Sample records for risoes nukleare anlaeg

  1. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.


    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  2. The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Parr, Patricia E.; Newman, Isadore; Higgins, Kristin K.


    This investigation was conducted to estimate the reliability and validity of scores on the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (D. R. Riso & R. Hudson, 1999a). Results of 287 participants were analyzed. Alpha suggests an adequate degree of internal consistency. Evidence provides mixed support for construct validity using correlational and…


    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Danny J.; Singh, Bachu N.


    PNNL and Riso have been collaborating since 1994 on a series of irradiation experiments on pure copper and various alloys of interest to the fusion materials community. The collaboration has been of great benefit to both institutes by sharing resources and experience. Past research has concentrated on examining the microstructural evolution during neutron irradiation and the influence this microstructural change exerts on the deformation response. Post-irradiation annealing experiments of both irradiated pure copper and CuCrZr yielded unique insights into the relationship between the microstructure and the deformation response. The results of that experiment also raised further questions regarding the stability and structure of the small defects produced during irradiation, particularly regarding the stability of these defects during annealing and how they interact with mobile dislocations. The focus of ongoing work has now shifted to examining the issues of defect stability in irradiated materials, dislocation generation from stress concentrations at interfaces in irradiated materials, and a new experiment on in-situ straining during irradiation and how this affects microstructural evolution and the relationship to mechanical properties.

  4. Mead Observatory WebCasts: Public Outreach to the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Hood, J.; Williams, R. N. M.; Cruzen, S.; Johnson, C.


    The Real-Time Interactive Solar Observatory (RISO) is a web portal that allows educational institutions from around the world to log into and control the solar telescopes and cameras at Columbus State University's Meade Observatory. RISO's technology has also allowed the observatory to stream webcasts for special astronomical events on the web allowing for a larger public audience. This poster will present the tools used for the webcasts and review some of the results from previous webcasts. We will also discuss some of the future paths of RISO and the technology associated with RISO and how this will be able to provide public outreach to a much larger audience. Support for RISO and the webcasts has been provided by NASA through the Georgia Space Science Grant Consortium.

  5. Early User Experience with BISON Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez


    Three Fuel Modeling Exercise II (FUMEX II) LWR fuel irradiation experiments were simulated and analyzed using the fuel performance code BISON to demonstrate code utility for modeling of the LWR fuel performance. Comparisons were made against the BISON results and the experimental data for the three assessment cases. The assessment cases reported within this report include IFA-597.3 Rod 8, Riso AN3 and Riso AN4.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence

    SciTech Connect

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt


    The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

  7. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay


    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  9. Collaborative Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Fidel, Raya


    Researchers from the University of Washington, Microsoft Research, Boeing, and Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark have embarked on a project to explore the manifestations of Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) in work settings and to propose technological innovations and organizational changes that can support, facilitate, and improve CIR.…

  10. Methodology for quality control when conditioning radioactive waste regarding the flow chart procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, U.; Kunz, W.


    Radioactive waste that is to be stored into an interim and/or a final storage facility has to fulfill several quality requirements. These requirements are the result of safety analysis for the individual storage facility. The fulfillment of these requirements has to be proven before storing the waste package in the designated storage facility. In co-operation with the responsible authorities and experts, the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS), Essen, Germany, has developed the flow chart procedure for low and medium active waste for proving and documenting the quality of the product when conditioning the radioactive waste. Meanwhile, this flow chart procedure is part of the ``Technical Acceptance Criteria`` for interim storage facilities and the ``Requirements for Final Storage`` for final storage facilities respectively for low and medium active waste in Germany. This procedure can also be used for high-active vitrified waste from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel.

  11. GNS spent fuel cask experience

    SciTech Connect

    Weh, R. )


    The Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS), which is owned by German utilities, is responsible for the management of spent fuel and nuclear waste on behalf of the German utilities operating nuclear power plants. This paper describes the spent reactor fuel and waste shipping and/or storage casks that GNS manufacturers for nuclear facilities in Germany, and worldwide. So far more than 30 different casks have been produced in quantities ranging from one to several hundred of each type. GNS participates in the German Support Program to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in developing verification procedures for dry storage casks containing spent fuel. This activity is also summarized.

  12. Cygnus: Electrochemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.G.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Vujic, J.; Solly, F.; Johnson, D.; Philipp, D.


    Electrochemical cleaning, commonly referred to as electropolishing, can be used to remove surface contamination by dissolving the underlying metal matrix. This is accomplished in the Cygnus process by passing an electric current through a dilute, acidic electrolyte. In the operation, the surface is polished, thereby removing contamination and irregularities to prevent recontamination. Mechanical decontamination processes, by comparison, leave the surface layer distorted, highly stressed, and contaminated with process media. Techniques employing grinding and particle impingement rework the surface of malleable metals such as stainless steel, folding the contamination into pockets where material is released for uncontrolled use. Solway, Ltd., developed the method to be more effective with respect to waste reduction and cost-effectiveness. Together with NUKEM Nuklear, the method was improved for a decontamination procedure in nuclear technology. One of the applications was the decontamination work at KRN Grundremmingen in Germany. The intensive work has shown that the method is suitable for decontamination services in both defense and commercial areas.

  13. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Landberg, L.


    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  14. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.


    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  15. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.


    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  16. Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.


    REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. (Fission product transport experiments (HFR-B1))

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.


    Travel to the JRC Petten was for the purpose of discussing the HFR-B1 experiment and post irradiation activities. Technical assessment of the experiment strongly supports the concept of enhanced fission gas release at temperatures above 1100{degree}C, the extensive release of stored fission gas at water vapor levels postulated in accident scenarios, an increase in the steady-state fission gas release under hydrolyzing conditions, and an increase in gas release during thermal cycling. Schedules were established for completion of the work and issuance of reports by September 1990. At the KFA Juelich agreement was reached on the PIE activities for HFR-B1 and a schedule established. The final PIE report is due June 1991. Choices of accident condition tests in the PIE have yet to be made by the US participants. A proposal for the establishment of a new cooperative effort on model and code development was presented at the Institut fuer Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung of KFA. The proposal was considered premature; discussions dealing with general principles, basic aims, and organization were requested; particular concerns about free exchange of information, overlap with the existing safety subprogram, and exclusive cooperation with ORNL were raised. A strong desire for cooperation and the opinion that the raised problems could be resolved were expressed. Technical discussions at the KFA were beneficial.

  18. Swedish-German actinide migration experiment at ASPO hard rock laboratory.


    Kienzler, B; Vejmelka, P; Römer, J; Fanghänel, E; Jansson, M; Eriksen, T E; Wikberg, P


    Within the scope of a bilateral cooperation between Svensk Kärnbränslehantering (SKB) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (FZK-INE), an actinide migration experiment is currently being performed at the Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. This paper covers laboratory and in situ investigations on actinide migration in single-fractured granite core samples. For the in situ experiment, the CHEMLAB 2 probe developed by SKB was used. The experimental setup as well as the breakthrough of inert tracers and of the actinides Am, Np and Pu are presented. The breakthrough curves of inert tracers were analyzed to determine hydraulic properties of the fractured samples. Postmortem analyses of the solid samples were performed to characterize the flow path and the sorbed actinides. After cutting the cores, the abraded material was analyzed with respect to sorbed actinides. The slices were scanned optically to visualize the flow path. Effective volumes and inner surface areas were measured. In the experiments, only breakthrough of Np(V) was observed. In each experiment, the recovery of Np(V) was < or = 40%. Breakthrough of Am(III) and Pu(IV) as well as of Np(IV) was not observed. PMID:12598106

  19. Frequency domain modelling of wind turbine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, P.; Larsen, G.C.; Christensen, C.J.


    The present paper describes a frequency domain model of the structure of an operating horizontal axis wind turbine. The frequency domain model is implemented along with an analogous time domain modeling the Risoe PC code Design Basis 2, and a more detailed description of the model is offered in a Risoe report by Soerensen (1994). The structure of an operating wind turbine is affected by essential non-linearities between structural variables on blades and tower respectively. These non-linearities are caused by the rotation of the blades. The transformations between the blade coordinate systems and the tower coordinate system will depend on the instantaneous azimuth positions of the blades as they rotate. Frequency domain analysis are much faster than time simulations and in some respects they give more insight into the dynamics of the structure. However, the non-linear terms in the dynamic equations for a complex wind turbine structure are usually thought to preclude the use of frequency domain methods. Design Basis 2 is used to verify the frequency domain model comparing loads on the structure calculated with the frequency domain model both to loads calculated with the time domain model and to measured loads. Examples show that frequency and time domain calculations of typical PSD`s of loads are in very good agreement. Also the agreement between the calculated and measured PSD`s is good. Moreover, Design Basis 2 has shown that the frequency domain model results in an extremely fast calculation method.

  20. Application of the BISON Fuel Performance Code to the FUMEX-III Coordinated Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone


    INL recently participated in FUMEX-III, an International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored fuel modeling Coordinated Research Project. A main purpose of FUMEX-III is to compare code predictions to reliable experimental data. During the same time period, the INL initiated development of a new multidimensional (2D and 3D) multiphysics nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. Interactions with international fuel modeling researchers via FUMEX-III played a significant and important role in the BISON evolution, particularly influencing the selection of material and behavioral models which are now included in the code. BISON's ability to model integral fuel rod behavior did not mature until 2011, thus the only FUMEX-III case considered was the Riso3-GE7 experiment, which includes measurements of rod outer diameter following pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) resulting from a power ramp late in fuel life. BISON comparisons to the Riso3-GE7 final rod diameter measurements are quite reasonable. The INL is very interested in participation in the next Fuel Modeling Coordinated Research Project and would like to see the project initiated as soon as possible.

  1. Drop tests and numerical impact analyses of new cask designs for High Activity Waste (Haw) and spent fuel - updated BAM design testing experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Volzke, H.; Zencker, U.; Qiao, L.; Feutlinske, K.; Musolff, A.


    In Germany, several new cask designs by international vendors (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Service mbH (GNS), TN International (TNI), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI)) are under design testing and within official licensing procedures for transport and storage casks for spent fuel and high activity waste (HAW). BAM (the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) has been performing several extensive drop test series with prototype casks to evaluate the safety margins against mechanical test conditions. An important project is the new GNS cask design for HAW, the CASTOR{sup R} HAW 28M. Sixteen drop tests have been performed under transport conditions with a 1:2 scale cask model equipped with impact limiters and extensively instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometers. Additionally, the accident scenario inside a storage facility has been investigated by a cask drop without impact limiters onto a nearly unyielding target. This scenario is dominated by highly dynamic effects and interactions between the test object and the target. Complete safety assessments for such mechanical accident scenarios and highly loaded cask structures require additional numerical investigations. They are done by complex finite element (FE) calculations that provide detailed dynamic stress and strain analyses all over the cask structure and at such points where sensors can't be applied. In addition, differences between the material property quantities of the prototype cask and the minimum material property requirements for the cask series production can be investigated as well as dimensional tolerances. By example, the safety assessment method and some of its special aspects are illustrated by the cask drop without an impact limiter onto a hard foundation. The main aspects and challenges are to develop a sufficient computer model of the cask and foundation and to provide detailed interpretation of the large amount of measurement data for achieving good correlation

  2. Results of the first thirty foot drop test of the MOSAIK KfK cask

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.; Uncapher, W.; Bobbe, J.


    The MOSAIK KfK cask, a ductile cast iron (DCI) nuclear material transportation cask donated to Sandia by Gesellschaft fur NuklearService (GNS), was drop tested on June 25, 1990 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Conditions of the test were; a 30 ft. drop without impact limiters onto an unyielding target, cask metal temperature {minus}16F or below, and a 0.75 inch deep flaw machined into the cask wall at the location of the highest tensile stress. The drop test was successful as judged by inspection of the machined flaw which showed no crack initiation. This drop test, in the first in a series, was designed to demonstrate the viability of using a fracture mechanics approach to design cask fabricated from ferritic materials. In addition, the test demonstrated that a DCI cask can withstand severe impacts under accident-type conditions without failing in a brittle mode. The drop test parameters were designed to produce high decelerations and yield-level stresses in the cask wall. The measured rigid body deceleration was approximately 800 gs. This compares with decelerations of 100 to 300 gs for drop tests of casks with impact limiters. The time to peak load was 1.2 to 2.8 msec., compared to 20 to 40 msec for casks dropped with impact limiters. The maximum strain during the drop test was 1400 microstrain, which equates to a maximum tensile stress of about 37000 psi. This level of stress slightly exceeds the static yield strength and is about 80% of the dynamic yield strength. The test results of this initial drop test are discussed in detail in this paper.

  3. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.


    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  4. Dry Cask Storage Characterization Project - Phase 1: CASTOR V/21 Cask Opening and Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, Walter Claude; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Torgerson, Laurence Dale


    This report documents visual examination and testing conducted in 1999 and early 2000 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) on a Gesellschaft für Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR V/21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel dry storage cask. The purpose of the examination and testing is to develop a technical basis for renewal of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. The examination and testing was conducted to assess the condition of the cask internal and external surfaces, cask contents consisting of 21 Westinghouse PWR spent fuel assemblies from Dominion’s (formerly named Virginia Power) Surry Power Station and cask concrete storage pad. The assemblies have been continuously stored in the CASTOR cask since 1985. Cask exterior surface and selected fuel assembly temperatures, and cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates were measured. Cask external/internal surfaces, fuel basket components including accessible weldments, fuel assembly exteriors, and primary lid seals were visually examined. Selected fuel rods were removed from one fuel assembly, visually examined, and then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for nondestructive, destructive, and mechanical examination. Cask interior crud samples and helium cover gas samples were collected and analyzed. The results of the examination and testing indicate the concrete storage pad, CASTOR V/21 cask, and cask contents exhibited sound structural and seal integrity and that long-term storage has not caused detectable degradation of the spent fuel cladding or the release of gaseous fission products between 1985 and 1999.

  5. Injection of deuterium pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S.A.; Andersen, V.; Nordskov-Nielsen, A.; Sass, B.; Weisberg, K.V.


    A discussion is given of the work done at Riso National Laboratory on the design and construction of deuterium pellet injectors. A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Next some of the details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 550 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined.

  6. Basis of human factors methodology applied in the Westinghouse AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R. )


    The incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 brought about an awareness that there is a need for a new perspective on nuclear power plant operator performance. It was discerned that besides executing control actions, the operator needs an additional role, that of systems supervisor-someone who considers plant health at the functional level of how all the plant processes are related and how they perform with regard to the high-level operational goals of the plant. Westinghouse has taken the initiative to apply these ideas in dealing with the operator by studying the work of Rasmussen of Denmark's Riso Laboratory, regarding knowledge-based behavior and the requirements for supporting the cognitive processes required of an operator. This has led to the Westinghouse Man-Machine-Interface System (MMIS) design process.

  7. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sondergaard, L.M.


    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Turbulence and diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskett, Ronald L.


    This conference addressed recent theoretical advancements of turbulence and diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Activities were centered on the technical sessions of the conference. Sessions addressed clouds and the marine atmospheric boundary layer, field experimental techniques, physical and numerical simulations, transport and diffusion, surface properties, general boundary layer, stratified turbulence and turbulence in complex terrain. A jointly authored poster on an evaluation of the ARAC emergency response models with and without on-site sound detection and ranging systems (sodars) which measure vertical wind profiles was presented. Several scientists commented on our work and some requested further information. In addition, there was a workshop on dispersion around groups of buildings and a tour of Riso National Laboratory. Developments relevant to our work included work on dispersion model evaluation, especially using Monte Carlo random walk techniques, parameterizations of mixing height and turbulence from remote sensing systems such as sodars and radars, and measurements and parameterizations of enhanced turbulence around groups of buildings.

  9. What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders?


    Altman, Sarah E; Shankman, Stewart A


    Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:19744759

  10. Summertime contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpene oxidation to the formation of secondary organic aerosol in the troposphere over Mt. Tai, Central East China during MTX2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Pochanart, P.; Tanimoto, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.


    To better understand the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in high mountain regions, ambient aerosols were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m, a.s.l.), Central East China (CEC) during the Mount Tai eXperiment 2006 campaign (MTX2006) in early summer. Biogenic SOA tracers of isoprene, monoterpenes, and β-caryophyllene oxidation products were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the biogenic SOA tracers showed no clear diurnal variations, suggesting that they are formed during long-range atmospheric transport. Although isoprene- and monoterpene-derived SOA tracers did not correlate with levoglucosan (a biomass burning tracer), β-caryophyllinic acid showed a good correlation with levoglucosan, indicating that biomass burning may be a source for this compound. Total concentrations of isoprene oxidation products are much higher than those of monoterpene and β-caryophyllene oxidation products. The ratio of isoprene to monoterpene oxidation products (Riso/mono) was found to co-vary with ozone and NOx during the summer campaign. The average Riso/mono value was 6.94 at daytime and 10.0 at nighttime. These values are among the highest in the aerosols studied in different regions, which may be due to the large isoprene fluxes, high O3 and NOx levels and relatively high OH concentrations in CEC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the average concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) derived from isoprene, monoterpenes, and β-caryophyllene to be 1.76 μgC m-3 at daytime and 1.85 μgC m-3 at nighttime. These values correspond to 11.2% and 11.0% of the total OC concentrations, in which isoprene-derived SOC are 7.4% and 8.0% at day- and night-time, respectively. This study suggests that isoprene is a more significant precursor for biogenic SOA than monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene in high altitude in CEC.

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Protein Crystallography of Biaryltriazoles as Potent Tautomerase Inhibitors of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Pawel; Cisneros, José A.; Robertson, Michael J.; Hare, Alissa A.; Danford, Nadia E.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Jorgensen, William L.


    Optimization is reported for biaryltriazoles as inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. A combined approach was taken featuring organic synthesis, enzymatic assaying, crystallography, and modeling including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations. X-ray crystal structures for 3a and 3b bound to MIF are reported and provided a basis for the modeling efforts. The accommodation of the inhibitors in the binding site is striking with multiple hydrogen bonds and aryl–aryl interactions. Additional modeling encouraged pursuit of 5-phenoxyquinolinyl analogues, which led to the very potent compound 3s. Activity was further enhanced by addition of a fluorine atom adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl group as in 3w, 3z, 3aa, and 3bb to strengthen a key hydrogen bond. It is also shown that physical properties of the compounds can be modulated by variation of solvent-exposed substituents. Several of the compounds are likely the most potent known MIF tautomerase inhibitors; the most active ones are more than 1000-fold more active than the well-studied (R)-ISO-1 and more than 200-fold more active than the chromen-4-one Orita-13. PMID:25697265

  12. Determination of triacylglycerol regioisomers using electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with a kinetic method.


    Leveque, Nathalie L; Acheampong, Akwasi; Heron, Sylvie; Tchapla, Alain


    The kinetic method was applied to differentiate and quantify mixtures of regioisomeric triacylglycerols (TAGs) by generating and mass selecting alkali ion bound metal dimeric clusters with a TAG chosen as reference (ref) and examining their competitive dissociations in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This methodology readily distinguished pairs of regioisomers (AAB/ABA) such as LLO/LOL, OOP/OPO and SSP/SPS and consequently distinguished sn-1/sn-3, sn-2 substituents on the glycerol backbone. The dimeric complex ions [ref, Li, TAG((AAB and/or ABA))](+) generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were subjected to collision induced dissociation causing competitive loss of either the neutral TAG reference (ref) leading to [Li(AAB and/or ABA)](+) or the neutral TAG molecule (TAG((AAB and/or ABA))) leading to [ref, Li](+). The ratio of the two competitive dissociation rates, defined by the product ion branching ratio (R(iso)), was related via the kinetic method to the regioisomeric composition of the investigated TAG mixture. In this work, a linear correlation was established between composition of the mixture of each TAG regioisomer and the logarithm of the branching ratio for competitive fragmentation. Depending on the availability of at least one TAG regioisomer as standard, the kinetic method and the standard additions method led to the quantitative analysis of natural TAG mixtures. PMID:22444537

  13. Recent results on the neutron irradiation of ITER candidate copper alloys irradiated in DR-3 at 250{degrees}C to 0.3 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.


    Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime-ageing and bonding thermal treatment with additional specimens re-aged and given a reactor bakeout treatment at 350{degrees}C for 100 h. CuAl-25 was also heat treated to simulate the effects of a bonding thermal cycle on the material. A number of heat treated specimens were neutron irradiated at 250{degrees}C to a dose level of {approximately}0.3 dpa in the DR-3 reactor as Riso. The main effect of the bonding thermal cycle heat treatment was a slight decrease in strength of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. The strength of CuAl-25, on the other hand, remained almost unaltered. The post irradiation tests at 250{degrees}C showed a severe loss of ductility in the case of the CuNiBe alloy. The irradiated CuAl-25 and CuCrZr specimens exhibited a reasonable amount of uniform elongation, with CuCrZr possessing a lower strength.

  14. Measurement of ClO and CO2 for ACCENT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toohey, Darin


    Observations have shown that ozone in largely removed in rocket plumes within an hour of launch [M.N. Ross, et al., Nature 390, 62-64, 1997]. Large abundances of chlorine oxide (ClO) were first detected in the fresh plume of a Delta rocket in May of 1998 from the NASA WB-57 during the Air Force RISO campaign by the CORE instrument developed at UC Irvine. Similar abundances were detected a month later in the plume of an ATLAS II rocket. Although the maximum ClO observed in these plumes was twenty-five times larger than the highest values ever observed in the perturbed polar vortices, in a new study, [M.N. Ross, et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2000, in press] could not account for observed ozone losses based on known chlorine photochemistry. New measurements were obtained in plumes of Delta, Atlas, and Athena rockets in 1999 during ACCENT with the CORE instrument augmented with a modified LiCor non-dispersed infrared detector for fast-response measurements of carbon-dioxide (CO2). The absolute abundance of this specie constrains the rocket emission stoichiometry, and its relative abundance serves as a tracer of dilution. The combination of ClO and CO2 will provide important new insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of reactive chlorine partitioning and its dependence on rocket motor type.

  15. A 3D interactive optical manipulation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Rodrigo, Peter J.; Nielson, Ivan P.


    Three-dimensional light structures can be created by modulating the spatial phase and polarization properties of the laser light. A particularly promising technique is the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method invented and patented at Riso National Laboratory. Based on the combination of programmable spatial light modulator devices and an advanced graphical user-interface the GPC method enables real-time, interactive and arbitrary control over the dynamics and geometry of synthesized light patterns. Recent experiments have shown that GPC-driven micro-manipulation provides a unique technology platform for fully user-guided assembly of a plurality of particles in a plane, control of particle stacking along the beam axis, manipulation of multiple hollow beads, and the organization of living cells into three-dimensional colloidal structures. These demonstrations illustrate that GPC-driven micro-manipulation can be utilized not only for the improved synthesis of functional microstructures but also for non-contact and parallel actuation crucial for sophisticated opto- and micro-fluidic based lab-on-a-chip systems.

  16. Processing and Characterization of New Materials at Pomona College with External Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanenbaum, David


    My research program focuses on the evolution of novel lithographic, growth, and characterization processes for use with thin films for microelectronics and photovoltaic technologies. We have established facilities at Pomona College for wet chemistry, spin coating, thermal evaporation,~micro-contact printing, ultra violet ozone cleaning, oxygen plasma cleaning, Au/Pd sputter coating, critical point drying, optical microscopy, optical lithography, ellipsometry, spectral reflectance, electrical conductivity, current-voltage characterization, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, electron microscopy, electron beam lithography, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Active collaborations with researchers at Cornell University and at Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy (in Denmark) keep the research program vibrant and relevant. Since 2001, I have been an active member of the Cornell Center for Nanoscale Systems. Recent research and publications have focused on carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and organic photovoltaics. Pomona College students have played significant roles in all these projects, as well as in the development of our facilities. Connections to a wide range of researchers are invaluable not only for scientific discussions, but provide many opportunities for summer REU internships for my research students. This provides valuable training, access to facilities, and seeds future collaborations. Collaborations at Cornell span 15 years including two sabbatical years and regular summer visits to work at sites such as the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility, the Cornell Center for Materials Research, and the Cornell Center for Nanoscale Systems.

  17. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Combination of Imaging Techniques—the ISOS-3Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Germack D.; Rosch, R.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Jorgensen, M.; Seeland, M.; Barenklau, M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Wurfel, U.; Hosel, M.; Dam, H.F.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Kudret, S.; Maes, W.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Andriessen, R.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Rivaton, A.; Uzunoglu, G.Y.; Andreasen, B.; Madsen, M.V.; Norrman, K.; Hoppe, H.; Krebs, F.C.


    The investigation of degradation of seven distinct sets (with a number of individual cells of n {ge} 12) of state of the art organic photovoltaic devices prepared by leading research laboratories with a combination of imaging methods is reported. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at Risoe DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. Imaging of device function at different stages of degradation was performed by laser-beam induced current (LBIC) scanning; luminescence imaging, specifically photoluminescence (PLI) and electroluminescence (ELI); as well as by lock-in thermography (LIT). Each of the imaging techniques exhibits its specific advantages with respect to sensing certain degradation features, which will be compared and discussed here in detail. As a consequence, a combination of several imaging techniques yields very conclusive information about the degradation processes controlling device function. The large variety of device architectures in turn enables valuable progress in the proper interpretation of imaging results - hence revealing the benefits of this large scale cooperation in making a step forward in the understanding of organic solar cell aging and its interpretation by state-of-the-art imaging methods.

  18. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect


    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  19. Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik; Vronsky, Tomas


    When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup, airfoils were designed with relative thicknesses between 18% and 36%, a structural box height of 85% of the relative thickness, and varying box widths in chordwise direction between 20% and 40% of the chord length. The results from these airfoil designs showed that for a given flapwise stiffness, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were supported by an analysis of the three airfoil families Riso-C2, DU and FFA, where the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was decreasing, but relatively independent of the airfoil design, and the design lift coefficient was varying depending on the design philosophy. To make the analysis complete also design lift and lift- drag ratio as a function of edgewise and torsional stiffness were shown.

  20. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )


    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  1. Section 9.1 new dosimeters. New dosimetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William L.

    During the past two years there have been significant advances in several forms of radiation measurement systems for radiation processing, covering dose ranges of 1-10 6 Gy. Calorimeters as reference standards for both ionizing photon and electron fields have become well-established. In addition to the older ceric-cerous dosimetry solution analyzed potentiometrically, new liquid-phase dosimeters include those analyzed by spectrophotometry, e.g., improved forms of acidic aqueous solutions of K-Ag dichromate and organic radiochromic dye solutions. It has recently been demonstrated that by using certain refined sugars, e.g., D-(-) ribose, optical rotation response in aqueous solutions can be enhanced for dosimetry at doses > 10 4 Gy. There has been expanded development, use, and formulation (rods, tablets, and thin films) of the amino acid, alanine, as a solid-phase dosimeter analyzed by either ESR spectrometry or by glutamine or alanine spectrophotometry of complexes with ferric ion in the presence of a sulfonphthalein dye (xylenol orange). New commercial types of radiochromic plastic dosimeters, e.g., GafChromic TM, Riso B3 TM, GAMMACHROME YR TM, Radix TM, and Gammex TM, have been introduced and applied in practice. Improvements and broader use of optical waveguide dosimeters, e.g., Opti-Chromic TM, have also been reported, especially in food irradiation applications. Several novel dyed plastic dosimeters are available in large quantities and they lose color due to irradiation. An example is a dyed cellulosic thin film (ATC type DY-42 TM) which can be measured spectrophotometrically or densitometrically up to doses as high as 10 6 Gy.

  2. Comparison of properties and microstructures of Trefimetaux and Hycon 3HP{trademark} after neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.


    The precipitation strengthened CuNiBe alloys are among three candidate copper alloys being evaluated for application in the first wall, divertor, and limiter components of ITER. Generally, CuNiBe alloys have higher strength but poorer conductivity compared to CuCrZr and CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. Brush-Wellman Inc. has manufactured an improved version of their Hycon CuNiBe alloy that has higher conductivity while maintaining a reasonable level strength. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the effect of radiation on the physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. In the present work the authors have investigated the physical and mechanical properties of the Hycon 3HP{trademark} alloy both before and after neutron irradiation and have compared its microstructure and properties with the European CuNiBe candidate alloy manufactured by Trefirmetaux. Tensile specimens of both alloys were irradiated in the DR-3 reactor at Risoe to displacement dose levels up to 0.3 dpa at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both alloys were tensile tested in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both pre- and post-irradiation microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Fracture surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Electrical resistivity measurements were made on tensile specimens before and after irradiation; all measurements were made at 23 C. At this point it seems unlikely that CuNiBe alloys can be recommended for applications in neutron environments where the irradiation temperature exceeds 200 C. Applications at temperatures below 200 C might be plausible, but only after careful experiments have determined the dose dependence of the mechanical properties and the effect of sudden temperature excursions on the material to establish the limits on the use of the alloy.

  3. OSL and TT-OSL dating of sediments and pottery from a paleoseismological trench across the Gyrtoni Fault, Central Greece: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Ioannides, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spyros; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Caputo, Riccardo


    T he preliminary results from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from a paleoseismological trench excavated in the Gyrtoni Fault, Tyrnavos Basin, Central Greece are presented. The initial preliminary interpretation of the trench wall structure provided indications of recent reactivations of the fault. The footwall of the fault consists of well stratified lagustrine deposits, while the hanging wall consists of poorly stratified scarp-derived deposits. Seven samples, one for each lithologic unit, were collected from the upthrown fault block in order to establish a reliable chronological framework and nine sediment and pottery samples were collected from the downthrown fault block to constrain the timing of the linear morphogenic earthquakes observed in the trench and thus reconstruct the recent seismotectonic behaviour. The samples were dated following the OSL dating method, using the Riso TL/OSL DA-20 reader. The OSL ages were obtained from chemically purified quartz and a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was followed for the equivalent dose (De) determination. Also, the natural radioactivity of soil from the surroundings of the original sample location was assessed, using gamma spectrometry. The dose rates were calculated using the appropriate dose conversion factors and corrected for the humidity content of the surrounding soils. The OSL ages from the upthrown fault block are in stratigraphic order (except one sample), but the signal of the five oldest samples occurs above the saturation level of the exponential part of the dose response curve and thus the reliability of the calculated De value for use in dating is uncertain. To obtain a more reliable De value, thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) signal has been investigated for five samples. The age of the earthquakes observed in the trench and the recent seismotectonic behavior of the fault are also discussed.

  4. Current fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostics at TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade, and ITER plans (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Korsholm, S. B.; Bindslev, H.; Meo, F.; Leipold, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Michelsen, S.; Nielsen, S. K.; Tsakadze, E. L.; Woskov, P.; Westerhof, E.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Hoekzema, J.; Leuterer, F.; Wagner, D


    Fast ion physics will play an important role on ITER where confined alpha particles will affect plasma dynamics and overall confinement. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using gyrotrons has the potential to meet the need for measuring the spatially localized velocity distributions of confined fast ions in ITER. Currently, CTS experiments are performed at TEXTOR using a 150 kW, 0.2 s, 110 GHz gyrotron and a receiver upgraded at the Risoe National Laboratory. The gyrotron and receiver optics have also been upgraded for rapid scanning during a plasma shot. The receiver consists of a nine-mirror quasioptical transmission line including a universal polarizer and a 42-channel data acquisition system, which allows complete coverage of the double sideband scattered spectrum for localized ({approx}10 cm) time resolved (4 ms) measurements of the ion velocity distribution. At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) a similar 50-channel CTS receiver has been installed. This CTS system will use the 105 GHz frequency of a dual frequency gyrotron. The gyrotron is presently being commissioned. CTS campaigns are scheduled for the summer of 2006 with a probe power of up to 1 MW for 10 s. This report presents the alignment of the quasioptical transmission line, calibration, and gyrotron tuning of the TEXTOR and AUG CTS systems. We will also review the progress on the design of the proposed fast ion CTS diagnostic for ITER. It is envisaged that scattered radiation from two 60 GHz probe beams launched from the low field side midplane port will be received by two arrays of receivers located on the low and high field sides of the plasma. This geometry will allow the ion velocity distribution near perpendicular and near parallel to the magnetic field to be measured in ten or more spatial locations covering the full plasma cross section. The temporal resolution can be significantly better than the required 100 ms.

  5. Site Suitability Assessment with Dynamic Wake Meandering Model. A Certification Point of View.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas Bayo, Ricard; Parro, Gema


    Establishment of large wind farms requires enormous investments putting steadily greater emphasis on optimal topology design and control of these. This requires not only an optimization of the power output, but also the development of strategies to cope with the higher loading expected. The cornerstone of such strategies is a realistic characterization and modelling of the wake flow field inside the wind farm, beyond Frandsen's equivalent turbulence method. Whereas Frandsen model has been mostly considered in the industry so far, it has not proved completely satisfactory when facing current problems such as wake effects on turbines placed at short distances or consequences of half wake for turbine loading. The objective of the present work is to address these questions from a certification point of view within the framework of Risoe's Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model. The DWM model is based on the combination of three parts: modeling of quasi-steady wake deficits, a stochastic model of the downwind wake meandering and an added or self-generated wake turbulence. The analysis carried out is two-fold: First, a comparative study of the wake effects generated in Frandsen model as well as in various realizations of the DWM model is performed. For this purpose wake-induced loads are calculated using two different aeroelastic codes: HAWC2 and Bladed. Second, the applicability of DWM for the assessment of wind turbines under site-specific conditions is discussed and the conclusions summarized in a Recommended Practice. Clear prescriptions are thereby provided for the use of DWMM for site suitability assessments, including the aforementioned extreme situations, along with the interpretation of the future version of the IEC 61400-1 standards.

  6. Subcellular analysis of starch metabolism in developing barley seeds using a non-aqueous fractionation method

    PubMed Central

    Tiessen, Axel; Nerlich, Annika; Faix, Benjamin; Hümmer, Christine; Fox, Simon; Trafford, Kay; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede; Geigenberger, Peter


    Compartmentation of metabolism in developing seeds is poorly understood due to the lack of data on metabolite distributions at the subcellular level. In this report, a non-aqueous fractionation method is described that allows subcellular concentrations of metabolites in developing barley endosperm to be calculated. (i) Analysis of subcellular volumes in developing endosperm using micrographs shows that plastids and cytosol occupy 50.5% and 49.9% of the total cell volume, respectively, while vacuoles and mitochondria can be neglected. (ii) By using non-aqueous fractionation, subcellular distribution between the cytosol and plastid of the levels of metabolites involved in sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and respiration were determined. With the exception of ADP and AMP which were mainly located in the plastid, most other metabolites of carbon and energy metabolism were mainly located outside the plastid in the cytosolic compartment. (iii) In developing barley endosperm, the ultimate precursor of starch, ADPglucose (ADPGlc), was mainly located in the cytosol (80–90%), which was opposite to the situation in growing potato tubers where ADPGlc was almost exclusively located in the plastid (98%). This reflects the different subcellular distribution of ADPGlc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in these tissues. (iv) Cytosolic concentrations of ADPGlc were found to be close to the published Km values of AGPase and the ADPGlc/ADP transporter at the plastid envelope. Also the concentrations of the reaction partners glucose-1-phosphate, ATP, and inorganic pyrophosphate were close to the respective Km values of AGPase. (v) Knock-out of cytosolic AGPase in Riso16 mutants led to a strong decrease in ADPGlc level, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas knock-down of the ADPGlc/ADP transporter led to a large shift in the intracellular distribution of ADPGlc. (v) The thermodynamic structure of the pathway of sucrose to starch was determined by calculating the mass–action ratios

  7. Metabolism of carveol and dihydrocarveol in Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14.


    van der Werf, M J; Boot, A M


    Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 assimilates all stereoisomers of carveol and dihydrocarveol as sole source of carbon and energy. Induction experiments with carveol- or dihydrocarveol-grown cells showed high oxygen consumption rates with these two compounds and with carvone and dihydrocarvone. (Dihydro)carveol-grown cells of R. erythropolis DCL14 contained the following enzymic activities involved in the carveol and dihydrocarveol degradation pathways of this micro-organism: (dihydro)carveol dehydrogenase (both NAD+- and dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent activities), an unknown cofactor-dependent carvone reductase, (iso-)dihydrocarvone isomerase activity, NADPH-dependent dihydrocarvone monooxygenase (Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase), epsilon-lactone hydrolase and an NAD+-dependent 6-hydroxy-3-isopropenylheptanoate dehydrogenase. Product accumulation studies identified (4R)-carvone, (1R,4R)-dihydrocarvone, (4R,7R)-4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone, (3R)-6-hydroxy-3-isopropenylheptanoate, (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate, (3S,6R)-6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-oxooxepanone and (5R)-6-hydroxy-5-isopropenyl-2-methylhexanoate as intermediates in the (4R)-carveol degradation pathway. The opposite stereoisomers of these compounds were identified in the (4S)-carveol degradation pathway. With dihydrocarveol, the same intermediates are involved except that carvone was absent. These results show that R. erythropolis DCL14 metabolizes all four diastereomers of carveol via oxidation to carvone, which is subsequently stereospecifically reduced to (1R)-(iso-) dihydrocarvone. At this point also dihydrocarveol enters the pathway, and this compound is directly oxidized to (iso-)dihydrocarvone. Cell extracts contained both (1R)-(iso-)dihydrocarvone 1,2-monooxygenase and (1S)-(iso)-dihydrocarvone 2,3-monooxygenase activity, resulting in a branch point of the degradation pathway; (1R)-(iso-)dihydrocarvone was converted to 4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone, while (1S

  8. Proceedings of the 4th New World Luminescence Dating and Dosimetry Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 31 June 2, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, Richard A., (Edited By)


    Introduction: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is one of a class of measurements known as stimulated phenomena. Such phenomena may be stimulated thermally or optically and the reader is referred to works by Aitken (1998) and Botter-Jensen and others (2003) for more detail. In recent years OSL has become a popular procedure for the determination of environmental radiation doses absorbed by archeological and geological materials in an attempt to date these materials. The first OSL measurements on quartz and feldspar were made using an argon ion-laser (Huntley et al., 1985). However, the development of cheaper stimulation systems based first on filtered lamps and then on light- emitting diodes (LEDs) (Spooner, et al., 1990; Botter-Jensen, and others, 1999) has led to a massive expansion in OSL dating applications. The abstracts in this volume represent presentations from a workshop held in May-June 2006, at the Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado, in which OSL methodologies and applications were summarized and integrated to provide a current synthesis of the OSL science being applied throughout North America. The workshop, sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team and North Dakota State University, was open to all scientists interested in OSL dating techniques and radiation dosimetry. Participants included thirty-six research scientists and students in geology, archaeology, and physics from the U.S. Geological Survey, Los Alamos National Labs, Kentucky Geological Survey, eight universities in the United States, one university in Canada, one university in India, and Riso National Labs of Denmark. The workshop included two keynote speakers: Dr. Ashok Singhvi (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India) spoke on 'Some Unexplored Methodological Aspects and Some New Applications of Luminescence Dating,' while Dr. Jim Feathers (University of Seattle, WA) spoke on OSL Dating of Sediments From Paleoindian Sites in Brazil

  9. Numerical investigation of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, Suganthi

    A numerical method based on the solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and actuator disk representation of turbine rotor is developed and implemented in the OpenFOAM software suite for aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The method and the implementation are validated against the 1-D momentum theory, the blade element momentum theory and against experimental data. The model is used for analyzing aerodynamics of a novel dual rotor wind turbine concept and wind farms. Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints (e.g., manufacturing, transportation, cost, etc.). A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these losses. A DRWT is designed using an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor (Risoe turbine and NREL 5 MW turbine), while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift to drag ratio airfoil (the DU 96 airfoil from TU Delft). The numerical aerodynamic analysis method developed as a part of this thesis is used to optimize the design. The new DRWT design gives an improvement of about 7% in aerodynamic efficiency over the single rotor turbine. Wind turbines are typically deployed in clusters called wind farms. HAWTs also suffer from aerodynamic losses in a wind farm due to interactions with wind turbine wakes. An interesting mesoscale meteorological phenomenon called "surface flow convergence" believed to be caused by wind turbine arrays is investigated using the numerical method developed here. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by the pressure gradient set up by wind turbines operating in close proximity in a farm. A conceptual/hypothetical wind farm simulation validates the hypothesis that a pressure gradient is setup in wind farms due to turbines and that it can cause flow veering of the order of 10 degrees. Simulations of a real wind farm (Story County) are also

  10. Effects of bonding bakeout thermal cycles on pre- and post irradiation microstructures, physical, and mechanical properties of copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Toft, P.; Edwards, D.J.


    At present, dispersion strengthened (DS) copper is being considered as the primary candidate material for the ITER first wall and divertor components. Recently, it was agreed among the ITER parties that a backup alloy should be selected from the two well known precipitation hardened copper alloys, CuCrZr and CuNiBe. It was therefore decided to carry out screening experiments to simulate the effect of bonding and bakeout thermal cycles on microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical resistivity of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. On the basis of the results of these experiments, one of the two alloys will be selected as a backup material. Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime ageing, and bonding thermal cycle followed by reageing and the reactor bakeout treatment at 623K for 100 hours. Tensile specimens of the DS copper were also given the heat treatment corresponding to the bonding thermal cycle. A number of these heat treated specimens of CuCrZr, CuNiBe, and DS copper were neutron irradiated at 523K to a dose level of {approx}0.3 dpa (NRT) in the DR-3 reactor at Riso. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens with the various heat treatments were tensile tested at 532K. The dislocation, precipitate and void microstructures and electrical resistivity of these specimens were also determined. Results of these investigations will be reported and discussed in terms of thermal and irradiation stability of precipitates and irradiation-induced precipitation and recovery of dislocation microstructure. Results show that the bonding and bakeout thermal cycles are not likely to have any serious deleterious effects on the performance of these alloys. The CuNiBe alloys were found to be susceptible to radiation-induced embrittlement, however, the exact mechanism is not yet known. It is thought that radiation-induced precipitation and segregation of the beryllium may be responsible.

  11. Subcellular analysis of starch metabolism in developing barley seeds using a non-aqueous fractionation method.


    Tiessen, Axel; Nerlich, Annika; Faix, Benjamin; Hümmer, Christine; Fox, Simon; Trafford, Kay; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede; Geigenberger, Peter


    Compartmentation of metabolism in developing seeds is poorly understood due to the lack of data on metabolite distributions at the subcellular level. In this report, a non-aqueous fractionation method is described that allows subcellular concentrations of metabolites in developing barley endosperm to be calculated. (i) Analysis of subcellular volumes in developing endosperm using micrographs shows that plastids and cytosol occupy 50.5% and 49.9% of the total cell volume, respectively, while vacuoles and mitochondria can be neglected. (ii) By using non-aqueous fractionation, subcellular distribution between the cytosol and plastid of the levels of metabolites involved in sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and respiration were determined. With the exception of ADP and AMP which were mainly located in the plastid, most other metabolites of carbon and energy metabolism were mainly located outside the plastid in the cytosolic compartment. (iii) In developing barley endosperm, the ultimate precursor of starch, ADPglucose (ADPGlc), was mainly located in the cytosol (80-90%), which was opposite to the situation in growing potato tubers where ADPGlc was almost exclusively located in the plastid (98%). This reflects the different subcellular distribution of ADPGlc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in these tissues. (iv) Cytosolic concentrations of ADPGlc were found to be close to the published K(m) values of AGPase and the ADPGlc/ADP transporter at the plastid envelope. Also the concentrations of the reaction partners glucose-1-phosphate, ATP, and inorganic pyrophosphate were close to the respective K(m) values of AGPase. (v) Knock-out of cytosolic AGPase in Riso16 mutants led to a strong decrease in ADPGlc level, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas knock-down of the ADPGlc/ADP transporter led to a large shift in the intracellular distribution of ADPGlc. (v) The thermodynamic structure of the pathway of sucrose to starch was determined by calculating the mass-action ratios

  12. Disposal of bituminized and other low- and medium-level wastes: Waste characterization and the retention of migrating radionuclides by steel corrosion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegalski, Kendra Mylene Foltz


    The validity of using scaling factors with the reference nuclide, sp{137}Cs, for activity determinations of sp{238}Pu, sp{239,\\ 240}Pu, and sp{241}Am in low- and medium-level bituminized and unconditioned evaporator concentrates (ECs) produced at Riso National Laboratory (RNL), Denmark was investigated. The presence of constant activity ratios between sp{137}Cs and the Pu isotopes above was predicted because a large part of this waste stream originated from research on irradiated light water reactor fuel. Activity ratios were measured in different waste samples by comparison of gamma-measurements to results from destructive analyses using alpha-spectrometry. Results were verified using activity ratios of spent low-enriched fuel from the literature. Continuation studies on the mechanisms influencing releases from bituminized low- and medium-level wastes were performed by leach tests on samples of various compositions and exposed to diverse environments. Four compositions of bituminized materials were studied including (1) bitumen with NaNOsb3 and BaSOsb4, (2) bitumen with NaNOsb3, BaSOsb4, and Nisb2Fe(CN)sb6, (3) bitumen with NaNOsb3, BaSOsb4, Nisb2Fe(CN)sb6, and K-soap, and (4) bituminized RNL ECs. Leachant solutions used included (1) filtered deionized water, (2) 0.001-N KOH, (3) 0.01-N KOH, and (4) 0.001-N Ca(OH)sb2. One trial was exposed to high-humidity air while two others had a cement disk suspended in the leachant. Some of the resulting data was used for the on-going validation of the SWL (Swelling, Water uptake, and Leaching) code created at RNL. To improve the accuracy of projected releases from radioactive waste disposal systems, the sorption characteristics of steel corrosion products were investigated with a special emphasis on competitive sorption between Sr and Na. The corrosion rate of steel exposed to various environments was studied qualitatively and, with some systems, quantitatively. Traditional and non-traditional adsorption

  13. Fast ion dynamics measured by collective Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindslev, Henrik


    we find that fast ions with parallel energies above thermal exhibit no sensitivity to sawteeth. Near the inversion radius on the low field side, by contrast, we see no fast ion sensitivity to sawteeth, even for ions with small parallel energy and perpendicular energy below the threshold found on the high field side. Also measured are the temporal evolutions at switch-on and -off of the fast ion sources (ICRH and NBI), providing new experimental information on slowing down - confinement - and quasilinear diffusion times. The observed slowing down times of fast ions on passing orbits agree well with classical slowing down due to electron drag. There are indications that the core ICRH fast ions appear earlier in perpendicular velocity space than in parallel space, consistent with the need to pitch angle scatter to spread into parallel velocity space. The probing radiation for the CTS in TEXTOR is provided by a gyrotron (110 GHz, 200 ms, 100 kW). At the probe frequency, the fundamental and 2nd harmonic electron cyclotron resonances are respectively on the high and low field sides of the plasma, resulting in a plasma emission temperature of typically 50 eV. This permits an integration time of 2 ms, giving 100 time slices, 4 ms apart, and typically 20 nodes resolved in the velocity distribution with an uncertainty of 10 is presently 10 cm (minor radius 46 cm). Parallel with further developments of the fast ion CTS at TEXTOR, a new system is being developed for ASDEX upgrade. The new results have also provided the impetus for a proposal to build a fast ion CTS for JET using a probing frequency below the electron cyclotron emission spectrum, which is the millimetre wave CTS option for ITER. References [1]; [2] H. Bindslev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3206 (1999); [3] References posted at; [4] Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2152 (2000);

  14. Long-term atmospheric visibility trend in Southeast China, 1973-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Zhao, Juanjuan


    declined at a rate of -1.6, -2.0 and -2.4 km/decade, with the average of 13.1, 17.8 and 23.0 km, respectively. During 2000-2010, the daily dry extinction coefficients were positively correlated with API with linear R2 values of 0.42 and 0.43 for Xiamen and Shantou, respectively, suggesting that the air pollution could be responsible for the visibility impairment in Southeast China. Analysis on the effects of recent policies suggested that visibility change was significantly positively correlated with environment treatment variables including Removed Industrial SO2 (RISO2), Total Investment in Environmental Pollution Control (TIEPC), Area of Green Space (AGS) and Removed Industrial Dust (RID), but significantly negatively correlated with Emission of Industrial Dust (EID). Time-lag effect on the contribution of TIEPC to visibility was found. It is suggested that continuous and effective pollution control strategy, particularly increasing investment in environment control and pollutant emission reduction, is needed to counteract the degradation of atmospheric visibility in Southeast China.

  15. Computational Investigations of Inboard Flow Separation and Mitigation Techniques on Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Raymond

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the NREL 5-MW rotor have been examined using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method, OVERFLOW2. A comprehensive off-body grid independence study has been performed. A strong dependence on the size of the near-body wake grid has been found. Rapid diffusion of the wake appears to generate an overprediction of power and thrust. A large, continuous near-wake grid at minimum of two rotor diameters downstream of the rotor appears to be necessary for accurate predictions of near-body forces. The NREL 5-MW rotor demonstrates significant inboard flow separation up to 30% of span. This separation appears to be highly three-dimensional, with a significant amount of radial flow increasing the size of the separated region outboard. Both integrated aerodynamic coefficients and detailed wake structures for the baseline NREL 5-MW rotor are in excellent agreement with results by Riso at Uinfinity = 8 and 11 m/s. A simple, continuous full-chord fence was applied at the maximum chord location of the blade, within the region of separation. This non-optimized device reduced the boundary-layer cross-flow and resulting separation, and increased rotor power capture by 0.9% and 0.6% at U infinity = 8 and 11 m/s, respectively. Suction side only fences perform similarly in terms of power capture but reduce the increase in rotor thrust. Fence heights from 0.5% to 17.5% of the maximum chord all demonstrate some level of effectiveness, with fences (1-2.5%cmax) showing similar performance gains to taller fences with smaller penalties in thrust. Performance in terms of power capture is not very sensitive to spanwise location when placed within the separation region. Blunt trailing edge modifications to the inboard region of the blade showed a relatively significant effect on rotor power. Over a large range of trailing edge thicknesses from hTE = 10 to 25%c, power was found to increase by 1.4%. Thrust increased proportionally with the thicknesses examined

  16. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    This special issue presents a series of papers on biological physics. It emphasizes the fact that Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter welcomes papers in this area and foresees a fruitful cross-fertilization between this and other more conventional condensed matter fields. The work was presented at the conference ÂNanophysics in Life SciencesÂ' held in Copenhagen on 21-22 June 2002. The meeting was arranged by, and marked the start of, the new Division of Physics in Life Sciences (DPL) within the European Physical Society (EPS). It also celebrated the opening of a new Danish research centre on quantum protein physics (QUP), which was co-organizer and co-sponsor. The meeting was organized at short notice and yet attracted some 80 participants from a number of countries (despite the fact that the chosen weekend included the `midsummer night', a feast nobody in the Northern Scandinavian countries would wish to miss - even when offered an event in the beautiful venue of the Carlsberg estate). The audience included many young people and students, demonstrating the great interest in the field of biological physics and in the topics chosen within that field. The selection represented, furthermore, the present scope of the new DPL division. All but one of the board members of DPL were able to attend and present their work, among others. They have subsequently delivered valuable contributions to this special issue. The subjects cover a large area (the full programme can be found on the division's web-page: To mention a few: the dynamical and optical properties of biomolecules (proteins), experimental studies of single biomolecules, various theoretical approaches to the protein folding problem and DNA motion, biomolecular motor and transport functions, quantum chemical calculations. Many of these problems are closely related to those studied in conventional condensed matter. To emphasize one topic we have written the Viewpoint article (pages V5-V9) which