Sample records for risoes nukleare anlaeg

  1. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.


    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  2. Analysis of Ligand Binding ErbB Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    DTIC Science & Technology


    to the X12B data ( Riso ). Heavy Soak X-ray Source Resolution Completenes I/cT Rsym Riso Atom Condition Limit s (mean) (multiplicity) PIP (Pt) 1 mM 18 h...Research Fund of the Damon Runyon- Walter Winchell Foundation (to for n moles of i different species with molecular weight Mi M.A.L) and the Research

  3. Mead Observatory WebCasts: Public Outreach to the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Hood, J.; Williams, R. N. M.; Cruzen, S.; Johnson, C.


    The Real-Time Interactive Solar Observatory (RISO) is a web portal that allows educational institutions from around the world to log into and control the solar telescopes and cameras at Columbus State University's Meade Observatory. RISO's technology has also allowed the observatory to stream webcasts for special astronomical events on the web allowing for a larger public audience. This poster will present the tools used for the webcasts and review some of the results from previous webcasts. We will also discuss some of the future paths of RISO and the technology associated with RISO and how this will be able to provide public outreach to a much larger audience. Support for RISO and the webcasts has been provided by NASA through the Georgia Space Science Grant Consortium.

  4. Coordination of Mesoscale Meteorological Research between ASL and European Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology


    mesometeorology workshop held at the Ris)National Labpratory, RosKilde, Denmark, 12th-15th May, 1987, 2 Panel Meetings ( RisO , 14th-15th May, 1987 and PSL, NMSU...recent years and .nere are a substantial number of well tested models that have significant advantages over SIGMET. At the Panel meeting in RISO , 12-14...the considerable amount of work put into SIGMET development since its last full meeting at RISO in 1987 had been largely fruitless. ASL appeared to be

  5. Field Measurement and Model Evaluation Program for Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Military Smokes: Evaluation of Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Fog-Oil Smoke Dispersion

    DTIC Science & Technology


    34Description of the Riso Puff Diffusion Model," Nuclear Safety, Vol. 67, p. 55-65. Pennsyle, R.O., 1984, Personal Communication, US Army Armament...Boughton Model (1984), the Riso Puff Model (Mikkelsen and Larsen, 1984), and the Petersen (1984) Model. All models will be tested with the above Smoke Week...Mikkelsen. T.. and S.E. Larsen. 1984. Description of the Riso Puff Diffusion Model. Nuclear Technology. m Nelson, J.G., W.M. Farmer. V.E. Bowman. and

  6. Early User Experience with BISON Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez


    Three Fuel Modeling Exercise II (FUMEX II) LWR fuel irradiation experiments were simulated and analyzed using the fuel performance code BISON to demonstrate code utility for modeling of the LWR fuel performance. Comparisons were made against the BISON results and the experimental data for the three assessment cases. The assessment cases reported within this report include IFA-597.3 Rod 8, Riso AN3 and Riso AN4.

  7. European Advisory Panel ’Mini-Conference’ Held in Las Cruces, New Mexico on 14-16 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology


    developments have occurred since the submission of the second interim report. The report of the Riso Workshop (copy attached) was edited by Professor Pearce...and the printing was carried out at Riso under, the supervision of Dr Leif Kristenson. It was published in November 198 7 and ha, been distributed by...ASL to several interested groups. It is a pleasure to record that Dr Pielke of Colorado State Oniversit and Dr- Walter Bach of the US Army Geosciences

  8. Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence

    SciTech Connect

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt


    The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

  9. New features in McStas, version 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åstrand, P.-O.; Lefmann, K.; Farhi, E.; Nielsen, K.; Skårup, P.

    The neutron ray-tracing simulation package McStas has attracted numerous users, and the development of the package continues with version 1.5 released at the ICNS 2001 conference. New features include: support for neutron polarisation, labelling of neutrons, realistic source and sample components, and interface to the Riso instrument-control software TASCOM. We give a general introduction to McStas and present the latest developments. In particular, we give an example of how the neutron-label option has been used to locate the origin of a spurious side-peak, observed in an experiment with RITA-1 at Riso.

  10. Collaborative Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Fidel, Raya


    Researchers from the University of Washington, Microsoft Research, Boeing, and Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark have embarked on a project to explore the manifestations of Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) in work settings and to propose technological innovations and organizational changes that can support, facilitate, and improve CIR.…

  11. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay


    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  13. What is the critical height of leading edge roughness for aerodynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Olsen, Anders S.; Kruse, Emil K.


    In this paper the critical leading edge roughness height is analyzed in two cases: 1) leading edge roughness influencing the lift-drag ratio and 2) leading edge roughness influencing the maximum lift. The analysis was based on wind tunnel measurements on the airfoils NACA0015, Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-C2-18 and at three different Reynolds numbers with two different leading edge roughness tape heights. Firstly, an analysis of the momentum thickness as function of Reynolds number was carried out based on the boundary layer theory by Thwaites. Secondly, the wind tunnel measurements combined with panel code predictions of the boundary layer momentum thickness created the basis for determining the impact of roughness on the aerodynamic performance. The critical heights were related to the Reynolds numbers and thereby the size of the wind turbines.

  14. Intraoperative Recording of ENG From Human Sacral Nerve Roots

    DTIC Science & Technology


    stimulation,” J. Urol., vol. 151, pp. 955-960, 1994. [4] J.S. Wheeler, J.S. Walter , P. Sibley, “Management of incontinent SCI patients with penile...spinal cord injury patients?,” Spinal cord, vol. 36, pp. 100-103, 1998. [7] T. Sinkjær, M. Haugland, J.J. Struijk, R. Riso , “Longterm cuff recordings

  15. High Temperature Oxidation and Electrochemical Studies Related to Hot Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Dis. Faraday. Soc., 1., 11 (1947) 9. G.W. Walter , Corr. Sci., 2&, 681 (1986) 10. F. Mansfeld, Corr.-NACE, 36, 301 (1981). 11. J. B. Wagner, Jr. and C...Soc., p2v 84-2, Pennington, NJ (1984), p. 519. 20. D.F. Shriver, S. Clancy, P.M. Blonsky, and L.C. Hardy, "Sixth Riso International Symposium on Met

  16. Response of Earth Penetrator Structures in Angle-of-Attack Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology


    as a set of drawings, L. Dary and T. Henry for assembling the loader, D. Walter for recording the response, H. Rudnicki for making the high-speed...70 Eccentricity Factor. .... ................................70 Pulse Shape. .. ............ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 76 Riso Time...DivisionATTNI Doc, Con. for W. Altemelrer ATTNI T. N. HelvigATTNI Doc, Con. ror 3141 Sandia Rpt, Coil. ATTNI Doc. Con. for Walter Herrmann 121 DEP

  17. Non-Discretionary Access Control for Decentralized Computing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Analysis and Enhancements of Computer Operating Systems, The RISOS Project, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Ca., NBSIR 76-1041, National Bureau...301-307. 138 <Walter74> Walter , K. G., et al, Primitive Models for Computer Security, Case Western Reserve University, ESD-TR-74-117, HQ...Electronic Systems Division, Hanscom AFB, Ma., 23 January 1974. (NTIS# AD 778467) <Walter75> Walter , K. G., et al., Initial Structured Specifications for

  18. Long Acting Injection Versus Oral Risperidone in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Differential Impact on White Matter Myelination Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H.; Amar, Chetan P.; Raven, Erika P.; Detore, Nicole R.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Mintz, Jim; Ventura, Joseph; Casaus, Laurie R.; Luo, John S.; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.


    Context Imaging and post-mortem studies provide converging evidence that subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) have a dysregulated trajectory of frontal lobe myelination. Prior MRI studies suggested that early in treatment of SZ, antipsychotic medications initially increase frontal lobe white matter (WM) volume, which subsequently declines prematurely in chronic stages of the disease. Insofar as the trajectory of WM decline associated with chronic disease may be due to medication non-adherence, it may be modifiable by long acting injection (LAI) formulations. Objectives Examine the impact of antipsychotic formulation on the myelination trajectory during a randomized six-month trial of LAI risperidone (RLAI) versus oral risperidone (RisO) in first-episode SZ subjects. Design Two groups of SZ subjects (RLAI, N=11; and RisO, N=13) that were matched in pre-randomization oral medication exposure and 14 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively examined. Frontal lobe WM volume was estimated using inversion recovery (IR) MRI images. A brief neuropsychological battery that focused on reaction times was performed at the end of the study. Main outcome measure WM volume change scores. Results WM volume remained stable in the RLAI and decreased significantly in the RisO groups resulting in a significant differential treatment effect, while the HC had a WM change intermediate and not significantly different from the two SZ groups. WM increase was associated with faster reaction times in tests involving frontal lobe function. Conclusions The results suggest that RLAI may improve the trajectory of myelination in first-episode patients and have a beneficial impact on cognitive performance. Better adherence provided by LAI may underlie the modified trajectory of myelin development. In vivo MRI biomarkers of myelination can help clarify mechanisms of action of treatment interventions. PMID:21767934

  19. Cooperative International Simulations with McStas

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Vickie E; Chen, Meili; Cobb, John W; Farhi, Emmanuel N; Hagen, Mark E; Kohl, James Arthur; Lefmann, Kim; Lin, Jiao; Miller, Stephen D; Reuter, Michael A; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Willendrup, Peter K


    McStas is a neutron ray-trace simulation package that simulates neutron scattering instruments. Its developers at Riso National Laboratory in Denmark and the Institute Max von Laue-Paul Langevin in France are collaborating with the SNS instrument scientists, the Neutron Science TeraGrid developers, and the DANSE developers to improve the package and make it available to more researchers. Distributed computing on the TeraGrid, the UK eScience Grid, the Open Science Grid, etc. is a goal of this collaboration as well as improved visualization, standardized NeXus output, improved performance, more sample kernels, event mode and histogram interfaces, and an analysis interface.

  20. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Landberg, L.


    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  1. Military Guilty Plea Inquiry: Some Constitutional Considerations.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    1973). 76 417 U.S. 21 (1974). 140 77 423 U.S. 61, 62 (1975). 78 462 U.S. 306 (1982). 79 411 U.S. at 267. 80 Riso , People v. Thomas: The Conditional...v. United States, 497 F. 2d 359 (7th Cir. 1974). Walters v. Harris, 460 F. 2d 988 (4th Cir. 1972). Rule 11, supra note 153, at section (e)(2). 223...Taylor, 21 M.J. 1016 (ACMR 1986). 354 United States v. Walters , 5 M.J. 829 (ACMR 1978). 355 United States v. Kazena, 11 M.J. 28 (CMA 1981). 356 United

  2. Simulations and experiments on RITA-2 at PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, S. N.; Lefmann, K.; McMorrow, D. F.; Altorfer, F.; Janssen, S.; Lüthy, M.

    The cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer RITA-2 designed and built at Riso National Laboratory was installed at the neutron source SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute in April/May 2001. In connection with the installation of RITA-2, computer simulations were performed using the neutron ray-tracing package McStas. The simulation results are compared to real experimental results obtained with a powder sample. Especially, the flux at the sample position and the resolution function of the spectrometer are investigated.

  3. Department of Energy Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    I-AL95 6A4~LA 1 UWCL*SSZFZKD F/G LO/1 H?. . 12 113l2i 2 -lll 1 36 II IIlIg.- I1I25 11UG’-- 11.6 L 0 tRiso -R-559 Department of N Energy Technology...of neutron flux distribution and absolute thermal flux. - Neutron activation analysis . - Gamma spectroscopy with scintillation detector. - Measurements...Electric design, and a very detailed experimental program has been conduc’ed for the two first fuel cycles (General Electric, 1976 ), yielding a unique

  4. Development of integrated radioactive waste packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, Peter; Butter, Kevin; Zimmerman, Ian; Viermann, Joerg; Messer, Matthias


    In order to offer a more cost effective, safer and efficient Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) management service, EnergySolutions EU Ltd. and Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) have been engaged in the development of integrated radioactive waste retrieval, packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK. Recognising the challenges surrounding regulatory endorsement and on-site implementation in particular, this has resulted in an alternative approach to meeting customer, safety regulator and disposability requirements. By working closely with waste producers and the organisation(s) responsible for endorsing radioactive waste management operations in the UK, our proposed solutions are now being implemented. By combining GNS' off-the-shelf, proven Ductile Cast Iron Containers (DCICs) and water removal technologies, with EnergySolutions EU Ltd.'s experience and expertise in waste retrieval, safety case development and disposability submissions, a fully integrated service offering has been developed. This has involved significant effort to overcome technical challenges such as onsite equipment deployment, active commissioning, conditioning success criteria and disposability acceptance. Our experience in developing such integrated solutions has highlighted the importance of working in collaboration with all parties to achieve a successful and viable outcome. Ultimately, the goal is to ensure reliable, safe and effective delivery of waste management solutions. (authors)

  5. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Yussup, F. Ibrahim, M. M. Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Haris, M. F.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.


    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  6. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.


    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  7. Swedish-German actinide migration experiment at ASPO hard rock laboratory.


    Kienzler, B; Vejmelka, P; Römer, J; Fanghänel, E; Jansson, M; Eriksen, T E; Wikberg, P


    Within the scope of a bilateral cooperation between Svensk Kärnbränslehantering (SKB) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (FZK-INE), an actinide migration experiment is currently being performed at the Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. This paper covers laboratory and in situ investigations on actinide migration in single-fractured granite core samples. For the in situ experiment, the CHEMLAB 2 probe developed by SKB was used. The experimental setup as well as the breakthrough of inert tracers and of the actinides Am, Np and Pu are presented. The breakthrough curves of inert tracers were analyzed to determine hydraulic properties of the fractured samples. Postmortem analyses of the solid samples were performed to characterize the flow path and the sorbed actinides. After cutting the cores, the abraded material was analyzed with respect to sorbed actinides. The slices were scanned optically to visualize the flow path. Effective volumes and inner surface areas were measured. In the experiments, only breakthrough of Np(V) was observed. In each experiment, the recovery of Np(V) was < or = 40%. Breakthrough of Am(III) and Pu(IV) as well as of Np(IV) was not observed.

  8. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.


    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  9. Application of the BISON Fuel Performance Code to the FUMEX-III Coordinated Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone


    INL recently participated in FUMEX-III, an International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored fuel modeling Coordinated Research Project. A main purpose of FUMEX-III is to compare code predictions to reliable experimental data. During the same time period, the INL initiated development of a new multidimensional (2D and 3D) multiphysics nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. Interactions with international fuel modeling researchers via FUMEX-III played a significant and important role in the BISON evolution, particularly influencing the selection of material and behavioral models which are now included in the code. BISON's ability to model integral fuel rod behavior did not mature until 2011, thus the only FUMEX-III case considered was the Riso3-GE7 experiment, which includes measurements of rod outer diameter following pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) resulting from a power ramp late in fuel life. BISON comparisons to the Riso3-GE7 final rod diameter measurements are quite reasonable. The INL is very interested in participation in the next Fuel Modeling Coordinated Research Project and would like to see the project initiated as soon as possible.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of aerosols in conjunction with a loss-free counter

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S.R.; Heydorn, K.; Landsberger, S.


    As part of an ongoing Arctic environmental research program, aerosol samples were collected on cellulose acetate filters at Station Nord in Greenland by the National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark. These samples were then given to the Riso National Laboratory in Denmark for evaluation by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Even though loss-free counters have been available for some with good results, little information has appeared in the literature in its use for actual samples. At Riso National Laboratory the samples were irradiated in the DR3 reactor and then counted on a GAMMA-X high-purity germanium (HPGe) counter with a Nuclear Data ND 599 loss-free counting (LFC) module. The aerosol filters were quite varied in their elemental depositions, and LFC was especially utilized to accommodate for the wide range of dead times encountered with the counting of short-lived isotopes. In some cases the fast decay of isotopes over the count along with pulse pileup problems would have made the use of other dead-time correction methods unreliable.

  11. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.


    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  12. New developments at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardenne, K.; Brendebach, B.; Denecke, M. A.; Liu, X.; Rothe, J.; Vitova, T.


    The INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source ANKA is operated by the Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Experiments on radioactive samples with activities up to 106 times the limit of exemption inside a safe and flexible double containment concept are possible. One great advantage of the beamline is its close proximity to INE's active laboratories with its equipment for manipulation of actinide materials and state-of-the-art spectroscopic, analytical, and microscopic instrumentation. This constellation is unique in Europe. The INE-Beamline is built primarily to serve INE in-house research associated with safe disposal of high level nuclear waste such as actinide speciation or coordination-, redox-, and geo-chemistry of actinides. A wide energy range from around 2.1 keV to 25 keV covering the K-edges from P to Pd and the L3, L2, and L1 edges for actinides from Th to Cm can be used. The INE-Beamline is optimized for X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques (XANES/EXAFS), but x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis and powder diffraction (XRD) are also possible, as well as surface sensitive measurements in grazing incidence geometry (GI-XAFS). Upgrades of instrumentation and extension of experimental capabilities at the INE-Beamline are driven by user needs. Two of the recent upgrades are presented: 1) installation of a microfocus option for spatially resolved studies (μ-XRF, μ-XANES, μ-XRD) and investigations of small volumes (e.g., heterogeneous natural samples and diamond anvil high pressure cells); 2) construction, and commissioning of a high resolution x-ray emission spectrometer (HRXES); 3) availability of an electrochemical cell for investigation of redox sensitive systems.

  13. Results of the first thirty foot drop test of the MOSAIK KfK cask

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.; Uncapher, W.; Bobbe, J.


    The MOSAIK KfK cask, a ductile cast iron (DCI) nuclear material transportation cask donated to Sandia by Gesellschaft fur NuklearService (GNS), was drop tested on June 25, 1990 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Conditions of the test were; a 30 ft. drop without impact limiters onto an unyielding target, cask metal temperature {minus}16F or below, and a 0.75 inch deep flaw machined into the cask wall at the location of the highest tensile stress. The drop test was successful as judged by inspection of the machined flaw which showed no crack initiation. This drop test, in the first in a series, was designed to demonstrate the viability of using a fracture mechanics approach to design cask fabricated from ferritic materials. In addition, the test demonstrated that a DCI cask can withstand severe impacts under accident-type conditions without failing in a brittle mode. The drop test parameters were designed to produce high decelerations and yield-level stresses in the cask wall. The measured rigid body deceleration was approximately 800 gs. This compares with decelerations of 100 to 300 gs for drop tests of casks with impact limiters. The time to peak load was 1.2 to 2.8 msec., compared to 20 to 40 msec for casks dropped with impact limiters. The maximum strain during the drop test was 1400 microstrain, which equates to a maximum tensile stress of about 37000 psi. This level of stress slightly exceeds the static yield strength and is about 80% of the dynamic yield strength. The test results of this initial drop test are discussed in detail in this paper.

  14. Dry Cask Storage Characterization Project - Phase 1: CASTOR V/21 Cask Opening and Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, Walter Claude; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Torgerson, Laurence Dale


    This report documents visual examination and testing conducted in 1999 and early 2000 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) on a Gesellschaft für Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR V/21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel dry storage cask. The purpose of the examination and testing is to develop a technical basis for renewal of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. The examination and testing was conducted to assess the condition of the cask internal and external surfaces, cask contents consisting of 21 Westinghouse PWR spent fuel assemblies from Dominion’s (formerly named Virginia Power) Surry Power Station and cask concrete storage pad. The assemblies have been continuously stored in the CASTOR cask since 1985. Cask exterior surface and selected fuel assembly temperatures, and cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates were measured. Cask external/internal surfaces, fuel basket components including accessible weldments, fuel assembly exteriors, and primary lid seals were visually examined. Selected fuel rods were removed from one fuel assembly, visually examined, and then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for nondestructive, destructive, and mechanical examination. Cask interior crud samples and helium cover gas samples were collected and analyzed. The results of the examination and testing indicate the concrete storage pad, CASTOR V/21 cask, and cask contents exhibited sound structural and seal integrity and that long-term storage has not caused detectable degradation of the spent fuel cladding or the release of gaseous fission products between 1985 and 1999.

  15. Basis of human factors methodology applied in the Westinghouse AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R. )


    The incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 brought about an awareness that there is a need for a new perspective on nuclear power plant operator performance. It was discerned that besides executing control actions, the operator needs an additional role, that of systems supervisor-someone who considers plant health at the functional level of how all the plant processes are related and how they perform with regard to the high-level operational goals of the plant. Westinghouse has taken the initiative to apply these ideas in dealing with the operator by studying the work of Rasmussen of Denmark's Riso Laboratory, regarding knowledge-based behavior and the requirements for supporting the cognitive processes required of an operator. This has led to the Westinghouse Man-Machine-Interface System (MMIS) design process.

  16. Detection of sub micro Gray dose levels using OSL phosphor LiMgPO4:Tb,B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, N. S.; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Muthe, K. P.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.


    Detection of sub micro Gray doses finds application in personnel and environmental monitoring, and nuclear forensics. Recently developed LiMgPO4:Tb,B (LMP) is highly sensitive Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) phosphor with excellent dosimetric properties. The OSL emission spectrum of LMP consists of several peaks attributed to characteristic Tb3+ emission. The OSL emission peak at 380 nm is favorable for bi-alkali PMT used in RISO reader system. It is demonstrated that significant improvement in dose detection threshold can be realized for LMP by optimization of continuous wave (CW-) OSL parameters like stimulation intensity and readout time. The minimum measurable dose (MMD) as low as 0.49 μGy in readout time of less than 1 s at stimulation intensity of 32 mW/cm2 has been achieved using this phosphor. The recommendations for choice of parameters for personnel and environmental monitoring are also discussed.

  17. (Welding under extreme conditions)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.A.


    The traveler was an invited member of the United States delegation and representative of the Basic Energy Science Welding Science program at the 42nd Annual International Institute of Welding (IIW) Assembly and Conference held in Helsinki, Finland. The conference and the assembly was attended by about 600 delegates representing 40 countries. The theme of the conference was welding under extreme conditions. The conference program contained several topics related to welding in nuclear, arctic petrochemical, underwater, hyperbaric and space environments. At the annual assembly the traveler was a delegate (US) to two working groups of the IIW, namely Commission IX and welding research study group 212. Following the conference the traveler visited the Danish Welding Institute in Copenhagen and the Risoe National Laboratory in Roskilde. Prior to the conference the traveler visited Lappeenranta University of Technology and presented an invited seminar entitled Recent Advances in Welding Science and Technology.''

  18. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sondergaard, L.M.


    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Molecular analysis of a mutation conferring the high-lysine phenotype on the grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare).


    Kreis, M; Shewry, P R; Forde, B G; Rahman, S; Miflin, B J


    We have analyzed the molecular nature of the Riso 56 mutation that occurs in barley. This mutation results in a depression of hordein accumulation in the grain and consequently in a higher overall lysine content. In particular, the amount of B hordein, which is encoded by the complex locus Hor-2, is decreased by about 75% because of the absence of the major components. The synthesis of certain minor polypeptides, with properties similar to the major B hordeins, remains unaffected. Analysis of endosperm RNA, by in vitro translation and hybridization to various cloned cDNAs derived from hordein mRNA, shows that mRNA for the major B hordeins is not present in the endosperm. Hybridization of a B hordein cDNA clone to gel-fractionated restriction digests of mutant and wild-type DNA indicates that at least 85 kb of DNA has been deleted from the Hor-2 locus in the high-lysine mutant.

  20. Processing and Characterization of New Materials at Pomona College with External Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanenbaum, David


    My research program focuses on the evolution of novel lithographic, growth, and characterization processes for use with thin films for microelectronics and photovoltaic technologies. We have established facilities at Pomona College for wet chemistry, spin coating, thermal evaporation,~micro-contact printing, ultra violet ozone cleaning, oxygen plasma cleaning, Au/Pd sputter coating, critical point drying, optical microscopy, optical lithography, ellipsometry, spectral reflectance, electrical conductivity, current-voltage characterization, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, electron microscopy, electron beam lithography, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Active collaborations with researchers at Cornell University and at Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy (in Denmark) keep the research program vibrant and relevant. Since 2001, I have been an active member of the Cornell Center for Nanoscale Systems. Recent research and publications have focused on carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and organic photovoltaics. Pomona College students have played significant roles in all these projects, as well as in the development of our facilities. Connections to a wide range of researchers are invaluable not only for scientific discussions, but provide many opportunities for summer REU internships for my research students. This provides valuable training, access to facilities, and seeds future collaborations. Collaborations at Cornell span 15 years including two sabbatical years and regular summer visits to work at sites such as the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility, the Cornell Center for Materials Research, and the Cornell Center for Nanoscale Systems.

  1. Rotor loading on a three-bladed wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Rasmussen, Flemming

    For a well designed and adjusted horizontal axis wind turbine, the turbulence in the wind is one of the primary sources of cyclic loading. Wind turbulence not only causes blade loads, but is responsible for the major part of the cyclic rotor loads which are transferred through the rotor shaft. In order to predict the cyclic part of the primary structural rotor loads, the thrust, the yaw and the tilt moment, a model was developed. The model works in the frequency domain and uses the standard engineering representation of turbulence in terms of a coherence function and a power spectrum. The model which accounts for the rotational sampling of the turbulent wind field, shows good agreement with the results of testing programs on wind turbines which are tested at The Test Station for Windmills at Risoe National Laboratory. The comparison is made in terms of both the frequency content of the turbulence induced loads as well as the associated fatigue damage. A parametric study demonstrates the effect of the tower bending and tower torsion flexibility on the magnitude of the cyclic rotor loads.

  2. Characterization of wind velocities in the wake of a full scale wind turbine using three ground-based synchronized WindScanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben; José Trujillo, Juan


    The wind energy community is in need of detailed full-field measurements in the wake of wind turbines. Here, three dimensional(3D) wind vector field measurements obtained in the near-wake region behind a full-scale test turbine are presented. Specifically, the wake of a NEG Nordtank turbine, installed at Risoe test field, has been measured from 0 to 2 diameters downstream. For this, three ground-based synchronised short-range WindScanners and a spinner lidar have been used. The 3D wind velocity field has been reconstructed in horizontal and vertical planes crossing the hub. The 10-min mean values of the three wind components reveal detailed information regarding the wake properties while propagating downwind over flat terrain. Furthermore, the wake centre is tracked from the measurements and its meander is investigated as function of yaw misalignment of the turbine. The centre-line wake deficit is calculated both in a Nacelle and Moving Frame of Reference. The results can be used in quantitative validation of numerical wake models.

  3. Diagnostic potential of optical coherence tomography in non-melanoma skin cancer: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jemec, Gregor B. E.


    Introduction: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the Western World. OCT has proved potential in assisting clinical diagnosis and perhaps reducing the need for biopsies in NMSC. As non-invasive treatment is increasingly used for NMSC patients with superficial lesions, the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies is highly relevant. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional clinical study, enrolling 100 NMSC patients and 20 healthy volunteers, is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and applicability of OCT in NMSC diagnosis. Our OCT-system has been developed at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark and offers ppolarization sensitive-OCT (PS-OCT) that may have additional advantaged as NMSC differ in content of birefringent collagens from normal skin. Results: Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) can in some cases be distinguished from normal skin in OCT-images, as normal skin exhibits a layered structure this layering is not present in BCC and sometimes not in actinic keratosis (AK). BCC lesions seem to be clearly less reflective than normal tissue. The predictive value of OCT in NMSC will be presented from a clinical point of view. Discussion: The earlier a skin cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. Estimation of diagnostic accuracy and abilities of OCT in clinical studies of skin cancer patients is essential to establish the role and future set-ups for diagnostic OCT-systems.

  4. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, E.; Hansen, T.; Wildes, A.; Ghosh, R.; Lefmann, K.

    With the increasing complexity of modern neutron-scattering instruments, the need for powerful tools to optimize their geometry and physical performances (flux, resolution, divergence, etc.) has become essential. As the usual analytical methods reach their limit of validity in the description of fine effects, the use of Monte Carlo simulations, which can handle these latter, has become widespread. The McStas program was developed at Riso National Laboratory in order to provide neutron scattering instrument scientists with an efficient and flexible tool for building Monte Carlo simulations of guides, neutron optics and instruments [1]. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers [2]. In this paper, we present some simulation results concerning different guide geometries that may be used in the future at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Gain factors ranging from two to five may be obtained for the integrated intensities, depending on the exact geometry, the guide coatings and the source.

  5. Recent results on the neutron irradiation of ITER candidate copper alloys irradiated in DR-3 at 250{degrees}C to 0.3 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.


    Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime-ageing and bonding thermal treatment with additional specimens re-aged and given a reactor bakeout treatment at 350{degrees}C for 100 h. CuAl-25 was also heat treated to simulate the effects of a bonding thermal cycle on the material. A number of heat treated specimens were neutron irradiated at 250{degrees}C to a dose level of {approximately}0.3 dpa in the DR-3 reactor as Riso. The main effect of the bonding thermal cycle heat treatment was a slight decrease in strength of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. The strength of CuAl-25, on the other hand, remained almost unaltered. The post irradiation tests at 250{degrees}C showed a severe loss of ductility in the case of the CuNiBe alloy. The irradiated CuAl-25 and CuCrZr specimens exhibited a reasonable amount of uniform elongation, with CuCrZr possessing a lower strength.

  6. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques—the ISOS-3Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Germack D.; Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Jorgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Hoppe, H.; Krebs, F.C.


    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {ge} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Risoe DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results - hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  7. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques - The ISOS-3 Inter-Laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D. M.; Jrgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M. T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H. F.; Gevorgyan, S. A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.


    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {>=} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Riso DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results -- hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Protein Crystallography of Biaryltriazoles as Potent Tautomerase Inhibitors of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Pawel; Cisneros, José A.; Robertson, Michael J.; Hare, Alissa A.; Danford, Nadia E.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Jorgensen, William L.


    Optimization is reported for biaryltriazoles as inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. A combined approach was taken featuring organic synthesis, enzymatic assaying, crystallography, and modeling including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations. X-ray crystal structures for 3a and 3b bound to MIF are reported and provided a basis for the modeling efforts. The accommodation of the inhibitors in the binding site is striking with multiple hydrogen bonds and aryl–aryl interactions. Additional modeling encouraged pursuit of 5-phenoxyquinolinyl analogues, which led to the very potent compound 3s. Activity was further enhanced by addition of a fluorine atom adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl group as in 3w, 3z, 3aa, and 3bb to strengthen a key hydrogen bond. It is also shown that physical properties of the compounds can be modulated by variation of solvent-exposed substituents. Several of the compounds are likely the most potent known MIF tautomerase inhibitors; the most active ones are more than 1000-fold more active than the well-studied (R)-ISO-1 and more than 200-fold more active than the chromen-4-one Orita-13. PMID:25697265

  9. Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, M C; Kendler, K S


    We develop several formal models for comorbidity between multifactorial disorders. Based on the work of D. N. Klein and L. P. Riso, the models include (i) alternate forms, where the two disorders have the same underlying continuum of liability; (ii) random multiformity, in which affection status on one disorder abruptly increases risk for the second; (iii) extreme multiformity, where only extreme cases have an abruptly increased risk for the second disorder; (iv) three independent disorders, in which excess comorbid cases are due to a separate, third disorder; (v) correlated liabilities, where the risk factors for the two disorders correlate; and (vi) direct causal models, where the liability for one disorder is a cause of the other disorder. These models are used to make quantitative predictions about the relative proportions of pairs of relatives who are classified according to whether each relative has neither disorder, disorder A but not B, disorder B but not A, or both A and B. For illustration, we analyze data on major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) assessed in adult female MZ and DZ twins, which enable estimation of the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors. Several models are rejected--that comorbid cases are due to chance; multiformity of GAD; a third independent disorder; and GAD being a cause of MD. Of the models that fit the data, correlated liabilities, MD causes GAD, and reciprocal causation seem best. MD appears to be a source of liability for GAD. Possible extensions to the models are discussed. PMID:7573055

  10. Comparison of properties and microstructures of Trefimetaux and Hycon 3HP{trademark} after neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.


    The precipitation strengthened CuNiBe alloys are among three candidate copper alloys being evaluated for application in the first wall, divertor, and limiter components of ITER. Generally, CuNiBe alloys have higher strength but poorer conductivity compared to CuCrZr and CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. Brush-Wellman Inc. has manufactured an improved version of their Hycon CuNiBe alloy that has higher conductivity while maintaining a reasonable level strength. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the effect of radiation on the physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. In the present work the authors have investigated the physical and mechanical properties of the Hycon 3HP{trademark} alloy both before and after neutron irradiation and have compared its microstructure and properties with the European CuNiBe candidate alloy manufactured by Trefirmetaux. Tensile specimens of both alloys were irradiated in the DR-3 reactor at Risoe to displacement dose levels up to 0.3 dpa at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both alloys were tensile tested in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both pre- and post-irradiation microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Fracture surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Electrical resistivity measurements were made on tensile specimens before and after irradiation; all measurements were made at 23 C. At this point it seems unlikely that CuNiBe alloys can be recommended for applications in neutron environments where the irradiation temperature exceeds 200 C. Applications at temperatures below 200 C might be plausible, but only after careful experiments have determined the dose dependence of the mechanical properties and the effect of sudden temperature excursions on the material to establish the limits on the use of the alloy.

  11. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect


    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  12. Effects of bonding bakeout thermal cycles on pre- and post irradiation microstructures, physical, and mechanical properties of copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Toft, P.; Edwards, D.J.


    At present, dispersion strengthened (DS) copper is being considered as the primary candidate material for the ITER first wall and divertor components. Recently, it was agreed among the ITER parties that a backup alloy should be selected from the two well known precipitation hardened copper alloys, CuCrZr and CuNiBe. It was therefore decided to carry out screening experiments to simulate the effect of bonding and bakeout thermal cycles on microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical resistivity of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. On the basis of the results of these experiments, one of the two alloys will be selected as a backup material. Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime ageing, and bonding thermal cycle followed by reageing and the reactor bakeout treatment at 623K for 100 hours. Tensile specimens of the DS copper were also given the heat treatment corresponding to the bonding thermal cycle. A number of these heat treated specimens of CuCrZr, CuNiBe, and DS copper were neutron irradiated at 523K to a dose level of {approx}0.3 dpa (NRT) in the DR-3 reactor at Riso. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens with the various heat treatments were tensile tested at 532K. The dislocation, precipitate and void microstructures and electrical resistivity of these specimens were also determined. Results of these investigations will be reported and discussed in terms of thermal and irradiation stability of precipitates and irradiation-induced precipitation and recovery of dislocation microstructure. Results show that the bonding and bakeout thermal cycles are not likely to have any serious deleterious effects on the performance of these alloys. The CuNiBe alloys were found to be susceptible to radiation-induced embrittlement, however, the exact mechanism is not yet known. It is thought that radiation-induced precipitation and segregation of the beryllium may be responsible.

  13. Numerical investigation of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, Suganthi

    A numerical method based on the solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and actuator disk representation of turbine rotor is developed and implemented in the OpenFOAM software suite for aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The method and the implementation are validated against the 1-D momentum theory, the blade element momentum theory and against experimental data. The model is used for analyzing aerodynamics of a novel dual rotor wind turbine concept and wind farms. Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints (e.g., manufacturing, transportation, cost, etc.). A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these losses. A DRWT is designed using an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor (Risoe turbine and NREL 5 MW turbine), while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift to drag ratio airfoil (the DU 96 airfoil from TU Delft). The numerical aerodynamic analysis method developed as a part of this thesis is used to optimize the design. The new DRWT design gives an improvement of about 7% in aerodynamic efficiency over the single rotor turbine. Wind turbines are typically deployed in clusters called wind farms. HAWTs also suffer from aerodynamic losses in a wind farm due to interactions with wind turbine wakes. An interesting mesoscale meteorological phenomenon called "surface flow convergence" believed to be caused by wind turbine arrays is investigated using the numerical method developed here. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by the pressure gradient set up by wind turbines operating in close proximity in a farm. A conceptual/hypothetical wind farm simulation validates the hypothesis that a pressure gradient is setup in wind farms due to turbines and that it can cause flow veering of the order of 10 degrees. Simulations of a real wind farm (Story County) are also

  14. Proceedings of the 4th New World Luminescence Dating and Dosimetry Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 31 June 2, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, Richard A.


    Introduction: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is one of a class of measurements known as stimulated phenomena. Such phenomena may be stimulated thermally or optically and the reader is referred to works by Aitken (1998) and Botter-Jensen and others (2003) for more detail. In recent years OSL has become a popular procedure for the determination of environmental radiation doses absorbed by archeological and geological materials in an attempt to date these materials. The first OSL measurements on quartz and feldspar were made using an argon ion-laser (Huntley et al., 1985). However, the development of cheaper stimulation systems based first on filtered lamps and then on light- emitting diodes (LEDs) (Spooner, et al., 1990; Botter-Jensen, and others, 1999) has led to a massive expansion in OSL dating applications. The abstracts in this volume represent presentations from a workshop held in May-June 2006, at the Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado, in which OSL methodologies and applications were summarized and integrated to provide a current synthesis of the OSL science being applied throughout North America. The workshop, sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team and North Dakota State University, was open to all scientists interested in OSL dating techniques and radiation dosimetry. Participants included thirty-six research scientists and students in geology, archaeology, and physics from the U.S. Geological Survey, Los Alamos National Labs, Kentucky Geological Survey, eight universities in the United States, one university in Canada, one university in India, and Riso National Labs of Denmark. The workshop included two keynote speakers: Dr. Ashok Singhvi (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India) spoke on 'Some Unexplored Methodological Aspects and Some New Applications of Luminescence Dating,' while Dr. Jim Feathers (University of Seattle, WA) spoke on OSL Dating of Sediments From Paleoindian Sites in Brazil

  15. Subcellular analysis of starch metabolism in developing barley seeds using a non-aqueous fractionation method

    PubMed Central

    Tiessen, Axel; Nerlich, Annika; Faix, Benjamin; Hümmer, Christine; Fox, Simon; Trafford, Kay; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede; Geigenberger, Peter


    Compartmentation of metabolism in developing seeds is poorly understood due to the lack of data on metabolite distributions at the subcellular level. In this report, a non-aqueous fractionation method is described that allows subcellular concentrations of metabolites in developing barley endosperm to be calculated. (i) Analysis of subcellular volumes in developing endosperm using micrographs shows that plastids and cytosol occupy 50.5% and 49.9% of the total cell volume, respectively, while vacuoles and mitochondria can be neglected. (ii) By using non-aqueous fractionation, subcellular distribution between the cytosol and plastid of the levels of metabolites involved in sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and respiration were determined. With the exception of ADP and AMP which were mainly located in the plastid, most other metabolites of carbon and energy metabolism were mainly located outside the plastid in the cytosolic compartment. (iii) In developing barley endosperm, the ultimate precursor of starch, ADPglucose (ADPGlc), was mainly located in the cytosol (80–90%), which was opposite to the situation in growing potato tubers where ADPGlc was almost exclusively located in the plastid (98%). This reflects the different subcellular distribution of ADPGlc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in these tissues. (iv) Cytosolic concentrations of ADPGlc were found to be close to the published Km values of AGPase and the ADPGlc/ADP transporter at the plastid envelope. Also the concentrations of the reaction partners glucose-1-phosphate, ATP, and inorganic pyrophosphate were close to the respective Km values of AGPase. (v) Knock-out of cytosolic AGPase in Riso16 mutants led to a strong decrease in ADPGlc level, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas knock-down of the ADPGlc/ADP transporter led to a large shift in the intracellular distribution of ADPGlc. (v) The thermodynamic structure of the pathway of sucrose to starch was determined by calculating the mass–action ratios

  16. Fast ion dynamics measured by collective Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindslev, Henrik


    we find that fast ions with parallel energies above thermal exhibit no sensitivity to sawteeth. Near the inversion radius on the low field side, by contrast, we see no fast ion sensitivity to sawteeth, even for ions with small parallel energy and perpendicular energy below the threshold found on the high field side. Also measured are the temporal evolutions at switch-on and -off of the fast ion sources (ICRH and NBI), providing new experimental information on slowing down - confinement - and quasilinear diffusion times. The observed slowing down times of fast ions on passing orbits agree well with classical slowing down due to electron drag. There are indications that the core ICRH fast ions appear earlier in perpendicular velocity space than in parallel space, consistent with the need to pitch angle scatter to spread into parallel velocity space. The probing radiation for the CTS in TEXTOR is provided by a gyrotron (110 GHz, 200 ms, 100 kW). At the probe frequency, the fundamental and 2nd harmonic electron cyclotron resonances are respectively on the high and low field sides of the plasma, resulting in a plasma emission temperature of typically 50 eV. This permits an integration time of 2 ms, giving 100 time slices, 4 ms apart, and typically 20 nodes resolved in the velocity distribution with an uncertainty of 10 is presently 10 cm (minor radius 46 cm). Parallel with further developments of the fast ion CTS at TEXTOR, a new system is being developed for ASDEX upgrade. The new results have also provided the impetus for a proposal to build a fast ion CTS for JET using a probing frequency below the electron cyclotron emission spectrum, which is the millimetre wave CTS option for ITER. References [1]; [2] H. Bindslev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3206 (1999); [3] References posted at; [4] Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2152 (2000);

  17. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    This special issue presents a series of papers on biological physics. It emphasizes the fact that Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter welcomes papers in this area and foresees a fruitful cross-fertilization between this and other more conventional condensed matter fields. The work was presented at the conference ÂNanophysics in Life SciencesÂ' held in Copenhagen on 21-22 June 2002. The meeting was arranged by, and marked the start of, the new Division of Physics in Life Sciences (DPL) within the European Physical Society (EPS). It also celebrated the opening of a new Danish research centre on quantum protein physics (QUP), which was co-organizer and co-sponsor. The meeting was organized at short notice and yet attracted some 80 participants from a number of countries (despite the fact that the chosen weekend included the `midsummer night', a feast nobody in the Northern Scandinavian countries would wish to miss - even when offered an event in the beautiful venue of the Carlsberg estate). The audience included many young people and students, demonstrating the great interest in the field of biological physics and in the topics chosen within that field. The selection represented, furthermore, the present scope of the new DPL division. All but one of the board members of DPL were able to attend and present their work, among others. They have subsequently delivered valuable contributions to this special issue. The subjects cover a large area (the full programme can be found on the division's web-page: To mention a few: the dynamical and optical properties of biomolecules (proteins), experimental studies of single biomolecules, various theoretical approaches to the protein folding problem and DNA motion, biomolecular motor and transport functions, quantum chemical calculations. Many of these problems are closely related to those studied in conventional condensed matter. To emphasize one topic we have written the Viewpoint article (pages V5-V9) which

  18. Mesoscale response of individual grains of polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3}to electrical loading.

    SciTech Connect

    Varlioglu, M.; Lienert, U.; Ustundag, E.; Bernier, J.; Rogan, R. C.; Margulies, L.; Poulsen, H.; Iowa State Univ.; Risoe National Lab.


    Ranging from sub-grain structures to grain clusters, the mesoscale is critical in understanding the constitutive behavior of ferroelectrics. The interaction of domains with grain boundaries and grain-to-grain constraints largely determine the overall response of a ferroelectric. Unfortunately, the most severe paucity of quantitative data also exists at the mesoscale. The newly developed 3-D XRD technique offers a unique opportunity to study the response of ferroelectrics to external stimuli at this scale by allowing the investigation of individual grains within a polycrystal. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D XRD in ferroelectrics research for the first time, a polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} was subjected to quasi-statically cycled electric field. The experiments were performed at beamlines 1-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and ID-11 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France. In both cases, nominally the same polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} samples (about 1 x 1 x 5 mm{sup 3}) were employed. The specimens were held upright in the geometry shown in Fig. 1 and run in transmission mode using {approx}80 keV X-rays. The direction of the electric field was perpendicular to the X-ray beam and it was stepped up to a maximum of {+-} 20 kV/cm, well above the nominal coercive field of the material ({approx}5 kV/cm). At each applied field value, the specimen was rotated perpendicular to the beam in 0.1{sup o} {omega} steps (Fig. 1) up to {+-} 45{sup o} (at ESRF) and {+-} 65{sup o} (at APS). The X-ray spot size was about 150 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2} at ESRF and 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} at APS. Since the grain size of the BaTiO{sub 3} samples was measured to be {approx}20-30 {micro}m from SEM images, either sampling volume was large enough to capture a reasonable number of grains. The diffraction data were analyzed using the GRAINDEX software from Risoe. This analysis attempted to identify individual grains and track their response to electric

  19. Long-term atmospheric visibility trend in Southeast China, 1973-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Zhao, Juanjuan


    declined at a rate of -1.6, -2.0 and -2.4 km/decade, with the average of 13.1, 17.8 and 23.0 km, respectively. During 2000-2010, the daily dry extinction coefficients were positively correlated with API with linear R2 values of 0.42 and 0.43 for Xiamen and Shantou, respectively, suggesting that the air pollution could be responsible for the visibility impairment in Southeast China. Analysis on the effects of recent policies suggested that visibility change was significantly positively correlated with environment treatment variables including Removed Industrial SO2 (RISO2), Total Investment in Environmental Pollution Control (TIEPC), Area of Green Space (AGS) and Removed Industrial Dust (RID), but significantly negatively correlated with Emission of Industrial Dust (EID). Time-lag effect on the contribution of TIEPC to visibility was found. It is suggested that continuous and effective pollution control strategy, particularly increasing investment in environment control and pollutant emission reduction, is needed to counteract the degradation of atmospheric visibility in Southeast China.