Sample records for ristime llar soopld

  1. The impact of the Aznalcóllar mine tailing spill on groundwater.


    Manzano, M; Ayora, C; Domenech, C; Navarrete, P; Garralon, A; Turrero, M J


    As a consequence of a mine tailing dam collapse on the 25th April 1998, more than 4000 ha of the Guadiamar riverflat and farmlands were flooded by 4 hm3 of sulphide slurry. A number of open wells (12 of the 47 analyzed) were also flooded and the water was contaminated. Before the spill, the groundwater in the aquifers was of calcium-carbonate and calcium-sulphate type, with moderate mineralisation and near neutral pH. With the exception of some of the wells close to the mine, this groundwater had a low concentration of the metals associated with the Aznalcóllar mine. After the flood the following metals had anomalous concentrations in well water: Zn, Mn, Pb, Co, Cd and Tl. Of these, Zn seems to be the best tracer of the contamination, owing to its high concentrations. During the 5 months following the spill, water from the unflooded wells did not show an increase in metal concentration. Apart from some exceptions in August, the metal concentration in the affected wells showed a progressive decrease reaching levels closer to those in the wells free from contamination. Nevertheless, in the following dry seasons the draw-down of the water level may lead to exposure and weathering of sulphides in the wells, which could cause an increase in pollution. Therefore, thorough cleaning of all highly contaminated wells is strongly recommended. PMID:10635581

  2. Water quality of the Guadiamar River after the Aznalcóllar spill (SW Spain).


    Olías, M; Cerón, J C; Moral, F; Ruiz, F


    In April 1998, a spill of 6 hm3 of pyritic mud and acidic water was released into the Guadiamar River due to the rupture of the Aznalcóllar tailings dam. Before the spill, the river was already strongly affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the water quality of the Guadiamar River is analysed from a periodic sampling started after the spill. Previous data of the water quality have also been obtained. A recovery of the water quality is observed from 2002 on. The distribution of arsenic is opposed to that of the rest of metals, with the lowest concentrations to the north, due to the adsorption and/or coprecipitation on ferric oxyhydroxides. In the southern area, when pH values are close to 8, arsenic desorption occurs. There is a seasonal pattern of the trace metal content evolution, different in the northern and southern zones of the river. In the northern area the highest polluting levels occur in summer, due to a lower dilution of the mining leachates. In the southern area, the highest metal levels occur during the winter, since during the summer metals remain held by surface sorption processes in the hyporheic zone of the river. PMID:15996712

  3. Trace element mobility in soils seven years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.


    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; García-Sánchez, A; Querol, X; Moyano, A


    The long-term influence of the Aznalcóllar mine spill on soils was studied seven years after the accident in the area of Vado del Quema. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed after the cleaning operations and soils where this process was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Sludge and soil horizons were characterised, determining their physico-chemical parameters, mineralogy and the total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover, leaching studies were performed using batch tests. The main mineralogical changes detected in the soil beneath the weathered sludge are the neo-formation of jarosite, gypsum and sainfeldite, together with the almost total depletion of calcite. An important acidification of soil has been also produced, especially in the uppermost soil layers. These two factors show to be the main responsible for the vertical distribution and leachability displayed by trace elements. Critical total concentrations were found for most trace elements in the soil still affected by the sludge weathering. Furthermore, the Cd and Zn leachable contents showed to be extremely high. Therefore, in those areas affected by the mine spill where the removal of sludge was not accomplished properly, special care should be paid to trace elements highly mobile in acidic conditions. Additional restoration measures should be undertaken to avoid further pollutant dispersion. PMID:18774588

  4. Mercury and other trace elements in soils affected by the mine tailing spill in Aznalcóllar (SW Spain).


    Cabrera, F; Ariza, J; Madejón, P; Madejón, E; Murillo, J M


    The Aznalcóllar accident (28th April 1998) occurred because the collapse of the tailing-dam dike of the Aznalcóllar-Los Frailes mines. Soils were affected by a slurry of acidic water loaded with trace elements, finely divided metal sulphides, and materials used in the refining /floating process. Studies carried out before and after the soil restoration activities (sludge removal, amending, tilling, and afforestation) showed severe trace-element contamination (mainly As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn) in the superficial layer of the sludge-affected soils. Despite Hg being an important component of the Los Frailes ore and therefore of the contaminant sludge, data on Hg content of sludge-affected soils are scarce and sometimes controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the spill and of restoration measures on the Hg content of soils and how this related to other elements. Concentration of Hg immediately after the spill was 8-fold above background (0.061+/-0.012 mg kg(-1); mean+/-SD) at the surface (0-5 cm) and 3-4-fold greater in deeper layers (0-20; 0-50 cm). After the remediation measures, mean values of Hg and other elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were very variable and remained above background values. These anomalies are due to the sludge left on the soil surface or buried during restoration operations, resulting in an irregular distribution of trace elements. The highest values for the less mobile elements (up to 176 mg kg(-1) As, 2.36 mg kg(-1) Hg and 1556 mg kg(-1) Pb) were observed in the area 1 km downstream of the tailings dam. PMID:18029288

  5. Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants two years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.


    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; Soriano, M A


    The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. Two years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison. The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages. Shoot and root biomass of sunflower seedlings was significantly smaller in the affected soil than in the unaffected soil, but there was no significant difference at the mature stage. Oil production was greater in the spill-affected plants. We have not detected any 'fertilising' effect caused by the acid waters of the spill on the main nutrient (N, P and Ca) acquisition, as documented in 1998 for sunflower plants flooded by the spill. Sunflower plants growing in the spill-affected soil reached adequate levels of nutrients. None of the trace elements measured-As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Tl-reached levels either phytotoxic or toxic for humans or animals in seeds and the above-ground part of the spill-affected plants. We evaluate the potential use of sunflower plants for phytoremediation. The potential for phytoextraction is very low; however, it may be used for soil conservation. The production of oil (usable for industrial purposes) may add some value to this crop. PMID:12711438

  6. In-situ remediation of acid mine drainage using a permeable reactive barrier in Aznalcóllar (Sw Spain).


    Gibert, Oriol; Rötting, Tobias; Cortina, José Luis; de Pablo, Joan; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Bolzicco, José


    Following on the accident occurred in Aznalcóllar in 1998, whereby a huge amount of acid mine drainage and heavy metal-bearing pyritic sludge was released to the Agrio river valley with the subsequent contamination of groundwater, a subsurface permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed to mitigate the long-term impacts by the spillage. The PRB material consisted of a mixture of limestone and vegetal compost. A particular characteristic of the Agrio aquifer is its high water flow velocity (0.5-1 m/d), which may pose difficulties in its remediation using PRB technology. The present study reports the 36-month performance of the PRB. Vertical differences in water velocity were observed within the PRB, with the deeper part being slower and more effective in neutralizing pH and removing heavy metals (Zn, Al, Cu). On the other hand, partial sulfate removal appeard to be restricted to the bottom of the PRB, but with no apparent influence on downgradient water quality. The results are finally compared with the other four reported existing PRBs for AMD worldwide. PMID:21601356

  7. Determination of the Failure Surface Geometry in Quick Slides Using Balanced Cross Section Techniques - Application to Aznalcóllar Tailings Dam Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, José

    In a landslide investigation, the location of the failure surface is a difficult task when measures of subsurface displacement are lacking, as it occurs in old landslides or in recent but quick ones. The subsurface geological data and ground surface displacement data may not be enough to formulate a unique interpretation of the failure surface. However, an accurate determination of the failure surface is possible when balanced cross section techniques are applied to preliminary interpretations. The former is proved by means of the example of Aznalcóllar dam failure (Seville, Spain).

  8. Assessment of Darkling Beetle Fauna after Implementation of an Environmental Restoration Program in the Southern Iberian Peninsula Affected by the Aznalcóllar Toxic Spill

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Ana M.; Bujalance, José L.; Hidalgo, Juan M.


    This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21864152

  9. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb in wild grasses affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill (SW Spain).


    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R


    The collapse of the tailing dam in the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) occurred in April 1998 and affected approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. An urgent soil cleaning up and remediation programme was started just after the accident. Eighteen months later, mineral nutrients and trace elements concentration in soil and two wild grasses--Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense--have been studied. Three types of conditions are distinguished: (a) unaffected soils (control); (b) cleaned up and remediated soils (remediated); and (c) sludge-covered soils left in a fenced plot (non-remediated). As, Cd, Cu and Pb in grasses reached toxic levels for the food web in the non-remediated plot, while on remediated soils only Cd reached a toxic level in grass tissues. However, Pb and, to a lesser extent As and Fe, reached also toxic levels in unwashed plants (as they would be ingested by animals) in remediated soils. Both native grasses seem tolerant of trace elements pollution and suitable for stabilisation of spill-affected soils. PMID:12083702

  10. Heavy metal bioavailability in a soil affected by mineral sulphides contamination following the mine spillage at Aznalcóllar (Spain).


    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Roig, Asunción; Bernal, M Pilar


    A field experiment, lasting 14 months, was carried out in order to assess the effect of organic amendment and lime addition on the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The experiment took place in a soil affected by acid, highly toxic pyritic waste from the Aznalcóllar mine (Seville, Spain) in April 1998. The following treatments were applied (3 plots per treatment): cow manure, a mature compost, lime (to plots having pH < 4), and control without amendment. During the study two crops of Brassica juncea were grown, with two additions of each organic amendment. Throughout the study, the evolution of soil pH, total and available (DTPA-extractable) heavy metals content (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cd), electrical conductivity (EC), soluble sulphates and plant growth and heavy metal uptake were followed. The study indicates that: (1) soil acidification, due to the oxidation of metallic sulphides in the soil, increased heavy metal bioavailability; (2) liming succeeded in controlling the soil acidification; and (3) the organic materials generally promoted fixation of heavy metals in non-available soil fractions, with Cu bioavailability being particularly affected by the organic treatments. PMID:12889610

  11. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcóllar (Spain): the effect of soil amendments.


    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar


    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH < 5 were limed for the second crop. Soil acidification conditioned plant growth and metal accumulation. The addition of lime and the organic amendments achieved higher plant biomass production, although effects concerning metal bioavailability and accumulation were masked somewhat by pH variability with time and between and within plots. Tissue metal concentrations of B. juncea were elevated for Zn, Cu and Pb, especially in leaves of plants from plots with low pH values (maxima of 2029, 71 and 55 microg g(-1), respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. PMID:15894412

  12. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the lizard Psammodromus algirus after a tailing-dam collapse in Aznalcóllar (Southwest Spain).


    Márquez-Ferrando, Rocío; Santos, Xavier; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Ontiveros, Diego


    Quantification of heavy metal concentrations in biota is a common technique that helps environmental managers measure the level of pollutants circulating in ecosystems. Despite interest in heavy metals as indicators of localized pollution, few studies have assessed these pollutants in reptiles. In 1998, the tailing pond of a pyrite mine near Aznalcóllar (southwestern Spain), containing mud with high heavy metal concentrations, collapsed, releasing 6 million m(3) of toxic sludge into the Guadiamar Basin. Here we analyze heavy metal concentrations in the most common reptile in the area, the large psammodromus, Psammodromus algirus, a rather small lizard. We quantified levels of several elements (Hg, Sb, Cd, Cr, Tl, Sn, Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr, Mn, Rb, As, and Zn) in lizard tail clips collected in and around the affected area during the springs of 2005 and 2006. Samples were collected from two contaminated localities, one directly affected by the spill, and another adjacent to the tailing pond, but not covered by toxic mud. We also collected samples from a nonpolluted control site in the same basin. We found higher concentrations of As, Tl, Sn, Pb, Cd, and Cu in lizards from the affected area than in lizards from the control site, indicating the continued presence of heavy metal pollutants in the terrestrial food chain 8 years after the mine accident. We did not uncover sexual or annual differences in heavy metal concentrations, although concentrations increased with lizard size. We discuss how heavy metals moved across the food chain to lizards, despite intensive restoration efforts after the accident, and suggest that reptiles to be included in biomonitoring programs of heavy metals pollution in terrestrial habitats. PMID:18587604

  13. Histological characteristics and ultrastructure of polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shao-Bin; Yang, Rong-Hua; Zuo, Zhong-Nan; Dong, Qi-Rong


    Polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament were the remnant of LARS ligament used for repairing posterior cruciate ligament obtained from operation. We want to study histological characteristics and ultrastructure of polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits. Therefore, we replaced the original ACL with polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament which was covering with the remnant of ACL in 9 rabbits (L-LARS group), while just only polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament were transplanted in 3 rabbits (LARS group) with the remnant of ACL. Compared with group LARS, inflammatory cell reaction and foreign body reaction were more significant in group L-LARS. Moreover, electron microscopy investigation showed the tissue near LARS fibers was highly cellular with a matrix of thin collagen fibrils (50-100 nm) in group L-LARS. These above findings suggest the polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament possess the high biocompatibility, which contributes to the polyethylene terephthalate LARS covered with recipient connective tissues. PMID:25356104

  14. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Resection for Mid and Low Rectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Bulent; Yuksel, Osman


    Background and Objectives: The current study was conducted to determine whether robotic low anterior resection (RLAR) has real benefit over laparoscopic low anterior resection (LLAR) in terms of surgical and early oncologic outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 35 RLARs and 28 LLARs, performed for mid and low rectal cancers, from January 2013 through June 2015. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study. All surgeries were performed successfully. The clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Compared with the laparoscopic group, the robotic group had less intraoperative blood loss (165 vs. 120 mL; P < .05) and higher mean operative time (252 vs. 208 min; P < .05). No significant differences were observed in the time to flatus passage, length of hospital stay, and postoperative morbidity. Pathological examination of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimens showed that both circumferential resection margin and transverse (proximal and distal) margins were negative in the RLAR group. However, 1 patient each had positive circumferential resection margin and positive distal transverse margin in the LLAR group. The mean number of harvested lymph nodes was 27 in the RLAR group and 23 in the LLAR group. Conclusions: In our study, short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for mid and low rectal cancers were similar to those of laparoscopic surgery. The quality of TME specimens was better in the patients who underwent robotic surgery. However, the longer operative time was a limitation of robotic surgery. PMID:27081292

  15. New metallothionein assay in Scrobicularia plana: heating effect and correlation with other biomarkers.


    Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Alhama, José; Blasco, Julián; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; López-Barea, Juan


    Metallothionein (MT) and other biomarker levels were measured in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess pollution of the Guadalquivir Estuary possibly affected by metals released from Aznalcóllar pyrite mine in 1998. After optimizing reagent concentrations for monobromobimane derivatization, MT levels were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection (RP-HPLC-FD) in heated or unheated digestive gland extracts and compared to those obtained by differential pulse polarography (DPP). MT content assayed by RP-HPLC-FD in unheated samples was higher than that obtained by DPP and correlated better with metals and anti-oxidant activities. MT assay by RP-HPLC-FD in unheated extracts would be preferable for assessing metal pollution, due to its greater sensitivity and specificity. In addition to MT induction, glyoxalase II inhibition was well correlated with metal contents. Our results suggest that metals at the estuary do not originate from Aznalcóllar spill, but from those carried along by the river and deposited at its concave bank. PMID:18403075

  16. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.


    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M


    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated. PMID:18217916

  17. Biochemical resistance of pyrogenic organic matter in fire-affected mineral soils of Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, H.; González Vila, F. J.; Clemente Salas, L.


    Incorporated into the soil, naturally formed pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is considered as highly recalcitrant, but direct estimation of PyOM decomposition rates are scarce. With this aim in mind, we subjected organic matter (OM) of fire-affected and unaffected soils to biochemical degradation under laboratory conditions and monitored CO2 production over a period of seven months. The soils derived from fire affected and unaffected areas of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar and the Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Virtual fractionation of the solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the fire affected soils into fire-unaffected soil organic matter (SOM) and PyOM yielded charcoal C contributions of 30 to 50% to the total organic C (Corg) of the sample derived from the Aznalcóllar region. Fitting the respiration data with a double exponential decay model revealed a fast carbon flush during the first three weeks of the experiment. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy evidenced the contribution of aromatic moieties of the PyOM to this initial carbon release and to the biosynthesis of new microbial biomass. The input of PyOM resulted in an increase of the mean residence time (MRT) of the slow OM pool of the soil by a factor of 3 to 4 to approximately 40 years which rises doubts rises doubts about the presumed big influence of PyOM as an additional C-sink in soils. On the other hand, although being small the difference in turnover rates is evident and has some major implication with respect to long-term alteration of the chemical composition of OM in fire-affected soils. Based on the obtained results and the analysis of PyOM in other soil systems, a conceptual model is presented which can explain the different behavior of PyOM under different soil conditions.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in Squilla mantis (L.) (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) from the gulf of cadiz evaluation of the impact of the Aznalcollar mining spill.


    Blasco, J; Arias, A M; Sáenz, V


    After the Aznalcóllar mining spill (25th April 1998), considerable social concern arose amongst the inhabitants of the SW Iberian Peninsula concerning the consumption of local seafood. Squilla mantis was collected in four regions of the Gulf of Cádiz with a dual objective: to analyze the heavy metal levels for human consumption and as part of biomonitoring program. Heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were analyzed in soft tissues and cuticle. The highest values were found in the soft tissues for zinc, copper and cadmium and in the cuticle for iron, manganese and lead. The mean copper concentration in the soft tissue, corresponding to the edible part, was 27.1 microg x g(-1) wet weight. Approximately 80% of stations showed values higher than 20 microg x g(-1) wet weight of copper, the Spanish legal limit for the concentration of this metal in the crustacean for human consumption. For Zn and Cu no significant differences were found between regions, probably related with the capacity for regulation of S. mantis. The highest values found for copper in the Gulf of Cádiz compared to other areas is likely to be related with contamination from terrestrial mining activities (copper and pyrites) in the region, dating back to the times of Tartessians and Romans, rather than the effects of mining spill which was shown not to create any significant increases in heavy metal concentrations of organisms of the Guadalquivir River or the adjacent coastal area. PMID:12046947

  19. Long-term contamination in a recovered area affected by a mining spill.


    Martín Peinado, F J; Romero-Freire, A; García Fernández, I; Sierra Aragón, M; Ortiz-Bernad, I; Simón Torres, M


    Soil pollution from the spill of Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) was monitored by analysing polluted soils in 1998, 1999, and 2004. Following the methodology used in previous studies, in 2013 we conducted a new sampling and analysis of the soils affected by the spill and the data were compared with those of 2004. The results confirm that the pH tended to rise and concentration of pollutants tended to diminish over time. In 2013, the total concentration of pollutants was within the normal range for uncontaminated soils and close to the background concentration of the soils prior to the spill; while the soluble concentration of pollutants was clearly below the toxic level. These results indicate that remediation measures implemented have been effective. However, the removal of tailings (first remediation measure applied) was deficient and in many places the tailings were mixed with the soil. The high concentration of sulphides and metal(loid)s in the tailings gave rise to spots with very acidic and highly polluted soils devoid of vegetation. In 2013, fifteen years after the spill, these spots of bare soils remain a major source of pollution from which pollutants are scattered through the solid and liquid phases of runoff water, requiring action to immobilize pollutants and encourage the restoration of vegetation on these soils. In this type of pollution in a Mediterranean environment, the complete removal of tailings is more important than the speed at which they are removed. PMID:25666282

  20. Trace elements in wild grasses: a phytoavailability study on a remediated field.


    Burgos, P; Pérez-de-Mora, A; Madejón, P; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E


    There have been significant efforts to establish a widely usable method for the prediction of trace element bioavailability in soil. In this work, we used extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to estimate bioavailable concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in a soil moderately contaminated with trace elements 1 and 2 years after the application of three amendments. The experiment took place in a field plot of a soil affected by the toxic spill of the Aznalcóllar mine. Four treatments were established: three with amendments (biosolid compost, sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) and a control without amendment. Trace element concentrations of two representative species in each year (Lamarckia aurea and Poa annua in 2004 and Lamarckia aurea and Bromus rubens in 2005) were analyzed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil and vegetation. Trace element concentrations in plants growing in the amended subplots were lower than those in plants from nonamended subplots. As a rule, concentrations of CaCl2-soluble Cd, Cu, and Zn in soil were positively correlated with trace elements in plants, whereas EDTA extraction was scarcely correlated with plant concentration. For species of grasses, especially L. aurea, CaCl2 seems to be a more suitable extractant to predict trace element bioavailability in this contaminated soil. PMID:18253844

  1. The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.


    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L


    Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549

  2. Natural remediation of an unremediated soil twelve years after a mine accident: trace element mobility and plant composition.


    Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Paula; Madejón, Engracia; Girón, Ignacio; Cabrera, Francisco; Murillo, José Manuel


    The long-term influence of a mine spill in soil was studied 12 years after the Aznalcóllar accident. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed, a fenced plot established for research purposes (2000 m(2)) and soils where the process of remediation was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Soils were characterized at different depths, down to 100 cm depth, determining chemical parameters and total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover plants colonizing remediated (RE) and non remediated (NRE) soils were also analysed attending their potential risk for herbivores. Strong acidification was observed in the NRE soil except in surface (0-10 cm). The progressive colonization of natural vegetation, more than 90% of the fenced plot covered by plants, could facilitate this increased pH values in the top soil (pH 6). In the NRE soil, the successive oxidation and hydrolysis of sulphide in the deposited sludge on the surface after the accident resulted in a re-dissolution of the most mobile element (Cd, Cu and Zn) and a penetration to deeper layers. Trace element concentrations in plants growing in the NRE soil showed normal contents for higher plants and tolerable for livestock. Nitrogen and mineral nutrients were of the same order in both soils, and also normal for high plants and adequate for animal nutrition. Despite of the natural remediation of the NRE soil, results demonstrate that the remediation tasks carried out in all the area, the Guadiamar Green Corridor at present, were necessary to avoid the leaching of the most mobile elements and minimize the risk of contamination of groundwater sources, many of them close to the Doñana National Park. PMID:23201603

  3. Contrasting effects of manure and compost on soil pH, heavy metal availability and growth of Chenopodium album L. in a soil contaminated by pyritic mine waste.


    Walker, David J; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar


    Chenopodium album L. was found to be one of the initial plant species colonising a heavy metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar mine spill (South-western Spain). This indicates its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil. In a pot experiment, C. album was sown in soil collected from the contaminated site, either non-amended or amended with cow manure or compost produced from olive leaves and olive mill wastewater, in order to study the effect on heavy metal bioavailability and soil pH. In non-amended and compost-amended soils, soil acidification, probably resulting from oxidation and hydrolysis of sulphide, led to increases in the concentrations of soluble sulphate and plant-available Cu, Zn and Mn in the soil (extractable with 0.1 M CaCl(2)). Under these conditions, shoot growth of C. album was negligible and shoot concentrations of Zn (2,420-5,585 microg g(-1)) and Mn (5,513-8,994 microg g(-1)) were phytotoxic. Manure application greatly increased shoot growth and reduced the shoot concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn, and their plant-available concentrations in the soil. These effects appeared to be related to an increase of soil pH, due to an inhibition of sulphide oxidation/hydrolysis, relative to the non-amended soil. For metal sulphides-contaminated soil, liable to acidification, manure application appears to be able to enhance the initial stages of re-vegetation, by species such as C. album. PMID:15312738

  4. Monitoring of Pb Exposure in Waterfowl Ten Years after a Mine Spill through the Use of Noninvasive Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.; Lefranc, Hugues; Martín-Doimeadiós, Rosa C.; Green, Andy J.; Mateo, Rafael


    Lead exposure in waterfowl was studied using noninvasive fecal sampling in the Guadalquivir Marshes in Spain, an area affected by the 1998 Aznalcóllar mine disaster. Feces of greylag geese (Anser anser, n = 191) and purple gallinule (Porphyrio porphyrio, n = 91) were collected from three different impacted sites (Entremuros, Caracoles and Cerro de los Ánsares) during the winters of 2004 to 2008. Lead and aluminium (an indicator of sediment ingestion) and Pb isotope signatures (to discriminate between sources of Pb exposure) were analyzed in freeze-dried, acid digested samples. The concentrations of fecal porphyrins and biliverdin were determined as noninvasive biomarkers to study Pb exposure effects. Results showed a decrease in Pb exposure over time in wintering greylag geese. In contrast, for purple gallinule resident in the Entremuros a clear trend was not evident. For both species, sediment ingestion appeared to be the main source of exposure to Pb. In the Entremuros, some samples from purple gallinule were detected with higher Pb levels than expected for simple soil ingestion, and these had Pb isotopic profiles compatible with mining sludge or Pb shot. Whilst fecal Pb isotopic profiles were effective in differentiating between samples from sites with different levels and sources of pollution, the combined use of element ratios (such as Pb/Al) and other non-traditional stable isotope signatures may also prove worthwhile. Overall, the fecal Pb levels detected were below those described in feces for waterfowl from other uncontaminated areas(<10 µg/g d.w.). Despite this, for both species fecal Pb levels were positively correlated with porphyrin excretion, and for purple gallinule, with the coproporphyrin III/I ratio, suggesting some subtle effects on heme synthesis in birds. Ten years after the mine spill, Pb contamination in birds by this pollution source was still detectable and subtlethal effects may persist. PMID:23437364

  5. Adrenocortical Response to Stress and Thyroid Hormone Status in Free-Living Nestling White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) Exposed to Heavy Metal and Arsenic Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Baos, Raquel; Blas, Julio; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Marchant, Tracy A.; Hiraldo, Fernando


    Background/Objective Endocrine parameters have proven useful in the detection of early or low-level responses to pollutants. Although most of the studies on endocrine modulation have been focused on processes involving gonadal steroids, contaminants may target other parts of the endocrine system as well. In this study we examined the adrenocortical stress response and thyroid hormone status in free-living nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in relation to heavy metals (zinc, lead, copper, cadmium) and arsenic levels in blood. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in an area polluted by the Aznalcóllar mine accident (southwestern Spain) and in a reference site. We used a standardized capture, handling, and restraint protocol to determine both baseline and maximum plasma corticosterone. Circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were also measured. Results No effects of metals or As were found on baseline corticosterone, but maximum levels of corticosterone were positively related to Pb in both locations. This relationship was stronger in single nestlings than in birds from multiple-chick broods, which suggests a greater impact of Pb on more stressed individuals. Metal pollution did not affect plasma T4 or T3 levels, although thyroid status differed with location. Conclusions Because a compromised hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) function can have far-reaching consequences in terms of altered behavioral and metabolic processes necessary for survival, our results suggest that birds exposed to sublethal Pb levels may be at risk through an altered adrenocortical stress response, and further support the idea that HPA axis-related end points might be useful indicators of metal exposure and potential toxicity in wild animals. PMID:17035132

  6. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia


    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  7. Developmental Exposure to a Toxic Spill Compromises Long-Term Reproductive Performance in a Wild, Long-Lived Bird: The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia)

    PubMed Central

    Baos, Raquel; Jovani, Roger; Serrano, David; Tella, José L.; Hiraldo, Fernando


    Background/Objective Exposure to environmental contaminants may result in reduced reproductive success and long-lasting population declines in vertebrates. Emerging data from laboratory studies on model species suggest that certain life-stages, such as development, should be of special concern. However, detailed investigations of long-term consequences of developmental exposure to environmental chemicals on breeding performance are currently lacking in wild populations of long-lived vertebrates. Here, we studied how the developmental exposure to a mine spill (Aznalcóllar, SW Spain, April 1998) may affect fitness under natural conditions in a long-lived bird, the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia). Methodology The reproductive performance of individually-banded storks that were or not developmentally exposed to the spill (i.e. hatched before or after the spill) was compared when these individuals were simultaneously breeding during the seven years after the spill occurred (1999–2005). Principal Findings Female storks developmentally exposed to the spill experienced a premature breeding senescence compared with their non-developmentally exposed counterparts, doing so after departing from an unusually higher productivity in their early reproductive life (non-developmentally exposed females: 0.5±0.33SE fledglings/year at 3-yr old vs. 1.38±0.31SE at 6–7 yr old; developmentally exposed females: 1.5±0.30SE fledglings/year at 3-yr old vs. 0.86±0.25SE at 6–7 yr old). Conclusions/Significance Following life-history theory, we propose that costly sub-lethal effects reported in stork nestlings after low-level exposure to the spill-derived contaminants might play an important role in shaping this pattern of reproduction, with a clear potential impact on population dynamics. Overall, our study provides evidence that environmental disasters can have long-term, multigenerational consequences on wildlife, particularly when affecting developing individuals, and warns about the