Manzano, M; Ayora, C; Domenech, C; Navarrete, P; Garralon, A; Turrero, M J
As a consequence of a mine tailing dam collapse on the 25th April 1998, more than 4000 ha of the Guadiamar riverflat and farmlands were flooded by 4 hm3 of sulphide slurry. A number of open wells (12 of the 47 analyzed) were also flooded and the water was contaminated. Before the spill, the groundwater in the aquifers was of calcium-carbonate and calcium-sulphate type, with moderate mineralisation and near neutral pH. With the exception of some of the wells close to the mine, this groundwater had a low concentration of the metals associated with the Aznalcóllar mine. After the flood the following metals had anomalous concentrations in well water: Zn, Mn, Pb, Co, Cd and Tl. Of these, Zn seems to be the best tracer of the contamination, owing to its high concentrations. During the 5 months following the spill, water from the unflooded wells did not show an increase in metal concentration. Apart from some exceptions in August, the metal concentration in the affected wells showed a progressive decrease reaching levels closer to those in the wells free from contamination. Nevertheless, in the following dry seasons the draw-down of the water level may lead to exposure and weathering of sulphides in the wells, which could cause an increase in pollution. Therefore, thorough cleaning of all highly contaminated wells is strongly recommended.
Alvarez-Ayuso, E; García-Sánchez, A; Querol, X; Moyano, A
The long-term influence of the Aznalcóllar mine spill on soils was studied seven years after the accident in the area of Vado del Quema. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed after the cleaning operations and soils where this process was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Sludge and soil horizons were characterised, determining their physico-chemical parameters, mineralogy and the total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover, leaching studies were performed using batch tests. The main mineralogical changes detected in the soil beneath the weathered sludge are the neo-formation of jarosite, gypsum and sainfeldite, together with the almost total depletion of calcite. An important acidification of soil has been also produced, especially in the uppermost soil layers. These two factors show to be the main responsible for the vertical distribution and leachability displayed by trace elements. Critical total concentrations were found for most trace elements in the soil still affected by the sludge weathering. Furthermore, the Cd and Zn leachable contents showed to be extremely high. Therefore, in those areas affected by the mine spill where the removal of sludge was not accomplished properly, special care should be paid to trace elements highly mobile in acidic conditions. Additional restoration measures should be undertaken to avoid further pollutant dispersion.
Tornero, Victoria; Arias, Alberto M; Blasco, Julián
Sediments, clams Scrobicularia plana and worms Hediste diversicolor from the Guadalquivir estuary were collected ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill and analyzed for metals. Significant seasonal and spatial effects were detected for most elements, so data from different sampling periods and locations were treated separately. Overall, the most polluted sites were found upstream, although Zn and Cu tended to accumulate at the estuary mouth. A significant decline of Zn in sediments and clams was observed compared to levels reported following the spill, so the estuarine ecosystem has recovered. However, the concentrations of some elements in S. plana were still higher than those of heavily contaminated regions. In this mollusk, Pb and As levels were higher in 2008 than in previous years, suggesting a new source entering into the estuary. Metals in sediments presented low bioavailability for biota, so other sources must account for the concentrations observed in these species. PMID:25048729
Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; Soriano, M A
The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. Two years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison. The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages. Shoot and root biomass of sunflower seedlings was significantly smaller in the affected soil than in the unaffected soil, but there was no significant difference at the mature stage. Oil production was greater in the spill-affected plants. We have not detected any 'fertilising' effect caused by the acid waters of the spill on the main nutrient (N, P and Ca) acquisition, as documented in 1998 for sunflower plants flooded by the spill. Sunflower plants growing in the spill-affected soil reached adequate levels of nutrients. None of the trace elements measured-As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Tl-reached levels either phytotoxic or toxic for humans or animals in seeds and the above-ground part of the spill-affected plants. We evaluate the potential use of sunflower plants for phytoremediation. The potential for phytoextraction is very low; however, it may be used for soil conservation. The production of oil (usable for industrial purposes) may add some value to this crop.
Olías, Manuel; Moral, Francisco; Galván, Laura; Cerón, Juan Carlos
In 1998, the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers underwent an enormous environmental disaster caused by the rupture of the Aznalcóllar tailings dam and the release of 6 hm(3) of pyrite sludge and acidic water. Both rivers run over recent alluvial materials which form a small-sized aquifer which is however important because underground water feeds the flow of the rivers. This work analyzes the state of groundwater 10 years after the spill. Before the dam failure, this aquifer was already contaminated in the zone nearest to the mine, to which the impact of the spill was added. Contamination levels in the alluvial aquifer of the Agrio River have decreased remarkably. However, they are still important, with acidic pH values and high concentrations of toxic elements (maximum values of 16 mg/L of Zn and 15 mg/L of Al). There are also important levels of contamination in the Guadiamar alluvial area closest to the mine, as well as in specific zones located further south. The concentration of toxic elements is mainly controlled by pH. The evolution of contaminant levels show a sharp decrease after the first years following the spill, followed by a subsequent stabilization. It is necessary to take measures for the recovery of the aquifer because, otherwise, groundwater will continue contributing contaminants into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers.
Gibert, Oriol; Rötting, Tobias; Cortina, José Luis; de Pablo, Joan; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Bolzicco, José
Following on the accident occurred in Aznalcóllar in 1998, whereby a huge amount of acid mine drainage and heavy metal-bearing pyritic sludge was released to the Agrio river valley with the subsequent contamination of groundwater, a subsurface permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed to mitigate the long-term impacts by the spillage. The PRB material consisted of a mixture of limestone and vegetal compost. A particular characteristic of the Agrio aquifer is its high water flow velocity (0.5-1 m/d), which may pose difficulties in its remediation using PRB technology. The present study reports the 36-month performance of the PRB. Vertical differences in water velocity were observed within the PRB, with the deeper part being slower and more effective in neutralizing pH and removing heavy metals (Zn, Al, Cu). On the other hand, partial sulfate removal appeard to be restricted to the bottom of the PRB, but with no apparent influence on downgradient water quality. The results are finally compared with the other four reported existing PRBs for AMD worldwide.
Cárdenas, Ana M.; Bujalance, José L.; Hidalgo, Juan M.
This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21864152
Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Roig, Asunción; Bernal, M Pilar
A field experiment, lasting 14 months, was carried out in order to assess the effect of organic amendment and lime addition on the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The experiment took place in a soil affected by acid, highly toxic pyritic waste from the Aznalcóllar mine (Seville, Spain) in April 1998. The following treatments were applied (3 plots per treatment): cow manure, a mature compost, lime (to plots having pH < 4), and control without amendment. During the study two crops of Brassica juncea were grown, with two additions of each organic amendment. Throughout the study, the evolution of soil pH, total and available (DTPA-extractable) heavy metals content (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cd), electrical conductivity (EC), soluble sulphates and plant growth and heavy metal uptake were followed. The study indicates that: (1) soil acidification, due to the oxidation of metallic sulphides in the soil, increased heavy metal bioavailability; (2) liming succeeded in controlling the soil acidification; and (3) the organic materials generally promoted fixation of heavy metals in non-available soil fractions, with Cu bioavailability being particularly affected by the organic treatments. PMID:12889610
Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar
Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH < 5 were limed for the second crop. Soil acidification conditioned plant growth and metal accumulation. The addition of lime and the organic amendments achieved higher plant biomass production, although effects concerning metal bioavailability and accumulation were masked somewhat by pH variability with time and between and within plots. Tissue metal concentrations of B. juncea were elevated for Zn, Cu and Pb, especially in leaves of plants from plots with low pH values (maxima of 2029, 71 and 55 microg g(-1), respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. PMID:15894412
Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R
The collapse of the tailing dam in the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) occurred in April 1998 and affected approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. An urgent soil cleaning up and remediation programme was started just after the accident. Eighteen months later, mineral nutrients and trace elements concentration in soil and two wild grasses--Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense--have been studied. Three types of conditions are distinguished: (a) unaffected soils (control); (b) cleaned up and remediated soils (remediated); and (c) sludge-covered soils left in a fenced plot (non-remediated). As, Cd, Cu and Pb in grasses reached toxic levels for the food web in the non-remediated plot, while on remediated soils only Cd reached a toxic level in grass tissues. However, Pb and, to a lesser extent As and Fe, reached also toxic levels in unwashed plants (as they would be ingested by animals) in remediated soils. Both native grasses seem tolerant of trace elements pollution and suitable for stabilisation of spill-affected soils.
Drake, P; Baldó, F; Cuesta, J A; García-González, D; Silva-García, A; Arias, A M; Rodríguez, A; Sobrino, I; Fernández-Delgado, C
The initial effects of the toxic waste spill in April 1998 at the Aznalcóllar mine (SW Spain) on the nektonic community of the Guadalquivir Estuary were examined at three sampling sites using univariate and multivariate techniques. Since studied communities showed a considerable seasonal trend, only seasonally homogenous periods were compared to analyse effects of the spill: May-August 1997 (before spill) and May-August 1998 (after spill). Results of both techniques (two-way nested ANOVA and ANOSIM tests, P > 0.05) indicated that there was no significant difference between the nektonic community of the estuary before and after the spill (monthly number of species, abundance, biomass and similarity among samples). Conversely, an unusually high density was observed at the outer sampling site immediately after the spill for species typical of more stagnant estuarine habitats. This feature seems to indicate that the fauna in the estuarine area through which the untreated water penetrated into the main course may have been disturbed. Results also suggest that this initial sudden input of fresh water to the estuary could have enhanced the effects of an increased river flow (a drop in the salinity). Nevertheless, longer temporal series of data, especially for permanent estuarine inhabitants, are recommended before conclusions can be drawn on the effects of the toxic waste spill on estuarine communities.
Kraus, Uta; Wiegand, Jens
In 1998, a toxic spill from a pyrite mine (Aznalcóllar, SW Spain) contaminated some 40 km2 of the Agrio and Guadiamar river valley with heavy metal-enriched tailings sludge and acidic mine water. The aim of this study is to describe the long-term effects of heavy metal migration particularly with respect to the extent of vertical redistribution of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S, Sb and Zn in soils and sediments of the river Guadiamar 4 years after the accident. For an assessment of the mobility behaviour, chemical associations of Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn in depth profiles polluted by tailings were determined by using sequential extraction procedures. In 2002, residues of toxic tailings were found in several places along the river Guadiamar. Heavy weathering has accelerated heavy metal displacement and contamination of the surrounding soil. Two element groups of contrary mobility can be distinguished: Cd and Zn are highly mobile and show strong displacements in acidic surroundings. Accumulation zones for Cd and Zn develop in less acidic soil layers due to the occurrence of Fe oxides, which constitute retaining fractions for these elements. The immobile elements Pb and Sb represent the second group. Highest concentrations of Pb and Sb are found in the tailings sludge. Cu and As show a variable distribution pattern. As a consequence of the heavy metal migration, an accumulation zone has formed up to 30 cm into the underlying soil at the time of investigation. In the future, there may be further penetration of heavy metals to greater depths.
Relationships between T-cell-mediated immune response and Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and as concentrations in blood of nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black kites (Milvus migrans) from Doñana (southwestern Spain) after the Aznalcóllar toxic spill.
Baos, Raquel; Jovani, Roger; Forero, Manuela G; Tella, José L; Gómez, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña; González, María J; Hiraldo, Fernando
In the Aznalcóllar mining accident (April 1998), nearly six million cubic meters of toxic wastes were spilled in the surroundings of the Doñana National Park (southwestern Spain). The present study focused on the likely effects of metal pollution on the immune system of nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black kites (Milvus migrans) sampled in the nearby area. Using the phytohaemagglutinin skin test, we examined cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in relation to Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations in blood of 281 nestling white storks and of 89 black kites. The former species was monitored along a four-year period (1999, 2001-2003), while black kites were sampled in 1999. Overall, average levels of heavy metals and As were relatively low when compared to those reported for birds in metal-polluted areas. Copper showed a negative effect on CMI in both species, although the relationship was significant only for white storks in 2002. We found no evidence that environmental exposure to Pb, Zn, As, and Cd had any effect on nestlings' CMI. Interannual consistency is revealed as an important factor, supporting the need of long-term studies when assessing the immunotoxic effects of metal exposure in the wild. PMID:16629156
Taggart, M A; Carlisle, M; Pain, D J; Williams, R; Osborn, D; Joyson, A; Meharg, A A
In April 1998, a holding lagoon containing pyrite ore processing waste, failed and released an estimated 5-6 million m(3) of metal rich sludge and acidic waters into the Rio Guadiamar, SW Spain. Over 2700 ha of the internationally important Doñana National and Natural Parks were contaminated. The sludge component of the waste contained up to 0.6% arsenic. This paper presents an extensive set of 0-5 cm soil analyses results from samples taken 6-8 months after the spill. Data are presented on pseudo-total arsenic levels in these samples, and on arsenic removed by both single batch and sequential extraction techniques. Pseudo-total levels of arsenic in the sludge ranged from 1521 to 3510 mg kg(-1), and a mean 4.4% of this was found to be extractable using 2.5% acetic acid. Soils in the Guadiamar Valley and Entremuros areas (those worst affected by the spill) were found to contain 85.4-782 mg kg(-1) and 7.1-196 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total arsenic, respectively. The mean acetic acid extractable component in these areas was 2.5% and 4.9%, respectively. Background pseudo-total arsenic levels in the soils of the area have been found to be 4.2-13.6 mg kg(-1). Rapid input of acidic waters, and the acidic nature of the sludge itself, may have caused depletion of Mg, Na and K, and to a lesser extent Mn, Ca and PO(4) in the upper 5 cm of the worst affected soils. Sequential extraction results suggest clear As-Fe associations, and possible As-Mn associations within the more soluble phases.
Taggart, M A; Carlisle, M; Pain, D J; Williams, R; Green, D; Osborn, D; Meharg, A A
In April 1998, a holding lagoon containing pyrite ore processing waste rich in arsenic, failed and released 5-6 million m(3) of highly polluting sludge and acidic water. Over 2700 ha of the internationally important Doñana National and Natural Parks were contaminated. The area of Natural Park to sustain the greatest impact was known as the Entremuros. This paper presents 0-5 cm soil monitoring data from the Entremuros, from sampling campaigns 6 and 18 months after the disaster; as well as macrophyte root, rhizome and stem data from samples taken 18 months after the spill. Results show a clear, decreasing, north-south arsenic soil pollution trend, both 6 and 18 months after the spill, and suggest a small reduction in total soil arsenic levels occurred over time; although a significant increase in extractable arsenic is also noted. The two macrophytes (Typha dominguensis and Scirpus maritimus) studied herein are not accumulating arsenic in stem parts, however, accumulation of arsenic on iron plaque on the roots of these plants may be occurring. Further work is recommended in order to determine the ecotoxicological significance of this process in relation to the avian food-chains of Doñana, and elsewhere.
Yu, Shao-Bin; Yang, Rong-Hua; Zuo, Zhong-Nan; Dong, Qi-Rong
Polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament were the remnant of LARS ligament used for repairing posterior cruciate ligament obtained from operation. We want to study histological characteristics and ultrastructure of polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits. Therefore, we replaced the original ACL with polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament which was covering with the remnant of ACL in 9 rabbits (L-LARS group), while just only polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament were transplanted in 3 rabbits (LARS group) with the remnant of ACL. Compared with group LARS, inflammatory cell reaction and foreign body reaction were more significant in group L-LARS. Moreover, electron microscopy investigation showed the tissue near LARS fibers was highly cellular with a matrix of thin collagen fibrils (50-100 nm) in group L-LARS. These above findings suggest the polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament possess the high biocompatibility, which contributes to the polyethylene terephthalate LARS covered with recipient connective tissues. PMID:25356104
Salman, Bulent; Yuksel, Osman
Background and Objectives: The current study was conducted to determine whether robotic low anterior resection (RLAR) has real benefit over laparoscopic low anterior resection (LLAR) in terms of surgical and early oncologic outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 35 RLARs and 28 LLARs, performed for mid and low rectal cancers, from January 2013 through June 2015. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study. All surgeries were performed successfully. The clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Compared with the laparoscopic group, the robotic group had less intraoperative blood loss (165 vs. 120 mL; P < .05) and higher mean operative time (252 vs. 208 min; P < .05). No significant differences were observed in the time to flatus passage, length of hospital stay, and postoperative morbidity. Pathological examination of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimens showed that both circumferential resection margin and transverse (proximal and distal) margins were negative in the RLAR group. However, 1 patient each had positive circumferential resection margin and positive distal transverse margin in the LLAR group. The mean number of harvested lymph nodes was 27 in the RLAR group and 23 in the LLAR group. Conclusions: In our study, short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for mid and low rectal cancers were similar to those of laparoscopic surgery. The quality of TME specimens was better in the patients who underwent robotic surgery. However, the longer operative time was a limitation of robotic surgery. PMID:27081292
Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Alhama, José; Blasco, Julián; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; López-Barea, Juan
Metallothionein (MT) and other biomarker levels were measured in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess pollution of the Guadalquivir Estuary possibly affected by metals released from Aznalcóllar pyrite mine in 1998. After optimizing reagent concentrations for monobromobimane derivatization, MT levels were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection (RP-HPLC-FD) in heated or unheated digestive gland extracts and compared to those obtained by differential pulse polarography (DPP). MT content assayed by RP-HPLC-FD in unheated samples was higher than that obtained by DPP and correlated better with metals and anti-oxidant activities. MT assay by RP-HPLC-FD in unheated extracts would be preferable for assessing metal pollution, due to its greater sensitivity and specificity. In addition to MT induction, glyoxalase II inhibition was well correlated with metal contents. Our results suggest that metals at the estuary do not originate from Aznalcóllar spill, but from those carried along by the river and deposited at its concave bank. PMID:18403075
Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M
On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated. PMID:18217916
Aguilar, J; Dorronsoro, C; Fernández, E; Fernández, J; García, I; Martín, F; Simón, M
Soil pollution was studied after the spill of the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine between 1998 and 2001, analyzing As, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb both in total concentrations as well as in soluble and bioavailable forms. The main remediation measures were: clean-up of the tailings and polluted soils, plus application of amendment materials (liming). The results indicate that, after three years, 50-70% of the acidic soils and 25-30% of the basic soils are still highly polluted in total arsenic. The limit of 0.04 mg kg(-1) for water-soluble arsenic is exceeded in 15-20% of all soils. The EDTA-extractable arsenic (bioavailable) exceeds the limit of 2 mg kg(-1) only in the acidic sectors. After clean-up, the homogenization of the upper 20-25 cm of the soils appears to be the most recommended measure in the reduction of pollution.
López, F J Sánchez; Garcia, M D Gil; Morito, N P Sánchez; Vidal, J L Martínez
Contamination of the American red crayfish, from the Guadiamar riverside, is due to the disastrous toxic spill that occurred on 25 April 1998 in the mining area of Aznalcóllar-Los Frailes, Spain. A high concentration of heavy metals in the waters from the mine pool and their spill to the river Guadiamar was the cause of the destruction of a great number of animal and vegetable organisms. An ICP-MS method for the total determination of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in whole bodies of American red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was used. Metals were extracted from the matrix in a closed-vessel microwave digestion system with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. A study of the uncertainty of the method for the determination of metals was carried out; at a concentration of 5 microg/L, the uncertainty was below 34%. PMID:12550101
Knicker, H.; González Vila, F. J.; Clemente Salas, L.
Incorporated into the soil, naturally formed pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is considered as highly recalcitrant, but direct estimation of PyOM decomposition rates are scarce. With this aim in mind, we subjected organic matter (OM) of fire-affected and unaffected soils to biochemical degradation under laboratory conditions and monitored CO2 production over a period of seven months. The soils derived from fire affected and unaffected areas of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar and the Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Virtual fractionation of the solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the fire affected soils into fire-unaffected soil organic matter (SOM) and PyOM yielded charcoal C contributions of 30 to 50% to the total organic C (Corg) of the sample derived from the Aznalcóllar region. Fitting the respiration data with a double exponential decay model revealed a fast carbon flush during the first three weeks of the experiment. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy evidenced the contribution of aromatic moieties of the PyOM to this initial carbon release and to the biosynthesis of new microbial biomass. The input of PyOM resulted in an increase of the mean residence time (MRT) of the slow OM pool of the soil by a factor of 3 to 4 to approximately 40 years which rises doubts rises doubts about the presumed big influence of PyOM as an additional C-sink in soils. On the other hand, although being small the difference in turnover rates is evident and has some major implication with respect to long-term alteration of the chemical composition of OM in fire-affected soils. Based on the obtained results and the analysis of PyOM in other soil systems, a conceptual model is presented which can explain the different behavior of PyOM under different soil conditions.
Blasco, J; Arias, A M; Sáenz, V
After the Aznalcóllar mining spill (25th April 1998), considerable social concern arose amongst the inhabitants of the SW Iberian Peninsula concerning the consumption of local seafood. Squilla mantis was collected in four regions of the Gulf of Cádiz with a dual objective: to analyze the heavy metal levels for human consumption and as part of biomonitoring program. Heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were analyzed in soft tissues and cuticle. The highest values were found in the soft tissues for zinc, copper and cadmium and in the cuticle for iron, manganese and lead. The mean copper concentration in the soft tissue, corresponding to the edible part, was 27.1 microg x g(-1) wet weight. Approximately 80% of stations showed values higher than 20 microg x g(-1) wet weight of copper, the Spanish legal limit for the concentration of this metal in the crustacean for human consumption. For Zn and Cu no significant differences were found between regions, probably related with the capacity for regulation of S. mantis. The highest values found for copper in the Gulf of Cádiz compared to other areas is likely to be related with contamination from terrestrial mining activities (copper and pyrites) in the region, dating back to the times of Tartessians and Romans, rather than the effects of mining spill which was shown not to create any significant increases in heavy metal concentrations of organisms of the Guadalquivir River or the adjacent coastal area. PMID:12046947
Martín Peinado, F J; Romero-Freire, A; García Fernández, I; Sierra Aragón, M; Ortiz-Bernad, I; Simón Torres, M
Soil pollution from the spill of Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) was monitored by analysing polluted soils in 1998, 1999, and 2004. Following the methodology used in previous studies, in 2013 we conducted a new sampling and analysis of the soils affected by the spill and the data were compared with those of 2004. The results confirm that the pH tended to rise and concentration of pollutants tended to diminish over time. In 2013, the total concentration of pollutants was within the normal range for uncontaminated soils and close to the background concentration of the soils prior to the spill; while the soluble concentration of pollutants was clearly below the toxic level. These results indicate that remediation measures implemented have been effective. However, the removal of tailings (first remediation measure applied) was deficient and in many places the tailings were mixed with the soil. The high concentration of sulphides and metal(loid)s in the tailings gave rise to spots with very acidic and highly polluted soils devoid of vegetation. In 2013, fifteen years after the spill, these spots of bare soils remain a major source of pollution from which pollutants are scattered through the solid and liquid phases of runoff water, requiring action to immobilize pollutants and encourage the restoration of vegetation on these soils. In this type of pollution in a Mediterranean environment, the complete removal of tailings is more important than the speed at which they are removed.
Blasco, J; Arias, A M; Sáenz, V
After the Aznalcóllar mining spill (25th April 1998), considerable social concern arose amongst the inhabitants of the SW Iberian Peninsula concerning the consumption of local seafood. Squilla mantis was collected in four regions of the Gulf of Cádiz with a dual objective: to analyze the heavy metal levels for human consumption and as part of biomonitoring program. Heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were analyzed in soft tissues and cuticle. The highest values were found in the soft tissues for zinc, copper and cadmium and in the cuticle for iron, manganese and lead. The mean copper concentration in the soft tissue, corresponding to the edible part, was 27.1 microg x g(-1) wet weight. Approximately 80% of stations showed values higher than 20 microg x g(-1) wet weight of copper, the Spanish legal limit for the concentration of this metal in the crustacean for human consumption. For Zn and Cu no significant differences were found between regions, probably related with the capacity for regulation of S. mantis. The highest values found for copper in the Gulf of Cádiz compared to other areas is likely to be related with contamination from terrestrial mining activities (copper and pyrites) in the region, dating back to the times of Tartessians and Romans, rather than the effects of mining spill which was shown not to create any significant increases in heavy metal concentrations of organisms of the Guadalquivir River or the adjacent coastal area.
Singh, Harsh Deep; Bushnak, Ibraheem; Unsworth, Larry D
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an endopeptidase that has been shown to be present in high concentrations during most tissue remodeling events, including disease states like active tumor sites, thus making it an attractive molecule for use in effecting local delivery of therapeutic molecules. Moreover, the use of non-toxic and biodegradable nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery is highly sought after. To this end, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) were stabilized with coatings formed using domains of varying sensitivity to MMP-2, viz. K6GPQG/IASQK6 and K6HPVG/LLARK6, lysine residues being used to facilitate peptide immobilization to the BSA NPs via electrostatic interactions, and peptide domains that have a high (HPVG/LLAR) and low (GPQG/IASQ) MMP-2 cleavage rate. The MMP-2-induced cleavage rates of these two domains (the position of action being noted with a "/") have differing kinetics that can be used to provide a novel mechanism for facilitating the controlled release of molecules where local concentrations of MMP-2 are high. It was found that both surface concentration and cleavage domain type influenced the release of the model drug (BSA) from these NPs. This stratagem may provide a novel pathway for developing multi-functional coatings for controlling the local delivery of therapeutics at sites where the presence of various enzymes exist as a function of tissue state. PMID:22062019
Belén Hinojosa, M; Carreira, José A; García-Ruíz, Roberto; Rodríguez-Maroto, José M; Daniell, Tim J; Griffiths, Bryan S
Re-vegetation of trace element contaminated soils can alter the pH and chelating capacity in the rhizosphere, increasing the mobility of pollutants, which, in turn, may impact on rhizosphere ecology. In this study a short-term pot experiment was carried out in order to investigate the multi-factorial effects of: buffering capacity (sandy-loam and loam soils); pollutant load (0%, 1.3%, and 4% of pyrite sludge), and the presence/absence of plant (Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L.) on the mobility of trace elements, soil biochemical functionality (hydrolase activities), and biological diversity (bacterial and nematode communities). The experiment was carried out with representative soils from the Guadiamar basin (SW Spain), an area where the Aznalcóllar mining spill affected over 4000ha. Results indicated that the development of rhizospheres in polluted soils (coarse-textured) increases the mobilization of trace elements. In general the presence of roots has stimulatory effects on soil quality indicators such as hydrolase activities and both bacterial and nematode communities. However, the presence of high amount of metals interferes with these beneficial effects. This study provided evidence about the complexity of the impact of growing plants on trace element polluted soils. Trace element mobilization, hydrolase activities and bacterial and nematode communities in the rhizosphere are dependent on plant species, soil type, and pollution dose.
Martín, Francisco; Diez, María; García, Inés; Simón, Mariano; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Iriarte, Angel; Aguilar, José
In the present work, soil profiles were sampled 40 days and three years after an accidental pyrite tailing spill from the Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) in order to figure out the effects of the acidic solution draining from the tailing. The composition of the acidic solution, the mineralogy, and the total and soluble content of the major elements were analysed at varying depths. The results show a weathering process of carbonates and of primary silicates. Calcium released is leached or reacts with the sulphate ions to form gypsum. Magnesium, aluminium and potassium tend to leach from the uppermost millimetres of the soil, accumulating where the pH>/=5.0; also the iron, probably forming more or less complex hydroxysulphates, precipitate in the upper 5 cm. The strong releasing of soluble salts increases the electrical conductivity, while the soluble potassium tends to decrease in the uppermost part of the soil due to the neoformation of jarosite. Iron is soluble only where the pH=2.3, and aluminium where the pH=5.5.
Gibert, Oriol; Cortina, José Luis; de Pablo, Joan; Ayora, Carlos
A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in Aznalcóllar (Spain) in order to rehabilitate the Agrio aquifer groundwater severely contaminated with acid mine drainage after a serious mining accident. The filling material of the PRB consisted of a mixture of calcite, vegetal compost and, locally, Fe(0) and sewage sludge. Among the successes of the PRB are the continuous neutralisation of pH and the removal of metals from groundwater within the PRB (removals of >95%). Among the shortcomings are the improper PRB design due to the complexity of the internal structure of the Agrio alluvial deposits (which resulted in an inefficient capture of the contaminated plume), the poor degradability of the compost used and the short residence time within the PRB (which hindered a complete sulphate reduction), the clogging of a section of the PRB and the heterogeneities of the filling material (which resulted in preferential flows within the PRB). Undoubtedly, it is only through accumulated experience at field-scale systems that the potentials and limits of the PRB technology can be determined.
Baos, Raquel; Blas, Julio; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Marchant, Tracy A.; Hiraldo, Fernando
Background/Objective Endocrine parameters have proven useful in the detection of early or low-level responses to pollutants. Although most of the studies on endocrine modulation have been focused on processes involving gonadal steroids, contaminants may target other parts of the endocrine system as well. In this study we examined the adrenocortical stress response and thyroid hormone status in free-living nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in relation to heavy metals (zinc, lead, copper, cadmium) and arsenic levels in blood. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in an area polluted by the Aznalcóllar mine accident (southwestern Spain) and in a reference site. We used a standardized capture, handling, and restraint protocol to determine both baseline and maximum plasma corticosterone. Circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were also measured. Results No effects of metals or As were found on baseline corticosterone, but maximum levels of corticosterone were positively related to Pb in both locations. This relationship was stronger in single nestlings than in birds from multiple-chick broods, which suggests a greater impact of Pb on more stressed individuals. Metal pollution did not affect plasma T4 or T3 levels, although thyroid status differed with location. Conclusions Because a compromised hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) function can have far-reaching consequences in terms of altered behavioral and metabolic processes necessary for survival, our results suggest that birds exposed to sublethal Pb levels may be at risk through an altered adrenocortical stress response, and further support the idea that HPA axis-related end points might be useful indicators of metal exposure and potential toxicity in wild animals. PMID:17035132
Baos, Raquel; Jovani, Roger; Pastor, Nuria; Tella, José L; Jiménez, Begoña; Gómez, Gemma; González, María J; Hiraldo, Fernando
Studies of birds from Doñana (southwestern Spain) after the Aznalcóllar mining accident (April 1998) have reported high levels of genetic damage when compared to conspecifics from reference areas. However, potential relationships between DNA damage and metal pollution have not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the current levels of Zn, Pb, As, Cu, and Cd and to determine if they were associated with the genetic damage observed in free-living, nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black kites (Milvus migrans) born in the Doñana area after the mining spill. Blood concentrations of heavy metals and of As were quantified and DNA damage (comet assay) was determined in 258 storks and 132 kites monitored during a four-year period (1999-2002). Correlations between these elements and genetic damage varied between species and throughout years within species. Some elements did not show any relationship with DNA damage (e.g., Pb), whereas others had a significant correlation (e.g., As in storks, and Cu and Cd in kites) or only marginal statistical effects (e.g., Zn and Cd in storks, and As in kites) in some years but not in others. These results suggest that nestling white storks and black kites were affected, in part, by the elements studied, but they alone do not satisfactorily explain the observed DNA damage. Moreover, our results show that species-specific differences should be carefully considered when planning schemes for pollution monitoring, and highlight the need for including the temporal scale into the study of the pollutants effects in the wild. PMID:17022423
Walker, David J; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar
Chenopodium album L. was found to be one of the initial plant species colonising a heavy metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar mine spill (South-western Spain). This indicates its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil. In a pot experiment, C. album was sown in soil collected from the contaminated site, either non-amended or amended with cow manure or compost produced from olive leaves and olive mill wastewater, in order to study the effect on heavy metal bioavailability and soil pH. In non-amended and compost-amended soils, soil acidification, probably resulting from oxidation and hydrolysis of sulphide, led to increases in the concentrations of soluble sulphate and plant-available Cu, Zn and Mn in the soil (extractable with 0.1 M CaCl(2)). Under these conditions, shoot growth of C. album was negligible and shoot concentrations of Zn (2,420-5,585 microg g(-1)) and Mn (5,513-8,994 microg g(-1)) were phytotoxic. Manure application greatly increased shoot growth and reduced the shoot concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn, and their plant-available concentrations in the soil. These effects appeared to be related to an increase of soil pH, due to an inhibition of sulphide oxidation/hydrolysis, relative to the non-amended soil. For metal sulphides-contaminated soil, liable to acidification, manure application appears to be able to enhance the initial stages of re-vegetation, by species such as C. album. PMID:15312738
Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Paula; Madejón, Engracia; Girón, Ignacio; Cabrera, Francisco; Murillo, José Manuel
The long-term influence of a mine spill in soil was studied 12 years after the Aznalcóllar accident. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed, a fenced plot established for research purposes (2000 m(2)) and soils where the process of remediation was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Soils were characterized at different depths, down to 100 cm depth, determining chemical parameters and total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover plants colonizing remediated (RE) and non remediated (NRE) soils were also analysed attending their potential risk for herbivores. Strong acidification was observed in the NRE soil except in surface (0-10 cm). The progressive colonization of natural vegetation, more than 90% of the fenced plot covered by plants, could facilitate this increased pH values in the top soil (pH 6). In the NRE soil, the successive oxidation and hydrolysis of sulphide in the deposited sludge on the surface after the accident resulted in a re-dissolution of the most mobile element (Cd, Cu and Zn) and a penetration to deeper layers. Trace element concentrations in plants growing in the NRE soil showed normal contents for higher plants and tolerable for livestock. Nitrogen and mineral nutrients were of the same order in both soils, and also normal for high plants and adequate for animal nutrition. Despite of the natural remediation of the NRE soil, results demonstrate that the remediation tasks carried out in all the area, the Guadiamar Green Corridor at present, were necessary to avoid the leaching of the most mobile elements and minimize the risk of contamination of groundwater sources, many of them close to the Doñana National Park.
Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lefranc, Hugues; Martín-Doimeadiós, Rosa C.; Green, Andy J.; Mateo, Rafael
Lead exposure in waterfowl was studied using noninvasive fecal sampling in the Guadalquivir Marshes in Spain, an area affected by the 1998 Aznalcóllar mine disaster. Feces of greylag geese (Anser anser, n = 191) and purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio, n = 91) were collected from three different impacted sites (Entremuros, Caracoles and Cerro de los Ánsares) during the winters of 2004 to 2008. Lead and aluminium (an indicator of sediment ingestion) and Pb isotope signatures (to discriminate between sources of Pb exposure) were analyzed in freeze-dried, acid digested samples. The concentrations of fecal porphyrins and biliverdin were determined as noninvasive biomarkers to study Pb exposure effects. Results showed a decrease in Pb exposure over time in wintering greylag geese. In contrast, for purple gallinule resident in the Entremuros a clear trend was not evident. For both species, sediment ingestion appeared to be the main source of exposure to Pb. In the Entremuros, some samples from purple gallinule were detected with higher Pb levels than expected for simple soil ingestion, and these had Pb isotopic profiles compatible with mining sludge or Pb shot. Whilst fecal Pb isotopic profiles were effective in differentiating between samples from sites with different levels and sources of pollution, the combined use of element ratios (such as Pb/Al) and other non-traditional stable isotope signatures may also prove worthwhile. Overall, the fecal Pb levels detected were below those described in feces for waterfowl from other uncontaminated areas(<10 µg/g d.w.). Despite this, for both species fecal Pb levels were positively correlated with porphyrin excretion, and for purple gallinule, with the coproporphyrin III/I ratio, suggesting some subtle effects on heme synthesis in birds. Ten years after the mine spill, Pb contamination in birds by this pollution source was still detectable and subtlethal effects may persist. PMID:23437364
Hinojosa, M Belén; Carreira, José A; Rodríguez-Maroto, José M; García-Ruíz, Roberto
A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the response of soil enzyme activities (acid and alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, urease and dehydrogenase) to different levels of trace elements pollution in soils representative of the area affected by the pyrite sludge mining spill of Aznalcóllar (Guadiamar basin, SW Spain). Three uncontaminated soils from the study area were mixed with different loads of pyrite sludge to resemble field conditions and criteria applied for reclamation practices following the pollution incident: 0% ("reference" or background level), 1.3% ("attention level", further monitoring required), 4% ("intervention level", further cleaning and liming required) and 13% (ten times the "attention level"). Enzyme activities were analysed 4, 7, 14, 21, 34 and 92 days after pollutant addition and those measured after 92 days were used to calculate the ecological dose value (ED50). Soil enzyme activities and pH decreased after the pyrite sludge addition with respect to the "reference level" (0% pyrite sludge), whereas soil bioavailable (DTPA-extractable) trace elements concentration increased. Arylsulfatase, beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were reduced by more than 50% at 1.3% pyrite sludge dose. Arylsulfasate was the most sensitive soil enzyme (in average, ED50=0.99), whereas urease activity showed the lowest inhibition (in average, ED50=7.87) after pyrite sludge addition. Our results showed that the ecological dose concept, applied to enzyme activities, was satisfactory to quantify the effect of a multi-metalic pollutant (pyrite sludge) on soil functionality, and would provide manageable data to establish permissible limits of trace elements in polluted soils. Additionally, we evaluate the recovery of enzyme activities after addition of sugar-beet lime (calcium carbonate) to each experimentally polluted soil. The amount of lime added to each soil was enough to raise the pH to the original value (equal to control soil
Serter, Selim; Ceylan, Cengiz; Tunçyürek, Özüm; Örgüç, Şebnem; Pabuçcu, Yüksel
AMAÇ: Dalak boyutu hematolojik hastalıklarda önemli bir parametredir. Rutin klinik pratikte dalak uzunluğu gerçek dalak boyutunun en iyi göstergesidir. Dalak boyutlarındaki bölgesel farklılıklar doğru olmayan dalak ölçümü değerlendirmelerine ve en sık karşılaşılan dalak patolojisi olan splenomegalinin yanlış yorumlanmasına neden olabilir. Dalak boyutunun normal aralığının bilinmesi bu durumda önşarttır. Prospektif çalışmamızın amacı sağlıklı genç erişkin Türk erkeklerinde ortalama dalak uzunluğunun belirlenmesidir. YÖNTEMLER: Mart 1993 ve Ağustos 2006 yılları arasında 161 hastaya allojeneik hematopoetik kök hücre nakli uygulandı. Siklofosfamide bağlı hemorajik sistit gelişimi engelleyebilmek amacıyla profilaktik olarak Mesna, hiperhidrasyon ve zorlu diürez uygulandı. Buna rağmen 161 olgunun 17’si ağır olmak üzere 49’unda hemorajik sistit gelişti. Tedavi yaklaşımı ve bulgular geriye dönük olarak değerlendirildi. Yaşları 17-42 arasında 2179 sağlıklı genç erişkin asker (Manisa er eğitim merkezi) tarama ultrasongrafisi ile incelendi. Olguların yaş, boy, kiloları, dalak uzunluğu ve aksesuar dalak varlığı kaydedildi. Lineer regresyon analizi ile olguların dalak boyutu ile kilo, boy ve BMI (vücut kitle indeksi)'leri ilişkisi değerlendirildi.
del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia
Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC
Kulaç, İbrahim; Demir, Çetin; Büyükaşık, Yahya; Kutluk, Tezer; Üner, Aysegül
Amaç: Kronik lenfositik lösemi (KLL) erişkin bireylerde en sık görülen lenfoproliferatif hastalıktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı KLL tanısı almış hastaların doku örneklerindeki proliferasyon merkezlerinin yaygınlığı ve p53 ekspresyonu ile prognozları arasında bağlantı olup olmadığını araştırmaktır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu çalışma kapsamında Hacettepe Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesi Patoloji Anabilim Dalı’nda 2000-2013 yılları arasında KLL tanısı almış̧ 51 hastanın 54 biyopsi örneği yeniden değerlendirilmiştir. Hastaların klinik ve demografik verileri hasta veri tabanından elde edilmiştir. Yapılan incelemede biyopsi örneklerinde proliferasyon merkezlerinin tüm biyopsi alanına oranı (PM/TBA) yarı niceleyici olarak değerlendirilmiş ve seçilen temsili bloklardan elde edilen kesitlerde immünohistokimyasal yöntemle p53 ekspresyonuna bakılmıştır. Sonuç: Hastalar Rai evrelerine göre düşük ve yüksek olmak üzere iki gruba ayrıldığında düşük evreli hastaların genel sağ kalım sürelerinin yüksek evreli hastalara göre daha uzun olduğu görülmüştür (p= 0,030). Ancak, proliferasyon merkezi oranı veya p53 ekspresyon düzeyleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişki gösterilememiştir. Tartışma: Çalışmamıza dahil edilen hasta grubunda PM/TBA oranı ve P53 immunpozitifliginin sağ kalım ile ilişkisi olmadığı görülmüştür.
Baos, Raquel; Jovani, Roger; Serrano, David; Tella, José L.; Hiraldo, Fernando
Background/Objective Exposure to environmental contaminants may result in reduced reproductive success and long-lasting population declines in vertebrates. Emerging data from laboratory studies on model species suggest that certain life-stages, such as development, should be of special concern. However, detailed investigations of long-term consequences of developmental exposure to environmental chemicals on breeding performance are currently lacking in wild populations of long-lived vertebrates. Here, we studied how the developmental exposure to a mine spill (Aznalcóllar, SW Spain, April 1998) may affect fitness under natural conditions in a long-lived bird, the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia). Methodology The reproductive performance of individually-banded storks that were or not developmentally exposed to the spill (i.e. hatched before or after the spill) was compared when these individuals were simultaneously breeding during the seven years after the spill occurred (1999–2005). Principal Findings Female storks developmentally exposed to the spill experienced a premature breeding senescence compared with their non-developmentally exposed counterparts, doing so after departing from an unusually higher productivity in their early reproductive life (non-developmentally exposed females: 0.5±0.33SE fledglings/year at 3-yr old vs. 1.38±0.31SE at 6–7 yr old; developmentally exposed females: 1.5±0.30SE fledglings/year at 3-yr old vs. 0.86±0.25SE at 6–7 yr old). Conclusions/Significance Following life-history theory, we propose that costly sub-lethal effects reported in stork nestlings after low-level exposure to the spill-derived contaminants might play an important role in shaping this pattern of reproduction, with a clear potential impact on population dynamics. Overall, our study provides evidence that environmental disasters can have long-term, multigenerational consequences on wildlife, particularly when affecting developing individuals, and warns about the
Öner, Pınar; Öner, Özgür; Çöp, Esra; Munir, Kerim M.
ÖZET Sosyal iletişim ölçeğinin okul öncesi çocuklardaki geçerlik ve güvenirliği Amaç Bu çalışmada Otizm Spektrum Bozukluklarının değerlendirilmesinde kullanılan Sosyal İletişim Ölçeğinin (SİÖ) Türkçe’ye uyarlanarak geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. SİÖ, Otizm Tanı Görüşmesi (Autism Diagnostic Interview-ADI) temel alınarak hazırlanmış ve bu görüşmenin kısaltılarak ölçek haline getirilmiş şeklidir. Yöntem 2010–2011 yıllarında polikliniğimize başvuran olgular arasından DSM-IV ölçütlerine göre otizm (n=49) ve Başka Türlü Adlandırılamayan Yaygın Gelişimsel Bozukluk (n=18) tanısı alan 18–60 ay arası çocuklar, Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu (OSB) grubu olarak çalışmaya alınmıştır. Kontrol grubu olarak aynı yaş grubundaki gelişimsel geriliği olan (25 Mental Retardasyon, 26 konuşma gecikmesi) 51 çocuk ve tipik gelişim gösteren 71 çocuk çalışmaya alınmıştır. Grupların ölçek puanlarının karşılaştırılmasında tek yönlü varyans analizi ve post-hoc Tukey HSD testi kullanılmıştır. Güvenilirlik analizi için iç tutarlılık göstergesi olarak Cronbach alfa değerleri, madde-toplam puan korelasyonları ve test-tekrar test güvenirliği hesaplanmıştır. Faktörlerin belirlenmesi için ana bileşenler yöntemi ve varimax rotasyonu kullanılmıştır. Kesim noktaları, duyarlılık, özgüllük, negatif ve pozitif yordayıcı değerlerin hesaplanması için Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) eğrileri kullanılmıştır. Bulgular Ana bileşenler yöntemi ve bunu izleyen varimax rotasyonu sonucunda 3 faktör elde edilmiştir. Bu faktörler sırasıyla İletişim, Karşılıklı Sosyal Etkileşim ve Basmakalıp Davranışlar/Kısıtlı İlgi Alanları olarak adlandırılmıştır. Ölçeğin toplam puanının Cronbach alfa değeri 0.88 olarak bulunmuştur. Ölçeğin toplam puanı için test-tekrar test güvenilirliği (r=0.90, p<0.01) olarak