 years old and 64.3% were male. There was a 7.0% 30-day mortality rate and 1,627 complications occurred in 1,013 patients (34.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified renal insufficiency, cardiac issues, history of sepsis, steroid use, COPD, and increased patient age as independent predictors of mortality. The most common major complications were return to the operating room (15.6%), wound infection (9.3%), and postoperative sepsis (9.3%). History of sepsis, alcohol use, steroid use, cardiac issues, renal insufficiency, and contaminated/infected wounds were independent predictors of one or more complications developing. Renal disease, cardiac issues, history of sepsis, steroid use, COPD, and increased patient age were identified as predictors of mortality after below-knee amputation. Renal disease, cardiac issues, history of sepsis, steroid use, contaminated/infected wounds, and alcohol use were also found to be predictors of postoperative complications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. How to reduce the risk of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jennie

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are an important cause of healthcare- associated infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although intrinsic factors in patients--such as age, underlying illness and site of the procedure--increase the risk, the quality of care delivered during the perioperative period is critical to preventing SSI. This article explores what is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSI, and practices that are effective in reducing the risk of SSI.

  8. Patients’ awareness of the surgical risks of smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Seaton, Cherisse L.; Lamont, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the smoking patterns of patients receiving elective surgery and their knowledge about the benefits of smoking cessation to inform and strengthen support for patients to quit smoking in order to optimize surgical outcomes. Design Patients who had elective surgery were screened for smoking status, and eligible patients completed a telephone survey. Setting Two regional hospitals in northern British Columbia. Participants Of 1722 patients screened, 373 reported smoking before surgery. Of these, 161 (59.0% women) completed a telephone survey. Main outcome measures Patient smoking cessation, knowledge of the perioperative risks of smoking, use of resources, and health care provider advice and assistance. Results Participants included 66 men and 95 women (mean [SD] age of 51.9 [14.0] years). In total, 7.5% of these patients quit smoking in the 8 weeks before their surgeries, although an additional 38.8% reduced their smoking. Only about half of the patients surveyed were aware that continuing to smoke increased their surgical risks. Further, only half of the patients surveyed reported being advised to quit before their surgeries by a health care professional. Few were using the provincial resources available to support smoking cessation (eg, QuitNow), and 39.6% were unaware of the provincial program to cover the cost of smoking cessation aids (eg, nicotine gum or patches), yet 62.7% of respondents were thinking about quitting smoking. Conclusion Many surgical patients in northern British Columbia who smoked were unaware of the perioperative risks of smoking and the cessation support available to them. An opportunity exists for all health care professionals to encourage more patients to quit in order to optimize their surgical outcomes. PMID:27035005

  9. Adverse drug events in surgical patients: an observational multicentre study.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Monica; Boeker, Eveline B; Ramrattan, Maya A; Kiewiet, Jordy J S; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Boermeester, Marja A; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine

    2013-10-01

    Errors occurring during different steps of the medication process can lead to adverse drug events (ADEs). Surgical patients are expected to have an increased risk for ADEs during hospitalization. However, detailed information about ADEs in the surgical patient is lacking. In this study, we aim to measure the incidence and nature of (preventable) ADEs, potential risk factors for and outcome parameters of (preventable) ADEs in surgical patients. Observational multicentre cohort study in which eight surgical wards participated from three Dutch hospitals, all using computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems with clinical decision support. Electively admitted surgical patients of the participating wards were included from March until June 2009. ADEs were measured using a standardized method with expert judgment. Incidence, severity, preventability and accountable medication were assessed. Poisson regression analysis was applied to determine the associations between possible risk factors and the occurrence of ADEs, expressed as incidence rate ratio (IRR). Also outcomes of ADEs in surgical patients were measured. The incidence and nature of (preventable) ADEs in surgical patients. A total of 567 surgical patients were included. We found an incidence of 27.5 ADEs and 4.2 preventable ADEs (pADEs) per 100 admissions (15.4 %). A quarter of the pADEs were severe or life-threatening. Opioids and anti-coagulation medication play a major role in the occurrence of ADEs and pADEs respectively. Univariate analysis revealed an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of III or more as a risk factor for ADEs. Patients older than 65 years [IRR 2.77 (1.14-6.72)], with cardiovascular comorbidity [IRR 2.87 (1.13-7.28)], or undergoing vascular surgery [IRR 2.32 (1.01-5.32)] were at risk for pADEs. Patients experiencing an ADE had a significant longer duration of admission than patients without an ADE. Surgical patients are at considerable risk of experiencing one or more

  10. Risk factors for retained surgical items: a meta-analysis and proposed risk stratification system.

    PubMed

    Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D; Cook, Charles H; Steinberg, Steven M; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2014-08-01

    Retained surgical items (RSI) are designated as completely preventable "never events". Despite numerous case reports, clinical series, and expert opinions few studies provide quantitative insight into RSI risk factors and their relative contributions to the overall RSI risk profile. Existing case-control studies lack the ability to reliably detect clinically important differences within the long list of proposed risks. This meta-analysis examines the best available data for RSI risk factors, seeking to provide a clinically relevant risk stratification system. Nineteen candidate studies were considered for this meta-analysis. Three retrospective, case-control studies of RSI-related risk factors contained suitable group comparisons between patients with and without RSI, thus qualifying for further analysis. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (BioStat, Inc, Englewood, NJ) software was used to analyze the following "common factor" variables compiled from the above studies: body-mass index, emergency procedure, estimated operative blood loss >500 mL, incorrect surgical count, lack of surgical count, >1 subprocedure, >1 surgical team, nursing staff shift change, operation "afterhours" (i.e., between 5 PM and 7 AM), operative time, trainee presence, and unexpected intraoperative factors. We further stratified resulting RSI risk factors into low, intermediate, and high risk. Despite the fact that only between three and six risk factors were associated with increased RSI risk across the three studies, our analysis of pooled data demonstrates that seven risk factors are significantly associated with increased RSI risk. Variables found to elevate the RSI risk include intraoperative blood loss >500 mL (odds ratio [OR] 1.6); duration of operation (OR 1.7); >1 subprocedure (OR 2.1); lack of surgical counts (OR 2.5); >1 surgical team (OR 3.0); unexpected intraoperative factors (OR 3.4); and incorrect surgical count (OR 6.1). Changes in nursing staff, emergency surgery, body

  11. Costs and cost-effectiveness of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy for patients at standard surgical risk: results from the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST).

    PubMed

    Vilain, Katherine R; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Li, Haiyan; Clark, Wayne M; Begg, Richard J; Sam, Albert D; Sternbergh, W Charles; Weaver, Fred A; Gray, William A; Voeks, Jenifer H; Brott, Thomas G; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-01

    from this controlled clinical trial demonstrate only trivial differences in overall healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy between the 2 strategies. If the CREST results can be replicated in clinical practice, these findings suggest that factors other than cost-effectiveness should be considered when deciding between treatment options for carotid artery stenosis in patients at standard risk for surgical complications. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00004732.

  12. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Carotid Stenting versus Endarterectomy for Patients at Standard Surgical Risk: Results from the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST)

    PubMed Central

    Vilain, Katherine R.; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Li, Haiyan; Clark, Wayne M.; Begg, Richard J.; Sam, Albert D.; Sternbergh, W. Charles; Weaver, Fred A.; Gray, William A.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Brott, Thomas G.; Cohen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    CEA compared with CAS, projected 10-year outcomes from this controlled clinical trial demonstrate only trivial differences in overall healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy between the 2 strategies. If the CREST results can be replicated in clinical practice, these findings suggest that factors other than cost-effectiveness should be considered when deciding between treatment options for carotid artery stenosis in patients at standard risk for surgical complications. PMID:22821614

  13. Growing use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the national Veterans Affairs Surgical Risk Study: effects on volume, patient selection, and selected outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, A Y; Daley, J; Pappas, T N; Henderson, W G; Khuri, S F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to the 43 tertiary-care university-affiliated Veterans Administration medical centers (VAMCs) participating in the National Veterans Affairs Surgical Risk Study from October 1991 through December 1993. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies in the private sector have documented growth in the number of cholecystectomies and falling clinical thresholds for cholecystectomy with the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: The following were analyzed for changes over time: measures of patient preoperative risk, complexity of surgery, severity of biliary disease, numbers of procedures, postoperative length of stay, and 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates. RESULTS: The number of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased, but the total number of cholecystectomies performed remained stable over time. The proportion of patients with acute cholecystitis, emergent cholecystectomies, and technically complex cholecystectomies did not change or increased slightly over time. Adjusted odds for postoperative general complications were lower for laparoscopic than for open cholecystectomy, but 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates for all cholecystectomies remained constant over time. Postoperative length of stay for all cholecystectomies fell significantly. Implementation rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied widely between hospitals. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was adopted more slowly and used in a lower percentage of cholecystectomies than in non-VA settings. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to non-VA studies showing increases in overall cholecystectomy volume since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, these VAMCs implemented laparoscopic cholecystectomy without growth in cholecystectomies or a change in the clinical threshold for cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with better outcomes, but its

  14. Shortened OR time and decreased patient risk through use of a modular surgical instrument with artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Miller, David J; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2009-05-01

    With a limited number of access ports, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) often requires the complete removal of one tool and reinsertion of another. Modular or multifunctional tools can be used to avoid this step. In this study, soft computing techniques are used to optimally arrange a modular tool's functional tips, allowing surgeons to deliver treatment of improved quality in less time, decreasing overall cost. The investigators watched University Medical Center surgeons perform MIS procedures (e.g., cholecystectomy and Nissen fundoplication) and recorded the procedures to digital video. The video was then used to analyze the types of instruments used, the duration of each use, and the function of each instrument. These data were aggregated with fuzzy logic techniques using four membership functions to quantify the overall usefulness of each tool. This allowed subsequent optimization of the arrangement of functional tips within the modular tool to decrease overall time spent changing instruments during simulated surgical procedures based on the video recordings. Based on a prototype and a virtual model of a multifunction laparoscopic tool designed by the investigators that can interchange six different instrument tips through the tool's shaft, the range of tool change times is approximately 11-13 s. Using this figure, estimated time savings for the procedures analyzed ranged from 2.5 to over 32 min, and on average, total surgery time can be reduced by almost 17% by using the multifunction tool.

  15. Bipolar versus monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia: safe in patients with high surgical risk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Er J.; Li, Hao; Sun, Xin B.; Huang, Li; Wang, Li; Gong, Xiao X.; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we compared the effects of bipolar and monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP, M-TURP) for treating elderly patients (≥75 years) with benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) who had internal comorbidities. Eligible BPH patients were aged ≥75 years and had at least one internal comorbidity. In this open-label, prospective trial, patients were assigned to B-TURP (n = 75) and M-TURP (n = 88) groups. Data on prostate volume (PV), urination, and time during perioperative period were compared; data associated with urination and complications at one year postoperatively were also compared. Finally, follow-up data were available for 68 and 81 patients in the B-TURP and M-TURP group, respectively. No deaths were recorded. Intraoperative bleeding was lower and irrigation time, indwelling catheter time, and hospital stay were shorter in the B-TURP group than in the M-TURP group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed with respect to operation time (p = 0.058). At one year after the operation, differences with respect to urination and complications were not significant. In conclusion, Short-term efficacy of B-TURP or M-TURP was satisfactory for elderly patients with BPH who had internal comorbidities. Besides, B-TURP is a more sensible choice because it has a lower prevalence of adverse effects. PMID:26892901

  16. Surgical Management of a Patient with Anterior Megalophthalmos, Lens Subluxation, and a High Risk of Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Guixeres Esteve, María Carmen; Pardo Saiz, Augusto Octavio; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; González-Ocampo Dorta, Samuel; Sanz Solana, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The early development of lens opacities and lens subluxation are the most common causes of vision loss in patients with anterior megalophthalmos (AM). Cataract surgery in such patients is challenging, however, because of anatomical abnormalities. Intraocular lens dislocation is the most common postoperative complication. Patients with AM also seem to be affected by a type of vitreoretinopathy that predisposes them to retinal detachment. We here present the case of a 36-year-old man with bilateral AM misdiagnosed as simple megalocornea. He had a history of amaurosis in the right eye due to retinal detachment. He presented with vision loss in the left eye due to lens subluxation. Following the removal of the subluxated lens, it was deemed necessary to perform a vitrectomy in order to prevent retinal detachment. Seven months after surgery, an Artisan® Aphakia iris-claw lens was implanted in the anterior chamber. Fifteen months of follow-up data are provided. PMID:28203198

  17. Development of an intervention model for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in high-risk patients on a medical-surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Ilia M; Schwoebel, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is associated with significantly high morbidity and mortality rates, accompanied by high health care costs. As a result, aspiration pneumonia preventive efforts are a national priority. The development of an intervention model for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in high-risk medical-surgical inpatients at an urban teaching hospital is described. The intervention model consists of the implementation and evaluation of a risk assessment tool and development of an aspiration pneumonia prevention protocol.

  18. Patient reasoning in palliative surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lindsey K; Goodwin, Julia A; Spencer, Horace J; Guevara, Caesar; Ferrell, Betty; McSweeney, Jean; Badgwell, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the patient reasoning behind treatment choice after palliative surgical consultation. Patients undergoing palliative surgical consultation were prospectively enrolled in this observational cohort study (11/2009-5/2011) and administered an open-ended questionnaire asking for their reasoning in choosing their treatment strategy. Of 98 patients enrolled, 54 were treated non-operatively and 44 with surgery. Patient responses indicating their reason for treatment selection were categorized into (1) quality of life or symptom relief, (2) unclear or response not related to treatment strategy, (3) increase length of life, (4) treat the cancer, (5) concerns over surgical complications, (6) doctor's recommendation, (7) religious reasons for treatment choice, and (8) for family. The most frequently cited reason for treatment selection was symptom relief or quality of life improvement in 46 patients. Thirty-eight patients cited their doctor's recommendation while 20 patients selected their treatment to increase length of life or treat their cancer. Only 2 patients cited concerns over surgical complications as their reason for choosing their treatment strategy. The most common reasons for treatment selection in palliative surgical consultation include symptom relief or improvement in quality of life and the doctor's recommendation with few patients listing concerns over surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Patient Safety Dilemma: Obesity in the Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    Goode, Victoria; Phillips, Elayne; DeGuzman, Pamela; Hinton, Ivora; Rovnyak, Virginia; Scully, Kenneth; Merwin, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Patient safety and the delivery of quality care are major concerns for healthcare in the United States. Special populations (eg, obese patients) need study in order to support patient safety, quantify risks, advance education for healthcare-workers, and establish healthcare policy. Obesity is a complex chronic disease and is considered the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States with approximately 300,000 deaths per year. Obesity is recognized by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) as a comorbid condition. These concerns emphasize the need to focus further research on the obese patient. Through the use of clinical and administrative data, this study examines the incidence of adverse outcomes in the obese surgical population through AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSI) and allows for the engagement PSIs as measures to guide and improve performance. In this study, the surgical population was overwhelmingly positive for obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was also a significant positive predictor for 2 of 3 postoperative outcomes. This finding suggests that as BMI reaches the classification of obesity, the risk of these adverse outcomes increases. It further suggests there exists a threshold BMI that requires anticipation of alterations to systems and processes to revise outcomes. Copyright© by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists.

  20. Wound wise: wounds in surgical patients who are obese.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Nancy; Zuelzer, Helen; Meador, Jill; Blankenship, Jolie

    2007-06-01

    The number of surgical patients who are obese in the United States is rising, a trend that's likely to continue. Such patients are at higher risk than nonobese patients are for surgical site infections and other complications such as dehiscence, pressure ulcers, deep tissue injury, and rhabdomyolysis. This article details the factors that can contribute to such complications, including a high number of comorbidities, and offers practical suggestions for preventing them. Nurses should understand that special equipment, precautions, and protocols may be needed at every stage of care, and that obese patients aren't anomalies but rather a part of a growing population with particular needs.

  1. Perfecting patient flow in the surgical setting.

    PubMed

    Amato-Vealey, Elaine J; Fountain, Patricia; Coppola, Deborah

    2012-07-01

    Reduced surgical efficiency and productivity, delayed patient discharges, and prolonged use of hospital resources are the results of an OR that is unable to move patients to the postanesthesia care unit or other patient units. A primary reason for perioperative patient flow delay is the lack of hospital beds to accommodate surgical patients, which consequently causes backups of patients currently in the surgical suite. In one facility, implementing Six Sigma methodology helped to improve OR patient flow by identifying ways that frontline staff members could work more intelligently and more efficiently, and with less stress to streamline workflow and eliminate redundancy and waste in ways that did not necessitate reducing the number of employees. The results were improved employee morale, job satisfaction and safety, and an enhanced patient experience.

  2. Improving prediction of surgical site infection risk with multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren; Perennec-Olivier, Marion; Jarno, Pascal; L'Hériteau, François; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Simon, Loïc; Giard, Marine; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; Viel, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance is a key factor in the elaboration of strategies to reduce SSI occurrence and in providing surgeons with appropriate data feedback (risk indicators, clinical prediction rule). To improve the predictive performance of an individual-based SSI risk model by considering a multilevel hierarchical structure. Data were collected anonymously by the French SSI active surveillance system in 2011. An SSI diagnosis was made by the surgical teams and infection control practitioners following standardized criteria. A random 20% sample comprising 151 hospitals, 502 wards and 62280 patients was used. Three-level (patient, ward, hospital) hierarchical logistic regression models were initially performed. Parameters were estimated using the simulation-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. A total of 623 SSI were diagnosed (1%). The hospital level was discarded from the analysis as it did not contribute to variability of SSI occurrence (p  = 0.32). Established individual risk factors (patient history, surgical procedure and hospitalization characteristics) were identified. A significant heterogeneity in SSI occurrence between wards was found (median odds ratio [MOR] 3.59, 95% credibility interval [CI] 3.03 to 4.33) after adjusting for patient-level variables. The effects of the follow-up duration varied between wards (p<10-9), with an increased heterogeneity when follow-up was <15 days (MOR 6.92, 95% CI 5.31 to 9.07]). The final two-level model significantly improved the discriminative accuracy compared to the single level reference model (p<10-9), with an area under the ROC curve of 0.84. This study sheds new light on the respective contribution of patient-, ward- and hospital-levels to SSI occurrence and demonstrates the significant impact of the ward level over and above risk factors present at patient level (i.e., independently from patient case-mix).

  3. Surgical specimen handover from the operating theatre to laboratory-Can we improve patient safety by learning from aviation and other high-risk organisations?

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash

    2017-07-10

    Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Serial post-surgical stimulated and unstimulated highly sensitive thyroglobulin measurements in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients not receiving radioactive iodine.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Lawrence; Orlov, Steven; Orlov, David; Assi, Jasmeet; Salari, Farnaz; Walfish, Paul G

    2016-11-01

    μg/L, respectively. Upon exclusion of 73 patients with an initial undetectable Stim-Tg (n = 48), serial Stim-Tg measurements did not change significantly over time (all p = NS). For these patients, the estimated changes in Stim-Tg per year for rhTSH, T4 withdrawal, and T3 withdrawal were -0.09, -0.10, and 0.01 μg/L, respectively. Serial u-hsTg measurements did not significantly change over time after adjusting for TSH level (p = NS). The estimated change in u-hsTg per year was -0.003 μg/L. No patients had any clinical or imaging evidence of a recurrence during the duration of their follow-up. Among low/intermediate-risk PTC patients not treated with RAI, serial post-surgical Stim-Tg and u-hsTg measurements do not change significantly over a median follow-up of 6.5 years.

  5. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection Following Major Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Lefta, Mellani; Dietz, Jill R.; Brandt, Keith E.; Aft, Rebecca; Matthews, Ryan; Mayfield, Jennie; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections following breast surgery result in increased length of hospital stay, antibiotic utilization, and morbidity. Understanding SSI risk factors is essential to develop infection prevention strategies and improve surgical outcomes. Methods A retrospective case-control design was used to determine independent risk factors for surgical site infection in subjects selected from a cohort of patients who had mastectomy, breast reconstruction or reduction surgery between January 1998 and June 2002 at a tertiary-care university affiliated hospital. SSI cases within 1 year after surgery were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for wound infection or complication and/or positive wound cultures. The medical records of 57 case patients with breast SSI and 268 randomly selected uninfected control patients were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results During the 4.5-year study period, 57 patients developed SSIs involving a breast incision and 10 patients developed SSIs involving a donor site incision. Significant independent risk factors for SSI involving the breast incision included insertion of a breast implant or tissue expander (odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI):2.5–11.1), suboptimal prophylactic antibiotic dosing (OR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.5–0.2 ), transfusion (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–9.0), mastectomy (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4–7.7), previous chest irradiation (OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2–6.5), and current or recent smoking (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 0.9–4.9). Local infiltration of an anesthetic agent was associated with significantly reduced risk of SSI (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.1–0.9). Conclusions Suboptimal prophylactic antibiotic dosing is a potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI following breast surgery. Risk of SSI was increased in patients undergoing mastectomy and in patients who had an implant or tissue expander placed during surgery. Knowledge of these risk factors can be

  6. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Surgical High-Risk Patients: Gender-Specific Acute and Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, Eike; Kalbacher, Daniel; Thomas, Christina; Appelbaum, Sebastian; Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Schlüter, Michael; Conradi, Lenard; Schirmer, Johannes; Treede, Hendrik; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lubos, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background. Analyses emphasizing gender-related differences in acute and long-term outcomes following MitraClip therapy for significant mitral regurgitation (MR) are rare. Methods. 592 consecutive patients (75 ± 8.7 years, 362 men, 230 women) underwent clinical and echocardiographic follow-up for a median of 2.13 (0.99–4.02) years. Results. Significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, renal failure, and adverse echocardiographic parameters in men resulted in longer device time (p = 0.007) and higher numbers of implanted clips (p = 0.0075), with equal procedural success (p = 1.0). Rehospitalization for heart failure did not differ (p[logrank] = 0.288) while survival was higher in women (p[logrank] = 0.0317). Logarithmic increase of NT-proBNP was a common independent predictor of death. Hypercholesterolemia and peripheral artery disease were predictors of death only in men while ischemic and dilative cardiomyopathy (CM) and age were predictors in women. Independent predictors of rehospitalization for heart failure were severely reduced ejection fraction and success in men while both ischemic and dilative CM, logistic EuroSCORE, and MR severity were predictive in women. Conclusions. Higher numbers of implanted clips and longer device time are likely related to more comorbidities in men. Procedural success and acute and mid-term clinical outcomes were equal. Superior survival for women in long-term analysis is presumably attributable to a comparatively better preprocedural health. PMID:27042662

  7. The Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Hansrani, Vivak; Khanbhai, Mustafa; McCollum, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing surgery are at an increased risk of VTE. Since the early 1990s the prevention of VTE has been dominated by the administration of low-molecular weight heparin during admission. New oral anticoagulants have been extensively researched and have increased in popularity. This chapter reviews why surgical patients are at increased risk of VTE and summaries both the pharmacological and mechanical methods of prophylaxis available.

  8. Travel Time Influences Readmission Risk: Geospatial Mapping of Surgical Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Turrentine, Florence E; Buckley, Patrick J; Sohn, Min-Woong; Williams, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The University of Virginia (UVA) has recently become an Accountable Care Organization (ACO), intensifying efforts to provide better care for individuals. UVA's ACO population resides across the entire Commonwealth, with a large percentage of patients living in rural areas. To provide better health for this population, the central tenet of the ACO mission, we identified geographic risk factors influencing hospital readmission. We analyzed the relationship between the distance of patients' residence to the nearest hospital and 30-day readmission in general surgery patients. A retrospective chart review using January 1, 2011 through October 31, 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data for general surgery procedures was conducted. ArcGIS mapped street addresses provided graphical representation of distance between surgical population and the nearest hospital. We analyzed the impact on readmission, of time traveled, insurance status, and median household income. Each increase of 10 minutes in travel time from the patient's residence to the nearest hospital, not just UVA, was associated with a 9 per cent increase in the probability of readmission after adjusting for patient characteristics, preoperative comorbidities, laboratory values, and postoperative complications before or after discharge (odds ratio = 1.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.17; P = 0.019). Unlike urban hospitals, those serving rural populations may be at particular risk of postsurgical readmissions. Patients living furthest from a hospital facility are most at risk for readmission after a general surgery procedure. This vulnerable population may benefit most from comprehensive discharge planning.

  9. Individualized Risk of Surgical Complications: An Application of the Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment Score

    PubMed Central

    Mlodinow, Alexei S.; Khavanin, Nima; Hume, Keith M.; Simmons, Christopher J.; Weiss, Michael J.; Murphy, Robert X.; Gutowski, Karol A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk discussion is a central tenet of the dialogue between surgeon and patient. Risk calculators have recently offered a new way to integrate evidence-based practice into the discussion of individualized patient risk and expectation management. Focusing on the comprehensive Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons (TOPS) database, we endeavored to add plastic surgical outcomes to the previously developed Breast Reconstruction Risk Assessment (BRA) score. Methods: The TOPS database from 2008 to 2011 was queried for patients undergoing breast reconstruction. Regression models were constructed for the following complications: seroma, dehiscence, surgical site infection (SSI), explantation, flap failure, reoperation, and overall complications. Results: Of 11,992 cases, 4439 met inclusion criteria. Overall complication rate was 15.9%, with rates of 3.4% for seroma, 4.0% for SSI, 6.1% for dehiscence, 3.7% for explantation, 7.0% for flap loss, and 6.4% for reoperation. Individualized risk models were developed with acceptable goodness of fit, accuracy, and internal validity. Distribution of overall complication risk was broad and asymmetric, meaning that the average risk was often a poor estimate of the risk for any given patient. These models were added to the previously developed open-access version of the risk calculator, available at http://www.BRAscore.org. Conclusions: Population-based measures of risk may not accurately reflect risk for many individual patients. In this era of increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine, we have developed a breast reconstruction risk assessment calculator from the robust TOPS database. The BRA Score tool can aid in individualizing—and quantifying—risk to better inform surgical decision making and better manage patient expectations. PMID:26090295

  10. Patient profiling can identify patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) at risk for conversion from non-operative to surgical treatment: initial steps to reduce ineffective ASD management.

    PubMed

    Passias, Peter G; Jalai, Cyrus M; Line, Breton G; Poorman, Gregory W; Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Burton, Douglas C; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Klineberg, Eric O; Hart, Robert A; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay

    2017-07-05

    , but CROSS had larger pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch than NON (11.9° vs. 3.1°, p=.032). CROSS and OP had similar baseline PROM scores; however, CROSS had worse baseline ODI, PCS, SRS-22r (p<.05). At time of crossover, CROSS had worse ODI (35.7 vs. 27.8) and SRS Satisfaction (2.6 vs. 3.3) compared with NON (p<.05). Alignment remained similar for CROSS from baseline to conversion; however, PROMs (ODI, PCS, SRS Activity/Pain/Total) worsened (p<.05). Early and late crossover evaluation demonstrated CROSS-early (n=25) had worsening ODI, SRS Activity/Pain at time of crossover (p<.05). From time of crossover to 2-year follow-up, CROSS-early had less SRS Appearance/Mental improvement compared with OP. Both CROSS-early/late had worse baseline, but greater improvements, in ODI, PCS, SRS Pain/Total compared with NON (p<.05). Baseline alignment and disability parameters increased crossover odds-Non with Schwab T/L/D curves and ODI≥40 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.05, p=.031), and Non with high PI-LL modifier grades ("+"/'++') and ODI≥40 (OR: 5.57, p=.007) were at increased crossover risk. High baseline and increasing disability over time drives conversion from non-operative to operative ASD care. CROSS patients had similar spinal deformity but worse PROMs than NON. CROSS achieved similar 2-year outcome scores as OP. Profiling at first visit for patients at risk of crossover may optimize physician counseling and cost savings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Rhabdomyolysis in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. The aim: of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. Material and methods: A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic “Mother Teresa” in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1st till December 31st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Results: Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Conclusion: Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI. PMID:27703296

  12. Impact of malnutrition on gastrointestinal surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Catalina; Koutlas, Nicholas J; Edwards, Kimberly C; Strickland, Ashley; Vohra, Nasreen A; Zervos, Emmanuel E; Fitzgerald, Timothy L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate diagnosis of malnutrition is imperative if we are to impact outcomes in the malnourished. The American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), in an attempt to address this issue, have provided evidence-based criteria to diagnose malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to validate the ASPEN/AND criteria in a cohort of patients from a single high-volume surgical oncology unit. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery from June 2013 to March 2015 were classified by their nutritional status using the ASPEN/AND criteria. A total of 490 patients were included. Median age was 64 y, a majority were female (50.6%), white (60.2%), underwent elective procedures (77.6%), had a Charlson comorbidity score (CCS) of 3-5 (40.0%), and a Clavien-Dindo complication (CDC) grade of 0-II (81.2%). A total of 93 (19.0%) patients were classified as moderately/severely malnourished. On univariate analysis, malnourished patients were more likely to be older, undergo emergent procedures, and have a CCS >5 (P < 0.05). Malnutrition was also associated with a longer postoperative length of stay (LOS), higher cost, higher in-hospital mortality, more severe complications, and higher readmission rates (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis reaffirmed the association between malnutrition, LOS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67), and cost (OR = 2.49), P < 0.05. Complications (OR = 1.35), mortality rates (OR = 3.05), and readmission rates (OR = 1.34) P > 0.05 failed to reach significance. Malnutrition worsens LOS and cost. Utilization of standardized criteria consistently identifies patients at risk of negative outcomes who may benefit from perioperative nutritional support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [AIDS patients--the surgical and deontological problems].

    PubMed

    Iarŭmov, N; Viiachki, I; Topov, Ia; Rachev, P

    1990-01-01

    A case is reported of acquired immunodeficiency, in whom operative intervention was performed. A series of problems of surgical and deontologic aspect are raised, which ought to be solved without inducing mental trauma to the patients. Paralleling this, measures should be taken, to reduce to a minimum the risk of nosocomial infection to the medical staff.

  14. [Surgical infections as patient safety problems].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Kulin, László; Jósa, Valéria; Mayer, Akos

    2011-06-01

    Surgical infections are severe complications of surgical interventions and one of the most important patient safety issues. These are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, costs and decreased quality of life. Prevention of infections is essential, while one has to consider pre-, intra- and postoperative factors and procedures in the clinical practice. In this article we summarize the latest recommendations for clinicians based on the relevant published literature.

  15. [Informed consent of the surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Kovács, József

    2014-02-01

    The article analyses the consequences of the paradigm shift in the surgical practice in the last fifty years. The earlier, paternalistic physician-patient relationship has been replaced by an equal one, which is based on informing the patient and involving him or her in the treatment decisions. This shift did not happen uniformly in various medical subspecialties. In this respect, surgery is more conservative than general medicine. The article analyses the most frequent problems of informing patients, and examines the major elements of information, together with their technical conditions in surgery. It reflects on specifics of surgical information disclosure and conditions of refusing medical interventions.

  16. Nutritional supplements in the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-08-01

    This article presents an overview of the current knowledge, status, and use of supplements by patients before surgical operations, together with the benefits expected of the supplements by the patients. The indications, potential advantages and disadvantages, and the relationships with various aspects of the preoperative preparation and postoperative management of surgical patients are discussed, with emphasis on the significant percentage of this population that is deficient in fundamental nutrients. Recent revisions and recommendations for some of the macronutrients are presented, together with a summary of federal regulations and an oversight of supplements.

  17. Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) scoring system could provide preoperative advice on whether to undergo laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer patients with a high physiological risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ao; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Liu, Ningbo; Huang, Fei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Tong; Fu, Weihua

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery had been widely used for colorectal cancer patient and showed a favorable outcome on the postoperative morbidity rate. We attempted to evaluate physiological status of patients by mean of Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) system and to analyze the difference variation of postoperative morbidity rate of open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in patients with different physiological status.In total 550 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery treatment were included. E-PASS and some conventional scoring systems were reviewed to examine their mortality prediction ability. The preoperative risk score (PRS) in the E-PASS system was used to evaluate the physiological status of patients. The difference of postoperative morbidity rate between open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgeries was analyzed respectively in patients with different physiological status.E-PASS had better prediction ability than other conventional scoring systems in colorectal cancer surgeries. Postoperative morbidities were developed in 143 patients. The parameters in the E-PASS system had positive correlations with postoperative morbidity. The overall postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries was lower than open surgeries (19.61% and 28.46%), but the postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries increased more significantly than in open surgery as PRS increased. When PRS was more than 0.7, the postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries would exceed the postoperative morbidity rate of open surgeries.The E-PASS system was capable to evaluate the physiological and surgical risk of colorectal cancer surgery. PRS could assist preoperative decision-making on the surgical method. Colorectal cancer patients who were assessed with a low physiological risk by PRS would be safe to undergo laparoscopic surgery. On the contrary, surgeons should make decisions prudently on the operation method for

  18. Risk factors for implant removal after spinal surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Otsuki, Bungo; Izeki, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Ota, Masato; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Uchikoshi, Akira; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-14

    Few studies have investigated the risk factors for implant removal after treatment for spinal surgical site infection (SSI). Therefore, there is no firmly established consensus for the management of implants. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for implant removal after SSI managed with instrumentation, and to examine potential strategies for avoiding implant removal. Following a survey of seven spine centers, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 55 patients who developed SSI and were treated with reoperation, out of 3967 patients who had spinal instrumentation between 2003 and 2012. We examined implant survival rate and applied logistic regression analysis to assess the potential risk factors for implant removal. The overall rate of implant retention was 60% (33/55). A higher implant retention rate was observed for posterior cervical surgery than for posterior-thoracic/lumbar surgery (100 vs. 49%, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, significant risk factors for implant removal included greater blood loss, delay of reoperation, and delay of intervention with effective antibiotics. Multivariate analysis revealed that a delay in administering effective antibiotics was an independent and significant risk factor for implant removal in posterior-thoracic/lumbar surgery (odds ratio 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.35, P = 0.028). Patients with SSI who underwent posterior cervical surgery are likely to retain the implants. Immediate administration of effective antibiotics improves implant survival in SSI treatment. Our findings can be applied to identify SSI patients at higher risk for implant removal.

  19. [Surgical approach to posthepatitic cirrhotic patient today].

    PubMed

    Meriggi, F; Forni, E

    1996-01-01

    A posthepatitic cirrhotic patient may undergo elective or urgent abdominal operation for an extra-hepatic or hepatic disease. According to the high postoperative morbidity (61%), surgery is indicated only for symptomatic or complicated cholelithiasis. A surgical procedure for refractory ascites has been devised to create a permanent peritoneo-venous shunt by a one way pressure-sensitive valve (Leveen). The procedure is simple and brings a long lasting relief with recovery in strength and nutrition and improved kidney function. Sclerotherapy is widely used to treat acute variceal bleeding while repeated sclerotherapy is used in the long-term management to eradicate varices. When indicated, liver transplantation is the best treatment to prevent variceal bleeding recurrence. Also portosystemic shunts effectively prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. They are, however, major operations with an important morbidity and mortality, particularly in poor risk patients. The most advocated shunts today are the Warren distal splenorenal shunt and the Sarfeh portacaval shunt using a small diameter prosthetic H-graft. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) is a new treatment for portal hypertension and its complications. From a haemodynamic point of view it allows balanced hepatic perfusion. Postoperative mortality is rare; further bleeding and encephalopathy are reasonably acceptable. The most relevant complications concern dislocation of the prosthesis, stenosis and thrombosis of the shunt, which can be corrected by non-invasive dilatation. Encephalopathy is the main complication of surgical portosystemic shunts. It is usually controlled by protein diet restriction, and administration of lactulose or oral antibiotics. In severe forms the patients may be treated by an oesophageal transection with oesophagogastric devascularization, and by a postoperative suppression of the portosystemic shunt using external maneuvers. Posthepatitic liver cirrhosis is

  20. Epileptic Seizures in Patients Following Surgical Treatment of Acute Subdural Hematoma-Incidence, Risk Factors, Patient Outcome, and Development of New Scoring System for Prophylactic Antiepileptic Treatment (GATE-24 score).

    PubMed

    Won, Sae-Yeon; Dubinski, Daniel; Herrmann, Eva; Cuca, Colleen; Strzelczyk, Adam; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen; Freiman, Thomas M

    2017-05-01

    Clinically evident or subclinical seizures are common manifestations in acute subdural hematoma (aSDH); however, there is a paucity of research investigating the relationship between seizures and aSDH. The purpose of this study is 2-fold: determine incidence and predictors of seizures and then establish a guideline in patients with aSDH to standardize the decision for prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. The author analyzed 139 patients with aSDH treated from 2007 until 2015. Baseline characteristics and clinical findings including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at admission, 24 hours after operation, timing of operation, anticoagulation, and Glasgow Outcome Scale at hospital discharge and after 3 months were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect independent predictors of seizures, and a scoring system was developed. Of 139 patients, overall incidence of seizures was 38%, preoperatively 16% and postoperatively 24%. Ninety percent of patients with preoperative seizures were seizure free after operation for 3 months. Independent predictors of seizures were GCS <9 (odds ratio [OR] 3.3), operation after 24 hours (OR 2.0), and anticoagulation (OR 2.2). Patients with seizures had a significantly higher rate of unfavorable outcome at hospital discharge (P = 0.001) and in 3-month follow-up (P = 0.002). Furthermore, a score system (GATE-24) was developed. In patients with GCS <14, anticoagulation, or surgical treatment 24 hours after onset, a prophylactic antiepileptic treatment is recommended. Occurrence of seizures affected severity and outcomes after surgical treatment of aSDH. Therefore seizure prophylaxis should be considered in high-risk patients on the basis of the GATE-24 score to promote better clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying surgical complexity with machine learning: looking beyond patient factors to improve surgical models.

    PubMed

    Van Esbroeck, Alexander; Rubinfeld, Ilan; Hall, Bruce; Syed, Zeeshan

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the use of machine learning to empirically determine the risk of individual surgical procedures and to improve surgical models with this information. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data from 2005 to 2009 were used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to learn the relationship between textual constructs in current procedural terminology (CPT) descriptions and mortality, morbidity, Clavien 4 complications, and surgical-site infections (SSI) within 30 days of surgery. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers were validated on data from 2010 in univariate and multivariate analyses. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers achieved moderate-to-high levels of discrimination in univariate analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.871 for mortality, 0.789 for morbidity, 0.791 for SSI, 0.845 for Clavien 4 complications). Addition of these scores also substantially improved multivariate models comprising patient factors and previously proposed correlates of procedural risk (net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.54 and 0.001 for mortality, 0.46 and 0.011 for morbidity, 0.68 and 0.022 for SSI, 0.44 and 0.001 for Clavien 4 complications; P < .05 for all comparisons). Similar improvements were noted in discrimination and calibration for other statistical measures, and in subcohorts comprising patients with general or vascular surgery. Machine learning provides clinically useful estimates of surgical risk for individual procedures. This information can be measured in an entirely data-driven manner and substantially improves multifactorial models to predict postoperative complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Operative Duration and Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bekelis, Kimon; Coy, Shannon; Simmons, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The association of surgical duration with the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has not been quantified in neurosurgery. We investigated the association of operative duration in neurosurgical procedures with the incidence of SSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures from 2005 to 2012 and were registered in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Project registry. To control for confounding, we used multivariable regression models and propensity score conditioning. During the study period there were 94,744 patients who underwent a neurosurgical procedure and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 4.1% developed a postoperative SSI within 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression showed an association between longer operative duration with higher incidence of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.20). Compared with procedures of moderate duration (third quintile, 40th-60th percentile), patients undergoing the longest procedures (>80th percentile) had higher odds (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.86-2.31) of developing SSI. The shortest procedures (<20th percentile) were associated with decreased incidence of SSI (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.83) compared with those of moderate duration. The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted models and models stratified by subgroups of cranial, spinal, peripheral nerve, and carotid procedures. In a cohort of patients from a national prospective surgical registry, longer operative duration was associated with increased incidence of SSI for neurosurgical procedures. These results can be used by neurosurgeons to inform operative management and to stratify patients with regard to SSI risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CyberKnife with Tumor Tracking: An Effective Treatment for High-Risk Surgical Patients with Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Viola J; Oermann, Eric; Vahdat, Saloomeh; Rabin, Jennifer; Suy, Simeng; Yu, Xia; Collins, Sean P; Subramaniam, Deepa; Banovac, Filip; Anderson, Eric; Collins, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    Published data suggests that wedge resection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with improved overall survival compared to stereotactic body radiation therapy. We report CyberKnife outcomes for high-risk surgical patients with biopsy-proven stage I NSCLC. PET/CT imaging was completed for staging. Three-to-five gold fiducial markers were implanted in or near tumors to serve as targeting references. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured using lung windows; the margins were expanded by 5 mm to establish the planning treatment volume (PTV). Treatment plans were designed using a mean of 156 pencil beams. Doses delivered to the PTV ranged from 42 to 60 Gy in three fractions. The 30 Gy isodose contour extended at least 1 cm from the GTV to eradicate microscopic disease. Treatments were delivered using the CyberKnife system with tumor tracking. Examination and PET/CT imaging occurred at 3 month follow-up intervals. Forty patients (median age 76) with a median maximum tumor diameter of 2.6 cm (range, 1.4-5.0 cm) and a mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 57% (range, 21-111%) were treated. A median dose of 48 Gy was delivered to the PTV over 3-13 days (median, 7 days). The 30 Gy isodose contour extended a mean 1.9 cm from the GTV. At a median 44 months (range, 12-72 months) follow-up, the 3 year Kaplan-Meier locoregional control and overall survival estimates compare favorably with contemporary wedge resection outcomes at 91 and 75%, respectively. CyberKnife is an effective treatment approach for stage I NSCLC that is similar to wedge resection, eradicating tumors with 1-2 cm margins in order to preserve lung function. Prospective randomized trials comparing CyberKnife with wedge resection are necessary to confirm equivalence.

  4. Surgical management of severe scoliosis with high risk pulmonary dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: patient function, quality of life and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Takaso, Masashi; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Okada, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Kensuke; Ueno, Masaki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Makihito; Masaki, Takashi; Uchinuma, Eijyu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    In a previous study, the authors reported the clinical and radiological results of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) scoliosis surgery in 14 patients with a low FVC of <30%. The purpose of this study was to determine if surgery improved function and QOL in these patients. Furthermore, the authors assessed the patients' and parents' satisfaction. %FVC increased in all patients after preoperative inspiratory muscle training. Scoliosis surgery in this group of patients presented no increased risk of major complications. All-screw constructions and fusion offered the ability to correct spinal deformity in the coronal and pelvic obliquity initially, intermediate and long-term. All patients were encouraged to continue inspiratory muscle training after surgery. The mean rate of %FVC decline after surgery was 3.6% per year. Most patients and parents believed scoliosis surgery improved their function, sitting balance and quality of life even though patients were at high risk for major complications. Their satisfaction was also high.

  5. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Warren, David K; Nickel, Katelin B; Wallace, Anna E; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18-64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45-7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96-8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74-8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87-13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is important when comparing SSI rates between facilities.

  6. Pressure ulcer prevalence and risk factors during prolonged surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Primiano, Mike; Friend, Michael; McClure, Connie; Nardi, Scott; Fix, Lisa; Schafer, Marianne; Savochka, Kathlyn; McNett, Molly

    2011-12-01

    Pressure ulcer formation related to positioning while in the OR increases the length of hospital stay and hospital costs, but there is little evidence documenting how positioning devices used in the OR influence pressure ulcer development when examined with traditional risk factors. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify the prevalence of and risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development among patients undergoing surgical procedures lasting longer than three hours. Participants included all adult same-day admission patients scheduled for a three-hour surgical procedure during an eight-month period (N = 258). Data were gathered preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively on pressure ulcer risk factors. Bivariate analyses indicated that the type of positioning (ie, heels elevated) (χ(2) = 7.897, P = .048), OR bed surface (ie, foam table pad) (χ(2) = 15.848, P = .000), skin assessment in the postanesthesia care unit (χ(2) = 41.652, P = .000), and male gender (χ(2) = 6.984, P = .030) were associated with pressure ulcer development. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the use of a foam pad (β = 2.691, P = .024) and a lower day-one Braden score (β = .244, P = .003) were predictive of pressure ulcers.

  7. Patient outcomes following surgical management of multinodular goiter

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yann-Sheng; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yu, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: the difference in the risk of thyroid malignancy for patients with multinodular goiter (MNG) and solitary nodular goiter (SNG) remains controversial. Although total thyroidectomy (TT) is the current preferred surgical option for MNG, permanent hypothyroidism in these patients may be a concern. Therefore, we discuss whether nontotal thyroidectomy is a reasonable alternative surgical option. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for 1598 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid surgery for nodular goiter between January 2007 and December 2012. Numerous clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: We reviewed 795 patients with MNG and 803 patients with SNG. The prevalence of malignancy on final pathology was significantly higher in the patients with MNG than in the patients with SNG (15.6% vs 10.1%, P = 0.001). However, a multivariate analysis revealed that this difference was insignificant (P = 0.50). Papillary carcinoma was the predominant type in both groups, but papillary microcarcinoma was more frequently found (41.1%) in the patients with MNG. The only multifocal cancers were of the papillary carcinoma histologic type, and the incidence of multifocal papillary carcinoma was significantly higher in the patients with MNG (23.4% vs 7.4%, P = 0.005). Reoperation was not required for the patients who underwent TT for goiter recurrence or incidental carcinoma. The overall rate of recurrence following nontotal thyroidectomy was 12.2%. Among the patients who underwent reoperation for goiter recurrence, 2 (20.0%) were complicated with permanent hypoparathyroidism. Among the patients who underwent a nontotal bilateral thyroidectomy, an average of 56.5% had permanent hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Multinodularity does not increase the risk of thyroid malignancy. However, patients with MNG who develop papillary carcinoma are at an increased risk of cancer multifocality. If a patient can tolerate lifelong thyroid hormone

  8. Surgical management of severe scoliosis with high risk pulmonary dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: patient function, quality of life and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Okada, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Kensuke; Ueno, Masaki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Makihito; Masaki, Takashi; Uchinuma, Eijyu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors reported the clinical and radiological results of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) scoliosis surgery in 14 patients with a low FVC of <30%. The purpose of this study was to determine if surgery improved function and QOL in these patients. Furthermore, the authors assessed the patients’ and parents’ satisfaction. %FVC increased in all patients after preoperative inspiratory muscle training. Scoliosis surgery in this group of patients presented no increased risk of major complications. All-screw constructions and fusion offered the ability to correct spinal deformity in the coronal and pelvic obliquity initially, intermediate and long-term. All patients were encouraged to continue inspiratory muscle training after surgery. The mean rate of %FVC decline after surgery was 3.6% per year. Most patients and parents believed scoliosis surgery improved their function, sitting balance and quality of life even though patients were at high risk for major complications. Their satisfaction was also high. PMID:20155495

  9. [Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants: management of the anticoagulated surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Llau, Juan V; Ferrandis, Raquel; López Forte, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    Among the drugs most widely consumed by patients are both antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine) and anticoagulants (acenocoumarol, warfarin, low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux). The use of these drugs in the perioperative period is an essential concern in patient care due to the need to balance the risk of bleeding against thrombotic risk (arterial or venous), which is increased in surgical patients. The present review highlights three main aspects. Firstly, withdrawal of antiplatelet agents is recommended between 1 week and 10 days before surgery to minimize perioperative bleeding. However, this practice has been questioned because patients without the required antiplatelet coverage may be at greater risk of developing cardiac, cerebral or peripheral vascular complications. Therefore, the recommendation of systematic antiplatelet withdrawal for a specific period should be rejected. Currently, risks should be evaluated on an individual basis to minimize the time during which the patient remains without adequate antiplatelet protection. Secondly, thromboprophylaxis is required in most surgical patients due to the high prevalence of venous thromboembolic disease. This implies the use of anticoagulants and the practice of regional anesthesia has been questioned in these patients. However, with the safety recommendations established by the various scientific societies, this practice has been demonstrated to be safe. Finally, "bridge therapy" in patients anticoagulated with acenocoumarol should be performed on an individual basis rather than systematically without taking into account the thrombotic risks of each patient. The perioperative period involves high arterial and venous thrombotic risk and the optimal use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants should be a priority to minimize this risk without increasing hemorrhagic risk. Multidisciplinary consensus is essential on this matter.

  10. Occult adrenal insufficiency in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hubay, C A; Weckesser, E C; Levy, R P

    1975-01-01

    Eight patients admitted to a University hospital with acute surgical problems and related adrenal insufficiency were reviewed and three are presented in detail. Surgical stress and continued sepsis played major roles in the lack of responsiveness to usual modes of therapy until the adrenal insufficiency was corrected. The patients fell into three major clinical categories of adrenal insufficiency. Chronic illness and sepsis are shown to affect steroid production and metabolism, as well as adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Pharmacologic amounts of steroids are often needed in patients with shock, gram negative sepsis and prolonged illnesses, even if normal or elevated serum cortisols are present. Therapeutic trials of cortisol administration are shown to be confusing when not accompanied by easily performed diagnostic tests of adrenal function. It is emphasized that a pretreatment serum cortisol should be obtained whenever possible. The evaluation of adrenal function is of lifelong importance to the patient. PMID:165792

  11. Fungal Septicemia in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Roberto J.; Wolff, William I.

    1974-01-01

    Opportunistic systemic fungal infections are more frequent than generally realized. Increased awareness and a high index of suspicion of fungal super-infection in the presence of sepsis is required to bring about recognition and therapy. The intravenous catheter is an important portal of entry or may act as a foreign body favoring localization of a septic process. In its presence, fungemia must be guarded against. Whenever an intravenous catheter is removed, its tip should be cultured. Removal alone may be a critical item in therapy. In febrile patients, in whom the course of fever is not established, frequent blood cultures with attention directed specifically at fungi should be obtained. Fungi are not easily isolated and identified and only by requesting special attention from the microbiologist can the diagnosis be established in the average institutional laboratory in time to permit appropriate therapy. Since available therapeutic measures are strikingly effective when instituted early, awareness and alertness on the part of the clinician constitute the key to cure. PMID:4213622

  12. [Patients' Rights Act - Relevance for surgical disciplines].

    PubMed

    Haier, J

    2014-01-01

    The new Patients' Rights Act does not reflect rights of patients as professional obligations of physicians for the first time. It adopted common longtime jurisdiction, but in some respects it is going beyond. This law clearly extends the documentation requirements of physicians, especially concerning the extent of documentation. In surgical fields the requirements for enlightening physicians were more strongly worded than in previous jurisdiction. In medical facilities it is now mandatory to establish an internal quality management system.

  13. [Nutritional status of elderly surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Damuleviciene, Gyte; Lesauskaite, Vita; Macijauskiene, Jūrate

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status of aged surgical patients, to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and factors associated with it. A total of 156 patients aged 45 years and more, treated at the Departments of Surgery and Urology of Kaunas 2nd Clinical Hospital, were enrolled in the study. Elderly group (aged 65 years and more) consisted of 99 patients, and middle-aged group (45 to 64 years old) of 57 patients. The following anthropometric measurements were performed: weight, height, mid-arm circumference; hemoglobin, serum albumin level, and total lymphocyte count were determined. Standard assessment scales included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini Mental State Exam. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS 12.0. Malnutrition was diagnosed in 53.5% of older patients and in 15.8% of middle-aged patients (P<0.05). Obesity was diagnosed in 32.3% of elderly patients and in 40.4% of middle-aged patients (P<0.05). Among men, obese patients made up 20%, among women - 54.4% (P<0.05). Malnutrition was more prevalent among elderly patients who underwent urgent operations than in patients who underwent planned operations (69.6% and 34.1%, respectively; P<0.05) and among elderly patients with impaired cognitive functions than among those without impaired cognitive functions (in 100% of patients with medium impaired cognitive function, in 59.3% of patients with mild impaired cognitive function, and in 44.4% of patients with unimpaired cognitive function, P<0.05). Malnourished elderly patients had lower functional level than the remaining (IADL score of 3.97 and 4.75 for men, 5.38 and 6.89 for women, respectively; P<0.05). The prevalence of malnutrition did not differ significantly in the groups of older patients with depression, probable depression and not depressed patients - 75.0%, 57.7%, and 46.7%, respectively (P>0.05). Malnutrition was diagnosed more frequently in elderly surgical

  14. Managing Opioid-Tolerant Patients in the Perioperative Surgical Home.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, John T; Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2016-06-01

    Management of acute postoperative pain is important to decrease perioperative morbidity and improve patient satisfaction. Opioids are associated with potential adverse events that may lead to significant risk. Uncontrolled pain is a risk factor in the transformation of acute pain to chronic pain. Balancing these issues can be especially challenging in opioid-tolerant patients undergoing surgery, for whom rapidly escalating opioid doses in an effort to control pain can be associated with increased complications. In the perioperative surgical home model, anesthesiologists are positioned to coordinate a comprehensive perioperative analgesic plan that begins with the preoperative assessment and continues through discharge.

  15. Incidence and Sequelae of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch in Transcatheter Vs Surgical Valve Replacement in High-Risk Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis – A PARTNER Trial Cohort A Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pibarot, Philippe; Weissman, Neil J.; Stewart, William J.; Hahn, Rebecca T.; Lindman, Brian R.; McAndrew, Thomas; Kodali, Susheel K.; Mack, Michael J.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Miller, D. Craig; Svensson, Lars G.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Smith, Craig R.; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Webb, John; Lim, Scott; Xu, Ke; Hueter, Irene; Douglas, Pamela S.; Leon, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) and its impact on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the incidence of PPM in the transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) randomized (RCT) arms of the PARTNER-I trial Cohort A; and 2) to assess the impact of PPM on regression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and mortality in these 2 arms and in the TAVR nonrandomized continued access (NRCA) Registry cohort. METHODS The PARTNER trial Cohort A randomized patients 1:1 to TAVR or bioprosthetic SAVR. Postoperative PPM was defined as absent if indexed effective orifice area >0.85, moderate ≥0.65 but ≤0.85, or severe <0.65 cm2/m2. LV mass regression and mortality were analyzed using the SAVR-RCT (n = 270), TAVR-RCT (n = 304) and TAVR-NRCA (n = 1637) cohorts. RESULTS Incidence of PPM was 60.0% (severe: 28.1%) in SAVR-RCT versus 46.4% (severe: 19.7%) in TAVR-RCT (p < 0.001) and 43.8% (severe: 13.6%) in TAVR-NRCA. In patients with aortic annulus diameter < 20 mm, severe PPM developed in 33.7% undergoing SAVR compared to 19.0% undergoing TAVR (p = 0.002). PPM was an independent predictor of less LV mass regression at 1 year in SAVR-RCT (p = 0.017) and TAVR-NRCA (p = 0.012) but not in TAVRRCT (p = 0.35). Severe PPM was an independent predictor of 2-year mortality in SAVR-RCT (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.78; p = 0.041) but not in TAVR-RCT (HR: 0.58; p = 0.11). In the TAVRNRCA, severe PPM was not a predictor of 1-year mortality in the whole cohort (HR: 1.05; p = 0.60) but did independently predict mortality in the subset of patients with no post-procedural aortic regurgitation (HR: 1.88; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS In patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk, PPM is more frequent and more often severe following SAVR than TAVR. Patients with PPM after SAVR have worse survival and less LV mass regression than those without PPM

  16. Obesity-related insulin resistance: implications for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tewari, N; Awad, S; Macdonald, I A; Lobo, D N

    2015-11-01

    In healthy surgical patients, preoperative fasting and major surgery induce development of insulin resistance (IR). IR can be present in up to 41% of obese patients without diabetes and this can rise in the postoperative period, leading to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Inflammation is implicated in the aetiology of IR. This review examines obesity-associated IR and its implications for the surgical patient. Searches of the Medline and Science Citation Index databases were performed using various key words in combinations with the Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT. Key journals, nutrition and metabolism textbooks and the reference lists of key articles were also hand searched. Adipose tissue has been identified as an active endocrine organ and the chemokines secreted as a result of macrophage infiltration have a role in the pathogenesis of IR. Visceral adipose tissue appears to be the most metabolically active, although results across studies are not consistent. Results from animal and human studies often provide conflicting results, which has rendered the pursuit of a common mechanistic pathway challenging. Obesity-associated IR appears, in part, to be related to inflammatory changes associated with increased adiposity. Postoperatively, the surgical patient is in a proinflammatory state, so this finding has important implications for the obese surgical patient.

  17. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulas in Adult Patients: Surgical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Albeyoglu, Sebnem; Aldag, Mustafa; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Sargin, Murat; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Kutlu, Hakan; Dagsali, Sabri

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical and anatomic characteristics of coronary arteriovenous fistulas in adult patients who underwent open cardiac surgery and to review surgical management and outcomes. Methods Twenty-one adult patients (12 female, 9 male; mean age: 56.1±7.9 years) who underwent surgical treatment for coronary arteriovenous fistulas were retrospectively included in this study. Coronary angiography, chest X-ray, electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were preoperatively performed in all patients. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Postoperative courses of all patients were monitored and postoperative complications were noted. Results A total of 25 coronary arteriovenous fistulas were detected in 21 patients; the fistulas originated mainly from left anterior descending artery (n=9, 42.8%). Four (19.4%) patients had bilateral fistulas originating from both left anterior descending and right coronary artery. The main drainage site of coronary arteriovenous fistulas was the pulmonary artery (n=18, 85.7%). Twelve (57.1%) patients had isolated coronary arteriovenous fistulas and 4 (19.4%), concomitant coronary artery disease. Twenty (95.3%) of all patients were symptomatic. Seventeen patients were operated on with and 4 without cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no mortality. Three patients had postoperative atrial fibrillation. One patient had pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade who underwent reoperation. Conclusion The decision of surgical management should be made on the size and the anatomical location of coronary arteriovenous fistulas and concomitant cardiac comorbidities. Surgical closure with ligation of coronary arteriovenous fistulas can be performed easily with on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, even in asymptomatic patients to prevent fistula related complications with very low risk of mortality and morbidity.

  18. Intravenous lipids in adult surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is considered an essential element of the perioperative management of surgical patients. It is recommended in patients who require nutritional therapy but in whom the enteral route is contraindicated, not recommended or non-feasible. The new generation of lipid emulsions (LEs) based on olive and fish oils are safe and may improve clinical outcome in surgical patients. The increased provision of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil-containing LEs seems to be associated with fewer infectious complications and shorter ICU and hospital stays following major abdominal surgery. Increased provision of olive oil in the absence of fish oil may also exert beneficial effects, but a clear conclusion on this is limited due to the low number of available studies. Hence, at the moment, the evidence supports the use of n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched LEs as a part of the parenteral nutrition regimen for selected groups of patients, such as those with major surgical trauma or those undergoing extended resections or liver transplantation.

  19. Adjuvant Chemoradiation After Surgical Resection in Elderly Patients With High-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A National Cancer Database Analysis.

    PubMed

    Woody, Neil M; Ward, Matthew C; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Reddy, Chandana A; Geiger, Jessica; Joshi, Nikhil; Burkey, Brian; Scharpf, Joseph; Lamarre, Eric; Prendes, Brandon; Adelstein, David J

    2017-07-15

    To determine the patterns of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy use in elderly patients treated with definitive surgical resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with extracapsular extension (ECE) or positive margins and determine whether an association with overall survival (OS) exists with adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients with SCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx who were treated with primary definitive surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy between 2004 and 2012. For elderly patients (aged >70 years) with pathology revealing ECE or positive margin, the benefit of concurrent chemotherapy was explored using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling. A total of 7349 patients were identified meeting study criteria, of whom 1187 were elderly (aged >70 years) with a median follow-up of 30.6 months. Of these elderly patients, 445 had ECE or positive margin and represent the study population, of whom 187 (42%) received CRT. Delivery of CRT in this cohort increased over the study period, and intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with increased use of CRT (odds ratio 2.07; P=.004). Increasing age was associated with reduced use of CRT (odds ratio 0.88; P<.001). Chemoradiotherapy was associated with a significant improvement in OS on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 0.74; P=.04) and a trend toward significance on inverse propensity score analysis (hazard ratio 0.78; P=.051). Three-year OS was 53.8% in the CRT group, compared with 44.6% in the adjuvant radiation therapy-alone patients. The use of adjuvant CRT is increasing among elderly patients with resected squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck exhibiting ECE or positive margins. Chemoradiotherapy was associated with an improvement in OS on multivariable analysis but not propensity-weighted analysis. Among fit elderly patients with ECE or positive margins after definitive surgical

  20. The Risk of Cross-Infection when Marking Surgical Patients Prior to Surgery – Review of Two Types of Marking Pens

    PubMed Central

    Ballal, MSG; Shah, N; Ballal, M; O'Donoghue, M; Pegg, DJ

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Two types of marker pens were compared to find whether they produced different risks of infection transmission over different time intervals. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients were marked according to the type of surgery: each had a set of new dry whiteboard marker (DWM) and a permanent marker (PM) pen. Once used, their tips were used to inoculate blood agar plates at different time intervals. RESULTS At 0 min, 96% of the DWM pens and 29% of the PM pens were positive of growth. At 3 and 10 min, all of the DWM pens remained positive. The rate dropped to 16.67% in 3 min down to none at 10 min for the PM pens. CONCLUSIONS DWM pens carry a significant risk of transmitting infection between patients. It is recommended that they are not used in marking. PM pens should not be used between patients in less than a 10-min interval. PMID:17394703

  1. Prevention of chronic post-surgical pain: the importance of early identification of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tawfic, Qutaiba; Kumar, Kamal; Pirani, Zameer; Armstrong, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is currently an inevitable surgical complication. Despite the advances in surgical techniques and the development of new modalities for pain management, CPSP can affect 15-60% of all surgical patients. The development of chronic pain represents a burden to both the patient and to the community. In order to have a meaningful impact on this debilitating condition it is essential to identify those at risk. Early identification of patients at risk will help to reduce the percentage of patients who go on to develop CPSP. Unfortunately, evidence about any effective actions to reduce this condition is limited. This review will focus on providing context to the challenging problem of CPSP. The possible role of both the surgeon and anesthesiologist in reducing the incidence of this problem will be explored.

  2. Lack of extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in high-risk patients undergoing major orthopaedic or major cancer surgery. Electronic Assessment of VTE Prophylaxis in High-Risk Surgical Patients at Discharge from Swiss Hospitals (ESSENTIAL).

    PubMed

    Kalka, Christoph; Spirk, David; Siebenrock, Klaus-Arno; Metzger, Urs; Tuor, Philipp; Sterzing, Daniel; Oehy, Kurt; Wondberg, Daniela; Mouhsine, El Yazid; Gautier, Emanuel; Kucher, Nils

    2009-07-01

    Extended pharmacological venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis beyond discharge is recommended for patients undergoing high-risk surgery. We prospectively investigated prophylaxis in 1,046 consecutive patients undergoing major orthopaedic (70%) or major cancer surgery (30%) in 14 Swiss hospitals. Appropriate in-hospital prophylaxis was used in 1,003 (96%) patients. At discharge, 638 (61%) patients received prescription for extended pharmacological prophylaxis: 564 (77%) after orthopaedic surgery, and 74 (23%) after cancer surgery (p < 0.001). Patients with knee replacement (94%), hip replacement (81%), major trauma (80%), and curative arthroscopy (73%) had the highest prescription rates for extended VTE prophylaxis; the lowest rates were found in patients undergoing major surgery for thoracic (7%), gastrointestinal (19%), and hepatobiliary (33%) cancer. The median duration of prescribed extended prophylaxis was longer in patients with orthopaedic surgery (32 days, interquartile range 14-40 days) than in patients with cancer surgery (23 days, interquartile range 11-30 days; p<0.001). Among the 278 patients with an extended prophylaxis order after hip replacement, knee replacement, or hip fracture surgery, 120 (43%) received a prescription for at least 35 days, and among the 74 patients with an extended prophylaxis order after major cancer surgery, 20 (27%) received a prescription for at least 28 days. In conclusion, approximately one quarter of the patients with major orthopaedic surgery and more than three quarters of the patients with major cancer surgery did not receive prescription for extended VTE prophylaxis. Future effort should focus on the improvement of extended VTE prophylaxis, particularly in patients undergoing major cancer surgery.

  3. Failure events in transition of care for surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Martin, Larry C; Martin, Magdeline; Mitchell, Marc E

    2014-04-01

    Unexpected clinical deterioration (failure events) in surgical patients on standard nursing units (WARDs) could have a significant impact on eventual survival. We sought to investigate failure events requiring intensive care (surgical ICU [SICU]) transfer of surgical patients on WARDs in a single-center academic setting. Surgical patients admitted to WARDs over a 12-month period, who developed failure events, were retrospectively reviewed. Time to deterioration since WARD arrival, clinical factors, notification chain, and outcomes were identified. A physician review panel determined the preventability of failure events. Ninety-eight patients experienced 111 failure events requiring SICU transfer. Most patients (85%) were emergency admissions. Of 111 events, 90% had been previously discharged from an SICU or a postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Recognition of failure was by nursing (54%) and on routine physician rounds (34%). Rapid response or code blue alone was less common (12%). A second physician notification was needed in 29%, with delays due to failure to identify severity of illness. Most commonly, respiratory events prompted notification (77 of 111, 69%). Overall mortality was 26 of 98 (27%). Median time to failure was 2 days and was associated with early transfer from the SICU or PACU. Rapid response or code blue activation was associated with higher mortality than physician notification. Patients most at risk for WARD failures were those with acute surgical emergencies or recently discharged from the SICU or PACU. Respiratory complications were the most common cause of WARD failure events. Many early failures may have been due to premature transfer from the SICU or PACU. Failure events on WARDs can have lethal consequences. Awareness, monitoring, and communication are important components of preventative measures. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgical patients with multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ronk, L L

    1995-06-01

    Although antibiotics can cure most bacterial infections, there is an increasing number of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is becoming increasingly prevalent in US health care facilities. The majority of these infections are found in patients who have extensive burns or surgical wounds. As a result, perioperative nurses must be knowledgeable about MRSA and its implications for the OR. There are many theories on how to control the spread of MRSA but not one definitive set of control measures. Perioperative nurses, in cooperation with infection control practitioners, must develop policies that detail how patients with MRSA will be treated.

  5. Infection prevention and control in the operating theatre: reducing the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs).

    PubMed

    Weaving, Paul; Cox, Felicia; Milton, Sherran

    2008-05-01

    Continuing advances in surgical techniques, asepsis, operating theatre protocols and ventilation systems that ensure an uninterrupted supply of clean air, should allow all patients to undergo both invasive and minimally-invasive procedures with reduced risk. Patients having surgery in the United Kingdom are probably less vulnerable to surgical site infections (SSIs) than ever before--despite persisting concerns about meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and increasing antibiotic resistance in other organisms such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

  6. Complications after discharge for surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Kable, Ashley; Gibberd, Robert; Spigelman, Allan

    2004-03-01

    To measure the type and frequency of complications for surgical patients 1 month after discharge. A post-discharge patient survey was conducted in 2000 for patients who had undergone one of five elective operations: transurethral resection of the prostate, hysterectomy, major joint replacement, cholecystectomy, herniorrhaphy. Two hundred and fourteen patients (74%) returned the survey forms, which were sent 1 month after surgery. Patients were recruited from two teaching hospitals in the Hunter Area Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. One hundred and thirty-five (63%) patients reported one or more complications and 78 (37%) received treatment for 109 complications. Eighty-six per cent reported pain after discharge and 41% reported moderate to severe pain. Seventeen per cent reported infections after discharge and 94% of these patients were given treatment. Twenty-eight per cent reported bleeding after discharge and 20% of these were given treatment. Eleven (5%) patients were readmitted for treatment of problems related to their surgery including four who required further surgery. One hundred and seventy-two patients accessed a range of health services during the first month after discharge, resulting in 266 occasions of service. Twenty-eight per cent of post-discharge services were unplanned. The lack of post-discharge monitoring conceals information about surgical outcomes. Patient reporting is an effective method of monitoring post-discharge outcomes. There is scope to develop post-discharge services to improve the quality of care in the areas of post-discharge pain management, the use of prophylactic measures and to provide treatment for complications that occur during this period.

  7. Implications of malnutrition in the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Mullen, J L; Gertner, M H; Buzby, G P; Goodhart, G L; Rosato, E F

    1979-02-01

    The substantial prevalence of malnutrition in the hospitalized patient population has only been recently recognized. Preoperative nutritional and immunological assessment was performed prospectively on admission in 64 consecutive surgical patients. Factors measured included weight loss, triceps skinfold, midarm muscle circumference, creatinine-height index, serum albumin level, serum transferrin level, total lymphocyte count, serum complement level, serum immunoelectrophoresis, lymphocyte T rosettes formation, neutrophil migration, and delayed hypersensitivity. Using these criteria for malnutrition, 97% of the patients had at least one abnormal measurement and 35% had at least three abnormal measurements. Patients were monitored for complications during their hospital course. Serum albumin level, serum transferrin level, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions were the only accurate prognostic indicators of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Substantial unrecognized malnutrition exists in the surgical patient population. An isolated indicator of malnutrition should be interpreted with caution. The visceral protein compartment (serum albumin and serum transferrin levels and delayed hypersensitivity) is the most accurate prognostic indicator of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Perioperative nutritional support may reduce operative morbidity and mortality in the malnourished operative candidate.

  8. Knee-attributable medical costs and risk of re-surgery among patients utilizing non-surgical treatment options for knee arthrofibrosis in a managed care population.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Judith J; Quimbo, Ralph A; Gu, Tao

    2010-05-01

    To determine if differences in costs and risks of re-hospitalization and/or re-operation exist between arthrofibrosis patients treated with low intensity stretch (LIS) or high intensity stretch (HIS) mechanical therapies, or physical therapy alone (No Device). This observational cohort study utilized administrative claims data to identify arthrofibrosis patients, age <65 years, with continuous enrollment for the 6 months prior to and following the index knee event date. The index knee event was defined as the knee injury/surgery preceding device use for the LIS and HIS groups and the knee injury/surgery prior to the diagnosis of arthrofibrosis for the No Device group. Knee-attributable medical costs (KAMC), accrued over 6-month pre- and post-index periods, as well as risks of re-operation, re-injury, and re-hospitalization were compared between groups. Multivariate models were used to evaluate group differences in utilization and costs when controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. A total of 60 359 patients (143 HIS; 607 LIS; 59 609 No Device) met the inclusion criteria. Unadjusted post-index KAMC were significantly less (p < 0.0001) among HIS patients ($8213 +/- 10 576) relative to LIS ($16 861 +/- 17 857) and No Device ($9345 +/- 14 120) patients. A significantly greater percentage of LIS Device patients had total knee replacements than HIS Device or No Device patients, and the LIS group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with musculoskeletal disease. When controlling for these group differences, the multivariate predictive model results were similar to the unadjusted results, with greater post-index KAMC for the LIS patients (24%, p = 0.025) and No Device (9%, p = 0.323) relative to HIS patients. No Device patients were 71% (p < 0.0001) more likely to have a subsequent knee event than HIS patients, and HIS patients had significantly lower rates of re-hospitalization than LIS and No Device patients (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with HIS

  9. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Katelin B.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J.; Fraser, Victoria J.; Olsen, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18–64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45–7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96–8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74–8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87–13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Conclusions. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Chen, Jingchang; Shen, Tao; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Lin, Xiaoming; Wu, Heping; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian; Li, Jianqun; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes in a large sample of patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) as well as an analysis of risk factors associated with surgical failures are presented in this article. Data from IXT patients who received surgical management at the Eye Hospital, in the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University, China from January 2009 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Included within this analysis were data from pre- and postoperative ocular motility, primary alignment, and binocular vision. A total of 1228 patients with IXT were reviewed. Males (50.4%) and females (49.6%) were nearly equally represented in this sample. Thirty-two patients (2.6%) had a family history of strabismus. The mean age at onset was 6.77 ± 6.43 years (range 7 months –48.5 years), mean duration at presentation was 7.35 ± 6.68 years (range 6 months–47 years), and mean age at surgery was 13.7 ± 8.8 years (range 3–49 years). The mean refractive error was −0.84 ± 2.69 diopter in the right eye and −0.72 ± 2.58 diopter in the left eye. Amblyopia (4.2%), oblique muscle dysfunction (7.0%), and dissociated vertical deviation (4.7%) were also present in these patients. The most common subtype of IXT was the basic type (88.1%). Orthophoria was observed in 80.5% of patients and the ratios of surgical undercorrection and overcorrection were 14.7% and 4.8%, respectively, as determined with a mean follow-up time of 7.8 ± 3.7 months. When combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, the success rate decreased to 35.6%. Multivariate risk factor analysis showed that only the loss of stereoacuity (P = 0.002) was associated with a poor outcome. There were no differences in the long-term results between bilateral lateral rectus recession and unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection. Most IXT patients displayed normal vision, with few having positive

  11. Preoperative assessment of surgical risk: creation of a scoring tool to estimate 1-year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Olufajo, Olubode A; Reznor, Gally; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Cooper, Zara R; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Rangel, Erika L

    2017-04-01

    The risk of mortality after emergency general surgery (EGS) in elderly patients is prolonged beyond initial hospitalization. Our objective was to develop a preoperative scoring tool to quantify risk of 1-year mortality. Three hundred ninety EGS patients aged 70 years or more were analyzed. Risk factors for 1-year mortality were identified using stepwise-forward logistic multivariate regression and weights assigned using natural logarithm of odds ratios. A geriatric emergency surgery mortality (GEM) score was derived from the aggregate of weighted scores. Leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. One-year mortality was 32%. Risk factors and their weights were: acute kidney injury (2), American Society of Anesthesiology class greater than or equal to 4 (2), Charlson Comorbidity Index greater than or equal to 4 (1), albumin less than 3.5 mg/dL (1), and body mass index (less than 18.5 kg/m(2) [1]; 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2) [0]; ≥30 kg/m(2) [-1]). One-year mortality was: GEM 0 to 1 (0% to 7%); GEM 2 to 5 (32% to 68%); GEM 6 to 8 (94% to 100%). C-statistics were .82 and .75 in training and validation data sets, respectively. A simple score using 5 clinical variables predicts 1-year mortality after EGS with reasonable accuracy and assists in preoperative counseling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of reversal of neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex versus usual care on bleeding risk in a randomized study of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Fennema, Hein; Schulman, Sam; Klimscha, Walter; Przemeck, Michael; Blobner, Manfred; Wulf, Hinnerk; Speek, Marcel; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Williams-Herman, Debora; Woo, Tiffany; Szegedi, Armin

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies show a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in healthy volunteers after treatment with sugammadex. The authors investigated the effect of sugammadex on postsurgical bleeding and coagulation variables. This randomized, double-blind trial enrolled patients receiving thromboprophylaxis and undergoing hip or knee joint replacement or hip fracture surgery. Patients received sugammadex 4 mg/kg or usual care (neostigmine or spontaneous recovery) for reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, stratified by thromboprophylaxis and renal status, was used to estimate relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI) of bleeding events with sugammadex versus usual care. Safety was further evaluated by prespecified endpoints and adverse event reporting. Of 1,198 patients randomized, 1,184 were treated (sugammadex n = 596, usual care n = 588). Bleeding events within 24 h (classified by an independent, blinded Adjudication Committee) were reported in 17 (2.9%) sugammadex and 24 (4.1%) usual care patients (relative risk [95% CI], 0.70 [0.38 to 1.29]). Compared with usual care, increases of 5.5% in activated partial thromboplastin time (P < 0.001) and 3.0% in prothrombin time (P < 0.001) from baseline with sugammadex occurred 10 min after administration and resolved within 60 min. There were no significant differences between sugammadex and usual care for other blood loss measures (transfusion, 24-h drain volume, drop in hemoglobin, and anemia), or risk of venous thromboembolism, and no cases of anaphylaxis. Sugammadex produced limited, transient (<1 h) increases in activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time but was not associated with increased risk of bleeding versus usual care.

  13. Surgical management of hypothalamic hamartomas in patients with gelastic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Addas, Bassam; Sherman, Elisabeth M S; Hader, Walter J

    2008-09-01

    Gelastic epilepsy (GE) associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) is now a well-characterized clinical syndrome consisting of gelastic seizures starting in infancy, medically refractory seizures with or without the development of multiple seizure types, and behavioral and cognitive decline. It has been postulated that the development of the HH-GE syndrome is a result of a progressive epileptic encephalopathy or secondary epileptogenesis, which is potentially reversible with treatment of the HH. A variety of surgical options for the treatment of HHs exist, including open and endoscopic procedures, radiosurgery, interstitial radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation. Surgical treatment can result in seizure freedom in up to 50% of patients and can be accompanied by significant improvements in behavior, cognition, and quality of life. Partial treatment of HHs may be sufficient to reduce seizure frequency and improve behavior and quality of life with less risk. A component of reversible cognitive dysfunction may be present in some patients with an HH-GE syndrome.

  14. Remodeling characteristics and collagen distribution in synthetic mesh materials explanted from human subjects after abdominal wall reconstruction: an analysis of remodeling characteristics by patient risk factors and surgical site classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Roma, Andres A.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Ousley, Jenny; Creamer, Jennifer; Pichert, Matthew D.; Baalman, Sara; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between patient characteristics or surgical site classifications and the histologic remodeling scores of synthetic meshes biopsied from their abdominal wall repair sites in the first attempt to generate a multivariable risk prediction model of non-constructive remodeling. Methods Biopsies of the synthetic meshes were obtained from the abdominal wall repair sites of 51 patients during a subsequent abdominal re-exploration. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated according to a semi-quantitative scoring system for remodeling characteristics (cell infiltration, cell types, extracellular matrix deposition, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and neovascularization) and a mean composite score (CR). Biopsies were also stained with Sirius Red and Fast Green, and analyzed to determine the collagen I:III ratio. Based on univariate analyses between subject clinical characteristics or surgical site classification and the histologic remodeling scores, cohort variables were selected for multivariable regression models using a threshold p value of ≤0.200. Results The model selection process for the extracellular matrix score yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation, and mesh classification (c-statistic = 0.842). For CR score, the model selection process yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation and mesh classification (r2 = 0.464). The model selection process for the collagen III area yielded a model with two variables: subject body mass index at time of mesh explantation and pack-year history (r2 = 0.244). Conclusion Host characteristics and surgical site assessments may predict degree of remodeling for synthetic meshes used to reinforce abdominal wall repair sites. These preliminary results constitute the first steps in generating a risk prediction model that predicts the patients and clinical circumstances for which non

  15. Predicting risk of death in general surgery patients on the basis of preoperative variables using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Sachin; Bell, Ted; Grim, Rod; Ahuja, Vanita

    2012-01-01

    To use the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to develop an accurate and clinically meaningful preoperative mortality predictor (PMP) for general surgery on the basis of objective information easily obtainable at the patient's bedside and to compare it with the preexisting NSQIP mortality predictor (NMP). Data were obtained from the ACS NSQIP Participant Use Data File (2005 to 2008) for current procedural terminology codes that included open pancreas surgery and open/laparoscopic colorectal, hernia (ventral, umbilical, or inguinal), and gallbladder surgery. Chi-square analysis was conducted to determine which preoperative variables were significantly associated with death. Logistic regression followed by frequency analysis was conducted to assign weight to these variables. PMP score was calculated by adding the scores for contributing variables and was applied to 2009 data for validation. The accuracy of PMP score was tested with correlation, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. PMP score was based on 16 variables that were statistically reliable in distinguishing between surviving and dead patients (p < 0.05). Statistically significant variables predicting death were inpatient status, sepsis, poor functional status, do-not-resuscitate directive, disseminated cancer, age, comorbidities (cardiac, renal, pulmonary, liver, and coagulopathy), steroid use, and weight loss. The model correctly classified 98.6% of patients as surviving or dead (p < 0.05). Spearman correlation of the NMP and PMP was 86.9%. PMP score is an accurate and simple tool for predicting operative survival or death using only preoperative variables that are readily available at the bedside. This can serve as a performance assessment tool between hospitals and individual surgeons.

  16. Intravascular retained surgical items: a multicenter study of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D; Ellison, E Christopher; Anderson, Harry L; Chan, Liza; Balija, Tara M; Bernescu, Irina; Cipolla, James; Marchigiani, Raffaele; Seamon, Mark J; Cook, Charles H; Steinberg, Steven M; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2012-11-01

    Retained surgical items (RSIs) have been previously studied in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. This is the first study that specifically examines potential risk factors for intravascular RSI (ivRSI). Multicenter retrospective review of 83 RSIs was performed. Among these, 13 cases involved ivRSI. Cases in the ivRSI group were compared with a group of similar control cases to determine potential risk factors for ivRSI, including procedural factors (urgency and complicating factors), patient factors (body mass index), equipment failure (structural or functional), and safety variances. Fisher's exact testing was performed. Thirteen ivRSI cases and 14 controls were examined. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to age, gender, or body mass index. ivRSI items included guide wires (8/13), catheter/catheter fragments (4/13), and a coil (1/13). The incidence of unexpected procedural factors was significantly higher among ivRSI cases (10/13) than among controls (3/14) (P < 0.007). Equipment failure occurred in five ivRSI cases, with none among controls (P < 0.016). There were no differences between the two groups with regard to number of urgent procedures, bleeding >500 mL, evening procedures, or trainee involvement. Both groups had a very high proportion of safety variances (8 in ivRSI and 11 in control group, P = not significant). In addition, seven of 13 ivRSIs were missed on initial confirmatory postprocedural imaging. Unexpected procedural factors and equipment failure are significantly associated with ivRSI. Of concern, over half of all ivRSIs were missed on confirmatory postprocedural imaging. Strict adherence to established protocols and stringent radiographic review for intravascular procedures is required to prevent ivRSI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Usefulness of CHA2DS2-VASc Scoring Systems for Predicting Risk of Perioperative Embolism in Patients of Cardiac Myxomas Underwent Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; Wang, Jing; Li, Wei; Ling, Xinyu; Xue, Qian; Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Zhinong

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac myxomas are rare but manifested with risk of embolism and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. We retrospectively collected the medical records of patients diagnosed of cardiac myxomas at the cardiac center of our university. Overall 465 patients were included in this study, patients in the embolism group had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores (P = 0.005). In embolic group, stroke was recorded in 110 (77.14%) patients, while embolic events in the limbs were observed in 10 (2.15%) and 9(1.93%) developed splenic infarction. Patients in embolism group had older age (P = 0.021) and higher BMI (P  <0.001) than those in non-embolism group. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of time of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.065), ICU stay (P = 0.053), hospital stay (P = 0.071) and volume of drainage (P = 0.083), blood transfusions (P = 0.060) except that patients with embolic events had significantly higher incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (P = 0.032) and lower survival rate (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the CHA2DS2-VASc score was a significant predictor of embolism in patients with cardiac myxomas (P = 0.015; P = 0.003) and the Kaplan-Meier analysis obtained a higher rate of embolism in patients with higher stratification of CHA2DS2-VASc scores (P = 0.002). In conclusion, CHA2DS2-VASc scoring scheme was strongly predictive of stroke and embolic events in patients with cardiac myxomas. PMID:27982112

  18. Beyond Adding Years to Life: Health-related Quality-of-life and Functional Outcomes in Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis at High Surgical Risk Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Marcus-André; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Elhmidi, Yacine; Piazza, Nicolo; Voss, Bernhard; Lange, Ruediger; Krane, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most frequent acquired valvular heart disease in western industrialized countries and its prevalence considerably increases with age. Once becoming symptomatic severe AVS has a very poor prognosis. Progressive and rapid symptom deterioration leads to an impairment of functional status and compromised healthrelated quality-of-life (HrQoL) simultaneously. Until recently, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been the only effective treatment option for improving symptoms and prolonging survival. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) emerged as an alternative treatment modality for those patients with severe symptomatic AVS in whom the risk for SAVR is considered prohibitive or too high. TAVR has gained clinical acceptance with almost startling rapidity and has even quickly become the standard of care for the treatment of appropriately selected individuals with inoperable AVS during recent years. Typically, patients currently referred for and treated by TAVR are elderly with a concomitant variable spectrum of multiple comorbidities, disabilities and limited life expectancy. Beyond mortality and morbidity, the assessment of HrQoL is of paramount importance not only to guide patient-centered clinical decision-making but also to judge this new treatment modality. As per current evidence, TAVR significantly improves HrQoL in high-surgical risk patients with severe AVS with sustained effects up to two years when compared with optimal medical care and demonstrates comparable benefits relative to SAVR. Along with a provision of a detailed overview of the current literature regarding functional and HrQoL outcomes in patients undergoing TAVR, this review article addresses specific considerations of the HrQoL aspect in the elderly patient and finally outlines the implications of HrQoL outcomes for medico-economic deliberations. PMID:24313648

  19. Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Duque, N; García-Cabrera, E; Ivanova-Georgieva, R; Noureddine, M; Lomas, J M; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Plata, A; Gálvez-Acebal, J; Ruíz-Morales, J; de la Torre-Lima, J; Reguera, J M; Martínez-Marcos, F J; de Alarcón, A

    2011-08-01

    We evaluate the clinical, echographic and prognostic characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large population of elderly patients, and the results of surgical approach. Multicentric, prospective, observational cohort study with 961 consecutive left-sided IE: 356 patients aged ≥65 years were compared with 605 younger. Indications for cardiac surgery, potential surgical risk, time and outcome, were compared. Hospital-acquired endocarditis, comorbidity, renal failure and septic shock were more frequent in elderly, but embolisms were less. Intracardiac destruction and ventricular failure were similar in both groups, but significantly fewer elderly patients underwent cardiac surgery (36% vs 51%; p < 0.01), and this group showed a worse outcome (43.2% of mortality vs 27% in younger; p < 0.01), resulting age as an independent predictor of mortality (OR: 1.02 CI95%: 1.01-1.03). Compared with medical treatment, surgery showed lower percentages of mortality compared with medical treatment (23.3% vs 31.3%; p = 0.03) in younger group, but a high mortality was observed with both procedures (47.6% vs 40.3%; p = 0.1) in the elderly. Although similar percentages of heart failure and intracardiac complications, increasing age is associated with higher mortality in IE. Lower rates of surgical treatment and a worse outcome after operation are common features in elderly patients. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gentamicin/collagen sponge use may reduce the risk of surgical site infections for patients undergoing cardiac operations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Formanek, Michelle B; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Perencevich, Eli N; Schweizer, Marin L

    2014-06-01

    A meta-analysis of all published randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of gentamicin/collagen sponges for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). Despite routine use of systemic prophylactic antimicrobial agents, SSIs continue to be associated with substantial morbidity. RESULTS conflict of studies of the efficacy of gentamicin/collagen sponges for preventing SSIs. However, many of these studies have assessed sponge use in only a single specific type of operation. The general effect of sponge use among different types of operations has not been previously assessed. The PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched for articles appearing from 1990 through January 2012 that were related to gentamicin/collagen sponge use and SSIs. Summary estimates were obtained through a random effects model. After reviewing 714 article abstracts and reviewing 22 articles in detail, we pooled the odds ratios (OR) for 13 independent study populations (cardiac, n=4; colorectal, n=4; pilonidal sinus, n=2; hernia, n=2; gastrointestinal, n=1) in which the association between prophylactic use of gentamicin/collagen sponges and SSIs was assessed. Pooling of the results of all studies included in the review in a random effects model showed a significant protective effect of prophylactic use of gentamicin/collagen sponges against SSI (pooled OR: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45, 0.97; n=13). However, when the data were stratified by type of operation, a significant protective effect was observed in cardiac procedures (pooled OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.96; n=4) but not in colorectal procedures (pooled OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.29-1.92; n=4). Use of gentamicin/collagen sponges was associated with a reduced risk of SSI following cardiac operations but not following colorectal procedures.

  1. Prophylactic Antibiotic Choice and Risk of Surgical Site Infection After Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Shitanshu; Harris, John; Al-Niaimi, Ahmed; Swenson, Carolyn W.; Pearlman, Mark D.; Reynolds, R. Kevin; Kamdar, Neil; Bazzi, Ali; Campbell, Darrell A.; Morgan, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between prophylactic preoperative antibiotic choice and surgical site infection rates after hysterectomy. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative undergoing hysterectomy from July 2012 to February 2015. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of any surgical site infection (superficial surgical site infections or combined deep–organ space surgical site infections). Preoperative antibiotics were categorized based on the recommendations set forth by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Surgical Care Improvement Project. Patients receiving a recommended antibiotic regimen were categorized into those receiving beta-lactam antibiotics and those receiving alternatives to beta-lactam antibiotics. Patients receiving non-recommended antibiotics were categorized into those receiving overtreatment (excluded from further analysis) and those receiving non-standard antibiotics. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to estimate the independent effect of antibiotic choice. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to validate the results. RESULTS The study included 21,358 hysterectomies. The overall rate of any surgical site infection’ was 2.06% (N=441). Unadjusted rates of ‘any surgical site infection’ were 1.8%, 3.1% and 3.7% for beta-lactam, beta-lactam alternatives and non-standard groups, respectively. After adjusting for patient and operative factors within clusters of hospitals, compared to the beta-lactam antibiotics (reference group), the risk of ‘any surgical site infection’ was higher for the group receiving beta-lactam alternatives (OR 1.7, CI 1.27–2.07) or the non-standard antibiotics (OR 2.0, CI 1.31–3.1). CONCLUSION Compared to women receiving beta lactam antibiotic regimens, there is a higher risk of surgical site infection after hysterectomy among those receiving a recommended beta lactam

  2. Monitoring the critically ill surgical patient.

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, R L; Doris, P J

    1979-01-01

    Critically ill surgical patients account for approximately half the patients in an active multidisciplinary critical care unit. Hypovolemia and sepsis are common in such patients and affect a number of organ systems. Monitoring these systems provides therapeutically relevant information that may decrease morbidity and improve patient survival. Circulatory hemodynamics may be assessed by direct measurement of the arterial blood pressure, central venous and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and cardiac output determination; the data thus obtained are valuable in guiding fluid replacement in the hypovolemic individual. The respiratory status may be assessed by bedside spirometry and measurement of arterial blood gas tensions to gauge pulmonary function and the need for assisted ventilation. Renal dysfunction is common in such patients; careful analysis of both urine and blood may identify prerenal as opposed to renal and postrenal factors. Monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract, especially for hemorrhage, is important. Finally, careful attention to nutritional status and provision of adequate protein and energy intake by mouth or by vein is a vital component of the optimal care of these patients. PMID:115566

  3. Performance assessment of the risk index category for surgical site infection after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanori; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Hanawa, Hidetsugu; Chihara, Naoto; Mizutani, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-02-01

    The traditional National Healthcare Safety Network (previously National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance) risk index is used to predict the risk of surgical site infection across many operative procedures. However, this index may be too simple to predict risk in the various procedures performed in colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the risk index by analyzing the impact of the risk index factors on surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. Using our surgical site infection surveillance database, we analyzed retrospectively 538 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2010. Correlations between surgical site infection and the following risk index factors were analyzed: length of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, wound classification, and use of laparoscopy. The 75th percentile for length of operation was determined separately for open and laparoscopic surgery in the study model. Univariate analyses showed that surgical site infection was more strongly associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (odds ratio [OR], 2.07) than in the traditional risk index model (OR, 1.64). Multivariable analysis found that surgical site infection was independently associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-4.55), American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.10-4.34), wound classification ≥III (OR, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.62-10.69), and open surgery (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.07-5.17). Performance of the risk index category was improved in the study model compared with the traditional model. The risk index category is sufficiently useful for predicting the risk of surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. However, the 75th percentile length of operation should be set separately for open and laparoscopic surgery.

  4. Oral potassium supplementation in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A

    2008-08-01

    Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.

  5. Risk factors for acute surgical site infections after lumbar surgery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qi; Song, Quanwei; Guo, Runsheng; Bi, Haidi; Liu, Xuqiang; Yu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianghao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-19

    Currently, many scholars are concerned about the treatment of postoperative infection; however, few have completed multivariate analyses to determine factors that contribute to the risk of infection. Therefore, we conducted a multivariate analysis of a retrospectively collected database to analyze the risk factors for acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery, including fracture fixation, lumbar fusion, and minimally invasive lumbar surgery. We retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent lumbar surgery between 2014 and 2016, including lumbar fusion, internal fracture fixation, and minimally invasive surgery in our hospital's spinal surgery unit. Patient demographics, procedures, and wound infection rates were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Twenty-six patients (2.81%) experienced acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery in our study. The patients' mean body mass index, smoking history, operative time, blood loss, draining time, and drainage volume in the acute surgical site infection group were significantly different from those in the non-acute surgical site infection group (p < 0.05). Additionally, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, preoperative antibiotics, type of disease, and operative type in the acute surgical site infection group were significantly different than those in the non-acute surgical site infection group (p < 0.05). Using binary logistic regression analyses, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, preoperative antibiotics, fracture, operative type, operative time, blood loss, and drainage time were independent predictors of acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery. In order to reduce the risk of infection following lumbar surgery, patients should be evaluated for the risk factors noted above.

  6. Repositionable percutaneous aortic valve implantation with the LOTUS valve: 30-day and 1-year outcomes in 250 high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ian T; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Blackman, Daniel J; Tchétché, Didier; Walters, Darren L; Hildick-Smith, David; Manoharan, Ganesh; Harnek, Jan; Worthley, Stephen G; Rioufol, Gilles; Lefèvre, Thierry; Modine, Thomas; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Feldman, Ted; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2017-09-20

    The REPRISE IIE trial aimed to evaluate outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation of the fully repositionable and retrievable LOTUS valve with a unique seal designed to minimise paravalvular leak (PVL). This prospective, multicentre study enrolled 250 patients with severe aortic stenosis considered high-risk for surgery by a multidisciplinary Heart Team. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated events per Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria. Mean age was 84 years; 77% were in NYHA Class III/IV. LOTUS valve implantation produced significant haemodynamic improvements at one year without valve embolisation, ectopic valve deployment, or additional valve implantation. Primary endpoints were met as the 30-day mortality rate in the extended cohort (4.4%, N=250), and mean valve gradient in the main cohort (11.5±5.2 mmHg, N=120) were below (p<0.001) their predefined performance objectives. At 30 days, disabling stroke was 2.8% and new pacemaker implantation was 28.9% in all patients and 32.0% in pacemaker-naïve patients. By one year, all-cause mortality was 11.6%, disabling stroke was 3.6%, 95% of patients alive were in NYHA Class I/II, and there was no core laboratory-adjudicated moderate/severe PVL. LOTUS valve implantation produced good valve haemodynamics, minimal PVL, sustained significant improvement in functional status, and good clinical outcomes one year post implant.

  7. "In patient" medical abortion versus surgical abortion: patient's satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Costantino; Savoia, Fabiana; Ferrara, Cinzia; Sglavo, Gabriella; Tommaselli, Giovanni Antonio; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Cagnacci, Angelo; Nappi, Carmine

    2016-08-01

    To compare patients' satisfaction with medical and surgical abortion, implementing the Italian guidelines on medical abortion entailing an "in patient" procedure. A total of 1832 pregnant chose between surgical (vacuum aspiration) or medical abortion (mifepristone p.o. followed after 3 days by sublingual misoprostol) and expressed their expected satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS). A total of 885 women chose surgical and 947 medical abortion. The primary end-point was satisfaction VAS score 20 days after the procedure. Secondary end-points were: difference between pre- and post-abortion VAS score; difference in satisfaction VAS scores according to parity and previous abortion; incidence of side effects. VAS score was high in each group but significantly higher for the 1-day surgical than for the 3-day medical abortion procedure (7.9 ± 1.0 versus 7.2 ± 1.2; p < 0.0001). In the surgical group the VAS score increased after the treatment (6.9 ± 1.6 versus 7.9 ± 1.0, p < 0.0001), while it decreased in the medical group (7.5 ± 1.0 versus 7.2 ± 1.2; p < 0.0001). Multiparous women reported higher satisfaction with medical abortion; women with a previous abortion preferred surgical abortion. Both procedures are considered satisfactory by the patients. Performing medical abortion as a 3-day "in patient" procedure, decreased women's satisfaction scores from their baseline expectations.

  8. Varying recurrence rates and risk factors associated with different definitions of local recurrence in patients with surgically resected, stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Varlotto, John M; Recht, Abram; Flickinger, John C; Medford-Davis, Laura N; Dyer, Anne-Marie; DeCamp, Malcolm M

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different definitions of local recurrence on the reported patterns of failure and associated risk factors in patients who undergo potentially curative resection for stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study included 306 consecutive patients who were treated from 2000 to 2005 without radiotherapy. Local recurrence was defined either as 'radiation' (r-LR) (according to previously defined postoperative radiotherapy fields), including the bronchial stump, staple line, ipsilateral hilum, and ipsilateral mediastinum; or as 'comprehensive' (c-LR), including the same sites plus the ipsilateral lung and contralateral mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. All recurrences that were not classified as "local" were considered to be distal. The median follow-up was 33 months. The proportions of c-LR and r-LR at 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years were 14%, 21%, and 29%, respectively, and 7%, 12%, and 16%, respectively. Significant risk factors for c-LR on multivariate analysis were diabetes, lymphatic vascular invasion, and tumor size; and significant factors for r-LR were resection of less than a lobe and lymphatic vascular invasion. The proportions of distant (non-local) recurrence using these definitions at 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years were 10%, 12%, and 18%, respectively, and 14%, 19%, and 29%, respectively. Significant risk factors for distant failure were histology when using the c-LR definition and tumor size when using the r-LR definition. Local recurrence increased nearly 2-fold when a broad definition was used instead of a narrow definition. The definition also affected which factors were associated significantly with both local and distant failure on multivariate analysis. Comparable definitions must be used when analyzing different series. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  9. Quality of surgical care and readmission in elderly glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuño, Miriam; Ly, Diana; Mukherjee, Debraj; Ortega, Alicia; Black, Keith L.; Patil, Chirag G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmissions post medical or surgical discharge have been analyzed extensively. Studies have shown that complex interactions of multiple factors are responsible for these hospitalizations. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database of newly diagnosed elderly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who underwent surgical resection between 1991 and 2007. Hospitals were classified into high- or low-readmission rate cohorts using a risk-adjusted methodology. Bivariate comparisons of outcomes were conducted. Multivariate analysis evaluated differences in quality of care according to hospital readmission rates. Results A total of 1,273 patients underwent surgery in 338 hospitals; 523 patients were treated in 228 high-readmission hospitals and 750 in 110 low-readmission hospitals. Patient characteristics for high-versus low-readmission hospitals were compared. In a confounder-adjusted model, patients treated in high- versus low-readmission hospitals had similar outcomes. The hazard of mortality for patients treated at high- compared to low-readmission hospitals was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.095%–1.19%). While overall complications were comparable between high- and low-readmission hospitals (16.3% vs 14.3%; P = .33), more postoperative pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis complications were documented in patients treated at high-readmission hospitals (7.5% vs 4.1%; P = .01). Adverse events and levels of resection achieved during surgery were comparable at high- and low-readmission hospitals. Conclusions For patients undergoing GBM resection, quality of care provided by hospitals with the highest adjusted readmission rates was similar to the care delivered by hospitals with the lowest rates. These findings provide evidence against the preconceived notion that 30-day readmissions can be used as a metric for quality of surgical and postsurgical care. PMID:26034614

  10. A surgical approach in the management of mucormycosis in a trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, B A; Piercey, J E; Wall, D R; Tetsworth, K D

    2016-11-01

    Mucormycosis as a consequence of trauma is a devastating complication; these infections are challenging to control, with a fatality rate approaching 96% in immunocompromised patients. We present a case where a proactive approach was successfully employed to treat mucormycosis following complex polytrauma. Aggressive repeated surgical debridement, in combination with appropriate antifungal therapy, proved successful in this instance. In our opinion, mucormycosis in trauma mandates an aggressive surgical approach. This prevents ascending dissemination of mucormycosis and certainly reduces the risk of patient mortality as a direct result. Anti-fungal therapy should be used secondarily as an adjunct together with surgical debridement, or as an alternative when surgical intervention is not feasible.

  11. Risk Factors for and Complications after Surgical Delay in Elective Single-Level Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Butler, Joseph S; Kaye, Ian D; Sebastian, Arjun; Morrissey, Patrick B; Kepler, Christopher

    2017-06-09

    Retrospective cohort Objective: To assess the incidence of and risk factors for delay of elective lumbar fusion surgery, as well as medical and surgical complications associated with surgical delay. Lumbar fusion is a well-established treatment for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis with stenosis who have failed conservative management. Rarely, patients admitted for elective lumbar fusion may experience a delay in surgery past the day of admission. The incidence of, and risk factors for, delay of elective lumbar fusion surgery and the complications associated therewith have never been previously evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed the ACS-NSQIP registry utilizing Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 22612, 22558, 22630 and 22633 to identify all patients undergoing a single level spinal fusion. The data were then subdivided to into cohorts consisting of patients with and without surgical delay. Demographic information, preoperative risk factors for delay, as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications were compared between the groups. We identified 2,758 (5.46%) patients as experiencing a delay before lumbar fusion. Multivariate analysis was then performed and identified male sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 and 4, and chronic steroid use as risk factors increasing the rate of surgical delay. Multiple complication rates were also significantly higher in the delayed group, including an almost ten-fold increase in mortality rate (0.2% vs. 1.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). Delays in elective surgery can affect medical system resource utilization, increasing costs and leading to worse patient outcomes. Patients with chronic steroid use and higher ASA class may be at risk for surgical delay in lumbar fusion beyond the day of admission, and are at increased risk for significant complications postoperatively. Thorough medical evaluation and preoperative optimization may be indicated for these patients. 4.

  12. Managing anxiety in the elective surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Michael John

    Patients coming into hospital can suffer a great deal of anxiety--Mathews et al (1981) suggested patients who undergo surgery experience acute psychological distress in the pre-operative period. These fears manifest themselves as uncertainty, loss of control and decreased self-esteem, anticipation of postoperative pain, and fear of separation from family (Egan et al, 1992; Asilioglu and Celik, 2004). As technical advances and improved anaesthetic techniques become available to the NHS, the ability to offer day surgery to a wider patient population is increasing. In fact Bernier et al (2003) and Elliott et al (2003) have suggested that 60% of future operations will be day procedures. This means as health-care professionals, nurses will have shorter time available not only to identify patients who may be experiencing anxiety, but also to offer them the support they need to cope with the surgery. Anxiety can have a profound effect on patients--it affects them in a variety of ways, from ignoring the illness, which could have a serious impact on the patient's life, to the constant demand for attention which can take the nurse away from the care of other patients on the ward (Thomas et al, 1995). Recently, there has been increasing interest in the possible influences of properative anxiety on the course and outcome of surgical procedures and the potential benefits of anxiety-reducing interventions (Markland et al, 1993). Caumo et al (2001) suggested that pre-operative management of a patients anxiety would be improved if health-care professionals had more knowledge about the potential predictors of pre-operative anxiety.

  13. Evaluation of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cell immunity for the assessment of the risk of active CMV infection in non-immunosuppressed surgical and trauma intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Clari, María A; Aguilar, Gerardo; Benet, Isabel; Belda, Javier; Giménez, Estela; Bravo, Dayana; Carbonell, José A; Henao, Liliana; Navarro, David

    2013-10-01

    The current study was designed to assess the predictive value of the evaluation of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cell immunity early following admission to the intensive care unit for inferring the risk of active CMV infection in non-immunosuppressed surgical and trauma patients. A total of 31 CMV-seropositive patients were included. Patients were screened for the presence of CMV DNA in plasma and in tracheal aspirates by real-time PCR. Enumeration of CMV pp65 and IE-1-specific IFN-γ CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells was performed by flow cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining. Virological and immunological monitoring was conducted once or twice a week. Active CMV infection occurred in 17 out of 31 patients. Undetectable levels of pp65 and IE-1-specific IFN-γ CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell subsets cells were observed in 10 patients who developed active CMV infection and in one who did not (at a median of 2 days following ICU admission). Peak CMV DNA loads in both tracheal aspirates and plasma were substantially higher (P = 0.018 and P = 0.091, respectively) in patients with undetectable IFN-γ T-cell responses than in patients with detectable responses. The expansion of both CMV-specific T-cell subsets following detection of active CMV infection was demonstrated in 9 out of 14 patients with active CMV infection. In conclusion, the evaluation of CMV pp65 and IE-1-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells early following ICU admission may allow the identification of patients most at risk of either having or developing an episode of active CMV infection, particularly those associated with high-level virus replication.

  14. Acute suppurative parotitis: a dreadful complication in elderly surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulos, Pavlos; Rizos, Spyros; Marinis, Athanasios

    2012-08-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) is a severe infection seen particularly in elderly surgical patients. Factors that increase the risk of ASP include post-operative dehydration, debilitating conditions, and immunosuppressed states. Case report and literature review. An 82-year-old female patient was admitted because of paralytic ileus, dehydration, and poor oral hygiene, and was in distress. After two days of hospitalization, the patient developed a progressive painful swelling of her right parotid gland and fever up to 39.0°C. Computed tomography scanning showed an abscess in the parotid gland. Because of her progressive clinical deterioration, the patient underwent operative drainage of the abscess and removal of the necrotic material. Unfortunately, she suffered multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and died. Acute suppurative parotitis requires prompt aggressive treatment that nevertheless may fail.

  15. Ketorolac-associated renal morbidity: risk factors in cardiac surgical infants.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Brady S; Cabrera, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    We aimed to identify the risk factors for acute kidney injury in infants who have received ketorolac after a cardiac surgical procedure by identifying patients with a > or = 50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline and matching them by age with three controls that had < 50% increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in primary surgical procedure, baseline serum creatinine, and concomitant aspirin use were noted. We conclude that the concomitant use of aspirin with ketorolac is associated with increased renal morbidity in young post-cardiac surgical infants.

  16. Surgical patients travel longer distances than non-surgical patients to receive care at a rural hospital in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Faierman, Michelle L.; Anderson, Jamie E.; Assane, Americo; Bendix, Peter; Vaz, Fernando; Rose, John A.; Funzamo, Carlos; Bickler, Stephen W.; Noormahomed, Emilia V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health delivery. However, there are still major gaps in knowledge related to access to surgical care in low-income countries. In this study, we compare distances travelled by surgical patients with patients seeking other medical services at a first-level hospital in rural Mozambique. Methods Data were collected on all inpatients at Hospital Rural de Chókwè in rural Mozambique between 20 June 2012 and 3 August 2012. Euclidean distances travelled by surgical versus non-surgical patients using coordinates of each patient's city of residence were compared. Data were analysed using ArcGIS 10 and STATA. Results In total, 500 patients were included. Almost one-half (47.6%) lived in the city where the hospital is based. By hospital ward, the majority (62.0%) of maternity patients came from within the hospital's city compared with only 35.2% of surgical patients. The average distance travelled was longest for surgical patients (42 km) compared with an average of 17 km for patients on all other wards. Conclusions Patients seeking surgical care at this first-level hospital travel farther than patients seeking other services. While other patients may have access to at community clinics, surgical patients depend more heavily on the services available at first-level hospitals. PMID:25135818

  17. Surgical Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jennifer J; Tepolt, Frances A; Miller, Patricia E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a cause of leg pain in running athletes and is treated with fasciotomy after failure of nonoperative management. CECS is being seen with increased frequency in younger patients. The demographics and outcomes of fasciotomy for CECS in pediatric patients, including risk factors for treatment failure, have not been described. To describe characteristics of pediatric patients with CECS and determine surgical outcomes of the condition in this population. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed for patients 18 years and younger treated surgically for CECS with compartment release at a single institution from 1995 to 2014. Demographic and condition characteristics, operative procedure, postoperative course, and clinical outcomes were recorded for 286 legs of 155 patients. Compartment pressure testing using the Pedowitz criteria confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. A total of 155 patients were included in the study (average patient age at presentation, 16.4 ± 1.38 years); 136 (88%) were female. All 155 patients presented with leg pain; of these patients, 8 (5%) also had neurologic symptoms, and 131 (85%) presented with bilateral symptoms requiring bilateral compartment release. Symptoms were chronic in nature, with duration over 1 year in 63% of patients. The primary sport was most commonly reported as running (25%), soccer (23%), or field hockey (12%); 50% of patients were multisport athletes. Of 286 legs, 138 (48%) had only anterior and/or lateral compartments released, while 84 (29.4%) had all 4 compartments released. Documented return to sport was seen in 79.5% of patients. Outcomes analysis was performed for 250 of 286 legs. Of these 250 legs, 47 (18.8%) had recurrent CECS requiring reoperation at a median of 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0.8-3.5) after initial compartment release. For each additional month between presentation and release, the odds of recurrence decreased by 12

  18. Effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the risk of surgical site infection in orthotopic liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Angel; Ramos, Antonio; Cuervas-Mons, Valentin; Cordero, Elisa; Sánchez-Turrión, Victor; Blanes, Marino; Cervera, Carlos; Gavalda, Joan; Aguado, Jose M; Torre-Cisneros, Julian

    2008-06-01

    Surgical site infections are common bacterial infections in orthotopic liver transplantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, timing, location, and risk factors, specifically antibiotic prophylaxis, for surgical site infections. A prospective study was performed that included a population of 1222 consecutive patients (73.0% males) who underwent liver transplantation in Spanish hospitals belonging to the Red de Estudio de la Infección en el Trasplante research network. One hundred seven patients developed surgical site infections. The predominant infection sites were incisional wound (53 episodes) and peritonitis (40 episodes). The timing of the organ/space surgical site infections was slightly delayed in comparison with incisional surgical site infections. Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii were the predominant pathogens. Choledochojejunal or hepaticojejunal reconstruction (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-10.7), previous liver or kidney transplant (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.3), and more than 4 red blood cell units transfused (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4) were independently associated with the development of surgical site infections. Biliary reconstruction by choledochojejunostomy or hepaticojejunostomy increases the risk of surgical site infections.

  19. Preoperative delay of more than 1 hour increases the risk of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Kris E; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Neusner, Alex; Kepler, Christopher K; Albert, Todd J; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2013-07-01

    Retrospective institutional database review. To determine whether preoperative in-room time is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). Prior to spine surgery, while the patient is in the operating room, several procedures may be performed that may delay surgery. During this time, the sterile field may be exposed and may become contaminated. The hypothesis of this study was that the length of time in the operative room prior to surgical incision (anesthesia ready time [ART]) was related to the risk of SSI. From 2005 to 2009, we identified 276 patients who developed SSI out of 7991 cases that underwent spine surgery from 2005 to 2009. Patient demographic factors, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, wound classification, number of levels, anatomic region, type of surgical approach, and length of surgery were extrapolated. ART was calculated as the time after the patient was brought into the operating room prior to surgical incision. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for SSI. Mean ART was significantly (P = 0.001) higher in patients with infection (68 min) compared with those without infection (60 min). The infection rate was higher in cases with ART more than 1 hour compared with those with less than 1 hour (4.9% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, ART more than 1 hour was an independent risk factor for SSI, along with number of levels, American Society of Anesthesiologists score and posterior approach. The highest percentage of cases with ART more than 1 hour occurred in August and September. Preoperative in-room time prior to the start of surgical incision is an independent risk factor for SSI. All possible steps should be taken prior to entry into the operating theater to reduce in-room time and opening of surgical sterile instrumentation be delayed until the surgery is ready to proceed.

  20. Generating patient-specific pulmonary vascular models for surgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murff, Daniel; Co-Vu, Jennifer; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2015-03-01

    Each year in the U.S., 7.4 million surgical procedures involving the major vessels are performed. Many of our patients require multiple surgeries, and many of the procedures include "surgical exploration". Procedures of this kind come with a significant amount of risk, carrying up to a 17.4% predicted mortality rate. This is especially concerning for our target population of pediatric patients with congenital abnormalities of the heart and major pulmonary vessels. This paper offers a novel approach to surgical planning which includes studying virtual and physical models of pulmonary vasculature of an individual patient before operation obtained from conventional 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. These models would provide clinicians with a non-invasive, intricately detailed representation of patient anatomy, and could reduce the need for invasive planning procedures such as exploratory surgery. Researchers involved in the AirPROM project have already demonstrated the utility of virtual and physical models in treatment planning of the airways of the chest. Clinicians have acknowledged the potential benefit from such a technology. A method for creating patient-derived physical models is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature extracted from a CT scan with contrast of an adult human. Using a modified version of the NIH ImageJ program, a series of image processing functions are used to extract and mathematically reconstruct the vasculature tree structures of interest. An auto-generated STL file is sent to a 3D printer to create a physical model of the major pulmonary vasculature generated from 3D CT scans of patients.

  1. Coping strategies in anxious surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Aust, Hansjoerg; Rüsch, Dirk; Schuster, Maike; Sturm, Theresa; Brehm, Felix; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2016-07-12

    Anaesthesia and surgery provoke preoperative anxiety and stress. Patients try to regain control of their emotions by using coping efforts. Coping may be more effective if supported by specific strategies or external utilities. This study is the first to analyse coping strategies in a large population of patients with high preoperative anxiety. We assessed preoperative anxiety and coping preferences in a consecutive sample of 3087 surgical patients using validated scales (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale/Visual Analogue Scale). In the subsample of patients with high preoperative anxiety, patients' dispositional coping style was determined and patients' coping efforts were studied by having patients rate their agreement with 9 different coping efforts on a four point Likert scale. Statistical analysis included correlational analysis between dispositional coping styles, coping efforts and other variables such as sociodemographic data. Statistical significance was considered for p < 0.05. The final analysis included 1205 patients with high preoperative anxiety. According to the initial self-assessment, about two thirds of the patients believed that information would help them to cope with their anxiety ("monitors"); the remainder declined further education/information and reported self-distraction to be most helpful to cope with anxiety ("blunters"). There was no significant difference between these two groups in anxiety scores. Educational conversation was the coping effort rated highest in monitors whereas calming conversation was the coping effort rated highest in blunters. Coping follows no demographic rules but is influenced by the level of education. Anxiolytic Medication showed no reliable correlation to monitoring and blunting disposition. Both groups showed an exactly identical agreement with this coping effort. Demand for medical anxiolysis, blunting or the desire for more conversation may indicate increased anxiety. The use of the

  2. Prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition in general surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y S; Nambiar, R; Yo, S L

    1992-05-01

    The prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) based on ten nutritional parameters was studied in 307 patients undergoing major elective surgical operations. These parameters included anthropometric measurements (weight/height, triceps skin fold thickness, arm muscle circumference) and biochemical (serum total proteins, albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, retinol binding protein) and immunological tests (total lymphocyte count and delayed hypersensitivity test). Using these criteria, the prevalence of PCM was high. Eighty-six percent of patients had at least one abnormal parameter. The prevalence of PCM as judged by weight/height and arm muscle circumference was 49% and 62% respectively. The incidence was higher in cancer than non cancer patients (63% vs 43%). Although serum albumin and total protein levels were normal in 93.5% of patients, acute serum protein markers such as transferrin, prealbumin and retinol binding protein were low in 20-30%. Lymphopenia of 1500 cells/cu mm or less was found in 18% and abnormal delayed hypersensitivity test in 60%. We found that only weight/height, serum protein, transferrin and lymphopenia had predictive values in postoperative morbidity and mortality. By identifying PCM patients early, adequate nutritional support can be given in order to reduce the risk of major surgical complications.

  3. Patients Awaiting Surgical Repair for Large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Can Exercise at Moderate to Hard Intensities with a Low Risk of Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M.; Tew, Garry A.; Kothmann, Elke; Kerr, Karen; Nawaz, Shah; Yates, David; Danjoux, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    power output increased 23% across the 4-week HIT intervention. One participant experienced an adverse event but were still able to complete their remaining exercise sessions. Conclusions: Despite an inconsistent and lower than prescribed intensity, it is possible to exercise this high-risk patient population at moderate to hard intensities with a low risk of adverse events. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.isrctn.com/, registration number ISRCTN09433624. PMID:28119627

  4. Patients Awaiting Surgical Repair for Large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Can Exercise at Moderate to Hard Intensities with a Low Risk of Adverse Events.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M; Tew, Garry A; Kothmann, Elke; Kerr, Karen; Nawaz, Shah; Yates, David; Danjoux, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    power output increased 23% across the 4-week HIT intervention. One participant experienced an adverse event but were still able to complete their remaining exercise sessions. Conclusions: Despite an inconsistent and lower than prescribed intensity, it is possible to exercise this high-risk patient population at moderate to hard intensities with a low risk of adverse events. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.isrctn.com/, registration number ISRCTN09433624.

  5. Renal Preservation and Partial Nephrectomy: Patient and Surgical Factors.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Lorenzo; Desai, Mihir M; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Porpiglia, Francesco; Van Poppel, Hendrik

    2016-12-15

    Optimization of the partial nephrectomy (PN) procedure in terms of preservation of functional outcomes is of special importance. To review the most important patient and surgical factors that may influence the three elements that ultimately define the preservation of renal function (RF) after PN: preoperative RF, quantity of parenchyma preserved, and nephron recovery from ischemic insult. A nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted. Relevant databases were searched for studies providing data on surgical, patient, and tumour factors predictive of RF preservation after PN. Many renal cell carcinoma patients have low RF at baseline or are at risk of rapid progression of chronic kidney disease. A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ≤45ml/min/1.73m(2) after PN is associated with higher risk of a 50% drop in GFR or dialysis. Greater tumor size and complexity are nonmodifiable factors that predict worse postoperative RF, longer warm ischemia time (IT), and greater healthy parenchymal volume loss (HPVL). Global renal ischemic injury can be minimized using off-clamp or selective minimal renal ischemia techniques that vary from simple regional ischemia to more complex techniques such as tertiary or higher-order renal arterial branch clamping. However, the quality and quantity of parenchymal mass preserved are the main predictors of RF after PN, and IT seems to have a secondary role, as long as warm IT is limited or ischemia is hypothermic. HPVL is minimized using enucleation techniques (oncologically equivalent to traditional PN for low-grade tumors in retrospective studies) and reduction of the parenchyma incorporated in renorrhaphy. Evidence on the comparative effectiveness of the various PN surgical approaches (open, laparoscopic, robotic, and thermoablation) in terms of functional outcomes is characterized by low overall quality. Efforts should be made to optimize the modifiable surgical factors identified for maximum RF preservation after PN. The low

  6. [Surgical wound infection in patients undergoing extra-anatomical arterial surgery. A retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Monreal, M; Callejas, J M; Lisbona, C; Martorell, A; Lerma, R; Boabaid, R; Mejía, S

    1993-01-01

    We present a retrospective review of a series of patients from our Service submitted to surgical extra-anatomical grafts. Correlation between diverse variants and ulterior obliteration by thrombosis or infection of the surgical wounds is analyzed. The series included 133 patients surgically treated between 1986 and 1991. The studied variants were: sex, age, type of graft, the material used, length and type of anesthesia, presentation of hypotension during the surgical intervention, diabetes, platelet recount. Fourteen patients (11%) presented early graft obliteration and 15 (11%) presented an infection of their surgical wound. Only the platelet variant showed statistical differences in patients presenting infection. A high recount of platelets could be a factor risk of infection.

  7. [Sevoflurane and isoflurane during thoracic operations under artificial one-lung ventilation in patients at a high surgical and anesthesiological risk].

    PubMed

    Riabova, O S; Vyzhigina, M A; Zhukova, S G; Titov, V A; Kulagina, T Iu; Parshin, V D; Sandrikov, V A; Buniatian, A A

    2007-01-01

    The specific features of balanced anesthesia utilizing sevoflurane (versus isoflurane) during thoracic operations under artificial one-lung ventilation (AOL ) have been studied in patients at high operative and anesthetic risks. Unlike isoflurane, sevflurane fails to cause vasodilatation in both the greater and lesser circulation (including in the gas-exchange part ofpulmonary circulation). The difference of the anesthetics in their vasodilating capacity in the vessels of pulmonary and systemic circulation determines various mechanisms of pathophysiological and adaptive circulatory changes in pulmonary collapse and under AOL V Under sevoflurane anesthesia, compensatory blood flow limitation along the collaborated lung due to permanently vasohypertension in gas-exchange microcirculation is accompanied by a systemic circulatory response that is aimed at reducing right ventricular load. Termination of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the collaborated lung occurs not early than 80-125 min of AOLV, fails to lead to recovery of impaired gas exchange due to vasohypertension and high shunt in the ventilated lung, and is attended by right ventricular overload. The latter differentiates sevoflurane anesthesia from isoflurane one wherein completion of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction upon 80-125-min exposure to AOL V results in the recovery of gas exchange to the baseline levels. The pattern of reperfusion changes in ventilation emergence in the operated lung under anesthesia using both sevoflurane and isoflurane is of no significant pathological tinge and it is followed by no pulmonary and systemic metabolic disturbances. Isoflurane should be recognized to be preferable component at the stage of anesthesia maintenance in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases during thoracic operations under prolonged AOL V (more than 2 hours).

  8. Perioperative patient safety indicators and hospital surgical volumes.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Fujita, Shigeru; Yoshida, Ai; Iida, Shuhei; Nishizawa, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-02-28

    Since the late 1990s, patient safety has been an important policy issue in developed countries. To evaluate the effectiveness of the activities of patient safety, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the incidence of adverse events by types of failure mode using tangible data. The purpose of this study is to calculate patient safety indicators (PSIs) using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination/per-diem payment system (DPC/PDPS) reimbursement data and to elucidate the relationship between perioperative PSIs and hospital surgical volume. DPC/PDPS data of the Medi-Target project managed by the All Japan Hospital Association were used. An observational study was conducted where PSIs were calculated using an algorithm proposed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. We analyzed data of 1,383,872 patients from 188 hospitals who were discharged from January 2008 to December 2010. Among 20 provider level PSIs, four PSIs (three perioperative PSIs and decubitus ulcer) and mortality rates of postoperative patients were related to surgical volume. Low-volume hospitals (less than 33rd percentiles surgical volume per month) had higher mortality rates (5.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.9% to 7.4%) than mid- (2.9%, 95% CI, 2.6% to 3.3%) or high-volume hospitals (2.7%, 95% CI, 2.5% to 2.9%). Low-volume hospitals had more deaths among surgical inpatients with serious treatable complications (38.5%, 95% CI, 33.7% to 43.2%) than high-volume hospitals (21.4%, 95% CI, 19.0% to 23.9%). Also Low-volume hospitals had lower proportion of difficult surgeries (54.9%, 95% CI, 50.1% to 59.8%) compared with high-volume hospitals (63.4%, 95% CI, 62.3% to 64.6%). In low-volume hospitals, limited experience may have led to insufficient care for postoperative complications. We demonstrated that PSIs can be calculated using DPC/PDPS data and perioperative PSIs were related to hospital surgical volume. Further investigations focusing on identifying risk factors for poor

  9. TextWithSurgeryPatients - A Research Hypothesis in Enhancing Education and Physical Assessment for Abdominal Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Medical surgical nurses may not have the time or resources to provide effective pre- and post-operative instructions for patients in today's healthcare system. And, making timely physical assessments following discharge from the hospital is not always straightforward. Therefore, the risk for readmission associated with post-surgical complications is a concern. At present, mobile healthcare technologies and patient care are precipitously evolving and may serve as a resource to enhance communication between the healthcare provider and patient. A mobile telephone text message (short message service [SMS]) intervention for abdominal surgical patients may foster effective education (communication) and timely self-reported physical assessment in the home environment hence preventing deleterious outcomes. The aim of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using a SMS intervention via smart phones to improve health outcomes via timely communication, reach large numbers of at-risk surgical patients and, establish and sustain uniform protocols in a cost-efficient manner.

  10. Relationship between Patient Safety and Hospital Surgical Volume

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Downey, John R; McDonald, Kathryn; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between hospital volume and in-hospital adverse events. Data Sources Patient safety indicator (PSI) was used to identify hospital-acquired adverse events in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database in abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery bypass graft, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from 2005 to 2008. Study Design In this observational study, volume thresholds were defined by mean year-specific terciles. PSI risk-adjusted rates were analyzed by volume tercile for each procedure. Principal Findings Overall, hospital volume was inversely related to preventable adverse events. High-volume hospitals had significantly lower risk-adjusted PSI rates compared to lower volume hospitals (p < .05). Conclusion These data support the relationship between hospital volume and quality health care delivery in select surgical cases. This study highlights differences between hospital volume and risk-adjusted PSI rates for three common surgical procedures and highlights areas of focus for future studies to identify pathways to reduce hospital-acquired events. PMID:22091561

  11. Incisional Reinforcement in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Timothy F.; Young, Monica T.; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Hernia formation after surgical procedures continues to be an important cause of surgical morbidity. Incisional reinforcement at the time of the initial operation has been used in some patient populations to reduce the risk of subsequent hernia formation. In this article, reinforcement techniques in different surgical wounds are examined to identify situations in which hernia formation may be prevented. Mesh use for midline closure, pelvic floor reconstruction, and stoma site reinforcement is discussed. Additionally, the use of retention sutures, closure of the open abdomen, and reinforcement after component separation are examined using current literature. Although existing studies do not support the routine use of mesh reinforcement for all surgical incisions, certain patient populations appear to benefit from reinforcement with lower rates of subsequent hernia formation. The identification and characterization of these groups will guide the future use of mesh reinforcement in surgical incisions. PMID:25435823

  12. Microbiology, risk factors and mortality of patients with intravenous catheter related blood stream infections in the surgical intensive care unit: a five-year, concurrent, case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cheewinmethasiri, Jaroen; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Chandacham, Kamtone; Jirapongchareonlap, Tidarat; Chotirosniramit, Narain

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiologic data of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) is different in each type of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The objectives were to identify microbiological patterns, risk factors and mortality analysis in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). All CRBSI cases were reviewed in a 60-months period from the 1st ofJanuary, 2005 through the 31st of December, 2009. Two or three control patients, who had been catheterized within three days and were free of CRBSI, were randomly selected from the ICU admissions registration book as the control group; demographic data, mortality, organisms found and antibiotic sensitivity were recorded and analyzed. In the 5-years period, 44 patients were diagnosed with a CRBSI and 129 patients who were without a CRBSI were selected. The total infection rate was 1.31 per 1,000 catheter-days. Nine patients who contracted a CRBSI (20.4%) expired. A primary diagnosis of gastrointestinal problems had shown the greatest risk for developing a CRBSI (69.7%). In proportions of gram negative bacteria:gram positive bacteria:fungus, this was measured at 43:36:21 respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common gram positive bacteria found. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the three most common gram negative bacteria found. The chance of developing a CRBSI was significantly increased after 10 days of catheterization. The mortality probability of gram negative bacterial infections and fungal infections increased over time. This was in contrast to gram positive bacterial infections, which decreased over time despite having shown the highest possibility of death earlier in catheter days. As for multivariable analyses, catheterization of patients in the general wards was the sole independent risk factor of CRBSI occurrences (OR = 8.67, p < 0.01) and the males (OR = 7.20, p = 0.03) have shown the highest risk factors for mortality. The occurrence of gram-negative bacteria and gram

  13. Prospective evaluation of clinical outcomes in all-comer high-risk patients with aortic valve stenosis undergoing medical treatment, transcatheter or surgical aortic valve implantation following heart team assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Christophe; Coosemans, Mark; Rega, Filip; Poortmans, Gert; Belmans, Ann; Adriaenssens, Tom; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Desmet, Walter; Janssens, Stefan; Meyns, Bart; Herijgers, Paul

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been proposed as a treatment alternative for patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) at high or prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aimed to assess real-world outcomes after treatment according to the decisions of the multidisciplinary heart team. METHODS At a tertiary centre, all high-risk patients referred between 1 March 2008 and 31 October 2011 for symptomatic AS were screened and planned to undergo AVR, TAVI or medical treatment. We report clinical outcomes as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium. RESULTS Of 163 high-risk patients, those selected for AVR had lower logistic EuroSCORE and STS scores when compared with TAVI or medical treatment (median [interquartile range] 18 [12–26]; 26 [17–36]; 21 [14–32]% (P = 0.015) and 6.5 [5.1–10.7]; 7.6 [5.8–10.5]; 7.6 [6.1–15.7]% (P = 0.056)). All-cause mortalities at 1 year in 35, 73 and 55 patients effectively undergoing AVR, TAVI and medical treatment were 20, 21 and 38%, respectively (P = 0.051). Cardiovascular death and major stroke occurred in 9, 8 and 33% (P < 0.001) and 6, 4 and 2% (P = 0.62), respectively. For patients undergoing valve implantation, device success was 91 and 92% for AVR and TAVI, respectively. The combined safety endpoint at 30 days was in favour of TAVI (29%) vs AVR (63%) (P = 0.001). In contrast, the combined efficacy endpoint at 1 year tended to be more favourable for AVR (10 vs 24% for TAVI, P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS Patients who are less suitable for AVR can be treated safely and effectively with TAVI with similar outcomes when compared with patients with a lower-risk profile undergoing AVR. Patients with TAVI or AVR have better survival than those undergoing medical treatment only. PMID:23702465

  14. Risk factors for the development of Clostridium difficile colitis in a surgical ward

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Byung Seup; Kwon, Jae Woo; Ahn, So-Eun; Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Hyoung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC) is a nosocomial infection. We attempted to discover the risk factors for the development of CDC in patients admitted to our surgical ward. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients admitted to our surgical ward between January 2010 and July 2011. CDC was confirmed when toxin A/B or toxin B polymerase chain reaction was detected in the stool and clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, were present. We divided patients into the CDC and non-CDC groups, and compared the clinical features between the two groups. Results The rate of CDC occurrence was 0.4% (19/4,720 patients). Univariate analysis showed that colectomy (P < 0.001), hospital stays longer than 10 days (P < 0.001), aged over 55 years (P < 0.001) and transfer from medical ward (P = 0.009) were significant parameters for CDC. Multivariate analysis showed that colectomy (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 8.405; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.927 to 24.132) and hospital stays longer than 10 days (P = 0.035; OR, 10.253; 95% CI, 1.176 to 89.392) were high risk factors for CDC occurrence in the surgical ward. Conclusion The risk factors for CDC in a surgical ward could be colectomy and a long duration of hospitalization. Therefore, clinicians should consider the possibility of CDC when patients undergo colectomy, are admitted for a long time, and have postoperative diarrhea. PMID:22792529

  15. Evaluation of Risk Factors of Surgical Wound Dehiscence in Adults After Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Aksamija, Goran; Mulabdic, Adi; Rasic, Ismar; Aksamija, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The percentage of patients with difficult and prolonged healing of the wound is still high, while the immediate complications such as wound dehiscence occurs in up to 3 % of all treated patients in abdominal surgery. The aim of study was to analyze the risk factors and comorbidities in the group patients undergoing laparotomy and associated with early postoperative wound dehiscence. Methods: The retrospective study included all patients treated surgically at Clinic of General and Abdominal surgery, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo in the period from January 1, 2013 until January 1, 2016, with clinically verified surgical wound dehiscence. Results: The results showed statistically proportion of male patients (70%) compared to female (30%). The largest number of respondents were in age group 71-80. Surgical wound infection was evident in 61% of patients, malignant staining in 52%, hypoproteinemia was found in 50% of patients, anemia in 43%, peritonitis in 36% and diabetes in 14% of respondents. Of the total respondents with surgical wound dehiscence, 30 (68%) had comorbidities present. By analyzing the prevalence of comorbidity and risk factors recorded in relation to comorbidity, it was noted that hypertension is most often associated with hypoproteinemia (X2=4.399; p=0.036), wound infection (X2=4.112; p=0.043) and malignant diseases (X2=4.016; p=0.045). The frequency of the anemia, peritonitis and diabetes in the sample was not different in relation to the comorbidity conditions (p >0.05). Conclusions: The risk factors occurrence of surgical wound dehiscence in our study were identified as hypoproteinemia, malignant disease, anemia and peritonitis. The highest incidence of dehiscence was in patients operated on in medical emergencies, and in patients with malignant disease. PMID:27994299

  16. Improving the quality of patient handover on a surgical ward.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive means safe patient hand over is imperative. It is the responsibility of every doctor and an issue of patient safety and clinical governance [1]. The aims of this project were to improve the quality of patient handover between combined assessment unit (CAU) and surgical ward FY1 doctors. The Royal College of Surgeons England (RCSEng) guidelines on surgical patient handover [1] were used as the standard. Data was collected throughout November 2013. A handover tool was then introduced and attached to the front of patient notes when a patient was transferred from CAU to the surgical ward. The doctor handing over the patient and the ward doctor receiving the handover signed this document. Policy was also changed so that handover should take place once the patient had received senior review on the CAU and was deemed appropriate for transfer to the surgical ward. Data from the handover tool was collated and checked against the list of surgical admission for February 2014. The number of patients handed over improved from 15 % to 45%. The quality of patient handover also improved. 0 patient handovers in November 2013 included all of the information recommended by the RCSEng guidelines. 100% of the patient handovers in February 2014 contained all the recommended information. Introduction of a handover tool and formalisation of timing of patient handover helped to improve quality and number of patients being handed over. Further work needs to be done to improve safe handover of surgical patients, particularly out of hours.

  17. Pediatric Intussusception: Decreased Surgical Risk with Timely Transfer to a Children’s Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Brian P; Theodorou, Christina M; Hebal, Ferdynand; Hunter M, Catherine J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intussusception is a potentially life-threatening condition, and a frequent cause of bowel obstruction during the first two years of life. We hypothesized that patients who were transferred from outside community hospitals, or OSH, without tertiary care capabilities for pediatric services to a large academic children’s hospital with intussusception were more likely to require operative management for their intussusception than those who were directly admitted. Methods The electronic medical record was queried for patients presenting to Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago with a diagnosis of intussusception (July 1st, 2009–July 1st, 2014). Age, sex, symptom duration, radiologic management, and surgical care were recorded. OSH and transfer reports were analyzed for those patients that presented as a transfer. Statistical analysis was performed. Results We identified 270 patients with intussusception. 232 (80%) were successfully treated non-surgically. 58 (20%) required surgical management. Of the patients requiring surgery, there were 38 reductions (24 laparoscopic, 14 open) and 20 bowel resections (1 laparoscopic, 19 open). Of those patients requiring surgery, 37 (63.8%) had presented as a transfer from an OSH. We found that transferred patients, requiring surgery, spent a mean 7.77 hours at the OSH compared to 4.03 hours for the transferred patients that did not require surgery (p=0.0188). There was no significant difference in transport time (p=0.44). Conclusion In conclusion, we identified the amount of time patients spend at hospitals without pediatric surgical capabilities as an independent risk factor necessitating surgical management of intussusception. These data suggest that patients with intussusception who present to hospitals without pediatric radiology or pediatric surgery, should be transferred in an expedited fashion. In the event of a failed enema reduction at an OSH, the transport of the patient should not be

  18. A Predictive Risk Index for 30-day Readmissions Following Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Shobhit V; Chow, Ian; Feldman, David S; Bosco, Joseph; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric scoliosis often requires operative treatment, yet few studies have examined readmission rates in this patient population. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence, reasons, and independent risk factors for 30-day unplanned readmissions following scoliosis surgery. A retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement-Pediatric database from 2012 to 2013 was performed. Patients undergoing spinal arthrodesis for progressive infantile scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, or scoliosis due to other medical conditions were identified and divided between 2 groups: patients with unplanned 30-day readmissions (Readmitted) and patients with no unplanned readmissions (Non-Readmitted). Multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine independent risk factors for readmissions. A total of 3482 children were identified, of which 120 (3.4%) had an unplanned readmission. A majority of patients had a readmission due to a surgical site complication regardless of scoliosis etiology. Risk factors for readmission included obesity (P<0.001) and posterior fusion of 13 or more vertebrae (P=0.029) for idiopathic scoliosis, impaired cognition (P=0.009) for progressive infantile scoliosis, and pelvic fixation (P=0.025) and American Society of Anesthesiologist ≥3 (P=0.048) for scoliosis due to other conditions. We present 30-day readmissions risk factors based on independent patient and procedural risk factors. This may be useful in the clinical management of patients following scoliosis surgery, specifically for the role of preoperative and predischarge risk stratification.

  19. Washed cell salvage in surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Results: Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P < 0.001), resulting in an average saving of 0.20 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (weighted mean differences [WMD] = −0.20; 95% CI −0.22 to −0.18; P < 0.001), reduced risk of infection by 28% (RR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97; P = 0.03), reduced length of hospital stay by 2.31 days (WMD = −2.31; 95% CI −2.50 to −2.11; P < 0.001), but did not significantly affect risk of mortality (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.34; P = 0.66). No statistical difference could be observed in the number of patients exposed to re-operation, plasma, platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Conclusions: Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery. PMID:27495095

  20. Assessment scale of risk for surgical positioning injuries.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Camila Mendonça de Moraes; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Oliveira, Cheila Gonçalves de; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2016-08-29

    to build and validate a scale to assess the risk of surgical positioning injuries in adult patients. methodological research, conducted in two phases: construction and face and content validation of the scale and field research, involving 115 patients. the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning contains seven items, each of which presents five subitems. The scale score ranges between seven and 35 points in which, the higher the score, the higher the patient's risk. The Content Validity Index of the scale corresponded to 0.88. The application of Student's t-test for equality of means revealed the concurrent criterion validity between the scores on the Braden scale and the constructed scale. To assess the predictive criterion validity, the association was tested between the presence of pain deriving from surgical positioning and the development of pressure ulcer, using the score on the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning (p<0.001). The interrater reliability was verified using the intraclass correlation coefficient, equal to 0.99 (p<0.001). the scale is a valid and reliable tool, but further research is needed to assess its use in clinical practice. construir e validar escala de avaliação de risco para lesões decorrentes do posicionamento cirúrgico em pacientes adultos. pesquisa metodológica, conduzida em duas etapas: construção e validação de face e de conteúdo da escala e pesquisa de campo, com a participação de 115 pacientes. a Escala de Avaliação de Risco para o Desenvolvimento de Lesões Decorrentes do Posicionamento Cirúrgico contém sete itens, sendo que cada um apresenta cinco subitens. A pontuação dessa escala varia de sete a 35 pontos, quanto maior o escore maior o risco do paciente. O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo da escala foi de 0,88. Por meio da aplicação do teste t de Student, para igualdade de médias, constatou-se validade de crit

  1. Difficulties in Surgical Decision Making and Associated Factors Among Elective Surgical Patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Ling; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2017-06-01

    Respect for the autonomy of patients is essential in life-threatening medical decisions such as surgery. Even if a patient has the competency to make decisions, many obstacles exist that may influence his or her willingness to participate in the surgical decision-making process. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived difficulties in surgical decision making and related factors among elective surgical patients. This was a cross-sectional correlational study. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit patients from a medical center in southern Taiwan. Patients who had received elective surgery, were older than 20 years old, and were competent to make medical decisions were invited to participate. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers to collect demographic data, decision patterns, and perceived difficulties in surgical decision making. Acceptable validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed before data collection. Over 80% of the participants made the surgical decision by themselves or in collaboration with their family or physician. Less than 15% expected to make the surgical decision by themselves. Illness-related suffering was the greatest difficulty that participants faced. The patients who tended toward passive decision making faced greater difficulties in the dimensions of "do not understand information," "physician's lack of concern," and "difficulty in freely communicating with the physician" than their active decision-making peers. Male participants reported having more difficulty in communicating with their physician than their female peers. Age, education, and marital status were not significantly associated with perceived difficulties in surgical decision making. Family participation in the medical decision-making process is expected by most patients. Although less than 20% of the participants in this study were categorized as passive decision makers, this group reported more difficulties than the

  2. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy.

  3. Non-surgical periodontal management in scleroderma disease patients.

    PubMed

    Laforgia, A; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; Ballini, A; Pettini, F; Di Venere, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the periodontal status of people with scleroderma and their response to non-surgical treatment protocol aimed at controlling the evolution of the disease. The response to non-surgical periodontal treatment was tested on patients belonging to a scleroderma group and a control group: the data show an improvement of the periodontal conditions of all these patients in response to treatment. When compared on the same diagram, a slight remission of the periodontal disease was obtained in both scleroderma and healthy patients. This highlights the benefit to soft tissues produced by non-surgical periodontal treatment also in patients affected by systemic diseases.

  4. Preoperative patient assessment: Identifying patients at high risk.

    PubMed

    Boehm, O; Baumgarten, G; Hoeft, A

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative mortality remains alarmingly high with a mortality rate ranging between 0.4% and 4%. A small subgroup of multimorbid and/or elderly patients undergoing different surgical procedures naturally confers the highest risk of complications and perioperative death. Therefore, preoperative assessment should identify these high-risk patients and stratify them to individualized monitoring and treatment throughout all phases of perioperative care. A "tailored" perioperative approach might help further reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. This article aims to elucidate individual morbidity-specific risks. It further suggests approaches to detect patients at the risk of perioperative complications.

  5. Surgical patients travel longer distances than non-surgical patients to receive care at a rural hospital in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Faierman, Michelle L; Anderson, Jamie E; Assane, Americo; Bendix, Peter; Vaz, Fernando; Rose, John A; Funzamo, Carlos; Bickler, Stephen W; Noormahomed, Emilia V

    2015-01-01

    Surgical care is increasingly recognised as an important component of global health delivery. However, there are still major gaps in knowledge related to access to surgical care in low-income countries. In this study, we compare distances travelled by surgical patients with patients seeking other medical services at a first-level hospital in rural Mozambique. Data were collected on all inpatients at Hospital Rural de Chókwè in rural Mozambique between 20 June 2012 and 3 August 2012. Euclidean distances travelled by surgical versus non-surgical patients using coordinates of each patient's city of residence were compared. Data were analysed using ArcGIS 10 and STATA. In total, 500 patients were included. Almost one-half (47.6%) lived in the city where the hospital is based. By hospital ward, the majority (62.0%) of maternity patients came from within the hospital's city compared with only 35.2% of surgical patients. The average distance travelled was longest for surgical patients (42 km) compared with an average of 17 km for patients on all other wards. Patients seeking surgical care at this first-level hospital travel farther than patients seeking other services. While other patients may have access to at community clinics, surgical patients depend more heavily on the services available at first-level hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Characteristics of Pseudoaneurysms in Northern India; Risk Analysis, Clinical Profile, Surgical Management and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Hafeezulla; Ganaie, Farooq Ahmad; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Bhat, Mohammad Akbar; Singh, Shyam; Parra, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical management and outcome of pseudoaneurysm secondary to iatrogenic or traumatic vascular injury. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed in department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery skims soura during a 4-year period. We included all the patients referring to our center with primary diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed with angiography and color Doppler sonography. The clinical and demographic characteristics were recorded and the risk factors were identified accordingly. Patients with small swelling (less than 5-cm) and without any complication were managed conservatively. They were followed for progression and development of complications in relation to swelling. Others underwent surgical repair and excision. The outcome of the patients was also recorded. Results: Overall we included 20 patients with pseudoaneurysm. The mean age of the patients was 42.1±0.6 years. Among them there were 11 (55%) men and 9 (45%) women. Nine (45%) patients with end stage renal disease developed pseudoaneurysm after inadvertent femoral artery puncture for hemodialysis; two patients after interventional cardiology procedure; one after femoral embolectomy; one developed after fire arm splinter injury and one formed femoral artery related pseudoaneurysm after drainage of right inguinal abscess. The most common site of pseudoaneurysm was femoral artery followed by brachial artery. Overall surgical intervention was performed in 17 (85%) patients and 3 (15%) were managed conservatively. Conclusion: End stage renal disease is a major risk factor for pseudoaneurysm formation. Coagulopathy, either therapeutic or pathological is also an important risk factor. Patients with these risk factors need cannulation of venous structures for hemodialysis under ultrasound guide to prevent inadvertent arterial injury. Patients with end stage renal disease who sustain inadvertent

  7. Obesity and the Risk for Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Robert D; Reese, Stacey; Bochicchio, Kelly; Mazuski, John E; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after abdominal procedures; however, data characterizing the risk of SSI in obese patients during abdominal procedures are lacking. We hypothesized that obesity is an independent risk factor for SSI across wound classes. We analyzed American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) data for 2011. We calculated body mass index (BMI), classifying patients according to National Institute of Health (NIH) BMI groups. We excluded records in which height/weight was not recorded and patients with BMI less than 18.5. We examined patients undergoing open abdominal procedures, performing univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relative contribution of obesity to SSI. Study criteria were met by 89,148 patients. Obese and morbidly obese patients had significantly greater SSI rates in clean and clean-contaminated cases but not contaminated or dirty/infected cases. Logistic regression confirmed obesity and morbid obesity as being independently associated with the overall SSI development, specifically in clean [Obesity odds ratio (OR) = 1.757, morbid obesity OR = 2.544, P < 0.001] and clean-contaminated (obesity OR = 1.239, morbid obesity OR = 1.287, P < 0.001) cases. Obesity is associated with increased risk of SSI overall, specifically in clean and clean-contaminated abdominal procedures; this is independent of diabetes mellitus. Novel techniques are needed to reduce SSI in this high-risk patient population.

  8. Surgical management of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Atul F; McGraw, Michael H; Israelite, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a known risk factor for osteonecrosis of the hip. Necrosis within the femoral head may cause severe pain, functional limitations, and compromise quality of life in this patient population. Early stages of avascular necrosis of the hip may be managed surgically with core decompression with or without autologous bone grafting. Total hip arthroplasty is the mainstay of treatment of advanced stages of the disease in patients who have intractable pain and are medically fit to undergo the procedure. The management of hip pathology in sickle cell disease presents numerous medical and surgical challenges, and the careful perioperative management of patients is mandatory. Although there is an increased risk of medical and surgical complications in patients with sickle cell disease, total hip arthroplasty can provide substantial relief of pain and improvement of function in the appropriately selected patient. PMID:26601059

  9. Surgical innovation-enhanced quality and the processes that assure patient/provider safety: A surgical conundrum.

    PubMed

    Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz

    2015-12-01

    Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities.

  10. Length of stay in surgical patients: nutritional predictive parameters revisited.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Isabel; Correia, Marta; Camilo, Maria; Ravasco, Paula

    2013-01-28

    Nutritional evaluation may predict clinical outcomes, such as hospital length of stay (LOS). We aimed to assess the value of nutritional risk and status methods, and to test standard anthropometry percentiles v. the 50th percentile threshold in predicting LOS, and to determine nutritional status changes during hospitalisation and their relation with LOS. In this longitudinal prospective study, 298 surgical patients were evaluated at admission and discharge. At admission, nutritional risk was assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and nutritional status by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), involuntary % weight loss in the previous 6 months and anthropometric parameters; % weight loss and anthropometry were reassessed at discharge. At admission, risk/undernutrition results by NRS-2002 (P< 0.001), MUST (P< 0.001), % weight loss (P< 0.001) and SGA (P< 0.001) were predictive of longer LOS. A mid-arm circumference (MAC) or a mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMA) under the 15th and the 50th percentile, which was considered indicative of undernutrition, did predict longer LOS (P< 0.001); conversely, there was no association between depleted triceps skinfold (TSF) and longer LOS. In-hospital, there was a high prevalence of weight, muscle and fat losses, associated with longer LOS. At discharge, patients with a simultaneous negative variation in TSF+MAC+MAMA (n 158, 53 %) had longer LOS than patients with a TSF+MAC+MAMA positive variation (11 (8-15) v. 8 (7-12) d, P< 0.001). We concluded that at risk or undernutrition evaluated by all methods, except TSF and BMI, predicted a longer LOS. Moreover, MAC and MAMA measurements and their classification according to the 50th percentile threshold seem reliable undernutrition indicators.

  11. Incidence of and Preoperative Risk Factors for Surgical Delay in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: Analysis From the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Phruetthiphat, Ong-Art; Gao, Yubo; Anthony, Chris A; Pugely, Andrew J; Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J

    2016-11-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is a proven treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee and hip that has failed conservative treatment. While most of total joint arthroplasty is considered elective with surgery on the day of admission, a small subset of patients may require delay in surgery past the day of admission. Recently, surgical delay for primary total knee arthroplasty has been identified. However, the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for delay in surgery before total hip arthroplasty (THA) have not been previously defined. In patients undergoing THA, we sought to define (1) the incidence of and risk factors for delay in surgery, (2) the postoperative complications between surgical delay and no surgical delay cohorts, and (3) association of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) in patients with delay of surgery. We retrospectively queried the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database using Current Procedural Terminology billing codes and identified 7890 THAs performed between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis were then used to identify risk factors for surgical delay. Correlation between CCI and surgical delay in THA was evaluated. One-hundred seventy-nine patients (2.31%) were identified as experiencing a surgical delay before THA. Multivariate analysis identified congestive heart failure (CHF) (P = .0038), bleeding disorder (P < .0001), sepsis (P < .0001), prior operation in past 30 days (P = .0001), dependent functional status (P < .0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 (P = .0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists class 4 (P = .0023), significant weight loss (P = .0109), and hematocrit <38% (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for delay in surgery. Compared with the nondelay cohort, those experiencing surgical delay before THA had higher rates of postoperative surgical (8.9% vs 3.1%, P < .0001) and medical complications (23.5% vs 10.1%, P < .0001). Mean CCI was higher

  12. Prospective Comparison of Stereotactic Core Biopsy and Surgical Excision as Diagnostic Procedures for Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Monica; Venta, Luz; Stinson, Tamy; Bennett, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether stereotactic core biopsy (SCNB) is the diagnostic method of choice for all mammographic abnormalities requiring tissue sampling. Summary Background Data Stereotactic core needle biopsy decreases the cost of diagnosis, but its impact on the number of surgical procedures needed to complete local therapy has not been studied in a large, unselected patient population. Methods A total of 1,852 mammographic abnormalities in 1,550 consecutive patients were prospectively categorized for level of cancer risk and underwent SCNB or diagnostic needle localization and surgical excision. Diagnosis, type of cancer surgery, and number of surgical procedures to complete local therapy were obtained from surgical and pathology databases. Results The malignancy rate was 24%. Surgical biopsy patients were older, more likely to have cancer, and more likely to be treated with breast-conserving therapy than those in the SCNB group. For all types of lesions, regardless of degree of suspicion, patients diagnosed by SCNB were almost three times more likely to have one surgical procedure. However, for patients treated with lumpectomy alone, the number of surgical procedures and the rate of negative margins did not differ between groups. Conclusions Stereotactic core needle biopsy is the diagnostic procedure of choice for most mammographic abnormalities. However, for patients undergoing lumpectomy without axillary surgery, it is an extra invasive procedure that does not facilitate obtaining negative margins. PMID:11303136

  13. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  14. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  15. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  16. The risk of headache attributed to surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, João E; Azevedo-Filho, Hildo R C; Rocha-Filho, Pedro A S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of headache in patients undergoing surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The risk of the post-craniotomy headache has never been studied. Patients with intracranial aneurysm, who were consecutively admitted to the Hospital da Restauração, Brazil, from May 2009 to October 2010, were interviewed before they underwent surgical or non-surgical treatment of the aneurysms. The patients were followed for 4 months after intervention. The International Headache Society criteria for post-craniotomy headache were used after surgery and adapted for headache after embolization (maximum intensity of pain on the same side of the aneurysm). We also used the Headache Impact Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Of 101 patients enrolled, 53 patients underwent craniotomy and 48 patients embolization. The surgery group was younger and had fewer women. The incidence of headache was 28/51 cases (54.9%) after surgery and 12/47 cases (25.5%) after embolization (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-3.72). The incidence of persistent headache was not different between the 2 groups. The only risk factor for headache after the intervention was craniotomy (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.7) and for persistent headache was anxiety prior to treatment (odds ratio = 8.5; 95% CI 1.7-42.3). The headache after treatment was not associated with the risk of anxiety or depression after the intervention. Patients who underwent craniotomy had an increased risk of headache after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The incidence of persistent headache after 3 months was higher among patients who had anxiety before the intervention. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  17. Rapid Response Team Activations in Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Wathen, Beth; Roosevelt, Genie E; Hill, Lauren R S; Schubert, Anna; Reese, Jenny; Bensard, Denis D; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team who evaluates hospitalized patients for concerns of nonemergent clinical deterioration. RRT evaluations are mandatory for children whose Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score (assessment of child's behavior, cardiovascular and respiratory status) is ≥4. We aimed to determine if there were differences in characteristics of RRT calls between children who were admitted primarily to either medical or surgical services. We hypothesized that RRT activations would be called for less severely ill children with lower PEWS score on surgical services compared with children admitted to a medical service. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with RRT activations between January 2008 and April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We evaluated the characteristics of RRT calls and made comparisons between RRT calls made for children admitted primarily to medical or surgical services. Results A total of 2,991 RRT activations were called, and 324 (11%) involved surgical patients. Surgical patients were older than medical patients (median: 7 vs. 4 years; p < 0.001). RRT evaluations were called for lower PEWS score in surgical patients compared with medical (median: 3 vs. 4, p < 0.001). Surgical patients were more likely to remain on the inpatient ward following the RRT (51 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to require an advanced airway than medical patients (0.9 vs. 2.1%; p = 0.412). RRT evaluations did not differ between day and night shifts (52% day vs. 48% night; p = 0.17). All surgical patients and all but one medical patient survived the event; surgical patients were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (97 vs. 91%, p < 0.001) Conclusions RRT activations are rare events among pediatric surgical patients. When compared with medical patients, RRT evaluation is requested for surgical patients with a lower PEWS

  18. Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.

    PubMed

    Vesco, Kimberly K; Marshall, Lynn M; Nelson, Heidi D; Humphrey, Linda; Rizzo, Joanne; Pedula, Kathryn L; Cauley, Jane A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hochberg, Marc C; Antoniucci, Diana; Hillier, Teresa A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether older postmenopausal women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy before natural menopause (surgical menopause) have a higher risk of nonvertebral postmenopausal fracture than women with natural menopause. We used 21 years of prospectively collected incident fracture data from the ongoing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a cohort study of community-dwelling women without previous bilateral hip fracture who were 65 years or older at enrollment, to determine the risk of hip, wrist, and any nonvertebral fracture. χ(2) and t tests were used to compare the two groups on important characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by baseline oral estrogen use status were used to estimate the risk of fracture. Baseline characteristics differed significantly among the 6,616 women within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who underwent either surgical (1,157) or natural (5,459) menopause, including mean age at menopause (44.3 ± 7.4 vs 48.9 ± 4.9 y, P < 0.001) and current use of oral estrogen (30.2% vs 6.5%, P < 0.001). Fracture rates were not significantly increased for surgical versus natural menopause, even among women who had never used oral estrogen (hip fracture: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.21; wrist fracture: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.78-1.57; any nonvertebral fracture: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93-1.32). These data provide some reassurance that the long-term risk of nonvertebral fracture is not substantially increased for postmenopausal women who experienced premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, compared with postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, even in the absence of postmenopausal estrogen therapy.

  19. [Fertility and risk of recurrence after surgical treatment of an ectopic pregnancy (EP): Salpingostomy versus salpingectomy].

    PubMed

    Jamard, A; Turck, M; Pham, A D; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G

    2016-02-01

    Two surgical techniques can be performed for the treatment of an ectopic pregnancy (EP): a conservative one called salpingostomy and a radical one called salpingectomy. We compared both techniques to find differences about fertility or risk of recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed all the women who underwent a surgical treatment for an ectopic pregnancy in the university's hospital of Caen between 2008 and 2011. We compared the results of both techniques. The primary end-point was the rate of intra-uterine pregnancy and the second end-point was the rate of recurrence of the EP. We also try to identify other risk factor of infertility. One hundred and fifty-two patients have been listed initially. Ninety-eight patients still attempt to become pregnant after the EP. In the conservative group, the rate of intra-uterine pregnancy was 88% (n=22) and the rate of recurrence was 8% (n=2). In the radical group, the rate of intra-uterine pregnancy was 68% (n=50) and the rate of recurrence was 5% (n=3). We could not identify any significant difference in the subsequent fertility or in the recurrence's risk between conservative and radical surgery. The age of the patient has been identified as a significative risk factor of infertility. To choose the surgical technique of an EP, the wish of pregnancy, the risk factor of infertility of the patient and the laparoscopic observations have to be taken into account. It seems that there is no difference between the two surgical techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors associated with intestinal necrosis in children with failed non-surgical reduction for intussusception.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ya; Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Han, Yi-Jiang; Zhu, Li-Bin; Huang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Jing; Li, Zhong-Rong

    2017-05-01

    Intestinal necrosis is the most serious complication of intussusception. The risk factors associated with intestinal necrosis in pediatric patients with intussusception have not been well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with intestinal necrosis in pediatric patients with failed non-surgical reduction for intussusception. Hospitalized patients who failed the air-enema reduction for intussusception in the outpatient department and subsequently underwent surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were categorized into two groups: intestinal necrosis group and non-intestinal necrosis group based on the surgical findings. Demographic and clinical features including the findings from the surgery were recorded and analyzed. Factors associated with intestinal necrosis were analyzed using univariate and multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. A total of 728 cases were included. Among them, 171 had intestinal necrosis at the time of surgery. The group with intestinal necrosis had a longer duration of symptom or length of illness (P = 0.000), and younger (P = 0.000) than the non-intestinal necrosis group. Complex/compound type of intussusceptions is more likely to have intestinal necrosis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of grossly bloody stool (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.19-3.76, P = 0.010) and duration of symptom (OR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.06-1.08, P = 0.000) were independent risk factors for intestinal necrosis in patients hospitalized for surgical reduction for intussusceptions. At time of admission, the presence of bloody stools and duration of symptom are the important risk factors for developing intestinal necrosis for those patients who failed non-surgical reduction. The length of illness has the highest sensitivity and specificity to correlate with intestinal necrosis. This finding may suggest that we should take the intussusception cases that have the longer duration of

  1. Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of oesophageal Doppler monitoring in critically ill and high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Mowatt, G; Houston, G; Hernández, R; de Verteuil, R; Fraser, C; Cuthbertson, B; Vale, L

    2009-01-01

    owing to the low number of events and low overall number of patients in the combined totals. Three studies compared ODM plus conventional assessment with conventional assessment during surgery. There was no evidence of a difference in mortality (fixed-effects OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.23-2.77). Length of hospital stay was shorter in all three studies in the ODM group. Two studies compared ODM plus CVP monitoring plus conventional assessment vs CVP monitoring plus conventional assessment in critically ill patients. The patient groups were quite different (cardiac surgery and major trauma) and neither study, nor a meta-analysis, showed a statistically significant difference in mortality (fixed-effects OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.41-1.70). Fewer patients in the ODM group experienced complications (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30-0.81) and both studies reported a statistically significant shorter median length of hospital stay in that group. No economic evaluations that met the inclusion criteria were identified from the existing literature so a series of balance sheets was constructed. The results show that ODM strategies are likely to be cost-effective. More formal economic evaluation would allow better use of the available data. All identified studies were conducted in unconscious patients. However, further research is needed to evaluate new ODM probes that may be tolerated by awake patients. Given the paucity of the existing economic evidence base, any further primary research should include an economic evaluation or should provide data suitable for use in an economic model.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Gutsche, Jacob T.; Ramakrishna, Harish; Setegne, Samuel L.; Jackson, Kirk R.; Augoustides, John G.; Ochroch, E. Andrew; Weiss, Stuart J.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Cheung, Albert T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or hospital length of stay (LOS). Methods: In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients (86%) received NaHCO3. Total NaHCO3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0–535 mEq) per patient. Total NaHCO3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001), minimum serum bicarbonate (r = −0.40, P < 0.001), maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007), duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002), and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007). Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Conclusion: Routine administration of NaHCO3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27397449

  3. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    PubMed

    Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Gutsche, Jacob T; Ramakrishna, Harish; Setegne, Samuel L; Jackson, Kirk R; Augoustides, John G; Ochroch, E Andrew; Weiss, Stuart J; Bavaria, Joseph E; Cheung, Albert T

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO 3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or hospital length of stay (LOS). In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO 3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Seventy-five patients (86%) received NaHCO 3 . Total NaHCO 3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0-535 mEq) per patient. Total NaHCO 3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001), minimum serum bicarbonate (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007), duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002), and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007). Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO 3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Routine administration of NaHCO 3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO 3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO 3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO 3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes.

  4. Patient recall 6 weeks after surgical consent for midurethral sling using mesh

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Brook L.; Hammil, Sarah L.; Constantine, Melissa L.; Tarr, Megan E.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Abed, Husam T.; Sung, Vivian W.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis We aimed to determine patient recall of specific surgical risks and benefits discussed during consent for midurethral sling (MUS) surgery immediately after consent and at 6 weeks follow-up. Specifically we sought to determine whether or not women recalled specific risks related to the placement of mesh. Methods Surgeons consented patients for MUS in their usual fashion during audio recorded consent sessions. After consent and again at 6 weeks postoperatively, women completed a checklist of risks, benefits, alternatives, and general procedural items covered during consent. In addition, women completed the Decision Regret Scale for Pelvic Floor Disorders (DRS-PFD). Audio files were used to verify specific risks, benefits, alternatives, and procedural items discussed at consent. Recall of specific risks, benefits, and alternatives were correlated with DRS-PFD scores. Results Sixty-three women completed checklists immediately post consent and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Six-week recall of benefits, alternatives, and description of the operation did not change. Surgical risk recall as measured by the patient checklist deteriorated from 92 % immediately post consent to 72 % at 6 weeks postoperatively (p < .001). Recall of the risk for mesh erosion declined from 91 to 64 % (p < .001). Recall that mesh was placed during the MUS procedure declined from 98 to 84 % (p = .01). DRS-PFD scores were correlated with poorer surgical risk recall and surgical complications (r =.31, p = .02). Conclusions Recall of MUS surgery risks deteriorated overtime. Specifically, women forgot that mesh was placed or might erode. Further investigations into methods and measures of adequate consent that promote recall of long-term surgical risks are needed. PMID:23818127

  5. Microbial colonization of open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Rasilainen, Suvi Kaarina; Juhani, Mentula Panu; Kalevi, Leppäniemi Ari

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the time-course and microbiology of colonization of open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients and to study its association with morbidity, mortality and specific complications of open abdomen. A retrospective cohort analysis was done. One hundred eleven consecutive patients undergoing vacuum-assisted closure with mesh as temporary abdominal closure method for open abdomen were analyzed. Microbiological samples from the open abdomen were collected. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Mann-Whitney U test was used when comparing number of temporary abdominal closure changes between colonized and sterile patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to calculate cumulative estimates for colonization. Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze risk factors for colonization. Microbiological samples were obtained from 97 patients. Of these 76 (78 %) were positive. Sixty-one (80 %) patients were colonized with multiple micro-organisms and 27 (36 %) were cultured positive for candida species. The duration of open abdomen treatment adversely affected the colonization rate. Thirty-three (34 %) patients were colonized at the time of laparostomy. After one week of open abdomen treatment 69, and after two weeks 76 patients were colonized with cumulative colonization estimates of 74 % and 89 %, respectively. Primary fascial closure rate was 80 % (61/76) and 86 % (18/21) for the colonized and sterile patients, respectively. The rate of wound complications did not significantly differ between these groups. Microbial colonization of open abdomen is associated with the duration of open abdomen treatment. Wound complications are common after open abdomen, but colonization does not seem to have significant effect on these. The high colonization rate described herein should be taken into account when primarily sterile conditions like acute pancreatitis and aortic aneurysmal rupture

  6. Review of information technology for surgical patient care.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jamie R; Huth, Hannah; Jackson, Gretchen P

    2016-06-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs), computerized provider order entry (CPOE), and patient portals have experienced increased adoption by health care systems. The objective of this study was to review evidence regarding the impact of such health information technologies (HIT) on surgical practice. A search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify data-driven, nonsurvey studies about the effects of HIT on surgical care. Domain experts were queried for relevant articles. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts for inclusion criteria and analyzed full text of eligible articles. A total of 2890 citations were identified. Of them, 32 observational studies and two randomized controlled trials met eligibility criteria. EHR or CPOE improved appropriate antibiotic administration for surgical procedures in 13 comparative observational studies. Five comparative observational studies indicated that electronically generated operative notes had increased accuracy, completeness, and availability in the medical record. The Internet as an information resource about surgical procedures was generally inadequate. Surgical patients and providers demonstrated rapid adoption of patient portals, with increasing proportions of online versus inperson outpatient surgical encounters. The overall quality of evidence about the effects of HIT in surgical practice was low. Current data suggest an improvement in appropriate perioperative antibiotic administration and accuracy of operative reports from CPOE and EHR applications. Online consumer health educational resources and patient portals are popular among patients and families, but their impact has not been studied well in surgical populations. With increasing adoption of HIT, further research is needed to optimize the efficacy of such tools in surgical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The efficacy of a midfacial seal drape in reducing oculofacial surgical field fire risk.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jeremiah P; Hirabayashi, Kristin E; Kim, Brian T; Zhu, Feilin A; Joseph, Jeffrey M; Nunery, William

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a midface seal drape in eliminating fire risk oxygen concentrations from nasal cannulated oxygen delivery compared with a standard open oculofacial surgical field. Controlled experiment using the SimMan patient simulator and an oxygen detector. Oxygen concentrations were measured at 9 facial surgical locations with nasal cannula flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 l/min of 100% FiO2 in both the draped and undraped conditions. The mean oxygen concentration in the oculofacial surgical field with the seal drape was 21.4% and 26.3% without (p = 0.0002; paired t test, 2-tailed). The draped condition provided safe oxygen concentration levels at all anatomical landmarks at all 3 flow rates, whereas the undraped condition was associated with suprathreshold oxygen concentration levels at 13 of 27 measurements. There was a direct correlation between oxygen flow rate and surgical field oxygen concentration in the undraped condition. A midfacial seal drape reduced oxygen concentrations from nasal cannula oxygen in the oculofacial surgical field and may reduce fire risk.

  8. Nutrition support in surgical patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Liu, Bao-Lin; Shang, Bin; Chen, Ai-Shan; Liu, Shi-Qing; Sun, Wei; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Yin, Jian-Qiao; Su, Qi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed. RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection. CONCLUSION: Appropriate

  9. Exploring challenges and solutions in the preparation of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Münter, Kristine Husum; Østergaard, Doris; Fuhrmann, Lone

    2015-10-01

    Handover of surgical patients from ward to operating room is a sensible point for information and communication failures. Guidelines were developed for preparation of surgical patients. Our aim was to explore if patients are sufficiently prepared for surgery according to local guidelines and to identify challenges and solutions for correct preparation through interactive table simulation-based workshops involving the various professions and specialties. Firstly, specific tasks in the hospital guidelines were monitored for all surgical procedures during one week. Secondly, workshops including table simulations involving the various professions and specialties were held. In total, 314 surgical procedures were performed of which 196 were eligible for analysis. Emergency procedures showed the poorest results with non-completed tasks comprising 58% of electronic patient management system tasks, 26% of anaesthesia record tasks, 24% of medication tasks, 14% of blood test tasks and 12% of patient record tasks. In two workshops held for each of four specialties, a total of 21 participants mapped the preoperative patient journey with related responsibilities, tasks and written documentation. Furthermore, challenges and suggestions for solutions were identified. Completion of mandatory tasks for surgical patient preparation was poor. Workshops with table simulations actively involved the stakeholders from various professions and specialties in describing the patient trajectory and mandatory tasks according to hospital guidelines in addition to identifying challenges and solutions for improvement. none. not relevant.

  10. Incidence and risk factors of surgical site infection following cesarean section at Dhulikhel Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, B; Dongol, A

    2014-01-01

    Cesarean Section (CS) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in obstetrical and gynecological department. Surgical site infection (SSI) after a cesarean section increases maternal morbidity prolongs hospital stay and medical costs. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and associated risk factors of surgical site infection among cesarean section cases. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted at Dhulikhel Hospital, department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from July 2013 to June 2014. Total of 648 women who underwent surgical procedure for delivery during study period were included in the study. Data was collected from patient using structred pro forma and examination of wound till discharge was done. Data was compared in terms of presence of surgical site infection and study variables. Wound was evaluated for the development of SSI on third day, and fifth post-operative day, and on the day of discharge. Total of 648 cases were studied. The mean age was 24±4.18. Among the studied cases 92% were literate and 8% were illiterate. Antenatal clinic was attended by 97.7%. The incidence rate of surgical site infection was 82 (12.6%). SSI was found to be common in women who had rupture of membrane before surgery (p=0.020), who underwent emergency surgery (p=0.0004), and the women who had vertical skin incision (p=0.0001) and interrupted skin suturing (p=0.0001) during surgery. Surgical site infection following caesarean section is common. Various modifiable risk factors were observed in this study. Development of SSI is related to multifactorial rather than one factor. Development and strict implementation of protocol by all the health care professionals could be effective to minimize and prevent the infection rate after caesarean section.

  11. Risk for surgical complications after previous stereotactic body radiotherapy of the spine.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Johannes; Cho, John B C; Fahim, Daniel K; Gerszten, Peter C; Flickinger, John C; Grills, Inga S; Jawad, Maha; Kersh, Ronald; Letourneau, Daniel; Mantel, Frederick; Sahgal, Arjun; Shin, John H; Winey, Brian; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2017-09-11

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for vertebral metastases has emerged as a promising technique, offering high rates of symptom relief and local control combined with low risk of toxicity. Nonetheless, local failure or vertebral instability may occur after spine SBRT, generating the need for subsequent surgery in the irradiated region. This study evaluated whether there is an increased incidence of surgical complications in patients previously treated with SBRT at the index level. Based upon a retrospective international database of 704 cases treated with SBRT for vertebral metastases, 30 patients treated at 6 different institutions were identified who underwent surgery in a region previously treated with SBRT. Thirty patients, median age 59 years (range 27-84 years) underwent SBRT for 32 vertebral metastases followed by surgery at the same vertebra. Median follow-up time from SBRT was 17 months. In 17 cases, conventional radiotherapy had been delivered prior to SBRT at a median dose of 30 Gy in median 10 fractions. SBRT was administered with a median prescription dose of 19.3 Gy (range 15-65 Gy) delivered in median 1 fraction (range 1-17) (median EQD2/10 = 44 Gy). The median time interval between SBRT and surgical salvage therapy was 6 months (range 1-39 months). Reasons for subsequent surgery were pain (n = 28), neurological deterioration (n = 15) or fracture of the vertebral body (n = 13). Open surgical decompression (n = 24) and/or stabilization (n = 18) were most frequently performed; Five patients (6 vertebrae) were treated without complications with vertebroplasty only. Increased fibrosis complicating the surgical procedure was explicitly stated in one surgical report. Two durotomies occurred which were closed during the operation, associated with a neurological deficit in one patient. Median blood loss was 500 ml, but five patients had a blood loss of more than 1 l during the procedure. Delayed wound healing was reported in two

  12. Surgical management in patient with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Somasheila I; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Latha, K Madhavi; Kamat, Sripathi; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    Surgery in the management of uveitis can be divided based on indication: either for therapeutic or can be for diagnostic purposes or to manage complications. The commonest indications include: Visual rehabilitation: surgery for removal of cataract, band keratopathy, corneal scars, pupillary membranes, removal of dense vitreous membranes, management of complications: anti-glaucoma surgery, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and chronic hypotony and diagnostic: aqueous tap, vitreous biopsy, tissue biopsy (iris, choroid). In this review, we shall describe the surgical technique for visual rehabilitation and for management of complications. PMID:23803480

  13. Differential risk for neonatal surgical airway intervention in prenatally diagnosed neck masses.

    PubMed

    Steigman, Shaun A; Nemes, Luanne; Barnewolt, Carol E; Estroff, Judy A; Valim, Clarissa; Jennings, Russell W; Fauza, Dario O

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to identify risk factors for neonatal surgical airway intervention among fetuses with prenatally diagnosed cervical masses. An 8-year retrospective review identified 23 consecutive patients with a prenatal diagnosis of a neck mass, managed at a single tertiary center. Variables analyzed included anticipated diagnosis, extent of the mass, need for any surgical airway intervention in the neonatal period, final histopathology data, and survival. Statistical analysis was based on the Fisher and Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact tests (significance set at P < or = .05) and exact 95% confidence intervals for risk differences. Eight patients underwent termination of pregnancy or were lost to follow-up. The imaging-based prenatal diagnosis was confirmed postnatally in 93% (14/15) of the remaining patients. Final diagnoses included lymphatic malformation (8), teratoma (6), and esophageal duplication (1). Teratomas were associated with a significantly higher risk for neonatal airway intervention than lymphatic malformations (67% vs 11%, P = .02). The majority of such procedures were performed under ex utero intrapartum treatment. Survival was 93% (14/15). Cervical teratomas are significantly more likely to demand surgical airway intervention in the neonate, typically under ex utero intrapartum treatment, than cervical lymphatic malformations. These findings should be considered in the prenatal counseling for fetal cervical masses.

  14. Preoperative Chlorhexidine Gluconate Use Can Increase Risk for Surgical Site Infections after Ventral Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Ajita S; Krpata, David M; Phillips, Sharon; Huang, Li-Ching; Haskins, Ivy N; Rosenblatt, Steven; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    There is varying evidence about the use of preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate to decrease surgical site infection for elective surgery. This intervention has never been studied in ventral hernia repair, the most common general surgery procedure in the US. We aimed to determine whether preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate decreases the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing ventral hernia repair in the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative were separated into 2 groups: 1 group received preoperative chlorhexidine scrub and the other did not. The 2 groups were evaluated for 30-day wound morbidity, including surgical site occurrence (SSO), surgical site infection (SSI), and SSO requiring procedural intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression analysis and propensity score modeling. Multiple factors were controlled for statistical analysis, including patient-related factors and operative factors. In total, 3,924 patients were included for comparison. After multivariate logistic regression modeling, the preoperative chlorhexidine scrub group had a higher incidence of SSOs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61) and SSIs (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.07). After propensity score modeling, the increased risk of SSO and SSI persisted (SSO: OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.70; SSI: OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.011 to 2.072, respectively). Prehospital chlorhexidine gluconate scrub appears to increase the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. These findings suggest that the generalized use of prehospital chlorhexidine might not be desirable for all surgical populations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical Team Stability and Risk of Sharps-Related Blood and Body Fluid Exposures During Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Myers, Douglas J; Lipscomb, Hester J; Epling, Carol; Hunt, Debra; Richardson, William; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Dement, John M

    2016-05-01

    To explore whether surgical teams with greater stability among their members (ie, members have worked together more in the past) experience lower rates of sharps-related percutaneous blood and body fluid exposures (BBFE) during surgical procedures. A 10-year retrospective cohort study. A single large academic teaching hospital. Surgical teams participating in surgical procedures (n=333,073) performed during 2001-2010 and 2,113 reported percutaneous BBFE were analyzed. A social network measure (referred to as the team stability index) was used to quantify the extent to which surgical team members worked together in the previous 6 months. Poisson regression was used to examine the effect of team stability on the risk of BBFE while controlling for procedure characteristics and accounting for procedure duration. Separate regression models were generated for percutaneous BBFE involving suture needles and those involving other surgical devices. RESULTS The team stability index was associated with the risk of percutaneous BBFE (adjusted rate ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.97]). However, the association was stronger for percutaneous BBFE involving devices other than suture needles (adjusted rate ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99]) than for exposures involving suture needles (0.96 [0.88-1.04]). Greater team stability may reduce the risk of percutaneous BBFE during surgical procedures, particularly for exposures involving devices other than suture needles. Additional research should be conducted on the basis of primary data gathered specifically to measure qualities of relationships among surgical team personnel.

  16. Risk of surgical glove perforation in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, N; Nagao, T; Sakuma, H; Miyachi, H; Ochiai, S; Kimura, Y; Fukano, H; Shimozato, K

    2012-08-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery, which involves several sharp instruments and fixation materials, is consistently at a high risk for cross-contamination due to perforated gloves, but it is unclear how often such perforations occur. This study aimed to address this issue. The frequency of the perforation of surgical gloves (n=1436) in 150 oral and maxillofacial surgeries including orthognathic surgery (n=45) was assessed by the hydroinsufflation technique. Orthognathic surgery had the highest perforation rate in at least 1 glove in 1 operation (91.1%), followed by cleft lip and palate surgery (55.0%), excision of oral soft tumour (54.5%) and dental implantation (50.0%). The perforation rate in scrub nurses was 63.4%, followed by 44.4% in surgeons and first assistants, and 16.3% in second assistants. The odds ratio for the perforation rate in orthognathic surgery versus other surgeries was 16.0 (95% confidence interval: 5.3-48.0). The protection rate offered by double gloving in orthognathic surgery was 95.2%. These results suggest that, regardless of the surgical duration and blood loss in all fields of surgery, orthognathic surgery must be categorized in the highest risk group for glove perforation, following gynaecological and open lung surgery, due to the involvement of sharp objects.

  17. Surgical wound infection in urology. Analysis of risk factors and associated microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Isa, M; Medina-Polo, J; Lara-Isla, A; Pérez-Cadavid, S; Arrébola-Pajares, A; Sopeña-Sutil, R; Benítez-Sala, R; Justo-Quintas, J; Gil-Moradillo, J; Passas-Martínez, J B; Tejido-Sánchez, A

    2017-03-01

    Open surgery continues to have a fundamental role in urology, and one of its main complications is surgical wound infection. Our objective was to analyse surgical wound infection in patients who underwent surgery in our Department of Urology and to assess the risk factors, microorganisms and resistances by type of surgery. This was a prospective observational study that included 940 patients: 370 abdominal/open lumbar surgeries and 570 genitoperineal surgeries. We analysed age, sex, comorbidities, stay and type of surgery, as well as the causal microorganisms and antibiotic resistances. For genitoperineal surgery, we found 15 cases (2.6%) of surgical wound infection associated with previous urinary catheterisation. Most of the isolated microorganisms corresponded to enterobacteriaceae, highlighting the resistance to beta-lactam. In abdominal/lumbar surgery, we found 41 cases (11.1%) of surgical wound infection. The incidence rate was 3.3% in prostate surgery; 9.8% in renal surgery; and 45.0% in cystectomy. Heart disease was associated with a higher incidence rate of surgical wound infection. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus spp. (27.1%), E.coli (22.9%) and Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%). Enterococcus and beta-lactamase-producing E.coli are resistant to ampicillin in 37.5% and 41.7% of cases, respectively. We found a low incidence rate of surgical wound infection in genitoperineal surgery, compared with renal surgery and cystectomy. The presence of heart disease and carrying a previous urinary catheter are factors associated with surgical wound infection. Enterococcus and E.coli are the most common pathogens, with high rates of resistance. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Perioperative Hemoglobin Trajectory in Adult Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Tung, Hon-Ming Andrew; Slater, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Preoperative anemia and nadir hemoglobin (Hb) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been identified as significant risk factors for blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between preoperative anemia, perioperative fluid management, and blood transfusion. In addition, the proportion of elective cardiac surgery patients presenting for surgery with anemia was identified to examine whether the opportunity exists for timely diagnosis and intervention. Data from referral until hospital discharge were comprehensively reviewed over a 12-month period for all nonemergency cardiac surgical patients operated on in our institution. Of the 342 patients identified, elective cases were referred a median of 35 days before preoperative clinic and operated on a median of 14 days subsequently. Subacute cases had a median of 3 days from referral to surgery. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for anemia, 24.2% of elective and 29.6% of subacute patients were anemic. Blood transfusion was administered to 46.2% of patients during their admission. Transfusion was more likely in patients who were female (odds ratio [OR]: 2.45, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–4.70), had a low body mass index (BMI) (OR: .89, 95% CI: .84–.94), preoperative anemia (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.59–10.24), or renal impairment (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 2.42–12.22). Hemodilution minimization strategies reduced the Hb fall during CPB, but not transfusion rates. This study identifies a high prevalence of preoperative anemia with sufficient time for elective referrals to undergo appropriate diagnosis and interventions. It also confirms that low red cell mass (anemia and low BMI) and renal impairment are predictors of perioperative blood transfusion. Perfusion strategies to reduce hemodilution are effective at minimizing the intraoperative fall in Hb concentration but did not influence transfusion rate. PMID:26543251

  19. Retrospective Multicenter Study on Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections after Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Giesen, Louis J.X.; van den Boom, Anne Loes; van Rossem, Charles C.; den Hoed, P.T.; Wijnhoven, Bas P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are seen in up to 5% of patients after appendectomy for acute appendicitis. SSI are associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased costs. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify factors associated with SSI after appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Methods Patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis between June 2014 and January 2015 in 6 teaching hospitals in the southwest of the Netherlands were included. Patient, diagnostic, intra-operative and disease-related factors were collected from the patients' charts. Primary outcome was surgical site infection. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results Some 637 patients were included. Forty-two patients developed a SSI. In univariable analysis body temperature >38°C, CRP>65 and complex appendicitis were associated with SSI. After multivariable logistic regression with stepwise backwards elimination, complex appendicitis was significantly associated with SSI (OR 4.09; 95% CI 2.04-8.20). Appendiceal stump closure with a stapler device was inversely correlated with SSI (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24-0.97) Conclusions Complex appendicitis is a risk factor for SSI and warrants close monitoring postoperatively. The use of a stapler device for appendiceal stump closure is associated with a reduced risk of SSI. PMID:27631081

  20. Role of surgical revascularization in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Enrique; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2005-03-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Currently, diabetics represent approximately a quarter of patients requiring coronary revascularization in the USA. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze the available data in surgical revascularization of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The review will also examine new developments in myocardial revascularization and assess their probable impact on the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.

  1. Impact of surgical innovation on tissue repair in the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tevlin, R; Atashroo, D; Duscher, D; Mc Ardle, A; Gurtner, G C; Wan, D C; Longaker, M T

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, surgeons have been prolific innovators, which is hardly surprising as most surgeons innovate daily, tailoring their intervention to the intrinsic uniqueness of each operation, each patient and each disease. Innovation can be defined as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs or existing market needs. In the past two decades, surgical innovation has significantly improved patient outcomes, complication rates and length of hospital stay. There is one key area that has great potential to change the face of surgical practice and which is still in its infancy: the realm of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. A literature review was performed using PubMed; peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance in order to identify key surgical innovations influencing regenerative medicine, with a focus on osseous, cutaneous and soft tissue reconstruction. This review describes recent advances in regenerative medicine, documenting key innovations in osseous, cutaneous and soft tissue regeneration that have brought regenerative medicine to the forefront of the surgical imagination. Surgical innovation in the emerging field of regenerative medicine has the ability to make a major impact on surgery on a daily basis. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Surgical care burden in orbito-temporal neurofibromatosis: Multiple procedures and surgical care duration analysis in 47 consecutive adult patients.

    PubMed

    Pessis, Rachel; Lantieri, Laurent; Britto, Jonathan A; Leguerinel, Caroline; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Hivelin, Mikaël

    2015-10-01

    Patients with orbito-temporal neurofibromatosis (OTNF) bear a heavy burden of surgical care. We studied 47 consecutive patients with OTNF from the French Neurofibromatosis 1 Referral Center cohort (n > 900), over a 15-year period to determine the clinical features most likely to predict repeat surgery and longer duration of surgical care. Forty-seven patients (5.2% of the NF1 patients' cohort) underwent 79 procedures with a 4.8 years average follow-up. Soft-tissue surgery had a high revision rate (19/45 patients), skeletal surgery did not (2/13 patients). Transosseous wire canthopexy and facial aesthetic unit remodeling were associated with stable outcome. Ptosis repair carried an unfavorable outcome, particularly in the presence of sphenoid dysplasia. Stable skeletal remodeling was achieved with polyethylene implants and/or cementoplasty. Multiple procedures were undertaken in 70% of patients and were predicted by the NF volume, canthopexy, skeletal dysplasia, or a Jackson's classification 2 and/or 3; but not by declining visual acuity. A classification based upon predictive risk of repeated procedures is proposed: Group 1: Isolated soft tissue infiltration not requiring levator palpebrae or canthal surgery; Group 2: Soft tissue involvement requiring ptosis repair or canthopexy, or NF great axis over 4.5 cm; Group 3: Presence of sphenoid dysplasia with pulsatile proptosis, regardless of visual acuity.

  3. Patients With Multiple Myeloma Have More Complications After Surgical Treatment of Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Jun; Menendez, Mariano E.; Mears, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bone lesions from multiple myeloma may lead to pathological fracture of the proximal femur, requiring either fixation or arthroplasty. Little is known about the impact of multiple myeloma on hip fracture care. We investigated whether the patients with multiple myeloma undergoing surgical treatment of hip fractures would be at increased risk for adverse outcomes versus patients who sustain a hip fracture without multiple myeloma. Methods: Using discharge records from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011), we identified 2 440 513 patients older than 50 years of age with surgically treated hip fractures. Of which, 4011 (0.2%) were found to have multiple myeloma. We compared perioperative outcomes between the patients with multiple myeloma and the nonmultiple myeloma patients using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results: Patients with multiple myeloma were more likely to have several postoperative complications, such as in-hospital pneumonia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.51), sepsis (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.32-2.25), surgical site infection (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.38-2.00), and acute renal failure (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.14-1.43). We found that myeloma was not associated with increased inpatient mortality, myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, thromboembolic events, or pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Patients with multiple myeloma are at increased risk for immediate postoperative complications following surgical treatment of hip fractures including in-hospital pneumonia, surgical site infection, and acute renal failure but not hospital mortality, when compared to hip fracture patients without multiple myeloma. Perioperative management of hip fractures in patients with myeloma may be optimized by increased awareness of these risks in this subset of patients. PMID:27551575

  4. Selecting the Right Patient for Surgical Treatment of Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Alan Edmond Parsons

    2016-11-01

    This article presents a personal view of the indications for surgical treatment of patients with hyperhidrosis based on long clinical experience. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is the preferred opinion for palmar sweating. It is also useful when there is additional axillary sweating but is not the first choice for isolated armpit symptoms. Surgical treatment of craniofacial sweating is much more likely to be followed by undesirable side-effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toward strategies for cost containment in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G

    1983-01-01

    The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be

  6. What Determines the Surgical Patient Experience? Exploring the Patient, Clinical Staff, and Administration Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, Olena; Zemke, Dina; Lefforge, Noelle; Shoemaker, Stowe; Menachemi, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are increasingly concerned with enhancing surgical patient experience given that Medicare reimbursements are now tied in part to patient satisfaction. Surgical patients' experience may be influenced by several factors (e.g., integration of care, technical aspects of care), which are ranked differently in importance by clinicians and patients. Strategies designed to improve patient experience can be informed by our research, which examines the determinants of the surgical patient experience from the perspective of multiple healthcare team members. We conducted 12 focus groups with surgical patients, family members, physicians, nurses, and hospital administrators at one acute care, for-profit hospital in a western state and analyzed the content for determinants of the overall surgical patient experience. Specifically, we analyzed the content of the conversations to determine how frequently participants discussed the determinants of the surgical patient experience and how positive, negative, or neutral the comments were. The study's findings suggest that surgical patients and members of the healthcare team have similar views regarding the most important factors in the patient experience-namely, interdisciplinary relationships, technical infrastructure, and staffing. The study results will be used to improve care in this facility and can inform the development of initiatives aimed at improving the surgical patient experience elsewhere. Our study could serve as a model for how other facilities can analyze the surgical patient experience from the perspectives of different stakeholders and improve their performance on the basis of data directly relevant to their organization.

  7. Surgical treatment of left colon malignant emergencies. A new tool for operative risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ceriati, Franco; Tebala, Giovanni D; Ceriati, Emanuela; Coco, Claudio; Tebala, Domenico; Verbo, Alessandro; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Picciocchi, Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    The surgical treatment of left colon and rectal cancer emergencies is still controversial. In our opinion the choice is to be based on the general health status of each patient. We retrospectively analyzed our series of 57 patients who underwent immediate resection and anastomosis. Factors significantly related to short-term results were chronic renal failure, heart disease, low albumin serum levels and colonic perforation. The presence of a diverting colostomy did not result in being a protective factor toward anastomotic dehiscence. We constructed a Colorectal Tumors Emergencies Score made of the identified four factors in which the score of each factor is the approximated odds ratio (chronic renal failure 7 points, low albumin serum levels 6 points, heart disease 5 points, colon perforation 4 points). Each patient was classified as Low Risk (CTES < 4), Moderate Risk (CTES 4-12) and High Risk (CTES > 12), mortality and morbidity being 4.3% and 21.7%, 24.0% and 60.0%, 88.9% and 88.9%, respectively. High-risk patients may undergo a staged procedure. Moderate risk patient may be treated by immediate resection of the tumor, without anastomosis. Immediate resection and anastomosis may be reserved to low-risk patients.

  8. [Communication with surgical patients of older age on the internet].

    PubMed

    Brangan, Sanja; Sonicki, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    A growing interest of general population to seek health information on the Internet and a growing body of health websites have been well documented in the recent health literature. Moreover, the Internet has become a popular mode of communication between healthcare providers and patients. This has resulted in many efforts to set specific quality guidelines for development of information for patients on the Internet, including different aspects of access to health information. This paper presents results of a study that explored the structure of information sources of surgical patients. Analysis of patient profiles shows that older patients rarely sought surgical information on the Internet, and mostly relied on communication with their doctors. This paper discusses various options of how to make this medium more attractive to patients and how to use the rich experience of the older patient generations to improve the quality of doctor-patient communication.

  9. Current surgical instrument labeling techniques may increase the risk of unintentionally retained foreign objects: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marking of surgical instruments is essential to ensure their proper identification after sterile processing. The National Quality Forum defines unintentionally retained foreign objects in a surgical patient as a serious reportable event also called "never event." Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that established practices of surgical instrument identification using unkempt tape labels and plastic tags may expose patients to "never events" from retained disintegrating labels. Testing of the hypothesis We demonstrate the near miss of a "never event" during a surgical case in which the breakage of an instrument label remained initially unwitnessed. A fragment of the plastic label was accidentally found in the wound upon closing. Further clinical testing of the occurrence of this "never event" appears not feasible. As the name implies a patient should never be exposed to the risk of fragmenting labels. Implication of the hypothesis Current practice does not mandate verifying intact instrument markers as part of the instrument count. The clinical confirmation of our hypothesis mandates a change in perioperative practice: Mechanical labels need to undergo routine inspection and maintenance. The perioperative count must not only verify the quantity of surgical instruments but also the intactness of labels to ensure that no part of an instrument is left behind. Proactive maintenance of taped and dipped labels should be performed routinely. The implementation of newer labeling technologies - such as laser engraved codes - appears to eliminate risks seen in traditional mechanical labels. This article reviews current instrument marking technologies, highlights shortcomings and recommends safe instrument handling and marking practices implementing newer available technologies. PMID:24079615

  10. Urinary tract infections in the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Asher, E F; Oliver, B G; Fry, D E

    1988-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) continues to be a common nosocomial infection. From a 2-year city-county hospital experience, 212 nosocomial UTI were identified in 153 patients from 3747 admissions. Mean age was 54 years; 102 were men. Foley catheterization was an associated factor in 129 patients (84%). UTI was caused by 40 different species of bacteria. In 28 infections (13%), the UTI was polymicrobial. Only nine patients had bacteremia. The bacteriology of the UTI depended on whether the patient had received systemic antibiotics previously during the hospitalization. Prior antibiotic administration increased the probability of Pseudomonas and Serratia as pathogens. Thus, patients that have had antibiotic therapy demonstrate a distribution of pathogens that are different from patients not receiving antibiotics, and a distribution different from the community-acquired UTI. Continued emphasis on the shorter duration and more judicious use of systemic antibiotics for both prophylaxis and therapy is warranted.

  11. Surgical risk factors for recurrence of inverted papilloma.

    PubMed

    Healy, David Y; Chhabra, Nipun; Metson, Ralph; Holbrook, Eric H; Gray, Stacey T

    2016-04-01

    To identify variations in surgical technique that impact the recurrence of inverted papilloma following endoscopic excision. Retrospective cohort. Data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic excision of inverted papilloma and oncocytic papilloma at a tertiary care medical center from 1998 to 2011 were reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, tumor stage, and intraoperative details, including tumor location and management of the base, were evaluated to identify factors associated with tumor recurrence. Recurrence of papilloma occurred in 16 patients (12.6%). Mean time to recurrence was 31.0 months (range, 5.2-110.0 months). Mucosal stripping alone was associated with a recurrence rate of 52.2% (12/23 patients), compared to 4.9% (3/61 patients) when the tumor base was drilled, 4.7% (1/21 patients) when it was cauterized, and 0.0% (0/22 patients) when it was completely excised (P = .001). Increased recurrence rate was associated with tumors located in the maxillary sinus (P = .03), as well as the performance of endoscopic medial maxillectomy (P = .001) and external frontal approaches (P = .02). Drilling, cauterizing, or completely excising the bone underlying the tumor base during endoscopic resection reduces the recurrence rate of inverted and oncocytic papilloma, when compared to mucosal stripping alone. Surgeons who perform endoscopic resection of these tumors should consider utilization of these techniques when possible. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Clinical characteristics of patients undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction by choice and by randomization.

    PubMed

    Zembala, Marian; Michler, Robert E; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Huynh, Thao; She, Lilin; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Hill, James A; Jandova, Ruzena; Dagenais, Francois; Peterson, Eric D; Jones, Robert H

    2010-08-03

    The aim of this study was to confirm the generalizability of the conclusions of the STICH (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) trial. Surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) added to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) did not decrease death or cardiac hospitalization in STICH patients randomized to CABG with (n = 501) or without (n = 499) SVR. Baseline clinical characteristics of 1,000 STICH SVR hypothesis patients and 1,036 STICH-eligible Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Cardiac Database patients undergoing CABG plus SVR were entered into a multivariate model equation to predict a mortality that placed these 2,036 patients in 1 of 32 risk at randomization (RAR) groups. The number of patients in each RAR group profiled the risk of STICH treatment arms and of STICH and STS STICH-eligible patients. That 85% of the 1,000 STICH patients known to have no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 treatment arms shared the same RAR group suggests that the RAR methodology has sufficient accuracy to compare RAR profiles of STICH and STS patients. RAR group was shared by 1,522 of 2,036 STICH and STS STICH-eligible patients (75%) who underwent CABG plus SVR. Differences in baseline characteristics responsible for more low-risk STICH patients and more high-risk STS patients were modest. Cox proportional hazard ratios of 1,000 STICH patients in 3 RAR groups suggested by STICH and STS RAR differences showed no differential treatment effect on survival across the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. The STICH conclusion of no benefit from adding SVR to CABG applies to a broad spectrum of CABG-eligible patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. (Comparison of Surgical and Medical Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease; NCT00023595). Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining the ASA Physical Classification System and Continuous Intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score Measurement in Predicting Postoperative Risk.

    PubMed

    Jering, Monika Zdenka; Marolen, Khensani N; Shotwell, Matthew S; Denton, Jason N; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse Menachem

    2015-11-01

    The surgical Apgar score predicts major 30-day postoperative complications using data assessed at the end of surgery. We hypothesized that evaluating the surgical Apgar score continuously during surgery may identify patients at high risk for postoperative complications. We retrospectively identified general, vascular, and general oncology patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Logistic regression methods were used to construct a series of predictive models in order to continuously estimate the risk of major postoperative complications, and to alert care providers during surgery should the risk exceed a given threshold. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discriminative ability of a model utilizing a continuously measured surgical Apgar score relative to models that use only preoperative clinical factors or continuously monitored individual constituents of the surgical Apgar score (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, and blood loss). AUROC estimates were validated internally using a bootstrap method. 4,728 patients were included. Combining the ASA PS classification with continuously measured surgical Apgar score demonstrated improved discriminative ability (AUROC 0.80) in the pooled cohort compared to ASA (0.73) and the surgical Apgar score alone (0.74). To optimize the tradeoff between inadequate and excessive alerting with future real-time notifications, we recommend a threshold probability of 0.24. Continuous assessment of the surgical Apgar score is predictive for major postoperative complications. In the future, real-time notifications might allow for detection and mitigation of changes in a patient's accumulating risk of complications during a surgical procedure.

  14. Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients undergoing general and vascular surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Paciaroni, M; Caso, V; Acciarresi, M; Baumgartner, R; Agnelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Current available data do not seem to support the strategy for carotid endarterectomy prior to surgical intervention in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. However, in patients with coronary artery disease, synchronous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting should be considered where there is a proven surgical risk of <3% with unilateral asymptomatic stenosis >60% or bilateral carotid stenosis >75% on the same side as the most severe stenosis. Clarification of the optimal strategy requires an adequately powered, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. PMID:16170071

  15. The effects of tobacco on the surgical patient ... (continuing education credit).

    PubMed

    Toot, J

    1997-01-01

    Smoking is proven to have an adverse effect on an individual's health. Long term use of tobacco products has a cumulative effect leading to compromised physiology of several body systems. Clinical research studies support the premise that tobacco users are at an increased risk for surgical complications. Individuals with a history of tobacco abuse present a challenge to the nurse. Throughout the perioperative phase the nurse initiates interventions to prevent or minimize complications. This article presents a general overview of the adverse effects of tobacco on the surgical patient and nursing interventions when caring for a patient with a history of tobacco abuse.

  16. Prevalence of Recent Antimicrobial Exposure among Elective Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Christopher A; Sawyer, Robert G

    2017-10-01

    The annual prevalence of antimicrobial exposure is high in the outpatient setting and should be a common exposure for surgical patients. Antimicrobials have negative side effects and may be associated with poor outcomes. Logically, one would expect surgical patients to be particularly susceptible to any negative effects of recent antimicrobial exposure. Despite these observations, however, the prevalence of recent antimicrobial exposure among surgical patients remains undefined. The purpose of this study is to define the prevalence of antimicrobial exposure in patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. Patients presenting for elective operations between August 4, 2015 and August 3, 2016 at our institution were asked prospectively about any antimicrobial exposure in the previous three months. Answers were recorded as either Yes, No, or Unsure. Patients were grouped according to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, primary operative service, and post-operative destination. Descriptive statistics were employed using simple percentages and chi-square analysis when appropriate. Cochrane-Armitage test was used to evaluate temporal trends. There were 21,473 elective surgical procedures performed during the study period across 13 operative services. Answers were recorded for 91.2% cases. The overall prevalence of exposure during this period was 28.6%. Exposure varied with age, ASA score, and surgical specialty. Vascular and transplant operations had the highest prevalence of exposure while ophthalmology and pediatric orthopedic procedures had the lowest. Patients with recent antimicrobial exposure were less likely to be discharged home on the same day and more likely to be admitted to an intensive care or intermediate care unit than those who denied recent exposure. In this descriptive analysis, the prevalence of recent antimicrobial exposure is overall approximately 28.6% and is higher than anticipated. Further work is needed to determine to what

  17. Prolonged Operative Duration Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hang; Chen, Brian Po-Han; Soleas, Ireena M; Ferko, Nicole C; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) across surgical procedures, specialties, and conditions is reported to vary from 0.1% to 50%. Operative duration is often cited as an independent and potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an in-depth understanding of the relation between operating time and SSI. This review included 81 prospective and retrospective studies. Along with study design, likelihood of SSI, mean operative times, time thresholds, effect measures, confidence intervals, and p values were extracted. Three meta-analyses were conducted, whereby odds ratios were pooled by hourly operative time thresholds, increments of increasing operative time, and surgical specialty. Pooled analyses demonstrated that the association between extended operative time and SSI typically remained statistically significant, with close to twice the likelihood of SSI observed across various time thresholds. The likelihood of SSI increased with increasing time increments; for example, a 13%, 17%, and 37% increased likelihood for every 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of surgery, respectively. On average, across various procedures, the mean operative time was approximately 30 min longer in patients with SSIs compared with those patients without. Prolonged operative time can increase the risk of SSI. Given the importance of SSIs on patient outcomes and health care economics, hospitals should focus efforts to reduce operative time.

  18. Rates and risk factors of unplanned 30-day readmission following general and thoracic pediatric surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Polites, Stephanie F; Potter, Donald D; Glasgow, Amy E; Klinkner, Denise B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative unplanned readmissions are costly and decrease patient satisfaction; however, little is known about this complication in pediatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine rates and predictors of unplanned readmission in a multi-institutional cohort of pediatric surgical patients. Unplanned 30-day readmissions following general and thoracic surgical procedures in children <18 were identified from the 2012-2014 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program- Pediatric. Time-dependent rates of readmission per 30 person-days were determined to account for varied postoperative length of stay (pLOS). Patients were randomly divided into 70% derivation and 30% validation cohorts which were used for creation and validation of a risk model for readmission. Readmission occurred in 1948 (3.6%) of 54,870 children for a rate of 4.3% per 30 person-days. Adjusted predictors of readmission included hepatobiliary procedures, increased wound class, operative duration, complications, and pLOS. The predictive model discriminated well in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC 0.710 and 0.701) with good calibration between observed and expected readmission events in both cohorts (p>.05). Unplanned readmission occurs less frequently in pediatric surgery than what is described in adults, calling into question its use as a quality indicator in this population. Factors that predict readmission including type of procedure, complications, and pLOS can be used to identify at-risk children and develop prevention strategies. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of life of patients surgically treated for ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hammed Sikiru; Adebola, Rafel Adetokunbo; Arotiba, Juwon Tunde; Amole, Ibiyinka Olushola; Efunkoya, Akinwale Adeyemi; Omeje, Uchenna Kelvin; Amole, Taiwo Gboluwaga; Adeoye, Joshua Biodun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surgical management of ameloblastoma can have a profound functional and psychological effect on a patient's quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to compare the pre- and post-operative QoL outcomes of patients requiring surgical treatment for ameloblastoma. Patients and Methods: A total number of 30 patients were identified as fulfilling the criteria for this study. They included 18 males and 12 females, aged between 14 and 47 years with a mean of 27.3 years (standard deviation 10.2). Each patient completed a modified version of the University of Washington QoL questionnaire version 4, a day to surgery and postoperatively on the 7th day, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: Following surgical treatment of patients for ameloblastoma, the QoL decreased immediately after surgery. It then gradually improved over time and exceeded the preoperative value at 6 months postoperatively. When analyzed with respect to location, posteriorly placed tumors had the best postoperative QoL outcome. Patients expressed concern more about their appearance preoperatively while postoperative concerns were mostly focused on their ability to chew. Conclusion: Significant improvement occurred in QoL scores following surgical management of ameloblastoma. The small sample size utilized in this study limits a definitive conclusion. A larger multicenter study is therefore recommended. PMID:27226682

  20. Participation of family members and quality of patient care - the perspective of adult surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Gröndahl, Weronica; Katajisto, Jouko; Nurminen, Matti; Suhonen, Riitta

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the participation of family members in the care of Finnish adult surgical patients and the connection of the participation with the quality of patient care as perceived by surgical patients. The family members of adult surgical patients are important. Earlier studies vary concerning the nature of participation, its meaning and the connection of participation with patient-centred quality of care. In this study, we aim to produce new knowledge about adult surgical patients whose family members have participated in their care. This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey study. The data were collected among adult surgical patients (N = 481) before being discharged home from hospital with two instruments: the Good Nursing Care scale and the Received Knowledge of Hospital Patients. Based on the results, most adult surgical patients report that family members participate in their care. Participation was connected with received knowledge and preconditions of care, which are components of the quality of patient care. In future, testing of different solutions for improving the participation of surgical patients' family members in patient care should be implemented. Furthermore, the preconditions of family members' participation in care and the concept of participation should be analysed to emphasise the active role of family members. The results emphasised the importance of family members for the patients in surgical care. Family members' participation is connected with the quality of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human papillomavirus association is the most important predictor for surgically treated patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Sharma, Shachi Jenny; Wuerdemann, Nora; Jüttner, Theresa; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Prigge, Elena-Sophie; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Burkhardt, Ernst; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2017-06-06

    Upfront surgery is a valuable treatment option for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and risk stratification is emerging for treatment de-escalation in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC. Available prognostic models are either based on selected, mainly non-surgically treated cohorts. Therefore, we investigated unselected OPSCC treated with predominantly upfront surgery. All patients diagnosed with OPSCC and treated with curative intent between 2000 and 2009 (n=359) were included. HPV association was determined by HPV-DNA detection and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry. Predictors with significant impact on overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis were included in recursive partitioning analysis. Risk models generated from non-surgically treated patients showed low discrimination in our cohort. A new model developed for unselected patients predominantly treated with upfront surgery separates low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients with significant differences in 5-year OS (86%, 53% and 19%, P<0.001, respectively). HPV status is the most important parameter followed by T-stage in HPV-related and performance status in HPV-negative OPSCC. HPV status and ECOG remained important parameters in risk models for patients treated with or without surgery. Regardless of treatment strategies, HPV status is the strongest predictor of survival in unselected OPSCC patients. The proposed risk models are suitable to discriminate risk groups in unselected OPSCC patients treated with upfront surgery, which has substantial impact for design and interpretation of de-escalation trials.

  2. Is there a Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Favorable Surgical Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kent, K. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Summary Satisfaction of patients with their health care is gaining importance as a measure of hospital quality due to public reporting of these values and an increasing connection between hospital reimbursement and scores on the current tool to measure satisfaction, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. We found that high hospital and surgical volume and low rates of risk-adjusted mortality are associated with high patient satisfaction. However, other favorable patient outcomes are not consistently associated with positive satisfaction scores on HCAHPS. Contributors to patients' perceptions of their care are likely multifactorial and not related just to outcomes traditionally assessed by surgeons or hospitals. Moving in a direction of patient centered care, with a focus on increased understanding and involvement of patients in the care process, will likely strengthen the relationship between surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:26299501

  3. Cardiac Papillary Fibroelastoma: Single-Institution Experience with 14 Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Ramlawi, Basel; Reardon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In general, treatment for symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is surgical resection—particularly of left-sided lesions, because of the risk of systemic embolization. However, few institutions have enough experience with these tumors to validate this approach. We present our institutional experience with papillary fibroelastoma and discuss our current approach. We searched our institution's cardiac tumor database, identified all patients diagnosed with cardiac papillary fibroelastoma from 1992 through 2014, and recorded the clinical and pathologic characteristics of each case. We found 14 patients (mean age, 60.5 ± 12.3 yr) who had 18 lesions. Eleven patients (79%) were symptomatic; however, we could not always definitively associate their symptoms with a cardiac tumor. Most lesions were solitary and ≤1.5 cm in diameter; half involved the left side of the heart. All 18 lesions were surgically excised. There were no operative or 30-day deaths, and no patient needed valve replacement postoperatively. There was one late death; at one year, another 3 patients were lost to follow-up, and the others were alive without tumor recurrence. Because of the embolic risk inherent to intracardiac masses and our relatively good postoperative outcomes, we recommend the surgical resection of all left-sided papillary fibroelastomas in surgical candidates, and we discuss with patients the advisability of resecting right-sided lesions. PMID:27127431

  4. Cardiac Papillary Fibroelastoma: Single-Institution Experience with 14 Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Ramlawi, Basel; Reardon, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    In general, treatment for symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is surgical resection-particularly of left-sided lesions, because of the risk of systemic embolization. However, few institutions have enough experience with these tumors to validate this approach. We present our institutional experience with papillary fibroelastoma and discuss our current approach. We searched our institution's cardiac tumor database, identified all patients diagnosed with cardiac papillary fibroelastoma from 1992 through 2014, and recorded the clinical and pathologic characteristics of each case. We found 14 patients (mean age, 60.5 ± 12.3 yr) who had 18 lesions. Eleven patients (79%) were symptomatic; however, we could not always definitively associate their symptoms with a cardiac tumor. Most lesions were solitary and ≤1.5 cm in diameter; half involved the left side of the heart. All 18 lesions were surgically excised. There were no operative or 30-day deaths, and no patient needed valve replacement postoperatively. There was one late death; at one year, another 3 patients were lost to follow-up, and the others were alive without tumor recurrence. Because of the embolic risk inherent to intracardiac masses and our relatively good postoperative outcomes, we recommend the surgical resection of all left-sided papillary fibroelastomas in surgical candidates, and we discuss with patients the advisability of resecting right-sided lesions.

  5. Surgical Face Masks Worn by Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A.; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. Objectives: We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Methods: Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68–85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31–51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33–70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Conclusions: Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients. PMID:22323300

  6. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for surgical site infection after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Drosdeck, Joseph; Harzman, Alan; Suzo, Andrew; Arnold, Mark; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Husain, Syed

    2013-12-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) and incisional hernia (IH) are among the most common complications after colorectal surgery. While many risk factors for these complications are unavoidable, evidence suggests that use of Pfannenstiel incisions for specimen extraction during laparoscopic procedures may reduce their incidence. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for extraction site SSI (primary objective) and IH (secondary objective) in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center between January 2006 and October 2012 were included. In addition to reviewing medical records, data were gathered from patient questionnaires with a focus on two end points: extraction site SSI and IH. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant associations between the two end points and the following variables: age, gender, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), body mass index (BMI), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of immunosuppressant medications, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, smoking, surgical history, surgery duration, duration of follow-up, use of hand-assistance, and utilization of Pfannenstiel incisions for specimen extraction. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant variables. A total of 419 patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of SSI was 10.3%. Higher BMI, presence of IBD, younger age, and hand-assisted procedures were associated with a significantly higher risk of SSI. Use of Pfannenstiel extraction sites was associated with lower infection rates; however, this association was not statistically significant. IBD, BMI, and hand-assistance were statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Odds ratios for SSI with IBD, hand-assistance and BMI (per unit increase) were 3.3, 2.2, and 1.06, respectively

  7. Surgical Outcomes in Patients with High Spinal Instability Neoplasm Score Secondary to Spinal Giant Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Benjamin D.; Sankey, Eric W.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Lo, Sheng-Fu L.; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Witham, Timothy F.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Objective To describe the surgical outcomes in patients with high preoperative Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) secondary to spinal giant cell tumors (GCT) and evaluate the impact of en bloc versus intralesional resection and preoperative embolization on postoperative outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 14 patients with GCTs of the spine who underwent surgical treatment prior to the use of denosumab. A univariate analysis was performed comparing the patient demographics, perioperative characteristics, and surgical outcomes between patients who underwent en bloc marginal (n = 6) compared with those who had intralesional (n = 8) resection. Results Six patients underwent en bloc resections and eight underwent intralesional resection. Preoperative embolization was performed in eight patients. All patients were alive at last follow-up, with a mean follow-up length of 43 months. Patients who underwent en bloc resection had longer average operative times (p = 0.0251), higher rates of early (p = 0.0182) and late (p = 0.0389) complications, and a higher rate of surgical revision (p = 0.0120). There was a 25% (2/8 patients) local recurrence rate for intralesional resection and a 0% (0/6 patients) local recurrence rate for en bloc resection (p = 0.0929). Conclusions Surgical excision of spinal GCTs causing significant instability, assessed by SINS, is associated with high intraoperative blood loss despite embolization and independent of resection method. En bloc resection requires a longer operative duration and is associated with a higher risk of complications when compared with intralesional resection. However, the increased morbidity associated with en bloc resection may be justified as it may minimize the risk of local recurrence. PMID:26835198

  8. Diabetes and Risk of Surgical Site Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily T; Kaye, Keith S; Knott, Caitlin; Nguyen, Huong; Santarossa, Maressa; Evans, Richard; Bertran, Elizabeth; Jaber, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the independent association between diabetes and surgical site infection (SSI) across multiple surgical procedures. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms "risk factors" or "glucose" and "surgical site infection." A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). A random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates, and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was odds ratio (OR)=1.53 (95% predictive interval [PI], 1.11-2.12; I2, 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% PI, 1.13-4.05) compared with surgeries of other types (P=.001). CONCLUSIONS These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):88-99.

  9. Surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. Method: retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Results: the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. Conclusion: there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. PMID:27579924

  10. [Psychological distress and preoperative fear in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Marco Sanjuán, J C; Bondía Gimeno, A; Perena Soriano, M J; Martínez Bazán, R; Guillén Cantín, A; Mateo Aguado, J M; Ferrer Pascual, M A

    1999-05-01

    To study the prevalence of psychological disorder, cognitive deterioration and anxiety in patients undergoing surgical procedures with general anesthesia. A representative sample (n = 450) of surgical patients at a tertiary hospital was selected, excluding patients with a history of mental illness or drug use, and those with cancer. After admission, the day before surgery, we collected demographic, medical and surgical data and administered the Spanish versions of Folstein's Mini Cognitive Examination (MCE) and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The patients were also asked if they felt anxiety about the surgical procedure and what they feared. The prevalence of cognitive deterioration (MCE) was 8.7% and the prevalence of psychological disorder (GHQ 28) was 29.8% (higher for women). Combining the two instruments, 38.5% showed relevant psychological disorder. Some type of anxiety was expressed by 60.9%, with the fear of "not waking up" being the most common (26%). The prevalence of psychological disorder is somewhat lower than that reported by other authors for presurgical patients, probably because our study enrolled patients with no history of mental illness related to other causes. The prevalence of anxiety found is similar to that reported in the literature.

  11. Nurses' perceptions of preoperative teaching for ambulatory surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kar-yee; So, Winnie Kwok-wei

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine nurses' perceptions of the importance of providing preoperative information to ambulatory surgical patients, and factors that might influence their provision of such teaching. Ambulatory surgery is now widespread and creates a challenge for nurses to provide preoperative teaching in the limited contact time they have with patients. Although nurses act as key educators in patient teaching, little is known about their perceptions of the importance of preoperative teaching, or about current practice in the provision of such teaching for ambulatory surgical patients. A self-administered questionnaire including demographics and the Preoperative Teaching Questionnaire was completed by 91 of the 169 eligible nurses (response rate 53.8%) working in day-surgery units, operating theatres or outpatient clinics providing ambulatory surgery services in two public hospitals in Hong Kong in 2005. A discrepancy between nurses' perceptions and practice in relation to the provision of preoperative information was found. Limited teaching aids, tight operation schedules and language barriers affected the delivery of preoperative information to ambulatory surgical patients. The results highlight the importance of reviewing current preoperative teaching methods and improving the effectiveness of such teaching to enhance the quality of care for ambulatory surgical patients.

  12. Quality of life of patients surgically treated for ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Hammed Sikiru; Adebola, Rafel Adetokunbo; Arotiba, Juwon Tunde; Amole, Ibiyinka Olushola; Efunkoya, Akinwale Adeyemi; Omeje, Uchenna Kelvin; Amole, Taiwo Gboluwaga; Adeoye, Joshua Biodun

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of ameloblastoma can have a profound functional and psychological effect on a patient's quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to compare the pre- and post-operative QoL outcomes of patients requiring surgical treatment for ameloblastoma. A total number of 30 patients were identified as fulfilling the criteria for this study. They included 18 males and 12 females, aged between 14 and 47 years with a mean of 27.3 years (standard deviation 10.2). Each patient completed a modified version of the University of Washington QoL questionnaire version 4, a day to surgery and postoperatively on the 7(th) day, 3 months, and 6 months. Following surgical treatment of patients for ameloblastoma, the QoL decreased immediately after surgery. It then gradually improved over time and exceeded the preoperative value at 6 months postoperatively. When analyzed with respect to location, posteriorly placed tumors had the best postoperative QoL outcome. Patients expressed concern more about their appearance preoperatively while postoperative concerns were mostly focused on their ability to chew. Significant improvement occurred in QoL scores following surgical management of ameloblastoma. The small sample size utilized in this study limits a definitive conclusion. A larger multicenter study is therefore recommended.

  13. Nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris; Snell, David

    2016-11-10

    Critical illness in the developing world is a substantial burden for individuals, families, communities and healthcare services. The management of these patients will depend on the resources available. Simple conditions such as a fractured leg or a strangulated hernia can have devastating effects on individuals, families and communities. The recent Lancet Commission on Global Surgery and the World Health Organization promise to strengthen emergency and essential care will increase the focus on surgical services within the developing world. This article provides an overview of nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia, a lower middle income country (LMIC) in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Located in Language Area: Surgical Outcomes and Risk Factors for Postoperative Language Deficits.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuming; Lin, Fuxin; Wu, Jun; Li, Hao; Chen, Xin; Li, Zhicen; Ma, Ji; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-09-01

    Case selection for surgical treatment of language-area brain arteriovenous malformations (L-BAVMs) remains difficult. This study aimed to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative language deficits (LDs) in patients with L-BAVMs. Patients with L-BAVMs who underwent microsurgical resection between September 2012 and June 2016 were reviewed. All patients had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed regarding the postoperative LD. Functional factors included the eloquence involved, the side of blood-oxygenation level-dependent signal activation and the white-matter fibers (anterior segment, long segment [LS], and posterior segment of arcuate fasciculus, and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) involved. Sixty-nine patients with L-BAVMs were reviewed. Postoperative short- and long-term LD was found in 32 (46.4%) and 14 (20.3%) patients, respectively. Twelve of the 14 patients with Geschwind's territory L-BAVMs (85.7%) had short-term LD, compared with 10 (34.5%) in Wernicke's and 10 (38.5%) in Broca's area. LS involvement (P = 0.001) and larger nidus size (P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for the short-term LD. Meanwhile, nidus size (P = 0.007), preoperative LD (P = 0.008), and LS involvement (P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for long-term LD. L-BAVMs located in Geschwind's territory can cause a high incidence of LD. LS involvement and larger nidus size are risk factors for postoperative short- and long-term LD, and preoperative LD is a risk factor for postoperative, long-term LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumoperitoneum and Surgical Emphysema in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamha, A; Alzeer, H; Elithy, M

    2008-01-01

    A 29 year old male patient of Indian ancestry was admitted to an outside hospital with rapid deterioration of his level of consciousness. The patient required mechanical ventilation and transfer to MICU at Hamad Medical Corporation. The patient remained hypoxic. Chest X-ray, CT of chest, abdomen, pelvis and proximal areas of both lower limbs were performed. Pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, and extensive surgical emphysema were the diagnoses. PMID:21516154

  16. [Risk/benefit counseling in surgical practice: How? Why?].

    PubMed

    Gignon, M; Manaouil, C; Jardé, O

    2007-01-01

    A thorough discussion of the risks and benefits of proposed surgery is a legal obligation stemming from the code of the health service. A multidisciplinary discussion assembling all involved services best serves to balance the risks of a procedure against the hoped for benefit. A written précis should document this discussion in the patient's chart, both as a part of the patient record and also to refer to in case of eventual medico-legal dispute. While a personal oral discussion should take place with the patient, it should be fully documented. A copy of this informed consent can be sent to referring colleagues or to the patient. This document, by summarizing the elements of the risk/benefit discussion is a supplementary means to assure that the information was given and understood. The primary physician can refer back to it in ongoing discussions with his patient to be sure that the patient has full understanding and has opportunity to have his questions answered. This may require a supplementary office visit. If the referring physician cannot answer these questions, he may need to refer back to the surgeon.

  17. Surgical revision after percutaneous mitral valve repair by edge-to-edge device: when the strategy fails in the highest risk surgical population.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Westphal, Bernd; Kische, Stephan; Kaminski, Alexander; Paranskaya, Liliya; Bozdag-Turan, Ilkay; Ortak, Jasmin; Schubert, Jochen; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ince, Hüseyin

    2014-07-01

    Percutaneous edge-to-edge devices for non-surgical repair of mitral valve regurgitation are under clinical evaluation in high-risk patients deemed not suitable for conventional surgery. To address guidelines for initial therapy decision, we here report on 13 cases of surgery after failed percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair or attempted repair, and discuss methodology and prognostic factors for operative outcome in this high-risk situation. Thirteen patients referred to our cardiothoracic unit after failed percutaneous mitral valve repair or attempted repair using the edge-to-edge technique, were treated surgically for mitral valve failure between June 2010 and December 2012. Pathology of mitral valve before and after interventional mitral valve repair (especially prevalent mode of failure) was evaluated and classified for each individual patient by echocardiography and intraoperative direct visualization. Number of implanted edge-to-edge devices were identified. Preoperative risk scores were matched with intraoperative observations and histopathological findings of valve tissue. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were analysed with respect to mitral valve and patient-related data. Three of 10 patients were referred with severe mitral valve regurgitation/stenosis after initially successful percutaneous edge-to-edge therapy or attempted therapy. In 3 patients, ≥ 2 edge-to-edge devices were implanted leading to very tight edge-to-edge leaflet connection and fibrosis. All patients underwent successful surgical mitral valve replacement and concomitant complete cardiac surgery (CABG, aortic or tricuspid valve surgery, ASD closure and pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation). The likelihood of repair was reduced with respect to multiple edge-to-edge technology. One device could not be harvested surgically because of embolization. One patient died on the second postoperative day due to sepsis with multiple organ failure. The remaining 12 patients

  18. Patient-specific Immune States before Surgery are Strong Correlates of Surgical Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Gaudillière, Brice; Ganio, Edward A.; Aghaeepour, Nima; Tingle, Martha; Nolan, Garry P.; Angst, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recovery after surgery is highly variable. Risk-stratifying patients based on their predicted recovery profile will afford individualized perioperative management strategies. Recently, application of mass cytometry in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty revealed strong immune correlates of surgical recovery in blood samples collected shortly after surgery. However, the ability to interrogate a patient’s immune state before surgery and predict recovery is highly desirable in perioperative medicine. Methods To evaluate a patient’s pre-surgical immune state, cell-type specific intracellular signaling responses to ex-vivo ligands (LPS, IL-6, IL-10, IL-2/GM-CSF) were quantified by mass cytometry in pre-surgical blood samples. Selected ligands modulate signaling processes perturbed by surgery. Twenty-three cell surface and 11 intracellular markers were used for the phenotypic and functional characterization of major immune cell subsets. Evoked immune responses were regressed against patient-centered outcomes contributing to protracted recovery including functional impairment, postoperative pain, and fatigue. Results Evoked signaling responses varied significantly and defined patient-specific pre-surgical immune states. Eighteen signaling responses correlated significantly with surgical recovery parameters (|R|=0.37–0.70; FDR<0.01). Signaling responses downstream of the TLR4 receptor in CD14+ monocytes were particularly strong correlates, accounting for 50% of observed variance. Pre-surgical immune correlates mirrored correlates previously described in post-surgical samples. Conclusion Convergent findings in pre- and post-surgical analyses provide validation of reported immune correlates and suggest a critical role of the TLR4 signaling pathway in monocytes for the clinical recovery process. The comprehensive assessment of patients’ preoperative immune state is promising for predicting important recovery parameters and may lead to clinical tests using

  19. Prevalence of malnutrition in general surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Aoun, J P; Baroudi, J; Geahchan, N

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) was studied on one hundred consecutive patients admitted to the department of surgery at the Saint Georges Hospital, Beirut, during the months of April and June 1991, regardless of age, sex and socio-economic status. Data was completed on 94 of those cases. Multiple parameters were studied, including measurements of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, percent weight loss, creatinine height index, serum albumin and transferrin levels and total lymphocyte count. We found a prevalence of 81%, 65%, 53% and 31% of PCM, if one, two, three or at least four abnormal parameters are used respectively, to assess malnutrition. Defining malnutrition as the presence of at least three abnormal parameters, we conclude that 53% of the patients, on admission to the department of surgery, had evidence of PCM. Further studies are required to assess the impact of this prevalence on length of stay, morbidity and mortality.

  20. Surgical ablation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery: impact of lesion set and surgical techniques on long-term success.

    PubMed

    Gelsomino, Sandro; La Meir, Mark; Van Breugel, Henrica N A M; Renzulli, Attilio; Rostagno, Carlo; Lorusso, Roberto; Parise, Orlando; Lozekoot, Pieter W J; Klop, Idserd D G; Kumar, Narendra; Lucà, Fabiana; Matteucci, Francesco; Serraino, Filiberto; Santè, Pasquale; Caciolli, Sabina; Vizzardi, Enrico; De Jong, Monique; Crijns, Harry J G M; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G

    2016-10-01

    To assess the results and impact of lesion set and surgical technique on long-term success of surgical ablation during mitral surgery. The patient population consisted of 685 subjects with persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing cardiac surgery for mitral valve disease as the primary indication and concomitant ablation between January 2003 and January 2012 at three institutions. One hundred and sixty-six underwent unipolar (24.2%), 371 (54.2%) bipolar, and 148 (21.6%) had combined ablation. Median follow-up was 58.4 months (interquartile range 43.3-67.9). To appropriately account for death, a competing risk model was employed to identify predictors of cumulative incidence of recurrent AF among lesion set and surgical techniques. Eight-year freedom from recurrent arrhythmia without antiarrhythmic drugs was 0.60 ± 0.02. Success rate was higher using bipolar radiofrequency (RF) (P < 0.001), after performing mitral isthmus line (P = 0.003) and following the biatrial technique (P < 0.001). Competing risk regression revealed that use of unipolar RF [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 2.41 (1.52-3.43), P < 0.001], combined unipolar/bipolar ablation [SHR 1.93 (0.89-2.57), P = 0.003] and the absence of right atrial ablation [SHR 2.79 (1.27-3.48), P < 0.001] were predictors of cumulative incidence of long-term recurrence. Our experience suggests that the use of bipolar clamp improves long-term results in surgical treatment of AF and that right-sided ablation should be routinely added. Randomized studies are necessary to confirm our findings. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Surgical treatment of dens fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Oberleitner, Gerhard; Schuster, Rupert; Vécsei, Vilmos; Gaebler, Christian

    2007-08-01

    A dens fracture is the most common cervical fracture in elderly patients. The purposes of this study were to analyze the functional and radiographic results after surgical treatment of dens fractures in patients over sixty-five years of age and to compare the two methods that were used for operative treatment. We reviewed the cases of fifty-six patients, with an average age of 71.4 years at the time of surgery, who had undergone surgical treatment of a dens fracture from 1988 to 2002. Thirty-seven fractures were stabilized with anterior screw fixation, and nineteen fractures had posterior cervical arthrodesis. Forty-five patients returned to their preinjury activity level and were satisfied with their treatment. Thirty-five patients had a full range of neck movement, and forty-seven patients were free of pain. Technical failures occurred in eight patients. The thirty-seven patients treated with anterior screw fixation had a good clinical outcome, with fracture-healing in thirty-three patients (89%) and technical failure in five patients (14%). All nineteen patients treated with posterior cervical arthrodesis had fracture union, with technical failure in three patients, but the functional results were worse than those after anterior screw fixation. With the inclusion of the six patients who had been excluded from the clinical and radiographic review, the overall morbidity rate was 16% (ten of sixty-two patients) and the overall mortality rate was 6% (four of sixty-two patients). A satisfactory outcome can be achieved with surgical treatment of a dens fracture in geriatric patients. It appears that anterior screw fixation may maintain better mobility of the cervical spine, but it appears to be associated with a higher rate of fracture nonunion and a greater potential for reoperation.

  2. Frequency of and risk factors for the surgical resection of nonmalignant colorectal polyps: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Florence; Manfredi, Sylvain; Hamonic, Stéphanie; Piette, Christine; Bouguen, Guillaume; Riou, Françoise; Bretagne, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    The management of patients with colon polyps who are referred to surgery remains uncharacterized in a population-based setting. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of patients referred for surgical resection of colorectal polyps. All patients who underwent a colonoscopy for positive fecal occult blood test in the setting of a population-based colorectal cancer screening program in France between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients undergoing colorectal surgery for polyps without invasive carcinoma. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors for surgical resection. Among 4251 patients with at least one colorectal polyp, 175 (4.1 %) underwent colorectal surgery. Risk factors for surgery included size, proximal polyp location, advanced histology (villous or high grade dysplasia), the endoscopy center, and colonoscopy performed during the first half of the study period. Subgroup analysis of 3475 colonoscopies performed by 22 endoscopists who performed at least 50 colonoscopies during the study period, identified the endoscopist as an additional risk factor. The adjusted proportions of referrals to surgery ranged from 0 to 46.6 % per endoscopist for polyps ≥ 20  mm (median 20.2 %). Overall, surgical complications occurred in 24.0 %, and one patient died following surgery (0.5 %). None of the 175 patients who underwent surgery were referred to a tertiary endoscopic center prior to surgery. In this population-based study, 4.1 % of patients with nonmalignant polyps were referred for surgical resection. The endoscopist was one important factor that was associated with surgical referral. To further decrease the proportion of inappropriate surgery in patients, endoscopists should refer their patients with large or difficult polyps to expert endoscopists prior to surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Surgical management of bilateral bronchiectases: results in 29 patients.

    PubMed

    Aghajanzadeh, Manucher; Sarshad, Ali; Amani, Hosin; Alavy, Ali

    2006-06-01

    Bronchiectasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Staged bilateral segmental resection of the lungs is performed in selected patients. Our experience of surgical removal of 87 bilateral bronchiectases in 29 patients during an 11-year period was reviewed retrospectively. High-resolution computed tomography was performed preoperatively in all patients to locate the anatomic sites of bronchiectasis. The mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedure, clinical symptoms, age distribution, etiology, bacteriology, and operative procedures were analyzed. There were 22 males (76%) and 7 females (24%), aged 5 to 60 years, with a mean age of 30 years. Complications developed in 11 patients (38%); atelectasia was the most common (14%). There was one hospital death. Clinical symptoms disappeared in 19 (66%) patients, improved in 5 (17%), and were unchanged in 4 (14%). Staged bilateral resection for bronchiectases can be performed at any age with acceptable morbidity and mortality.

  4. Predictors and costs of surgical site infections in patients with endometrial cancer☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Borah, Bijan J.; Haas, Lindsey R.; Mariani, Andrea; Martin, Janice R.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Cliby, William A.; Podratz, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Technological advances in surgical management of endometrial cancer (EC) may allow for novel risk modification in surgical site infection (SSI). Methods Perioperative variables were abstracted from EC cases surgically staged between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008. Primary outcome was SSI, as defined by American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Counseling and global models were built to assess perioperative predictors of superficial incisional SSI and organ/space SSI. Thirty-day cost of SSI was calculated. Results Among 1369 EC patients, 136 (9.9%) had SSI. In the counseling model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score >2, preoperative anemia (hematocrit <36%), and laparotomy. In the global model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, ASA score >2, smoking, laparotomy, and intraoperative transfusion. Counseling model predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, preoperative glucose >110 mg/dL, and prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Global predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, vascular disease, prior MRSA infection, greater estimated blood loss, and lymphadenectomy or bowel resection. SSI resulted in a $5447 median increase in 30-day cost. Conclusions Our findings are useful to individualize preoperative risk counseling. Hyperglycemia and smoking are modifiable, and minimally invasive surgical approaches should be the preferred surgical route because they decrease SSI events. Judicious use of lymphadenectomy may decrease SSI. Thirty-day postoperative costs are considerably increased when SSI occurs. PMID:23558053

  5. Surgical Procedure Characteristics and Risk of Sharps-Related Blood and Body Fluid Exposure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Douglas J; Lipscomb, Hester J; Epling, Carol; Hunt, Debra; Richardson, William; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Dement, John M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To use a unique multicomponent administrative data set assembled at a large academic teaching hospital to examine the risk of percutaneous blood and body fluid (BBF) exposures occurring in operating rooms. DESIGN A 10-year retrospective cohort design. SETTING A single large academic teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS All surgical procedures (n=333,073) performed in 2001-2010 as well as 2,113 reported BBF exposures were analyzed. METHODS Crude exposure rates were calculated; Poisson regression was used to analyze risk factors and account for procedure duration. BBF exposures involving suture needles were examined separately from those involving other device types to examine possible differences in risk factors. RESULTS The overall rate of reported BBF exposures was 6.3 per 1,000 surgical procedures (2.9 per 1,000 surgical hours). BBF exposure rates increased with estimated patient blood loss (17.7 exposures per 1,000 procedures with 501-1,000 cc blood loss and 26.4 exposures per 1,000 procedures with >1,000 cc blood loss), number of personnel working in the surgical field during the procedure (34.4 exposures per 1,000 procedures having ≥15 personnel ever in the field), and procedure duration (14.3 exposures per 1,000 procedures lasting 4 to <6 hours, 27.1 exposures per 1,000 procedures lasting ≥6 hours). Regression results showed associations were generally stronger for suture needle-related exposures. CONCLUSIONS Results largely support other studies found in the literature. However, additional research should investigate differences in risk factors for BBF exposures associated with suture needles and those associated with all other device types. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):80-87.

  6. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  7. Surgical site infection in orthopedic trauma: A case–control study evaluating risk factors and cost

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Rachel V.; Greenberg, Sarah E.; Shi, Hanyuan; Foxx, Alexandra M.; Francois, Elvis L.; Prablek, Marc A.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Archer, Kristin R.; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M.; Obremskey, William T.; Sethi, Manish K.

    2015-01-01

    Background With the shift of our healthcare system toward a value-based system of reimbursement, complications such as surgical site infections (SSI) may not be reimbursed. The purpose of our study was to investigate the costs and risk factors of SSI for orthopedic trauma patients. Methods Through retrospective analysis, 1819 patients with isolated fractures were identified. Of those, 78 patients who developed SSIs were compared to 78 uninfected control patients. Patients were matched by fracture location, type of fracture, duration of surgery, and as close as possible to age, year of surgery, and type of procedure. Costs for treatment during primary hospitalization and initial readmission were determined and potential risk factors were collected from patient charts. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare the overall costs of treatment for case and control patients. Costs were further broken down into professional fees and technical charges for analysis. Risk factors for SSIs were analyzed through a chi-squared analysis. Results Median cost for treatment for patients with SSIs was $108,782 compared to $57,418 for uninfected patients (p < 0.001). Professional fees and technical charges were found to be significantly higher for infected patients. No significant risk factors for SSIs were determined. Conclusions Our findings indicate the potential for financial losses in our new healthcare system due to uncompensated care. SSIs nearly double the cost of treatment for orthopedic trauma patients. There is no single driver of these costs. Reducing postoperative stay may be one method for reducing the cost of treating SSIs, whereas quality management programs may decrease risk of infection. PMID:26566333

  8. Risk-reduction surgery in pediatric surgical oncology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, John A; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Malkan, Alpin D

    2016-04-01

    A small percentage of pediatric solid cancers arise as a result of clearly identified inherited predisposition syndromes and nongenetic lesions. Evidence supports preemptive surgery for children with genetic [multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAP), hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and nongenetic [thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC), congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM), alimentary tract duplication cysts (ATDC), and congenital choledochal cysts (CCC)] developmental anomalies. Our aim was to explore the utility of risk reduction surgery to treat and prevent cancer in children. A systematic review of the available peer-reviewed literature on PubMed was performed using a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) search strategy, where possible. Search items included "risk reduction surgery", "hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome", "multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2", "familial adenomatous polyposis", "hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer", "hereditary diffuse gastric cancer", "thyroglossal duct cysts", congenital pulmonary airway malformations", "alimentary tract duplication cysts", "malignant transformation", and "guidelines". We identified 67 articles that met the inclusion criteria describing the indications for prophylactic surgery in surgical oncology. For the genetic predisposition syndromes, 7 studies were related to professional endorsed guidelines, 7 were related to surgery for MEN2, 11 were related to colectomy for FAP, 6 were related to colectomy for HNPCC, and 12 related to gastrectomy for HDGC. Articles for the nongenetic lesions included 5 for techniques related to TGDC resection, 9 for surgery for CPAMs, and 10 for resection of ATDCs. Guidelines and strategies varied significantly especially related to the extent and timing of surgical intervention; the exception was for the timing of

  9. Information Needs of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgical Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Jacqueline; Kacikanis, Anna; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Gallinger, Steven; Ruthig, Elke

    2017-09-01

    A marked knowledge gap exists concerning the information needs of hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgical oncology patients. We investigated the comprehensive information needs of this patient population, including the type and amount of information desired, as well as the preferred method of receiving information. A questionnaire was administered to patients being treated surgically for cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, or bile ducts at Toronto General Hospital, part of the University Health Network, in Toronto, Canada. The questionnaire examined patients' information needs across six domains of information: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Among 36 respondents, the importance of information and amount of information desired differed significantly by domain (both p < 0.001). This group of patients rated information in the medical and physical domains as most important, though they also desired specific items of information from the emotional, practical, and social domains. Patients' overwhelming preference was to receive information via a one-on-one consultation with a healthcare provider. It is important for healthcare providers working with HPB surgical oncology patients to be comprehensive when providing information related to patients' cancer diagnosis, prognosis, associated symptoms, and side effects of treatment. Certain emotional, practical, and social issues (e.g., fears of cancer recurrence, drug coverage options, relationship changes) should be addressed as well. Face-to-face interactions should be the primary mode of delivering information to patients. Our findings are being used to guide the training of healthcare providers and the development of educational resources specific to HPB surgical oncology patients.

  10. [Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A

    2014-03-01

    Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients.

  11. Hematologic and surgical management of the dental patient with plasminogen activator deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scheitler, L E; Hart, N; Phillips, G; Weinberg, J B

    1988-12-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is used to treat patients with a variety of hemostatic disorders in an attempt to prevent thrombus formation. A thorough understanding of the patient's medical history is essential before dental treatment that may require alteration of this anticoagulation therapy. Alteration of anticoagulation therapy should be undertaken only after consultation with the patient's physician because some patients are at greater risk than others for thrombus formation or hemorrhage. This case of a 29-year-old man with plasminogen activator deficiency illustrates how consultation can result in a coordinated treatment plan for medical and dental management formulated to help ensure safe surgical treatment for these medically compromised patients.

  12. Incidence and risk factors for surgically acquired pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study investigators.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joan; Lister, Carolyn; Corry, Jean; Holland, Michelle; Coleman, Kerrie; Marquart, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital-acquired, surgery-related pressure injury (ulcers) and identify risk factors for these injuries. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the research question. The study was conducted at a major metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred thirty-four adult patients booked for any surgical procedure expected to last more than 30 minutes were eligible for inclusion. Patients who provided informed consent for study participation were assessed for pressure ulcers, using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Guidelines, before entering the operating room and again in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU). Research nurses and all PACU nurses were trained in skin assessment and in pressure ulcer staging. Patients were not assessed again after their discharge from the PACU. Seven patients (1.3%) had existing pressure injuries (ulcers) and a further 6 (1.3%) developed a surgery-related pressure ulcer. Risk factors associated with surgery-related pressure injuries were similar to non-surgically related risks and included older age, skin condition, and being admitted from a location other than one's own home. Length of surgery was not associated with pressure ulcer development in this cohort. Perioperative nurses play an important role in identifying existing or new pressure injuries. However, many of these nurses are unfamiliar with pressure ulcer classification, so education in this area is essential. Although the incidence of surgically acquired pressure ulcers was low in this cohort, careful skin inspection before and after surgery provides an opportunity for early treatment and may prevent existing lesions progressing to higher stages.

  13. Effect of Persistent Thrombocytopenia on Mortality in Surgical Critical Care Patients: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Anjum, Nadeem; Hu, Dong; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common among surgical critically ill patients. The relationship between the duration of thrombocytopenia and mortality is not well studied. This retrospective 12-month cohort study was designed to evaluate the association between persistent thrombocytopenia and mortality among surgical critically ill patients to determine the risk factors for persistent thrombocytopenia. The study included adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at our institution. Patients with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia were identified from a prospective critical care database. We defined patients with persistent thrombocytopenia as those with thrombocytopenia lasting more than 7 consecutive days. The primary outcome of this study was 28-day mortality and the secondary outcomes were lengths of SICU stay and hospital stay. Fifty-one patients experienced persistent thrombocytopenia and 71 experienced nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Among patients with persistent thrombocytopenia, mortality was significantly higher, and SICU and hospital stays were longer than those with nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Risk factor analysis failed to predict which patients with thrombocytopenia would develop into persistent thrombocytopenia. Persistent thrombocytopenia is a clinically significant disorder and is associated with poorer outcomes. Future studies are needed to further define this process.

  14. [Croatian guidelines for perioperative enteral nutrition of surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Zelić, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesić; Kelecić, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvarić, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Rahelić, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerović, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Sustić, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovacić, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals.

  15. Evaluation of Surgical Resident Applications Using Simulated Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Don; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a simulated patient examination administered to applicants for the General Surgical residency program at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Results obtained from 29 applicants showed no significant differences in faculty ratings between applicants provided practical exam results and those using…

  16. [Factors Contributing to Surgical Intervention for Subacute Subdural Hematoma Enlargement in Patients with Mild Head Injuries].

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Sasaki, Tohru; Kanamori, Masayuki; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-09-01

    Delayed neurological deterioration following mild head injury(MHI)usually occurs within 24 hours. However, some cases require delayed surgical evacuation of an acute subdural hematoma(ASDH), owing to subacute progressive hematoma enlargement. This study aimed to determine radiological or clinical parameters associated with surgical intervention in ASDH cases in which surgery was not initially considered necessary. From 2010 to 2015, 64 patients were non-surgically treated for ASDH following MHI. We evaluated the various outcomes of eventual surgical ASDH evacuation after the first 48 hours following injury, due to hematoma enlargement and clinical deterioration. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to both the demographic and initial radiographic features to identify risk factors for ASDH progression and surgery. Overall, at the time of their last follow-up computed tomography, 57 patients(89%)demonstrated minimal ASDH or spontaneous hematoma resolution with conservative non-surgical management. The remaining 7 patients(11%)received delayed surgical ASDH evacuation a median of 5.1 days after the head trauma. There were no significant differences between the two groups for baseline characteristics, including age, prior history of anticoagulants, the presence of cerebral contusions, or subarachnoid hemorrhages. On multivariate analysis, use of antiplatelet drugs(p=0.013, OR=28, 95%CI=1.82-24)was independently associated with delayed hematoma evacuation. These data indicate that as much as 11% of patients with minimal ASDHs after MHI can deteriorate over the course of a week and then require surgical intervention, and that patients on concurrent antiplatelet medication require especially careful monitoring of hematoma progression.

  17. Surgical intervention for esophageal atresia in patients with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Eriko; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Iio, Kenji; Yamada, Yasumasa; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Hatata, Tomoko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kawame, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Kosho, Tomoki

    2014-02-01

    Trisomy 18 is a common chromosomal aberration syndrome involving growth impairment, various malformations, poor prognosis, and severe developmental delay in survivors. Although esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a potentially fatal complication that can only be rescued through surgical correction, no reports have addressed the efficacy of surgical intervention for EA in patients with trisomy 18. We reviewed detailed clinical information of 24 patients with trisomy 18 and EA who were admitted to two neonatal intensive care units in Japan and underwent intensive treatment including surgical interventions from 1982 to 2009. Nine patients underwent only palliative surgery, including six who underwent only gastrostomy or both gastrostomy and jejunostomy (Group 1) and three who underwent gastrostomy and TEF division (Group 2). The other 15 patients underwent radical surgery, including 10 who underwent single-stage esophago-esophagostomy with TEF division (Group 3) and five who underwent two-stage operation (gastrostomy followed by esophago-esophagostomy with TEF division) (Group 4). No intraoperative death or anesthetic complications were noted. Enteral feeding was accomplished in 17 patients, three of whom were fed orally. Three patients could be discharged home. The 1-year survival rate was 17%: 27% in those receiving radical surgery (Groups 3 and 4); 0% in those receiving palliative surgery (Groups 1 and 2). Most causes of death were related to cardiac complications. EA is not an absolute poor prognostic factor in patients with trisomy 18 undergoing radical surgery for EA and intensive cardiac management.

  18. [Laparoscopic jejunostomy in malnourished surgical patients: indications and technique].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, A E; Beuran, M; Veste, V; Grecu, Irina; Vasilescu, Cleopatra; Grinţescu, Ioana

    2003-01-01

    Laparoscopic jejunostomy (LJ) represents a new way of enteral nutrition (EN) for surgical malnourished patients. LJ is an alternative form of therapy, with restricted indications to the few cases when classical way for EN (nosogastroenteral tube feeding, PEG/PEJ, surgical gastrostomy), are contraindicated or can not be used, and the patient is unable to eat. This technique is also preferred to the open surgical jejunostomy. The paper describes our LJ technique, indications and contraindications. We used JL in two surgical severely malnourished patients, within 11 and 14 days, before the elective, open, curative operations. In this period the patients where exclusively nourished with special feeding solutions through the LJ catheter. The main pathologic lesions were: extrinsec antral obstruction from a perforated transverse colon carcinoma in the omental pouch, in the first case, and proximal inflammatory stenosis of efferent loop, after gastric resection with Billroth II anastomosis for duodenal ulcer, in the second case. LJ gives the opportunity for the exploration of the whole abdominal cavity, and for the direct imaging of the pathological lesions. With EN being delivered before the open, elective operations, we get an amelioration of serum albumin values, and we have no morbidity related to the LJ or open, curative operation. EN was administrated after open surgery in the same way, and in the first case, during chemotherapy. LJ is an efficient, miniinvasive way for EN, in selected surgical severe malnourished patients with proximal digestive obstructions, especially oncologic ones, the aim being an amelioration of the nutritional status and a reduction of postoperative morbidity. A continuous study on a larger number of cases is imperative necessary.

  19. A review of the surgical treatment options for the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Powers, David B; Allan, Patrick F; Hayes, Curtis J; Michaelson, Peter G

    2010-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a medical condition that has received significant attention within the medical community and mainstream media due to its potentially serious physiological consequences and relatively frequent occurrence within the general population. From the military perspective, the impact on individual readiness for deployment, and the potential degradation of performance in critically important military duties, often results in tremendous expenditures of training resources, time, and expertise to replace the military member with a suitable substitute or release of the individual from active duty. This article reviews common surgical techniques for clinical management of OSAHS patients in a presentation format for primary care and sleep medicine specialists, as well as surgeons interested in the philosophies of surgical management of sleep disordered breathing. Presentation of risks and benefits of surgical treatment are discussed in a manner to facilitate communication between patient and health care provider.

  20. Anaemia in the older surgical patient: a review of prevalence, causes, implications and management.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Judith; Harari, Danielle; Gossage, Jessica; Dhesi, Jugdeep

    2013-07-01

    This review provides the clinician with a summary of the causes, implications and potential treatments for the management of anaemia in the older surgical patient. The prevalence of anaemia increases with age and is frequently identified in older surgical patients. Anaemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Allogenic blood transfusion is commonly used to treat anaemia but involves inherent risks and may worsen outcomes. Various strategies for the correction of pre- and postoperative anaemia have evolved. These include correction of nutritional deficiencies and the use of intravenous iron and erythropoesis stimulating therapy. Clear differences exist between the elective and emergency surgical populations and the translation of research findings into these individual clinical settings requires more work. This should lead to a standardized approach to the management of this frequently encountered clinical scenario.

  1. Incidence of surgical site infection in postoperative patients at a tertiary care centre in India.

    PubMed

    Akhter, M Siddique J; Verma, R; Madhukar, K Premjeet; Vaishampayan, A Rajiv; Unadkat, P C

    2016-04-01

    A prospective observational was carried out to calculate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) along with the main risk factors and causative organisms in postoperative patients at a tertiary care setting in Mumbai. A total number of 1196 patients between June 2011 to March 2013 admitted to the general surgical ward or surgical ICU of our hospital were included in the study. Post laproscopy patients and organ space SSIs were excluded. Patient data were collected using a preformed pro forma and a wound Southampton score tabulated and checked repeatedly until suture removal of patient. Regular follow-up was maintained until at least 30 days postoperatively. The study showed a SSI rate of 11%. Risk factors associated with a higher incidence of SSI were found to be age (>55 years), diabetes mellitus (especially uncontrolled sugar in the perioperative period), immunocompromised patients (mainly HIV and immunosuppressive therapy patients), surgeon skill (higher in senior professors compared with junior residents), nature of the cases, (emergency surgeries), placement of drains, wound class (highest in dirty wounds), type of closure (multilayer closure), prolonged duration of hospital stay, longer duration of surgery (>2 hours), type of surgery (highest in cholecystectomy). The highest rates of causative organisms for SSIs found were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella ssp. Prevention of SSIs requires a multipronged approach with particular emphasis on optimising preoperative issues, adhering religiously to strict protocols during the intraoperative period and addressing and optimising metabolic and nutritional status in postoperative period.

  2. Risk factors for surgical-site infection following primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Minnema, Brian; Vearncombe, Mary; Augustin, Anne; Gollish, Jeffrey; Simor, Andrew E

    2004-06-01

    To identify risk factors associated with the development of surgical-site infection (SSI) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A case-control study. A 1,100-bed, university-affiliated, tertiary-care teaching hospital. Case-patients with SSI occurring up to 1 year following primary TKA performed between January 1999 and December 2001 were identified prospectively by infection control practitioners using National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System methods. Three control-patients were selected for each case-patient, matched by date of surgery. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relation of potential risk factors to the development of infection. Twenty-two patients with infections (6 superficial and 16 deep) were identified. Infection rates per year were 0.95%, 1.07%, and 1.19% in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. Logistic regression analysis identified two variables independently associated with the development of infection: the use of closed suction drainage (odds ratio [OR], 7.0; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 2.1-25.0; P = .0015) and increased international normalized ratio (INR) (OR, 2.4; CI95, 1.1-5.7; P = .035). Factors not statistically associated with the development of infection included age, NNIS System risk index score, presence of various comorbidities, surgeon, duration of procedure or tourniquet time, type of bone cement or prosthesis used, or receipt of blood product transfusions. The use of closed suction drainage and a high postoperative INR were associated with the development of SSI following TKA. Avoiding the use of surgical drains and careful monitoring of anticoagulant prophylaxis in patients undergoing TKA should reduce the risk of infection.

  3. Early post-surgical cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality among hip fracture hospitalized older persons.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, C; Bonamassa, L; Pelini, L; Prioletta, I; Cianferotti, L; Metozzi, A; Benvenuti, E; Brandi, G; Guazzini, A; Santoro, G C; Mecocci, P; Black, D; Brandi, M L

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cognitive dysfunction or delirium detected in the early post-surgical phase and the 1-year mortality among 514 hip fracture hospitalized older persons. Patients with early cognitive dysfunction or delirium experienced a 2-fold increased mortality risk. Early post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium are negative prognostic factors for mortality.

  4. Identification of risk factors by systematic review and development of risk-adjusted models for surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C; Bruce, J; Carpenter, J; Wilson, A P; Wilson, J; Pearson, A; Lamping, D L; Krukowski, Z H; Reeves, B C

    2011-09-01

    . Different SSI definitions also classified different wounds as being infected. The two most established SSI definitions had broadly similar ability to predict the chosen clinical outcomes. This finding is paradoxical given the poor agreement between definitions. Elements of each definition not common to both may be important in predicting clinical outcomes or outcomes may depend on only a subset of elements which are common to both. Risk factors fitted in multivariable models and their effects, including age and gender, varied by surgical procedure. Operative duration was an important risk factor for all operations, except for hip replacement. Wound class was included least often because some wound classes were not applicable to all operations or were combined because of small numbers. The American Association of Anesthesiologists class was a consistent risk factor for most operations. The research literature does not allow surgery-specific or generic risk factors to be defined. SSI definitions varied between surveillance programmes and potentially between hospitals. Different definitions do not have good agreement, but the definitions have similar ability to predict outcomes influenced by SSI. Associations between components of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index and odds of SSI varied for different surgical procedures. There was no evidence for effect modification by hospital. Estimates of SSI% should be disseminated within institutions to inform infection control. Estimates of SSI% across institutions or countries should be interpreted cautiously and should not be assumed to reflect quality of medical care. Future research should focus on developing an SSI definition that has satisfactory psychometric properties, that can be applied in everyday clinical settings, includes PDS and is formulated to detect SSIs that are important to patients or health services. The National Institute for Health Research Technology Assessment programme.

  5. Risk indicators of postoperative complications following surgical extraction of lower third molars.

    PubMed

    Malkawi, Ziad; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Khraisat, Ameen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative complications following surgical extraction of lower third molars (L8) and the risk factors and clinical variables associated with these complications. Three-hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients (128 men and 199 women, mean age = 23.1 ± 3.9 years, range: 18-40) were recruited to this study. The L8 of all the patients were surgically extracted. Immediate and late complications like pain, swelling, trismus, paresthesia, bleeding, dry socket, infection and fracture were assessed 3 and 7-14 days, respectively, following the surgery. The most frequent immediate and late complications were slight pain, swelling, and trismus. Thirty-nine (11.9%) patients reported dry socket and 10 (0.3%) reversible sensory nerve complications. More immediate and late complications were experienced by females (p = 0.000 and 0.016, respectively). Older subjects reported more late complications. Frequent immediate and late complications were associated with preexisting pericoronitis, longer duration of operation, extraction of two molars, flaps with vertical incision, extractions with bone removal, extractions without tooth sectioning and distoangular impactions (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that the above factors were able to predict postoperative complications. The most frequent immediate and late complications were slight pain, swelling, and trismus. Preoperative complaints, angulation of the impacted molars, duration of surgery, type of surgical flap, the need for bone removal and tooth sectioning could predict and had an impact on the incidence of postoperative complications following L8 removal. Females and older patients were likely to have more postoperative complications following surgical extraction of L8. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Diabetes and Risk of Surgical Site Infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Keith S.; Knott, Caitlin; Nguyen, Huong; Santarossa, Maressa; Evans, Richard; Bertran, Elizabeth; Jaber, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the independent association between diabetes and SSI across multiple surgical procedures. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms “risk factors” or “glucose” and “surgical site infection”. A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity. Results The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was OR=1.53 (95% Predictive Interval 1.11, 2.12, I2: 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% Predictive Interval 1.13, 4.05) compared to surgeries of other types (p=0.001). Conclusion These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients. PMID:26503187

  7. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    PubMed

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  8. The effectiveness of high dependency unit in the management of high risk thoracic surgical cases.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shilajit; Steyn, Richard S; Marzouk, Joseph F K; Collins, Frank J; Rajesh, Palababu B

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of high dependency unit (HDU) in the management of high-risk thoracic surgical cases at a single dedicated thoracic surgical unit. There is a strong drive to improve postoperative management in a cost-effective way. The number of high-risk thoracic surgical procedures undertaken is increasing rapidly. The HDU can be an effective weapon in the armoury of thoracic surgeons to treat these patients effectively without the need for managing in the extreme environment of expensive intensive care beds. Patients who had undergone lobectomy, pneumonectomy and oesophagectomy were included in the study, as they formed the bulk of the high risk thoracic surgical procedures undertaken by our unit. All data were collected retrospectively from case notes and computerised patient tracking system, for the period between April 2000 and March 2001. One hundred and ninety-one lobectomies (174 for malignancy), 86 pneumonectomies and 50 oesophagectomies were performed during the time period of the study. Of these, 189 (99%) lobectomies, 82 (95%) pneumonectomies and 47 (94%) oesophagectomies were electively admitted to HDU. The mean HDU stay was 21.8 h. Operation discharge time was 7.3 days for lung resections and 9.1 days for oesophagectomy. The overall 30-day mortality was 1.9% for lobectomy, 11% for pneumonectomy and 2% for oesophagectomy. Two oesophagectomies, one lobectomy and three pneumonectomies had to be transferred from HDU to ITU for either mechanical ventilation or more invasive monitoring. Four pneumonectomies, two lobectomies and two oesophagectomies had to be readmitted to HDU with respiratory failure or cardiac instability. Of all the readmitted patients, one pneumonectomy and one lobectomy died. The causes of death were myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, adult respiratory distress syndrome and septicaemia. The above results clearly demonstrate that a well-equipped and properly manned HDU can greatly facilitate management of high-risk

  9. Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Risk Factors among Prolonged Surgical Procedures in the OR

    PubMed Central

    Primiano, Mike; Friend, Michael; McClure, Connie; Nardi, Scott; Fix, Lisa; Schafer, Marianne; Savochka, Kathlyn; McNett, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcer formation related to positioning in the OR increases length of hospital stay and hospital costs, but there is little evidence documenting how positioning devices used in the OR influence pressure ulcer development when examined with traditional risk factors. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify prevalence of and risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development among patients undergoing surgical procedures lasting longer than three hours. Participants included all adult same-day admit patients scheduled for a three-hour surgical procedure during an eight-month period (N = 258). Data were gathered preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively on pressure ulcer risk factors. Bivariate analyses indicated that the type of positioning (ie, heels elevated) (χ2 = 7.897, P = .048), OR bed surface (ie, foam table pad) (χ2 15.848, P = .000), skin assessment in the postanesthesia care unit (χ2 = 41.652, P = .000), and male gender (χ2 = 6.984, P = .030) were associated with pressure ulcer development. Logistic regression analyses indicated that use of foam pad (B = 2.691, P = .024) and a lower day-one Braden score (B = .244, P = .003) were predictive of pressure ulcers. PMID:22118201

  10. Surgical outcomes based on resident involvement: what is the impact on vascular surgery patients?

    PubMed

    Jan, Azam; Riggs, Dale R; Orlando, Keri L; Khan, Fawad J

    2012-01-01

    Central to the education of future surgeons is residency which involves training and learning on patients. We examined the quality of surgical outcomes of vascular patients when residents were involved in their surgical case. A retrospective review was conducted using the data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from the 2010 year vascular surgery patient cases. Statistical analysis was used to compare the cases with and without residents involved. There were a total of 363,431 from which we analyzed 2829 vascular surgery patients. Of those cases, 88% had a resident involved. Postgraduate year (PGY) 1 or 2 residents were involved in 12% and senior residents (PGY ≥ 3) were involved in 88% of surgeries. Preoperative pneumonia, cerebral vascular accident, dialysis, and smoking were significantly higher preoperative risk factors in the cases without the resident. Most of the patients were an American Society of Anesthesiology class III. Twenty-six percent of the patients were diabetic. The most common postoperative occurrences included transfusion requirement, postoperative pneumonia, and surgical site infections. Surgical site infections were the most common postoperative complication (4.6%). Cases with the resident involved had significantly more postoperative blood transfusions and on average took 15 more minutes to finish surgeries. A PGY 7 resident was predictive of prolonged hospital stay. The 30-day survival in the cases that had residents was 3.8% significantly higher compared with the cases that did not have residents. Resident involvement in surgeries does not significantly worsen surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Etiology and incidence of pressure ulcers in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Schultz, A; Bien, M; Dumond, K; Brown, K; Myers, A

    1999-09-01

    This experimental study was designed to identify the etiology of pressure ulcers in a surgical sample and to evaluate a special OR mattress overlay in preventing pressure ulcer development. Surgical patients (N = 413) were randomized to receive "usual perioperative care" or the new mattress overlay. Over six postoperative days, 89 patients (21.5%) developed pressure ulcers, primarily stage I. Only 2% developed stage II or IV ulcers. Patients with ulcers were statistically older, had diabetes, were smaller in body mass, had lower Braden Scale scores on admission, and used the new mattress overlay (P < .02). Pressure ulcers that presented as "burns" or ecchymosis did not deteriorate to stage III or IV ulcers during the study. The mattress overlay was not effective in preventing pressure ulcer development.

  12. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  13. Morbidity and mortality among patients with hip fractures surgically repaired within and after 48 hours.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Padmini; Godkar, Darshan; Mahgerefteh, Shmuel; Chambers, Karinn; Niranjan, Selva; Cucco, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to compare the morbidity and mortality of patients with hip fractures surgically repaired within and after 48 hours of the occurrence of fracture and (2) to establish whether timing of repair alone had a major role in determining how the patients fared after the surgical repair or whether comorbidities also affected outcomes. The study involved the medical records of 49 patients (aged 51 to 99 years) admitted to Coney Island Hospital between January 2003 and January 2004 with a primary diagnosis of hip fracture who underwent surgical repair. Analysis of data was done by retrospective chart review of patients admitted with the diagnosis of hip fracture to an acute care hospital setting. Follow-up continued until the patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility for physical or occupational therapy after surgery. The preoperative health status of each patient was assessed by cardiopulmonary risk index score, based on comorbid conditions, and postoperative outcome was determined by complications (such as bed sores, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism) or death. Patients who underwent early surgical repair (within 48 hours) had fewer postoperative complications (14.7%, as compared with 33.3% in the group undergoing surgery >48 hours after fracture). CPRI scores in the early and delayed surgery groups were also compared with regard to postoperative mortality and morbidity. It appeared that there was a higher statistical correlation between CPRI scores and complications among patients in the early surgery group (P=0.39) and an insignificant correlation among patients in the delayed surgery group (P=0.07). Surgical repair of hip fractures within the first 48 hours was associated with better health outcomes in a nationally representative sample, as observed in an acute care facility, irrespective of comorbid conditions.

  14. Allergic reaction to a red plastic allergy alert patient identification bracelet: implications for surgical patient safety.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Serryth; Williams, John V; Mackenzie, Neil; Brennan, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of allergy to a hospital thermally-printed red plastic allergy alert bracelet in a 48 year old lady admitted to the day surgery unit. Two hours postoperatively, an intensely itchy area of erythema and oedema was seen extending from her left wrist distally to the fingers. The bracelet was removed and the rash resolved overnight without further complication. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis was made, secondary to exposure to an agent within the bracelet. We discuss the safety implications for surgical patients unable to wear an identification bracelet and the steps that may be taken to minimise the risk of harm from misidentification. We believe this to be the first documented case of an allergy to a patient identification bracelet in the medical literature.

  15. Seizure Outcomes in Patients With Surgically Treated Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations.

    PubMed

    von der Brelie, Christian; Simon, Matthias; Esche, Jonas; Schramm, Johannes; Boström, Azize

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common symptom in cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients. The consecutive reduction of life quality is a clinically underrated problem because treatment usually focuses on the prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage. To evaluate postoperative seizure outcome with the aim of more accurate counseling for postoperative seizure outcome. From 1985 to 2012, 293 patients with an AVM were surgically treated by J.S. One hundred twenty-six patients with preoperative seizures or epilepsy could be identified; 103 of 126 had a follow-up of at least 12 months and were included in the analysis. The different epilepsy subtypes were categorized (sporadic seizures, chronic epilepsy, drug-resistant epilepsy [DRE]). Preoperative workup and surgical technique were evaluated. Seizure outcome was analyzed by using International League Against Epilepsy classification. Sporadic seizures were identified in 41% of patients (chronic epilepsy and DRE were identified in 36% and 23%, respectively). Detailed preoperative epileptological workup was done in 13%. Seizure freedom was achieved in 77% (79% at 5 years, 84% at 10 years). Outcome was significantly poorer in DRE cases. More extensive resection was performed in 11 cases with longstanding symptoms (>24 months) and resulted in better seizure outcome as well as the short duration of preoperative seizure history. Patients presenting with AVM-associated epilepsy have a favorable seizure outcome after surgical treatment. Long-standing epilepsy and the progress into DRE markedly deteriorate the chances to obtain seizure freedom and should be considered an early factor in establishing the indication for AVM removal.

  16. The importance and provision of oral hygiene in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ford, Samuel J

    2008-10-01

    The provision of mouth care on the general surgical ward and intensive care setting has recently gained momentum as an important aspect of patient care. Oropharyngeal morbidity can cause pain and disordered swallowing leading to reluctance in commencing or maintaining an adequate dietary intake. On the intensive care unit, aside from patient discomfort and general well-being, oral hygiene is integral to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) is widely used to decrease oral bacterial loading, dental bacterial plaque and gingivitis. Pineapple juice has gained favour as a salivary stimulant in those with a dry mouth or coated tongue. Tooth brushing is the ideal method of promoting oral hygiene. Brushing is feasible in the vast majority, although access is problematic in ventilated patients. Surgical patients undergoing palliative treatment are particularly prone to oral morbidity that may require specific but simple remedies. Neglect of basic aspects of patient care, typified by poor oral hygiene, can be detrimental to surgical outcome.

  17. Improving risk-adjusted measures of surgical site infection for the national healthcare safety network.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Edwards, Jonathan R; Horan, Teresa C; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I; Fridkin, Scott K

    2011-10-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) has provided simple risk adjustment of surgical site infection (SSI) rates to participating hospitals to facilitate quality improvement activities; improved risk models were developed and evaluated. Data reported to the NHSN for all operative procedures performed from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, were analyzed. Only SSIs related to the primary incision site were included. A common set of patient- and hospital-specific variables were evaluated as potential SSI risk factors by univariate analysis. Some ific variables were available for inclusion. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop the specific risk models by procedure category. Bootstrap resampling was used to validate the models, and the c-index was used to compare the predictive power of new procedure-specific risk models with that of the models with the NHSN risk index as the only variable (NHSN risk index model). From January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, 847 hospitals in 43 states reported a total of 849,659 procedures and 16,147 primary incisional SSIs (risk, 1.90%) among 39 operative procedure categories. Overall, the median c-index of the new procedure-specific risk was greater (0.67 [range, 0.59-0.85]) than the median c-index of the NHSN risk index models (0.60 [range, 0.51-0.77]); for 33 of 39 procedures, the new procedure-specific models yielded a higher c-index than did the NHSN risk index models. A set of new risk models developed using existing data elements collected through the NHSN improves predictive performance, compared with the traditional NHSN risk index stratification.

  18. The Benefits of Perioperative Screening for Sleep Apnea in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Yamini; Wong, Jean; Nagappa, Mahesh; Chung, Frances

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Untreated OSA can lead to about a 2-fold increase in medical expenses, mainly because of cardiovascular morbidity. OSA is highly prevalent in the surgical population, with an increased risk of perioperative complications. This article describes the perioperative and long-term social and economic benefits of preoperative screening for OSA. Screening patients to identify high-risk OSA is important to decrease the adverse outcomes and associated health care costs in the perioperative period. Screening for OSA is particularly relevant because most patients are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Care and implications for caregivers of surgical patients at home].

    PubMed

    Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Roca-Closa, Josep; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Ubeda-Bonet, Inmaculada; Subirana-Casacuberta, Mireia; Moreno-Casbas, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To identify the care given by informal caregivers to patients who underwent abdominal surgery in the Consorci Hospitalari of Vic (Barcelona). To compare the responsibility burden for those caregivers in all the different stages of the surgical process. To determine the consequences of the care itself on the caregiver's health and to identify the factors that contribute to the need of providing care and the appearance of consequences for the caregivers in the home. A longitudinal observational study with follow-up at admission, at discharge and 10 days, of 317 non-paid caregivers of patients who suffer underwent surgery. The characteristics of caregivers and surgical patients were studied. The validated questionnaire, ICUB97-R based on the model by Virginia Henderson, was used to measure the care provided by informal caregivers and its impact on patient quality of life. Most of the caregivers were women, with an average age of 52.9±13.7 years without any previous experience as caregivers. The greater intensity of care and impact was observed in the time when they arrived home after hospital discharge (p<0.05). The predictive variables of repercussions were being a dependent patient before the surgical intervention (β=2.93, p=0.007), having a cancer diagnosis (β=2.87, p<.001) and time dedicated to the care process (β=0.07, p=0.018). Caregivers involved in the surgical process provide a great amount of care at home depending on the characteristics of patients they care for, and it affects their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in neonates undergoing surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro; Anchieta, Lêni Márcia; Carvalho, Elaine Alvarenga de Almeida; Glória e Silva, Lorena Ferreira de; Nunes, Rafael Viana Pessoa; Mourão, Paulo Henrique; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Associated Infections constitute an important problem in Neonatal Units and invasive devices are frequently involved. However, studies on risk factors of newborns who undergo surgical procedures are scarce. To identify risk factors for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in neonates undergoing surgical procedures. This case-control study was conducted from January 2008 to May 2011, in a referral center. Cases were of 21 newborns who underwent surgery and presented the first episode of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection. Control was 42 newborns who underwent surgical procedures without notification of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in the study period. Information was obtained from the database of the Hospital Infection Control Committee Notification of infections and related clinical data of patients that routinely collected by trained professionals and follow the recommendations of Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences. During the study period, 1141 patients were admitted to Neonatal Unit and 582 Healthcare Associated Infections were reported (incidence-density of 25.75 Healthcare Associated Infections/patient-days). In the comparative analysis, a higher proportion of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection was observed in preterm infants undergoing surgery (p=0.03) and use of non-invasive ventilation was a protective factor (p=0.048). Statistically significant difference was also observed for mechanical ventilation duration (p=0.004), duration of non-invasive ventilation (p=0.04), and parenteral nutrition duration (p=0.003). In multivariate analysis duration of parenteral nutrition remained significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (p=0.041). Shortening time on parenteral nutrition whenever possible and preference for non-invasive ventilation in neonates undergoing surgery should be considered in the assistance of these patients

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Patients Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Reconstruction by Choice and by Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, Marian; Michler, Robert E.; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Huynh, Thao; She, Lilin; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Hill, James A.; Jandova, Ruzena; Dagenais, Francois; Peterson, Eric D.; Jones, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To confirm generalizability of Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial conclusions. Background Surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) added to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) did not decrease death or cardiac hospitalization in STICH patients randomized to CABG with (N = 501) or without (N = 499) SVR. Methods Baseline clinical characteristics of 1000 STICH SVR hypothesis patients and 1036 STICH-eligible Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS) National Cardiac Database patients undergoing CABG+SVR were entered into a multivariable model equation to predict a mortality that placed these 2036 patients in one of 32 risk at randomization (RAR) groups. Numbers of patients in each RAR profiled risk of STICH treatment arms and of STICH and STS STICH-eligible patients. Results That 85% of the 1000 STICH patients known to have no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two treatment arms shared the same RAR group suggests RAR methodology has sufficient accuracy to compare RAR profiles of STICH and STS patients. RAR group was shared by 1522 (75%) of 2036 STICH and STS STICH-eligible CABG+SVR patients. Differences in baseline characteristics responsible for more low-risk STICH and more high-risk STS patients were modest. Cox proportional hazard ratios of 1000 STICH patients in three RAR groupings suggested by STICH and STS RAR differences showed no differential treatment effect on survival across the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groupings. Conclusion The STICH conclusion of no benefit from adding SVR to CABG applies to a broad spectrum of CABG-eligible ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. PMID:20670761

  2. Risk Factors for Postoperative Fibrinogen Deficiency after Surgical Removal of Intracranial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Naili; Jia, Yanfei; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Yinian; Yuan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Baotian; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Xinding; Pan, Yawen; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of fibrinogen, a critical element in hemostasis, are associated with increased postoperative survival rates, especially for patients with massive operative blood loss. Fibrinogen deficiency after surgical management of intracranial tumors may result in postoperative intracranial bleeding and severely worsen patient outcomes. However, no previous studies have systematically identified factors associated with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed data from patients who underwent surgical removal of intracranial tumors in Beijing Tiantan Hospital date from 1/1/2013to12/31/2013. The present study found that patients with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency experienced more operative blood loss and a higher rate of postoperative intracranial hematoma, and they were given more blood transfusions, more plasma transfusions, and were administered larger doses of hemocoagulase compared with patients without postoperative fibrinogen deficiency. Likewise, patients with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency had poorer extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe), longer hospital stays, and greater hospital expenses than patients without postoperative fibrinogen deficiency. Further, we assessed a comprehensive set of risk factors associated with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency via multiple linear regression. We found that body mass index (BMI), the occurrence of postoperative intracranial hematoma, and administration of hemocoagulasewere positively associated with preoperative-to-postoperative plasma fibrinogen consumption; presenting with a malignant tumor was negatively associated with fibrinogen consumption. Contrary to what might be expected, intraoperative blood loss, the need for blood transfusion, and the need for plasma transfusion were not associated with plasma fibrinogen consumption. Considering our findings together, we concluded that postoperative fibrinogen deficiency is closely associated with postoperative

  3. Non-surgical periodontal therapy reduces coronary heart disease risk markers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Syed A H; Khan, Ayyaz A; Butt, Arshad K; Azhar, Mohammad; Hanif, Mohammad; Izhar, Mateen; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2012-11-01

    Periodontal disease elevates systemic inflammatory markers strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on systemic C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and white blood cells in CHD patients. Angiographically proven CHD patients with periodontitis (n = 317) were randomized to intervention (n = 212) or control group (n = 105). Primary outcome was reduction in serum CRP levels; secondary outcomes were reductions in fibrinogen and white blood cells. Periodontal treatment included scaling, root planing and oral hygiene instructions. Periodontal and systemic parameters were assessed at baseline and at 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed. Study was completed by 246 subjects (intervention group = 161; control group = 85). Significant improvements in periodontal and systemic parameters were observed in intervention group. The number of subjects with CRP > 3mg/L in intervention group decreased by 38% and in control group increased by 4%. ITT analysis gave a significant (χ(2) =4.381, p = 0.036) absolute risk reduction of 12.5%. In CHD patients with periodontitis, non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy significantly reduced systemic levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and white blood cells. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Wernicke's encephalopathy in a malnourished surgical patient: clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Barbieri, A; Pinna, C; Pasetto, A; Nicosia, F

    2005-11-01

    We report a clinical and neuroradiological description of a severe case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a surgical patient. After colonic surgery for neoplasm, he was treated for a long time with high glucose concentration total parenteral nutrition. In the early post-operative period, the patient showed severe encephalopathy with ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and consciousness disorders. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the clinical suspicion of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The radiological feature showed hyperintense lesions which were symmetrically distributed along the bulbo-pontine tegmentum, the tectum of the mid-brain, the periacqueductal grey substance, the hypothalamus and the medial periventricular parts of the thalamus. This progressed to typical Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with ataxia and memory and cognitive defects. Thiamine deficiency is a re-emerging problem in non-alcoholic patients and it may develop in surgical patients with risk factors such as malnutrition, prolonged vomiting and long-term high glucose concentration parenteral nutrition.

  5. Alcohol use disorders among surgical patients: unplanned 30-days readmissions, length of hospital stay, excessive costs and mortality.

    PubMed

    Gili-Miner, Miguel; Béjar-Prado, Luis; Gili-Ortiz, Enrique; Ramírez-Ramírez, Gloria; López-Méndez, Julio; López-Millán, José-Manuel; Sharp, Brett

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been associated with an increased risk of unplanned hospital readmissions (URA). We analyzed in a sample of 87 Spanish Hospitals if surgical patients with AUD had a higher risk of URA and if among patients with URA, those with AUD had an excess length of hospital stay, higher hospital expenses and increased risk of mortality. We analyzed data of patients who underwent surgical operations during the period between 2008 and 2010. URA was defined as unplanned readmissions during the first 30 days after hospital departure. The primary outcome was risk of URA in patients with AUD. Secondary outcomes were mortality, excess length of stay and over expenditure. A total of 2,076,958 patients who underwent surgical operations were identified: 68,135 (3.3%) had AUD, and 62,045 (3.0%) had at least one URA. Among patients with AUD 4212 (6.2%) had at least one URA and among patients without AUD 57,833 (2.9%) had at least one URA. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that AUD was an independent predictor of developing URA (Odds ratio: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.50-1.62). Among surgical patients with URA, those with AUD had longer lengths of hospital stay (2.9 days longer), higher hospital costs (2885.8 Euros or 3858.3 US Dollars), higher risk of death (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.92-2.44) and higher attributable mortality (11.2%). Among surgical patients, AUD increase the risk of URA, and among patients with URA, AUD heighten the risk of in-hospital death, and cause longer hospital stays and over expenditures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MUSCLE AS PREDICTOR OF MALNUTRITION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Camila Yandara Sousa Vieira; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background In the compromised nutritional status, there is excessive skeletal muscle loss and decreased inflammatory response, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality and length of stay. Aim To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition by measuring adductor pollicis muscle using cutoffs for surgical patients suggested in the literature. Methods Cross-sectional study with 151 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedure. Nutritional assessment was performed by classical anthropometric measurements: arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, BMI and percentage of weight loss and the extent of the adductor pollicis muscle in both hands. Results The prevalence of malnutrition in patients was high. A significant association between nutritional diagnosis according to the measures of adductor pollicis muscle and arm circumference, BMI and triceps skinfold thickness but there was no association with arm muscular circumference, arm muscular area or percentage of weight loss. Conclusion The adductor pollicis muscle has proved to be a good method to diagnose muscle depletion and malnutrition in surgical patients. PMID:24676291

  7. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Amer, Syed; Horsley-Silva, Jennifer L; Menias, Christine O; Pannala, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), can be more challenging compared to those with a normal anatomy. Detailed assessment of cross-sectional imaging features by the radiologist, especially the pancreaticobiliary anatomy, strictures, and stones, is very helpful to the endoscopist in planning the procedure. In addition, any information on enteral anastomoses (for e.g., gastrojejunal strictures and afferent limb obstruction) is also very useful. The endoscopist should review the operative note to understand the exact anatomy prior to procedure. RYGB, which is performed for medically complicated obesity, is the most commonly encountered altered anatomy ERCP procedure. Other situations include patients who have had a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a hepaticojejunostomy. Balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy (single and double-balloon enteroscopy) or rotational endoscopy is often used to traverse the length of the intestine to reach the papilla. In addition, ERCP in these patients is further challenging due to the oblique orientation of the papilla relative to the forward viewing endoscope and the limited enteroscopy-length therapeutic accessories that are currently available. Overall, reported therapeutic success is approximately 70-75% with a complication rate of 3-4%. Alternative approaches include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, or surgery. Given the complexity, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy should be performed in close collaboration with body imagers, interventional radiology, and surgical services.

  8. Critical respiratory events in the postanesthesia care unit. Patient, surgical, and anesthetic factors.

    PubMed

    Rose, D K; Cohen, M M; Wigglesworth, D F; DeBoer, D P

    1994-08-01

    Previous studies have noted a high incidence of adverse outcomes in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), but few have examined associated factors and patient outcomes. To determine the frequency of acute, unanticipated respiratory problems and to examine the associated patient, surgical, and anesthetic factors, we prospectively collected preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data on 24,157 consecutive PACU patients who received a general anesthetic during a 33-month period. A PACU critical respiratory event (CRE), was defined as any unanticipated hypoxemia (hemoglobin oxygen saturation < 90%), hypoventilation (respiratory rate < 8 breaths/min or arterial carbon dioxide tension > 50 mmHg) or upper-airway obstruction (stridor or laryngospasm) requiring an active and specific intervention (ventilation, tracheal intubation, opioid or muscle relaxant antagonism, insertion of oral/nasal airway or airway manipulation). These problems were documented by PACU nurses whereas data on case-mix, surgical factors, and intraoperative management were retrieved from the anesthetic record. Significant patient, surgical, and anesthetic factors were identified by logistic regression analysis. Other morbidity experienced by patients with a CRE was also noted. For patients given general anesthesia the risk of a CRE was 1.3% (hypoxemia 0.9%, hypoventilation 0.2%, airway obstruction 0.2%). Preoperative factors that increase risk were age > 60 yr, male gender, diabetes, and obesity (P < 0.05). Patients who underwent operative procedures on an emergency basis and whose operation was longer than 4 h were also at increased risk, but those undergoing perineal procedures were at lower risk (P < 0.05). Anesthetic risk factors (P < 0.05) included opioid premedication (relative odds 1.8), sedatives preoperatively (2.0), fentanyl > 2.0 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 as the sole opioid (1.9), fentanyl used in combination with morphine (1.6) and atracurium > or = 0.25 mg.kg-1.h-1 (2.2). Patients in

  9. Physical and surgical examination of patient after 6-year coma.

    PubMed

    Tanhehco, J; Kaplan, P E

    1982-01-01

    A patient with head trauma who had been comatose for 6 years and residing in a nursing home, began to respond to her environment and subsequently underwent rehabilitation that resulted in significant recovery. Speech and psychologic functions that had been severely affected improved considerably after 9 months training. Surgical release of immobilization contractures that had prevented significant use of any extremity, resulted in healing of several decubitus ulcers and allowed the patient to regain some ADL skills in a wheelchair. Further urethral erosion was prevented by adequate hygiene and release of adductor spasticity. After 14 months of intensive rehabilitation and family teaching, the patient was able to live at home with her family.

  10. Surgical Options for Drug-Refractory Overactive Bladder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Starkman, Jonathan S; Smith, Christopher P; Staskin, David R

    2010-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex of urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence. This syndrome is idiopathic in most instances without clearly defined pathophysiology. Studies clearly show that OAB negatively impacts health-related quality of life and impairs daily functioning in a large proportion of patients. Despite recent advances in drug delivery and improved tolerability of antimuscarinic drug class, a large percentage of patients remain refractory to conventional pharmacological therapy for this chronic condition. There are several unique and effective treatments that are available for this difficult population. We review the various surgical options within the urological armamentarium to treat patients with refractory OAB. PMID:20811558

  11. Using targeted information to meet the needs of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Michael John

    Staying in hospital, particularly when undergoing surgical treatment, may be emotionally distressing. Patients may have to deal with separation from family and friends, disruption to routine as well as the possibility of an uncertain future. Anxiety may be related to anticipation of painful or life-changing investigations, or the effects of surgery on the individual's future family and social life. Therefore it is important that patients are given appropriate information to reassure them and enable informed decision making. This article outlines the importance of using targeted information to meet the needs of individual patients to reduce pre-operative anxiety.

  12. Surgical approaches to the thymus in patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Magee, Mitchell J; Mack, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission affecting 2 out of every 100,000 people. Neurologists and surgeons still debate what role surgery should play in its management. Many patients who might benefit from thymectomy are denied the opportunity because of misconceptions, ignorance, or trepidation. By offering effective methods of less invasive thymectomy to these patients, a significant number of patients and treating neurologists previously unwilling to consider surgery may realize the benefits of this established, proven treatment alternative. The surgical approaches reviewed include: transcervical, videothoracoscopic, robotic-assisted, transsternal, and combined transcervical-transsternal maximal thymectomy.

  13. Preoperative Stratification of Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery Patients Based on Surgical Urgency.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Wang, Amy J; Cote, David J; Smith, Timothy R; Prevedello, Daniel; Solari, Domenico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Quiroga, Monica; Laws, Edward R

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is no prioritization scale available to distinguish those patients with pituitary tumors who require urgent surgical intervention from those who are candidates for elective treatment. To develop a classification system that can help primary care physicians, endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, ancillary support staff, and hospital administrators identify high-priority surgical candidates. An expert international panel of clinicians consisting of endocrinologists and neurosurgeons who are involved in the diagnosis and management of sellar disease was convened. The panel retrospectively reviewed individual experiences, including a cohort of patients operated upon for pituitary related disease at the Brigham and Women's Hospital from January 2008 to November 2015. A risk stratification schema was developed to streamline patient care pathways. We identified 4 groups of surgical candidates with varying levels of risk, and then assigned treatment timelines and different differential diagnoses to each. The 4 groups were as follows: group A: urgent-immediate; group B: prompt-initiate treatment within 1 to 2 weeks; group C: soon-initiate treatment within 3 months; group D: elective-as soon as indicated. Among 472 patients treated at Brigham and Women's Hospital for pituitary adenomas, each was assigned to 1 of the 4 predetermined subgroups: group A, 6.8%; group B, 30.1%; group C, 31.1%; group D, 32.0%. We developed a risk stratification schema that may serve as a platform to streamline care to the patients at highest risk. The expert opinions presented provide a basis for future studies regarding the risk prioritization of patients.

  14. Infirmity and injury complexity are risk factors for surgical-site infection after operative fracture care.

    PubMed

    Bachoura, Abdo; Guitton, Thierry G; Smith, R Malcolm; Vrahas, Mark S; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David

    2011-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgical-site infections prolong hospital stays, double rehospitalization rates, and increase healthcare costs. Additionally, patients with orthopaedic surgical-site infections (SSI) have substantially greater physical limitations and reductions in their health-related quality of life. However, the risk factors for SSI after operative fracture care are unclear. We determined the incidence and quantified modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SSIs in patients with orthopaedic trauma undergoing surgery. We retrospectively indentified, from our prospective trauma database and billing records, 1611 patients who underwent 1783 trauma-related procedures between 2006 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed and demographics, surgery-specific data, and whether the patients had an SSI were recorded. We determined which if any variables predicted SSI. Six factors independently predicted SSI: (1) the use of a drain, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-3.8); (2) number of operations OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-6.0); (3) diabetes, OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.2-3.8); (4) congestive heart failure (CHF), OR 2.8, 95% CI (1.3-6.5); (5) site of injury tibial shaft/plateau, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-4.2); and (6) site of injury, elbow, OR 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.7). The risk factors for SSIs after skeletal trauma are most strongly determined by nonmodifiable factors: patient infirmity (diabetes and heart failure) and injury complexity (site of injury, number of operations, use of a drain). Level II, prognostic study. See the Guideline for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections Following Neurosurgical Spinal Fusion Operations: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Thomas L; Querry, Ashley M; McCool, Sheila; Galdys, Alison L; Shutt, Kathleen A; Saul, Melissa I; Muto, Carlene A

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) in neurosurgery patients undergoing spinal fusion. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. SETTING Large, academic, quaternary care center. PATIENTS The study population included all neurosurgery patients who underwent spinal fusion be