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Sample records for river dams relative

  1. State-discharge relations at dams on the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, Dean M.

    1981-01-01

    Stage-discharge relations were developed for the Brandon Road Dam on the Des Plainse River and the Dresden Island, Marseilles, Starved Rock, Peoria, and La Grange Dams on the Illinois River. At Brandon Road Dam, streamflow is regulated by the operation of tainter gates and headgates. Tainter gates are operated to regulate streamflow at the Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams. Peoria Dam and La Grange Dam comprise timber Chanoine wickets which are lowered to a horizontal position on the streambed when used for streamflow regulation. Both dams have concrete abutments housing butterfly valves that are also used for regulation. A total of 50 discharge measurements ranging from 49.0 to 2,450 cubic meter per second were used to determine discharge coefficients in equations expressing discharge as a function of headwater depth, tailwater depth, and gate opening. A stage-discharge relation for Chanoine wicket dams developed from a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers hydraulic model study in 1937 and 1938 was verified with discharge measurements made downstream from the Peoria and La Grange Dams. (USGS)

  2. Preliminary stage-discharge relations for Tombigbee River at Aliceville lock and dam, near Pickensville, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, G.H.; Ming, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of Aliceville lock and dam and other related channel alterations, completed in 1979, has resulted in changes to the stage-discharge relations in the vicinity. The scarcity of current-meter measurements, coupled with backwater conditions, makes definition of a single stage-discharge relation impossible. However, limit curves can be defined that would encompass such a relation. Backwater is defined as water backed up or retarded in its course as compared with water flowing under normal or natural conditions. This results in a rise in stage above normal water level while the discharge remains unaffected. Backwater is usually caused by temporary obstruction(s) to flow downstream. Backwater at Aliceville Dam results from a variety of river conditions. Some of these conditions are large tributary inflow, return of flood plain flows to the main channel during recessions, and operations at Gainesville Dam during low flows. The discharges obtained from 26 current-meter measurements, along with computed discharges through the dam, are plotted versus stage. The plot illustrates, by the scatter of data points, the variations in backwater. Curves are drawn to envelope the extreme plot patterns showing possible ranges of several feet in stage for any given discharge. The upper end of the curves were extrapolated based on the results of a step-backwater analysis.

  3. Combined Effects of Dam Removal and Past Sediment Mining on a Relatively Large Lowland Sandy Gravelly Bed River (Vienne River, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Ursache, O.; Bouchard, J. P.; Juge, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removal is of growing interest for the management of sediment fluxes, morphological evolution and ecological restoration of rivers. If dam removal experiments are well documented for small streams, examples of lowland and large rivers are scarce. We present the morphological response of a relatively large lowland river (Vienne River, France) to a dam removal. The objective is to understand and quantify the morphological adaptation on a reach of 50 km and over 15 years associated with the dam removal and the presence of ancient sand pits located along the riverbed. This study is based on field data collected during 7 surveys performed between 1998 and 2013. This dataset focuses on bed geometry, sediment grain size, and bedload fluxes. It was combined with a 1D numerical model to assess flow dynamics and sediment transport before and after dam removal. Results show that dam removal triggered both regressive and progressive erosions and that discharges higher than 100 m3.s-1 were sufficient to erode the sandy sediments trapped by the dam whereas gravels were mobilised for discharges higher than 300 m3.s-1. Since 1999, large bedload sediment waves coming from upstream migrated downstream at an average celerity of 2.2 km.year-1 and were trapped by three ancient sand pits located downstream. Some of these pits constitute efficient sediment traps even 15 years after dam removal. As a result, between 2002 and 2013, the slope of the river bed adjusted gently and observed morphological processes were minors compared with the time period between 1998 and 2002.

  4. Combined effects of dam removal and past sediment mining on a relatively large lowland sandy gravel bed river (Vienne River, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursache, Ovidiu; Rodrigues, Stephane; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Jugé, Philippe; Richard, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Dam removal is of growing interest for the management of sediment fluxes within fluvial basins, morphological evolution and ecological restoration of rivers. If dam removal experiments are now quite well documented for small streams located in the upstream parts of river networks, examples of lowland and relatively large rivers are still scarce. In this study we present a dam removal operation carried out on the Vienne River (France) to restore both sediment and biotic continuity. The Vienne River is 363 km in length. On its middle reaches the average slope is equal to 0.0003 m.m-1 and the average annual discharge is 195 m3.s-1 at the gauging station of Nouâtre. The river is characterized by a sinuous single channel of an average width of 150 m. The sediments are mainly made of a siliceous mixture of sands and gravels and were intensively mined between years 1930 and 1995's. In 1920, a 4 m height dam was built just downstream the confluence between the Vienne and Creuse Rivers triggering a total sediment deposition upstream of 900 000 m3 in 75 years. Hence, in 1998, the removal of the dam increased severely the sediment supply delivered to the Vienne River. The objective of this study is to understand and quantify the fluvial processes and morphological evolution on a reach of 50 km of the Vienne associated with the dam remova and the presence of ancient sand pits located along the riverbed. This study is based on field data collected during 7 surveys performed between 1998 and 2013. This large dataset focuses on bed geometry (detailed bathymetrical surveys), sediment grain size, and bedload fluxes measured using isokinetic samplers. It was combined with a 1D numerical model developed to assess flow dynamics and sediment transport capacity before and after dam removal. Results show that dam removal triggered both headward and progressive (near the dam) erosions and that discharges higher than 100 m3.s-1 were sufficient to erode the sandy sediments trapped by the

  5. Stage-discharge relations for Black Warrior River at Warrior Dam near Eutaw, Alabama; updated 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, G.H.; Ming, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of Warrior Dam, completed in 1962, has resulted in changes to the stage-discharge relations in the vicinity. The scarcity of current-meter measurements, coupled with backwater conditions, make definition of a single stage-discharge relation impossible without considerable error. However, as a useful alternative, limit curves were developed in 1983 that defined the limits of possible stage-discharge relations at the dam tailwater section. Since the 1983 report, 37 discharge values computed through the dam for the flood of December 1983 were used to verify or update the lower end of the limit curves. Data obtained from a current-meter measurement of the February 1961 flood (furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) were used to update the upper end of the curves. This report presents the updated information. (USGS)

  6. 60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Dam Failure Planning Report, Winnibigoshish Dam, Mississippi River, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    A ̂ 57 231 DAM FAILUR PLANNING R-PORT WINNISIGOSI4IS OAl -- I 7 A1 723 MISSISSIPPI RIVER iINNESO&(US ARMy 1INEIlSIRCI SI LOUIS M0 JAN 85 A,’ F I F D...TSCATALOG NME 4. TITLE (and Subti.) Dam Failure’Planning Report, s. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Winnibigoshish Dam, Mississippi River , Minnesota 6...safety at Winnibigoshish Dam near Deer River , Minnesota. Discussion is made including computer programs used, routing methods used, assumptions made

  8. Elwha River Riparian Vegetation Response to Dams and Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafroth, P. B.; Brown, R. L.; Clausen, A. J.; Chenoweth, J.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian vegetation is highly diverse and influences habitat of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by stream flow regime, and fluxes of sediment and large woody debris, all of which can be altered by river damming. Dam removal is often implemented, in part, to help restore degraded riparian vegetation by reversing the alteration of these key drivers. However, increased disturbance and sediment flux associated with transport and exposure of trapped reservoir sediment can complicate a simple return to pre-dam conditions and can favor exotic species. We are studying the effects of dams and their removal on riparian vegetation along the Elwha River in Washington State, where removal of two large dams began in September 2011. To characterize vegetation composition, structure, and diversity prior to dam removal, we sampled 60-150 vegetation plots in 2004, 2005, and 2010 along five cross-valley transects in each of three river reaches: above both dams (upper reach), between the dams (middle reach), and downstream of both dams (lower reach). In summer 2012, we resampled a subset of our plots in the lower and middle reaches to evaluate vegetation and geomorphic change. We also sampled vegetation, topography, and grain size along newly-established transects within the exposed former reservoir behind Elwha Dam, which was removed in 2011 and 2012. Plant community distribution on bottomland geomorphic surfaces along the Elwha is typical of other systems in the region. We identified 8 overstory and 26 understory communities using multivariate analyses. Young bar surfaces (5-20 yrs) were dominated by willow, red alder, and black cottonwood. Floodplains and transitional fluvial terraces (<90yrs) were generally dominated by alder and cottonwood. Mature terraces (>90yrs) were often dominated by big-leaf maple. Douglas fir occurred on both young and old floodplains and terraces. Overstory species composition was more stable from 2005 to 2010

  9. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Colorado River Dam Fund. 431.7 Section 431.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project and the administration of the Colorado River Dam Fund and the Lower Colorado River Basin Development Fund...

  10. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Colorado River Dam Fund. 431.7 Section 431.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project and the administration of the Colorado River Dam Fund and the Lower Colorado River Basin Development Fund...

  11. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Colorado River Dam Fund. 431.7 Section 431.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project and the administration of the Colorado River Dam Fund and the Lower Colorado River Basin Development Fund...

  12. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Colorado River Dam Fund. 431.7 Section 431.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project and the administration of the Colorado River Dam Fund and the Lower Colorado River Basin Development Fund...

  13. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  14. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  15. Population size and relative abundance of adult Alabama shad reaching jim woodruff lock and dam, Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Patrick C.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the population size of migrating Alabama shad Alosa alabamae below Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in the Apalachicola River (located in the central panhandle of northwestern Florida) using mark-recapture and relative abundance techniques. After adjustment for tag loss, emigration, and mortality, the population size was estimated as 25,935 (95% confidence interval, 17,715-39,535) in 2005, 2,767 (838-5,031) in 2006, and 8,511 (5,211-14,674) in 2007. The cumulative catch rate from boat electrofishing averaged 20.47 Alabama shad per hour in 2005, 6.10 per hour in 2006, and 13.17 per hour in 2007. The relationship between population size (N) and electrofishing catch per unit effort (CPUE) was modeled by the equation N = -9008.2 + (electrofishing CPUE X 1616.4). Additionally, in 2007 the hook-and-line catch rate averaged 1.94 Alabama shad per rod hour. A predictive model relating the population size and hook-and-line CPUE of spawning American shad A. sapidissima was applied to Alabama shad hook-and-line CPUE and produced satisfactory results. Recent spawning populations of Alabama shad in the Apalachicola River are low relative to American shad populations in other southeastern U.S. rivers. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  17. Movements and Distribution of Northern Squawfish Downstream of Lower Snake River Dams Relative to the Migration of Juvenile Salmonids, 1992-1993 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Isaak, D.J.; Bjornn, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis movements were monitored downstream of two lower Snake River dams during the juvenile salmonid migrations of 1992 and 1993. During a high flow year in 1993, the abundance of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam peaked in July, after the majority of juveniles had moved past Lower Granite Dam, and peak abundance was inversely related to river discharge. Few squawfish moved into the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam in 1993 because of the extended period of spill. Distributions of squawfish in the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam varied between and within years and shifted in response to changing prey densities, flow patterns, water temperature, and diel cycles, but fish consistently used low velocity habitats. Data from Ice Harbor Dam is less extensive, but squawfish distributions there appeared to be affected by changing flow patterns and fish used low velocity habitats. The changes in distribution and abundance of squawfish in tailrace areas are evidence that predation on seaward migrating salmonids depends on the timing of migration and size and timing of runoff. Juvenile salmonids migrating in the spring and early summer will probably be less affected by squawfish predation in tailrace areas than salmon that migrate later in the summer.

  18. 8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL FROM THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM WITH POND A IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  19. 2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex taken from west edge of horseshoe-shaped Lost River Diversion Dam. Interior of east side of dam in the foreground. Facing East. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  20. Using Repeat LiDAR Surveys to Determine the Geomorphic Changes Related the Removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzek, C. D.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    downstream using LiDAR and GCD to determine whether a sediment pulse related to dam removal could be distinguished downstream. A simple DoD with no error propagation was completed for the entire length of the river channel. Downstream from the former dam the river enters a 7 km bedrock gorge where no deposition was documented. In the ½-km reach immediately downstream from the gorge deposition appeared on river banks and in-channel bars 1-3 years after dam removal. Beyond this reach, the sediment pulse related to removal could not be readily distinguished from normal river processes. However, each segment of the 40-km study reach downstream of the dam shows net sediment deposition during the 5-year study period.

  1. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., 38.5-foot-high Crocker Pond dam; (2) an existing 99.7- acre impoundment with a normal water surface... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the...

  2. 3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Down river view of lock and dam to southwest - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  3. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  4. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  5. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  6. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  7. "U.S. Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, topographical map of dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "U.S. Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, topographical map of dam site and construction plant. September 15, 1914." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  8. Owyhee River intracanyon lava flows: does the river give a dam?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Lisa L.; Brossy, Cooper C.; House, P. Kyle; Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Champion, Duane E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Bondre, Ninad R.; Orem, Caitlin A.; Grant, Gordon E.; Henry, Christopher D.; Turrin, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers carved into uplifted plateaus are commonly disrupted by discrete events from the surrounding landscape, such as lava flows or large mass movements. These disruptions are independent of slope, basin area, or channel discharge, and can dominate aspects of valley morphology and channel behavior for many kilometers. We document and assess the effects of one type of disruptive event, lava dams, on river valley morphology and incision rates at a variety of time scales, using examples from the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon. Six sets of basaltic lava flows entered and dammed the river canyon during two periods in the late Cenozoic ca. 2 Ma–780 ka and 250–70 ka. The dams are strongly asymmetric, with steep, blunt escarpments facing up valley and long, low slopes down valley. None of the dams shows evidence of catastrophic failure; all blocked the river and diverted water over or around the dam crest. The net effect of the dams was therefore to inhibit rather than promote incision. Once incision resumed, most of the intracanyon flows were incised relatively rapidly and therefore did not exert a lasting impact on the river valley profile over time scales >106 yr. The net long-term incision rate from the time of the oldest documented lava dam, the Bogus Rim lava dam (≤1.7 Ma), to present was 0.18 mm/yr, but incision rates through or around individual lava dams were up to an order of magnitude greater. At least three lava dams (Bogus Rim, Saddle Butte, and West Crater) show evidence that incision initiated only after the impounded lakes filled completely with sediment and there was gravel transport across the dams. The most recent lava dam, formed by the West Crater lava flow around 70 ka, persisted for at least 25 k.y. before incision began, and the dam was largely removed within another 35 k.y. The time scale over which the lava dams inhibit incision is therefore directly affected by both the volume of lava forming the dam and the time required for sediment

  9. Effects of dam operation on the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis, related to mesohabitats, microhabitat availability and water temperature regime, in the river Cabriel (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Diego Alcaraz-Hernandez, Juan; Hernandez-Mascarell, Aina

    2010-05-01

    The presence of large dams affects habitat availability, often regarded as the primary factor that limits population and community recovery in rivers. Physical habitat is often targeted in restoration, but there is often a paucity of useful information. Habitat degradation has reduced the complexity and connectivity of the Mediterranean streams in Spain. These changes have diminished the historical range of the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866), isolated the populations of this species, and probably contributed to its risk of extinction. In the Júcar River basin (Spain), where this fish is endemic, the populations are mainly restricted to the river Cabriel, which is fragmented in two segments by the large dam of Contreras. In this river, 3 main lines of research were developed from 2006 to 2008, i.e., microhabitat suitability, mesohabitat suitability, and water temperature, in order to relate such kind of variables with the flow regime. The main goal of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, was to detect the main reasons of the species decline, and to propose dam operation improvements to contribute to the recovery of the species. The flow and water temperature regimes were also studied in the river Cabriel, upstream and downstream the large dam of Contreras. During the three years of study, below the dam it was observed a small and not significant variation in the proportions of slow and fast habitats; the regulated flow regime was pointed out as the main reason of such variations. At the microhabitat scale, optimal ranges for average depth and velocity were defined; these data allowed us to develop an estimation of weighted useable area under natural and regulated conditions. The Júcar nase were found majorly at depths no greater than 1,15 meters with slow water velocities. It was possible to observe a clear alteration of the flow and water temperature regime below the dam, due to the cold

  10. Global phosphorus retention by river damming

    PubMed Central

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T.; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H.; Powley, Helen R.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y−1, or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  11. 6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  12. AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD WITH HISTORIC SHED (WAREHOUSE). PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  13. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER COBBLE PAVING (FOREGROUND) AND WINGWALL, LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  14. Elwha River dam removal-Rebirth of a river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    After years of planning for the largest project of its kind, the Department of the Interior will begin removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, in September 2011. For nearly 100 years, the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams have disrupted natural processes, trapping sediment in the reservoirs and blocking fish migrations, which changed the ecology of the river downstream of the dams. All five Pacific salmon species and steelhead-historically present in large numbers-are locally extirpated or persist in critically low numbers. Upstream of the dams, more than 145 kilometers of pristine habitat, protected inside Olympic National Park, awaits the return of salmon populations. As the dams are removed during a 2-3 year project, some of the 19 million cubic meters of entrapped sediment will be carried downstream by the river in the largest controlled release of sediment into a river and marine waters in history. Understanding the changes to the river and coastal habitats, the fate of sediments, and the salmon recolonization of the Elwha River wilderness will provide useful information for society as future dam removals are considered.

  15. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  16. Liberated rivers: lessons from 40 years of dam removal

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Gordon Grant

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, dam removal has emerged as a viable national and international strategy for river restoration. According to American Rivers, a river conservation organization, more than 1,100 dams have been removed in the United States in the past 40 years, and more than half of these were demolished in the past decade. This trend is likely to continue as dams age,...

  17. A ravenous river reclaims its true course: the tale of Marmot Dam''s demise

    Treesearch

    Noreen Parks; Gordon Grant

    2009-01-01

    Removing dams that are outdated, unsafe, or pose significant economic or environmental costs has emerged in the last 10 years as a major river restoration strategy. The removal of the 45-foot-high Marmot Dam on the Sandy River in 2007 resulted in the biggest sediment release accompanying any dam removal to date. It also provided an unprecedented opportunity...

  18. Relation between flows and dissolved oxygen in the Roanoke River between Roanoke Rapids Dam and Jamesville, North Carolina, 2005-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between dam releases and dissolved-oxygen concentration, saturation and deficit, downstream from Roanoke Rapids Dam in North Carolina was evaluated from 2005 to 2009. Dissolved-oxygen data collected at four water-quality monitoring stations downstream from Roanoke Rapids Dam were used to determine if any statistical relations or discernible quantitative or qualitative patterns linked Roanoke River in-stream dissolved-oxygen levels to hydropower peaking at Roanoke Rapids Dam. Unregulated tributaries that inundate and drain portions of the Roanoke River flood plain are crucial in relation to in-stream dissolved oxygen. Hydropower peaking from 2005 to 2009 both inundated and drained portions of the flood plain independently of large storms. The effects of these changes in flow on dissolved-oxygen dynamics are difficult to isolate, however, because of (1) the variable travel time for water to move down the 112-mile reach of the Roanoke River from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Jamesville, North Carolina, and (2) the range of in-situ conditions, particularly inundation history and water temperature, in the flood plain. Statistical testing was conducted on the travel-time-adjusted hourly data measured at each of the four water-quality stations between May and November 2005-2009 when the weekly mean flow was 5,000-12,000 cubic feet per second (a range when Roanoke Rapids Dam operations likely affect tributary and flood-plain water levels). Results of this statistical testing indicate that at the 99-percent confidence interval dissolved-oxygen levels downstream from Roanoke Rapids Dam were lower during peaking weeks than during non-peaking weeks in three of the five years and higher in one of the five years; no data were available for weeks with peaking in 2007. For the four years of statistically significant differences in dissolved oxygen between peaking and non-peaking weeks, three of the years had statistically signficant differences in water temperature. Years

  19. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM KACHESS DAM CREST, 1910 RIVER CUTOFF CHANNEL WITH CRIB STRUCTURE IN CENTER. BRIDGE FOOTING CRIB STRUCTURE AT RIGHT (Upstream face of Kachess Dam in foreground) - Kachess Dam, Cutoff Channel and Crib Structures, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER SHOWING HEADGATE ON THE NORTH BANK. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  1. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. NOTE BANK REINFORCEMENT ON LEFT AND SPILLWAY ON RIGHT. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  2. Aswan Dam, Lake Nassar, Nile River, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Aswan Dam on the Nile River created the 500 kilometer long reservoir, seen here in sunglint. Lake Nassar (23.5N, 33.0E) was designed to control the devestating floods and alleviate the famine-producing droughts which have plagued the region for millenia. In Nov 81, as the lake was nearing capacity, drought conditions lowered the water level by about 30 meters which can clearly be seen as silt depositions on the receding eastern shoreline.

  3. Review of Selected Documents Related to Flooding at City of Salisbury Facilities on the Yadkin River Upstream from High Rock Dam, North Carolina, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents a review of the hydraulic and sediment-transport models developed by the City of Salisbury, Alcoa Power Generating, Inc., and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to address issues of flooding and sedimentation in the vicinity of Salisbury's water-supply intake 19.4 miles upstream from High Rock Dam. The objective of the review was to determine if the modeling results submitted by Salisbury clearly demonstrate that the presence of High Rock Dam has led to an increase in water levels at Salisbury facilities or, conversely, if the documents of Alcoa Power Generating, Inc., demonstrate that High Rock Dam has not had an effect on water levels at Salisbury facilities. No new data were collected as a part of the review, and the models developed by involved parties were not tested during the review. Some historical discharge-measurement notes and previously published reports were checked as part of the review. The one-dimensional hydraulic modeling results submitted by Alcoa Power Generating, Inc., did not assess the effects of changes in bathymetry on changes in flood levels at Salisbury's facilities because pre-impoundment conditions were not simulated. Hydraulic modeling performed by consultants for the City of Salisbury seems to indicate that both the presence of the dam in the absence of any post-impoundment sedimentation and changes in bathymetry between pre-impoundment and 1997 conditions have resulted in increased water levels relative to pre-impoundment conditions at Salisbury facilities on the Yadkin River for a fairly wide range of flows. The degree to which the dam and the changes in bathymetry have affected flood levels at the Salisbury facilities relative to pre-impoundment conditions is open to discussion because of uncertainty in topographic/bathymetric data and the absence of calibration and sensitivity testing of the hydraulic models. None of the three hydraulic models appears to have been calibrated to or tested against

  4. 23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. HEFU generator deck is at center bottom. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Revisiting the homogenization of dammed rivers in the southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; Charles A. Dolloff

    2012-01-01

    For some time, ecologists have attempted to make generalizations concerning how disturbances influence natural ecosystems, especially river systems. The existing literature suggests that dams homogenize the hydrologic variability of rivers. However, this might insinuate that dams affect river systems similarly despite a large gradient in natural hydrologic character....

  6. Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 10 Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects (MCNP) Program Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia...Navigation Projects (MCNP) Program ERDC/CHL TR-15-10 July 2015 Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia Donald C. Wilson, Larry R...1000 Under MCNP Work Unit Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia ERDC/CHL TR-15-10 ii Abstract Monitoring of the new Marmet Lock

  7. Fish Assemblage Response to a Small Dam Removal in the Eightmile River System, Connecticut, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Miller, Kate E.; Kraczkowski, Michelle L.; Welchel, Adam W.; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  8. Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  9. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In the interest of flood control, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and...

  10. Hydrologic and hydraulic factors affecting passage of paddlefish through dams in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.; Knights, B.C.; Runstrom, A.L.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of paddlefish Polyodon spathula have been adversely affected by dams that can block their movements. Unlike high-head dams that preclude fish passage (unless they are equipped with fishways), the dams on the upper Mississippi River are typically low-head dams with bottom release gates that may allow fish passage under certain conditions. We evaluated the relation of dam head and river discharge to the passage of radio-tagged paddlefish through dams in the upper Mississippi River. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted into 71 paddlefish from Navigation Pools 5A and 8 of the upper Mississippi River and from two tributary rivers during fall 1994 through fall 1996. We tracked paddlefish through September 1997 and documented 53 passages through dams, 20 upstream and 33 downstream. Passages occurred mostly during spring (71%) but also occurred sporadically during summer and fall (29%). Spring passages varied among years in response to hydrologic conditions. We evaluated patterns in upstream and downstream passages with Cox proportional hazard regression models. Model results indicated that dam head height strongly affected the upstream passage of paddlefish but not the downstream passage. Several paddlefish, however, passed upstream through a dam during periods when the minimum head at the dam was substantial ( greater than or equal to 1m). In these cases, we hypothesize that paddlefish moved upstream through the lock chamber.

  11. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  12. VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish Species in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington, Prior to the Removal of Condit Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the composition and relative abundance of fish species was collected by a rotary screw trap and backpack electrofishing in the lower White Salmon River, Washington. The information was collected downstream of Condit Dam, which is at river kilometer (rkm) 5.2, and is proposed for removal in October 2011. A rotary screw trap was installed in the White Salmon River at rkm 1.5 and operated from March through June during 2006-09. All captured fish were identified to species and enumerated. Daily subsets of fish were weighed, measured, and fin clipped for a genetic analysis by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. *Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were captured in the highest numbers (n=18, 640), and were composed of two stocks: tule and upriver bright. Almost all captured fall Chinook salmon were age-0, with only 16 (0.09 percent) being age-1 or older. *Tule fall Chinook salmon, the native stock, generally out-migrated from mid-March through early April. The tule stock was the more abundant fall Chinook salmon subspecies, comprising 85 percent of those captured in the trap. *Upriver bright fall Chinook salmon comprised 15 percent of the Chinook salmon catch and generally out-migrated from late May to early June. *Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were captured by the rotary screw trap in all years. Coho salmon were caught in low numbers (n=661) and 69 percent were age-0 fish. Steelhead were slightly more abundant (n=679) than coho salmon and 84 percent were age-1 or older fish. Trap efficiency estimates varied widely (range, 0-10 percent) by species, fish size, and time of year. However, if we use only the estimates from efficiency tests where more than 300 wild age-0 Chinook salmon were released, there was a mean trapping efficiency of 1.4 percent (n=4, median, 1.3 percent, range, 0.3-2.4 percent) during the tule out-migration period, and a mean trapping efficiency of 0.8 percent (n=2, range, 0.3-1.2 percent) during

  14. Channel evolution on the dammed Elwha River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, A.E.; Logan, J.B.; Mastin, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Like many rivers in the western U.S., the Elwha River, Washington, has changed substantially over the past century in response to natural and human forcing. The lower river is affected by two upstream dams that are slated for removal as part of a major river restoration effort. In preparation for studying the effects of dam removal, we present a comprehensive field and aerial photographic analysis of dam influence on an anabranching, gravel-bed river. Over the past century with the dams in place, loss of the upstream sediment supply has caused spatial variations in the sedimentary and geomorphic character of the lower Elwha River channel. Bed sediment is armored and better sorted than on the naturally evolving bed upstream of the dams. On time scales of flood seasons, the channel immediately below the lower dam is fairly stable, but progresses toward greater mobility downstream such that the lowermost portion of the river responded to a recent 40-year flood with bank erosion and bed-elevation changes on a scale approaching that of the natural channel above the dams. In general, channel mobility in the lowest 4 km of the Elwha River has not decreased substantially with time. Enough fine sediment remains in the floodplain that – given sufficient flood forcing – the channel position, sinuosity, and braiding index change substantially. The processes by which this river accesses new fine sediment below the dams (rapid migration into noncohesive banks and avulsion of new channels) allow it to compensate for loss of upstream sediment supply more readily than would a dammed river with cohesive banks or a more limited supply of alluvium. The planned dam removal will provide a valuable opportunity to evaluate channel response to the future restoration of natural upstream sediment supply.

  15. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  16. Sediment Transport Over Run-of-River Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Magilligan, F. J.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Dams have numerous documented effects that can degrade river habitat downstream. One significant effect of large dams is their ability to trap sediment delivered from upstream. This trapping can alter sediment transport and grain size downstream - effects that often motivate dam removal decisions. However, recent indirect observations and modeling studies indicate that small, run-of-river (ROR) dams, which do not impede discharge, may actually leak sediment downstream. However, there are no direct measurements of sediment flux over ROR dams. This study investigates flow and sediment transport over four to six different New England ROR dams over a summer-fall field season. Sediment flux was measured using turbidity meters and tracer (RFID) cobbles. Sediment transport was also monitored through an undammed control site and through a river where two ROR dams were recently removed. These data were used to predict the conditions that contribute to sediment transport and trapping. Year 1 data show that tracer rocks of up to 61 mm were transported over a 3 m ROR dam in peak flows of 84% of bankfull stage. These tracer rocks were transported over and 10 m beyond the dam and continue to move downstream. During the same event, comparable suspended sediment fluxes of up to 81 g/s were recorded both upstream and downstream of the dam at near-synchronous timestamps. These results demonstrate the potential for sediment transport through dammed rivers, even in discharge events that do not exceed bankfull. This research elucidates the effects of ROR dams and the controls on sediment transport and trapping, contributions that may aid in dam management decisions.

  17. Relation between groundwater and river under damming conditions - case study from Črneče (N Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Keršmanc, Teja

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the nine-year long data set of groundwater levels measurements in the influence area of the Drava River in Črneče of southern Koro\\vska (Carinthia - N Slovenia). Statistical analysis of the groundwater levels fluctuations, flow rates and stages of the Drava River were performed. It is followed by analysis of the interrelation between the groundwater level observations and adjacent observation boreholes by means of indicator diagrams and mutual comparison between the groundwater level and river stages. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of the impact of extreme flood event on November 5th 2012, which caused catastrophic flooding throughout the whole Slovenian part of Drava Valley. With the help of groundwater contour maps it is illustrated that in the bank zone of the river intensive change in the shape of groundwater surface is undergoing, as well as changes in the direction of its flow. We are dealing with both the ingress of river water in the aquifer, as the outflow of groundwater into the river, and sometimes with the flow of groundwater, which is parallel to the river bank; from that if follows that interaction between river and groundwater is three dimensional phenomena.

  18. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye; Fairley, Helen; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  19. Out, out, dam spot! The geomorphic response of rivers to dam removal.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    About 75,000 irrigation, flood control, and hydropower dams in the United States are aging, deteriorating, or have outlived their useful lives and purposes. Not surprisingly, dam removal is emerging as both a challenge and opportunity for river management and research. Scientists at the PNW Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, are using scale models and monitoring...

  20. River turbidity and sediment loads during dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Curran, Chris A.

    2012-01-01

    Dam decommissioning has become an important means for removing unsafe or obsolete dams and for restoring natural fluvial processes, including discharge regimes, sediment transport, and ecosystem connectivity [Doyle et al., 2003]. The largest dam-removal project in history began in September 2011 on the Elwha River of Washington State (Figure 1a). The project, which aims to restore the river ecosystem and increase imperiled salmon populations that once thrived there, provides a unique opportunity to better understand the implications of large-scale river restoration.

  1. Effects of dams in river networks on fish assemblages in non-impoundment sections of rivers in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, L.; Infante, D.; Lyons, J.; Stewart, J.; Cooper, A.

    2011-01-01

    Regional assessment of cumulative impacts of dams on riverine fish assemblages provides resource managers essential information for dam operation, potential dam removal, river health assessment and overall ecosystem management. Such an assessment is challenging because characteristics of fish assemblages are not only affected by dams, but also influenced by natural variation and human-induced modification (in addition to dams) in thermal and flow regimes, physicochemical habitats and biological assemblages. This study evaluated the impacts of dams on river fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin using multiple fish assemblage indicators and multiple approaches to distinguish the influences of dams from those of other natural and human-induced factors. We found that environmental factors that influence fish assemblages in addition to dams should be incorporated when evaluating regional effects of dams on fish assemblages. Without considering such co-influential factors, the evaluation is inadequate and potentially misleading. The role of dams alone in determining fish assemblages at a regional spatial scale is relatively small (explained less than 20% of variance) compared with the other environmental factors, such as river size, flow and thermal regimes and land uses jointly. However, our results do demonstrate that downstream and upstream dams can substantially modify fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers. After excluding river size and land-use influences, our results clearly demonstrate that dams have significant impacts on fish biotic-integrity and habitat-and-social-preference indicators. The influences of the upstream dams, downstream dams, distance to dams, and dam density differ among the fish indicators, which have different implications for maintaining river biotic integrity, protecting biodiversity and managing fisheries. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of dams in river networks on fish assemblages in non-impoundment sections of rivers in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Jana S.; Lizhu Wang,; Infante, Dana M.; Lyons, John D.; Arthur Cooper,

    2011-01-01

    Regional assessment of cumulative impacts of dams on riverine fish assemblages provides resource managers essential information for dam operation, potential dam removal, river health assessment and overall ecosystem management. Such an assessment is challenging because characteristics of fish assemblages are not only affected by dams, but also influenced by natural variation and human-induced modification (in addition to dams) in thermal and flow regimes, physicochemical habitats and biological assemblages. This study evaluated the impacts of dams on river fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin using multiple fish assemblage indicators and multiple approaches to distinguish the influences of dams from those of other natural and human-induced factors. We found that environmental factors that influence fish assemblages in addition to dams should be incorporated when evaluating regional effects of dams on fish assemblages. Without considering such co-influential factors, the evaluation is inadequate and potentially misleading. The role of dams alone in determining fish assemblages at a regional spatial scale is relatively small (explained less than 20% of variance) compared with the other environmental factors, such as river size, flow and thermal regimes and land uses jointly. However, our results do demonstrate that downstream and upstream dams can substantially modify fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers. After excluding river size and land-use influences, our results clearly demonstrate that dams have significant impacts on fish biotic-integrity and habitat-and-social-preference indicators. The influences of the upstream dams, downstream dams, distance to dams, and dam density differ among the fish indicators, which have different implications for maintaining river biotic integrity, protecting biodiversity and managing fisheries.

  3. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  4. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  5. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  6. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  7. Impact of dams on flood occurrence of selected rivers in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xuefei; Van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Dai, Zhijun; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-10-01

    A significant large number of dams have been constructed in the past two centuries in the United States. These dams' ability to regulate downstream flooding has received world-wide attention. In this study, data from 38 rivers distributed over the entire conterminous Untied States with extensive pre- and post-dam annual peak discharge records, were collected to research the impacts of various dams on the flood behaviors at a national scale. The results indicate that dams have led to significant reductions in flood magnitude for nearly all of the sites; the decrease rate in the mean of annual peak discharge varies between 7.4% and 95.14%, except for the Dead River, which increased by 1.46%. Because of dams' effectiveness, the probability density curve of annual peak flow changes from a flat to peaked shape because both the range and magnitude of high discharges are decreased. Moreover, the potential impact of dams on flood characteristics were closely related to the dam's geographic location and function, the ratio of the storage capacity of the dam to the mean annual runoff of the river (C/R), and the ratio of reservoir storage capacity to the area of its drainage (C/D). Specifically, the effects of dams on annual peak flows were more related to latitude than longitude. Compared with dams built for other purposes, the dam exclusively used for flood management cut off more flood peaks. Increases in the ratios of C/R and C/D increased the degree of modification of annual maximum discharge.

  8. Evolution of a Dammed River: Trajectories of Geomorphic Change on the Trinity River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, J. A.; Guerrero, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Historic landuse, dam construction (ca. 1964), water storage and flow diversion within the Trinity River watershed resulted in simplification of the river planform and dramatic losses in riparian habitat. The pre-dam Trinity River included a series of deep pools, active bar sequences, minor amounts of riparian vegetation, and an extensive floodplain. Dam construction and the export of ~ 75 to 90% of the average annual inflow at the top of the study reach lead to riparian encroachment, channel narrowing, stabilization of alluvial features, and a decline in coarse bed material. Following dam closure channel complexity decreased as bars were stabilized and coalesced into a system-wide post-dam topographic bench with an extensive riparian berm. Flow diversions further resulted in the abandonment of the pre-dam geomorphic floodplain and aggradation of tributary confluences due to dramatic reductions in flow competency and capacity. Beginning in 2001, the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) implemented a combination of flow releases, gravel augmentation, bank rehabilitation, and watershed restoration to promote dynamic channel processes. The TRRP functions under an adaptive management framework which includes external peer review. In this regard the TRRP requested a geomorphic assessment of a 65-km restoration reach during pre- and post-restoration time periods which will be used to inform future restoration work. Building upon previous work at the site and reach scale we digitized a series of geomorphic maps and quantified the nature, extent and rates of geomorphic change during five post-dam time periods. Terrestrial and aquatic features were mapped using rectified orthophotography (1980, 1997, 2001, 2006, 2009, 2011) and the resultant data were used to determine trajectories of geomorphic change related to natural river processes and restoration actions. The series of geomorphic maps illustrate a system-wide perspective of evolving geomorphic features and

  9. Outlet Works for Cerrillos Dam, Cerrillos River, and Portugues Dam, Portugues River, Puerto Rico; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Tests were conducted on a 1:24-scale model of the outlet works for the Cerrillos and Portugues Dams located in Puerto Rico. The purpose of the model... Portugues outlet works were designed to provide for river diversion during construction of the dams. When the dams are completed, the flow will be regulated... Portugues . However, the stilling basins were designed for 2500 cfs (Cerrillos) and 1100 cfs ( Portugues ), the bank-full capacities downstream. Therefore

  10. Potential effects of dams on migratory fish in the Mekong River: lessons from salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John W; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  11. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of fish assemblage structure in a river impounded by low-head dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, David P.; Tiemann, Jeremy S.; Edds, David R.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2005-01-01

    We studied spatiotemporal patterns of fish assemblage structure in the Neosho River, Kansas, a system impounded by low-head dams. Spatial variation in the fish assemblage was related to the location of dams that created alternating lotic and lentic stream reaches with differing fish assemblages. At upstream sites close to dams, assemblages were characterized by species associated with deeper, slower-flowing habitat. Assemblages at sites immediately downstream from dams had higher abundance of species common to shallow, swift-flowing habitat. Temporal variation in assemblage structure was stronger than spatial variation, and was associated with fish life history events such as spawning and recruitment, as well as seasonal changes in environmental conditions. Our results suggest that low-head dams can influence spatial patterns of fish assemblage structure in systems such as the Neosho River and that such assemblages also vary seasonally.

  13. River Restoration by Dam Removal: Assessing Riverine Re-Connectivity Across New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Graber, B.; Sneddon, C.; Fox, C.; Martin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of dams in New England are especially acute as it possesses one of the highest densities of dams in the US, with the NID documenting more than 4,000 dams, and state agency records indicating that >14,000 dams are peppered throughout the landscape. This large number of dams contributes to pervasive watershed fragmentation, threatening the ecological integrity of rivers and streams, and in the case of old, poorly maintained structures, posing a risk to lives and property. These concerns have generated active dam removal efforts throughout New England. To best capture the geomorphic, hydrologic, and potential ecological effects of dam removal at a regional level, we have compiled a dataset of 127 removed dams in New England, which includes information about structural characteristics, georectified locations, and key watershed attributes (including basin size, distance to next upstream obstacle, and number of free-flowing river kms opened up). Our specific research questions address (1) what is the spatial distribution of removed dams and how does this pattern relate to stated management goals of restoring critical habitat for native resident freshwater and diadromous fish, (2) what are the structural or management commonalities in dam types that have been removed, and (3) what has been the incremental addition of free-flowing river length? Rather than reflecting an overall management prioritization strategy, results indicate that dam removals are characterized more by opportunistic removals. For example, despite a regional emphasis on diadromous fish protection and restoration, most removals are inland rather than coastal settings. Most of the removed dams were small (~ 45% < 4 m) although ~10% of the removed dams were 6-8 m high. However, despite the predominant removal of small dams, these dams were not restricted to headwater locations; most (38%) occurred in medium-sized watersheds having upstream drainage areas between 100-1,000 km2 with 8% formerly

  14. Fish assemblage relationships with physical characteristics and presence of dams in three eastern Iowa rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Clay; Nicholas L. Ahrens,; Anna K. Loan-Wilsey,; Gregory A. Simmons,; Gregory T. Gelwicks,

    2013-01-01

    Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be described as ‘downstream-distributed’; 15 being found only in the lowest reach of one or more rivers and the other two being found only in the lowest reaches or two or more contiguous reaches including the lowest reach. Two species could be described as ‘upstream-distributed’, being found only in an uppermost reach. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination illustrated similarities among reaches, and five physical variables were significantly correlated with assemblage similarities. Catchment area and number of dams between reaches and the Mississippi River were strongly correlated with assemblage similarities, but the directions of their effects were opposite. Catchment area and number of dams were confounded. The collective evidence to date suggests that the pervasiveness of dams on rivers significantly alters fish assemblages, making underlying patterns of species change and relationships with naturally varying and human-influenced physical characteristics along a river's course difficult to discern.

  15. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  16. Deltaic responses to dam regulation on river system: Example of the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Bi, N.; Saito, Y.; Wu, X.; Wang, A.

    2014-12-01

    Construction and operation of large dams in river basins have trapped large volumes of freshwater and sediment, which not only alters the natural seasonal rhythm of river hydrological cycles, but also creates a disconnection between rivers and their deltas. As a result, the water and sediment discharged to the coastal ocean have been greatly reduced, which triggers profound responses in coastal region including delta destruction, accelerated rise of relative sea level and changes in coastal primary production. The Yellow River has been a well documented system with significant impacts of dam regulation. Recent sediment load and freshwater (2002-2012) delivered to the sea have been reduced to 0.16 billion tones per year and 17.9 km3/yr, approximately 13% and 34% of those in 1950s-1960s, a period without significant dam impacts. Dam interception and dam-facilitated water regulation play a dominated role in reducing the flux of water and sediment to the sea, as well as in changing the grain-size composition of sediment. Consequently, the process of estuarine sediment dynamics has changed and the delta has recently been converted into a destructive phase with strong coastal erosion due to insufficient rive sediment supply although the accretion of the active delta lobe was evident because of rapid local deposition of coarsening river sediment around the river mouth. The delta coast erosion has thus become a major source for sediment transport in the Bohai Sea and even to those in the Yellow Sea given the critical role of monsoonal climate on coastal resuspension and coastal currents. Delta erosion and subsidence have therefore accelerated the rate of relative sea-level rise, considerably higher than the global mean, which has put the mega-delta to be at risk. In addition, recent works have identified two peaks of chlorophyll-a within annual cycle in the delta coastal region, one of which is closely associated with the river delivery of nutrients transferred with

  17. Harvesting river water through small dams promote positive environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chaudhary, Sunita; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Hsu, Minna J

    2016-11-01

    While deliberations relating to negative consequences of large dams on the environment continue to dominate world attention, positive benefits provided by small dams, also known as check dams, go unobserved. Besides, little is known about the potential of check dams in mitigating global warming impacts due to less data availability. Small dams are usually commissioned to private contractors who do not have clear mandate from their employers to post their work online for public scrutiny. As a result, statistics on the design, cost, and materials used to build check dams are not available in public domain. However, this review paper presents data for the first time on the often ignored potential of check dams mitigating climate-induced hydrological threats. We hope that the scientific analysis presented in this paper will promote further research on check dams worldwide to better comprehend their eco-friendly significance serving society.

  18. Suspended-sediment concentrations during dam decommissioning in the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    monitoring station. A relation between turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations, consistent with established USGS protocols (Rasmussen and others, 2009), was established to enable reporting of suspended-sediment concentrations in the lower Elwha River. This document contains calculations of total suspended-sediment concentrations and concentrations of suspended-sediment fines (particle sizes less than 0.0625 mm) in the lower Elwha River downstream of the dam decommissioning project from September 2011 to February 2013. A time-series record of suspended-sediment concentrations is reported using continuous turbidity data as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentrations.

  19. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River relative to discharge at Iron Gate Dam, Northern California, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg; Hetrick, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a study of survival and migration behavior of radio-tagged juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Klamath River, northern California, in 2007. This was the third year of a multi-year study with the goal of determining the effects of discharge at Iron Gate Dam (IGD) on survival of juvenile coho salmon downstream. Survival and factors affecting survival were estimated in 2006 and 2007 after work in 2005 showed radio telemetry could be used effectively. The study has included collaborative efforts among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Karuk and Yurok Tribal Fisheries Departments, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The objectives of the study included: (1) estimating the survival of wild and hatchery juvenile coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam, determining the effects of discharge and other covariates on juvenile coho salmon survival (2) and migration (3), and (4) determining if fish from Iron Gate Hatchery (IGH) could be used as surrogates for the limited source of wild fish. We have been able to meet the first objective by estimating the survivals of hatchery and wild fish (when available) downstream of IGD. We have not yet met the second or third objectives, because we have been unable to separate effects of discharge from other environmental variables as they pertain to the survival or migration of juvenile coho salmon. This was foreseen when the study began, as it was known there would likely be no experimental discharges. A multi-year analysis will be conducted after the data for the third planned year are available. The fourth objective was initiated in 2006, but wild fish were not available in 2007. The next year wild fish may be available is in 2009, based on their 3-year cycle of abundance. River discharges during the 2007 study period (April 10 through July 28, 2007) were below average compared to the period of record beginning in 1962. Average daily

  20. 49. BEAR CREEK AND SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAMS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. BEAR CREEK AND SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAMS AND CONCRETE CONDUIT NO. 1, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206851, no date (FERC no. 1933-41). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 60. Aerial view looking southeast; Dundee Dam and Passaic River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Aerial view looking southeast; Dundee Dam and Passaic River at center, Dundee Canal and headgates, guardlock, and former hydroelectric facility at right, Dundee Textile Mill between river and canal - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  2. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage.

  3. Dams and Rivers: A Primer on the Downstream Effects of Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Michael; Webb, Robert H.; Schmidt, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is charged with monitoring the water and mineral resources of the United States. Beginning in 1889, the Survey established a network of water gaging stations across most of the country's rivers; some also measured sediment content of the water. Consequently, we now have valuable long-term data with which to track water supply, sediment transport, and the occurrence of floods. Many variables affect the flow of water from mountain brook to river delta. Some are short-term perturbations like summer thunderstorms. Others occur over a longer period of time, like the El Ninos that might be separated by a decade or more. We think of these variables as natural occurrences, but humans have exerted some of the most important changes -- water withdrawals for agriculture, inter-basin transfers, and especially the construction of an extensive system of dams. Dams have altered the flow of many of the Nation's rivers to meet societal needs. We expect floods to be contained. Irrigation is possible where deserts once existed. And water is released downstream not according to natural cycles but as dictated by a region's hour-by-hour needs for water or electricity. As a result, river channels below dams have changed dramatically. Depending on annual flow, flood peaks, and a river's sediment load, we might see changes such as sand building up in one channel, vegetation crowding into another, and extensive bank erosion in another. This Circular explores the emerging scientific arena of change in rivers below dams. This science tries first to understand and then anticipate changes to river beds and banks, and to riparian habitats and animal communities. To some degree, these downstream changes can be influenced by specific strategies of dam management. Scientists and resource managers have a duty to assemble this information and present it without bias to the rest of society. Society can then more intelligently choose a balance between the benefits and adverse

  4. The Potential for Dams to Impact Lowland Meandering River Floodplain Geomorphology

    PubMed Central

    Marren, Philip M.; Grove, James R.; Webb, J. Angus; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection) and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an “environmental sediment regime” to operate alongside environmental flows. PMID:24587718

  5. The potential for dams to impact lowland meandering river floodplain geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Marren, Philip M; Grove, James R; Webb, J Angus; Stewardson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection) and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an "environmental sediment regime" to operate alongside environmental flows.

  6. Frankenmuth Dam Fish Passage, Cass River, Saginaw County, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    near the dam. The City’s water main crosses the Cass River approximately 200 feet upstream of the dam. A City wastewater treatment plant facility...landfill is located on City owned wastewater treatment plant facility property downstream of where the proposed rock ramp would be constructed (refer...necessary, the material would be disposed of at a licensed landfill, or potentially on part of the City owned wastewater treatment plant facility property

  7. Ecosystem Response During the Removal of the Elwha River Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess, G. R.; McHenry, M.; Liermann, M. C.; Moses, R.; Denton, K.; McMillan, J.; Brenkman, S.; Duda, J.; Peters, R.; Anderson, J.; Quinn, T.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last century, the two dams blocked the upstream movement of anadromous fish to over 90% of the Elwha River watershed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. These dams also restricted the downstream movement of sediment, wood, and other organic materials to the lower river and estuary. Populations of all Pacific salmon species and steelhead in the Elwha became critically low, habitat complexity decreased below the dams, and downstream coastal habitats became sediment starved. Simultaneous deconstruction of the two dams began in September 2011 was completed in September of 2014. The recent removal of the dams has been an opportunity to explore linkages among changes in sediment supply, salmonid populations, and ecosystem attributes. Preliminary findings focus on the delivery of millions of metric tonnes of sediment to the main river, its floodplain, and nearshore, the re-establishment of a natural wood delivery regime, the re-colonization of the upper watershed by anadromous fish, insights into functional relationships among salmonid populations and life history strategies, and the associated effects of all these elements on the aquatic and terrestrial foodwebs. This talk will provide an overview of the Elwha restoration project, and highlight recent changes observed during dam removal.

  8. Evaluation of freshwater mussels in the lower Ohio River in relation to the Olmstead locks and dam project: 1995, 1996, and 1997 studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.S.; Miller, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    Surveys were conducted in 1995, 1996, and 1997 to assess community characteristics, population demography of dominant species, status of endangered species, and characteristics of nonindigenous populations of freshwater bivalves in the lower Ohio River. Data will be used to analyze impacts of construction and operation of a new lock and dam at River Mile (RM) 964.4. The greatest focus has been on a mussel bed just downstream of the project. Density categories of <20, 20 to 50, and >50 individuals per square meter are reasonable for delineating low-, moderate-, and high-density assemblages within this bed. Density >200 individuals per square meter is occasionally measured, but always describes a location heavily dominated by recent recruits. The native mussel community of the lower Ohio River is dominated by Fusconaia ebena. Dominance of this species was high at RM 967 (near Olmsted, IL), typically exceeding 80 percent of the community. At RM 957 (near Post Creek, IL), F. ebena is much less dominant (33 percent). Species richness is similar at both locations. The F. ebena population in the lower Ohio River is heavily dominated by a single-year class (probably 1990) of recent recruits. Prior to the exceptional recruitment in 1990, this population was dominated by a very abundant 1981 cohort.

  9. Techniques for computing discharge at four Navigation Dams on the Illinois and Des Plaines Rivers in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, Dean M.; Weiss, Linda S.; Gray, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques for computing discharge are developed for Brandon Road Dam on the Des Plaines River and for Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams on the Illinois River. At Brandon Road Dam, streamflow is regulated by the operation of Tainter gates and headgates. At Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams, only Tainter gates are operated to regulate streamflow. The locks at all dams are equipped with culvert valves that are used to fill and empty the lock. The techniques facilitate determination of discharge at locations along the upper Illinois Waterway where no streamflow-gaging stations exist. The techniques are also useful for computing low flows when the water-surface slope between control structures on the river approaches zero and traditional methods of determining discharge based on slope are unsatisfactory. Two techniques can be used to compute discharge at the dams--gate ratings and tailwater ratings . A gate ratingdescribes the relation between discharge, gate opening, tailwater stage, and headwater stage. A tailwater rating describes the relation between tailwater stage and discharge. Gate ratings for Tainter gates at Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams are based on a total of 78 measurements of discharge that range from 569 to 86,400 cubic feet per second. Flood hydrographs developed from the gate ratings and Lockmaster records of gate opening and stage compare closely with streamflow records published for nearby streamflow-gaging stations. Additional measurements are needed to verify gate ratings for Tainter gates and headgates at Brandon Road Dam after the dam rehabilitation is completed. Extensive leakage past deteriorated headgates and sluice gates contributed to uncertainty in the ratings developed for this dam. A useful tailwater rating is developed for Marseilles Dam. Tailwater ratings for Dresden Island Dam and Starved Rock Dam are of limited use because of varying downstream channel-storage conditions. A tailwater

  10. Flow regulation and river fragmentation in large basins due to global dam development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dam construction has recently received new interest as an alternative and renewable source of energy, especially in developing countries, and as a means to provide water security in regions with naturally variable water flows. On the other hand, the negative effects from increased fragmentation of the world's large rivers through hydropower and irrigation dams is a matter of great concern for ecologists and conservationists. The main negative effects of dams result from their role as a barrier for migratory fish species, as well as the alteration of the natural flow regime owing to artificial water release schedules. While the trade-offs between these antagonistic effects are usually assessed locally by conducting environmental impact assessments at and in the vicinity of the construction site, the cumulative effects of multiple dams located in the same basin are generally neglected in such plans. To address the cumulative effects at the scale of large river networks, we developed a new impact assessment approach by combining state-of-the-art global scale hydrographic (HydroSHEDS) and hydrological models (WaterGAP) with a river routing scheme (HydroROUT). This combination enables modelers to simulate scenarios for historic, current and future conditions that allow for comparisons between the large river basins of the world. We derive indices that can describe the relative impact of individual and multiple dams regarding flow alteration and habitat fragmentation at a global scale. Our model also allows for the application of tailor-made weighting schemes to include information of eco-hydrological classifications, as well as species richness and diversity. Furthermore, we include natural barriers such as waterfalls, and examine their effect on river network connectivity. Results for the Greater Mekong Region show that ecosystem connectivity and flow alteration are most strongly affected by dams located at the mainstream rivers, particularly for basins where the main

  11. Riparian Vegetation Encroachment Ratios in rivers below large Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Jalón, Diego; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; González del Tánago, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Large Dams and reservoirs change the natural flow regime and consequently cause many alterations in riparian vegetation dynamics which may be assessed at different spatial and temporal scales. In Mediterranean regions flow regulation is frequently associated with irrigation. Regulated rivers with this purpose very often show reduced discharges during the wet season when the reservoir is being filled and increased discharges during the dry season when irrigation takes place. This type of regulation frequently promotes riparian vegetation growth as soil moisture levels are increased during summer when a natural drought would otherwise limit its growth. Additionally, flow regulation by large dams promotes the aging of late seral riparian vegetation reducing the frequency of flood disturbance and consequently, the potential recruitment of pioneer species. In this work we study the response of woody riparian vegetation to flow regulation by large dams in four rivers from Central Spain: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadalix and Alberche. The aim is to quantify the annual vegetation encroachment ratios and to develop a model to understand the main controlling factors, such as floodplain and channel traits; flow regulation intensity; type of regulation; present vegetation canopy; distance to the dam; and time since dam commissioning. A temporal comparison using aerial photographs from 1956, 1966, 1972, 1991, 2011 and 2014 was done in thirteen river reaches downstream from large dams, to evaluate their morphological evolution.. Floodplain dimensions and channel and riparian vegetation changes were assessed by comparing different pre-dam and post-dam conditions. Recent coloured photographs with 0.5 m spatial resolution and older black-and-white photographs at 1:33 000 spatial scale were supplied by the National Geographic Institute of Spain (www.ign.es) and the Statistical Institute (www.madrid.org/nomecalles/Inicio.icm) from Madrid Community. Similar visual scales were used to cope

  12. Modelling global nutrient retention by river damming: Phosphorus and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maavara, Taylor; Dürr, Hans; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The phosphorus to silicon (P:Si) nutrient ratio is a key variable affecting ecosystem health in many aquatic environments. River damming represents a major anthropogenic perturbation of natural material flows along the aquatic continuum, with the potential to profoundly modify absolute and relative nutrient availabilities in surface waters. In this study, a multi-tiered approach for estimating global nutrient retention in man-made reservoirs is presented. We illustrate its application to the global riverine flux of reactive Si, using a database of dissolved reactive Si (DSi) budgets for 24 natural lakes and 22 artificial reservoirs. The database includes information on bedrock geology, surface water pH, water residence time, reservoir age and function, climate, and trophic status. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, t-test, PCA, linear plus non-linear regressions) are used to identify the best predictors of DSi retention and delineate how reservoir properties modulate nutrient dynamics. Results indicate that (1) reservoirs retain significantly less DSi than natural lakes, and (2) the water residence time, reservoir age and function (e.g., hydroelectrical production, irrigation, flood control) are the main system variables controlling DSi retention by dams. Next, a biogeochemical Si model is used to reproduce the previously derived statistical trends for DSi retention. Calibration of the model yields a relationship that enables one to predict annual in-reservoir siliceous productivity as a function of the external reactive Si supply. The model further accounts for the transition from reservoirs where reactive Si retention is primarily due to burial of allochtonous Si to those where in-reservoir DSi uptake by diatoms dominates. Finally, the statistical and mechanistic relationships are extrapolated to estimate that 25-28 Tg SiO2 yr-1 are retained worldwide by dams, or 7% of the annual reactive Si load to watersheds. We are currently applying the same multi-tiered approach

  13. A simplified water temperature model for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.A.; Anderson, C.R.; Voichick, N.

    2009-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam, located on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, has affected the physical, biological and cultural resources of the river downstream in Grand Canyon. One of the impacts to the downstream physical environment that has important implications for the aquatic ecosystem is the transformation of the thermal regime from highly variable seasonally to relatively constant year-round, owing to hypolimnetic releases from the upstream reservoir, Lake Powell. Because of the perceived impacts on the downstream aquatic ecosystem and native fish communities, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has considered modifications to flow releases and release temperatures designed to increase downstream temperatures. Here, we present a new model of monthly average water temperatures below Glen Canyon Dam designed for first-order, relatively simple evaluation of various alternative dam operations. The model is based on a simplified heat-exchange equation, and model parameters are estimated empirically. The model predicts monthly average temperatures at locations up to 421 km downstream from the dam with average absolute errors less than 0.58C for the dataset considered. The modelling approach used here may also prove useful for other systems, particularly below large dams where release temperatures are substantially out of equilibrium with meteorological conditions. We also present some examples of how the model can be used to evaluate scenarios for the operation of Glen Canyon Dam.

  14. Reprint of: Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: River channel and floodplain geomorphic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Amy E.; Pess, George R.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Logan, Joshua B.; Randle, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Minear, Justin T.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Liermann, Martin C.; McHenry, Michael L.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-10-01

    A substantial increase in fluvial sediment supply relative to transport capacity causes complex, large-magnitude changes in river and floodplain morphology downstream. Although sedimentary and geomorphic responses to sediment pulses are a fundamental part of landscape evolution, few opportunities exist to quantify those processes over field scales. We investigated the downstream effects of sediment released during the largest dam removal in history, on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, by measuring changes in riverbed elevation and topography, bed sediment grain size, and channel planform as two dams were removed in stages over two years. As 10.5 million t (7.1 million m3) of sediment was released from two former reservoirs, downstream dispersion of a sediment wave caused widespread bed aggradation of 1 m (greater where pools filled), changed the river from pool-riffle to braided morphology, and decreased the slope of the lowermost river. The newly deposited sediment, which was finer than most of the pre-dam-removal bed, formed new bars (largely pebble, granule, and sand material), prompting aggradational channel avulsion that increased the channel braiding index by almost 50%. As a result of mainstem bed aggradation, floodplain channels received flow and accumulated new sediment even during low to moderate flow conditions. The river system showed a two- to tenfold greater geomorphic response to dam removal (in terms of bed elevation change magnitude) than it had to a 40-year flood event four years before dam removal. Two years after dam removal began, as the river had started to incise through deposits of the initial sediment wave, 1.2 million t of new sediment ( 10% of the amount released from the two reservoirs) was stored along 18 river km of the mainstem channel and 25 km of floodplain channels. The Elwha River thus was able to transport most of the released sediment to the river mouth. The geomorphic alterations and changing bed sediment grain size along the

  15. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: River channel and floodplain geomorphic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Amy E.; Pess, George R.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Logan, Joshua B.; Randle, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Minear, Justin T.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Liermann, Martin C.; McHenry, Michael L.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial increase in fluvial sediment supply relative to transport capacity causes complex, large-magnitude changes in river and floodplain morphology downstream. Although sedimentary and geomorphic responses to sediment pulses are a fundamental part of landscape evolution, few opportunities exist to quantify those processes over field scales. We investigated the downstream effects of sediment released during the largest dam removal in history, on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, by measuring changes in riverbed elevation and topography, bed sediment grain size, and channel planform as two dams were removed in stages over two years. As 10.5 million t (7.1 million m3) of sediment was released from two former reservoirs, downstream dispersion of a sediment wave caused widespread bed aggradation of ~ 1 m (greater where pools filled), changed the river from pool-riffle to braided morphology, and decreased the slope of the lowermost river. The newly deposited sediment, which was finer than most of the pre-dam-removal bed, formed new bars (largely pebble, granule, and sand material), prompting aggradational channel avulsion that increased the channel braiding index by almost 50%. As a result of mainstem bed aggradation, floodplain channels received flow and accumulated new sediment even during low to moderate flow conditions. The river system showed a two- to tenfold greater geomorphic response to dam removal (in terms of bed elevation change magnitude) than it had to a 40-year flood event four years before dam removal. Two years after dam removal began, as the river had started to incise through deposits of the initial sediment wave, ~ 1.2 million t of new sediment (~ 10% of the amount released from the two reservoirs) was stored along 18 river km of the mainstem channel and 25 km of floodplain channels. The Elwha River thus was able to transport most of the released sediment to the river mouth. The geomorphic alterations and changing bed sediment grain size along

  16. 75 FR 81464 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Columbia River in the vicinity of The Dalles Lock and Dam while... Dalles Lock and Dam (a) Location. The following is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  17. 77 FR 58820 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The.... Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, Oklahoma......

  18. Dam Safety Program Flood Control Project Pine River Dam and Reservoir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Hay, Ox, Loon , and Pig. These lakes are generally connected by shallow, narrow channels, maintained to allow boat passage. a. Pine River Dam Pine...the inundation area during the PMF includes areas adjacent to Velvet Lake, Big Bird Lake, Greer Lake, Big Pine Lake, Bass Lake, and Google Lake. The

  19. Influence of Dams on Size-Specific Sediment Transport and Storage on the Elwha River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, J. M.; Lauer, J. W.; De Rego, K. G.; Hassan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Elwha River recently underwent the largest dam removal project in history with the deconstruction of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams. According to recent USGS and USBR estimates, the project released 21±3 million m3 of sediment, approximately 420,000 m3 of which was gravel and cobble. Much of the coarse sediment released from the reservoir deposits has been stored in the channel bed and floodplain. Our project focuses on the gravel and cobble sediment budget for the middle and lower Elwha Rivers for pre- and post-removal periods. Prior to removal, the reduction in sediment load caused by the dams likely led to coarsening and incision despite regular lateral channel change, with the floodplain representing an important source of bed material. Air photo analysis (1939-2015) and creation of a map of relative floodplain elevation (topographic surface minus elevation of nearby vegetation line) helped test the hypothesis that post-dam (but pre-removal) floodplain deposits were built to a lower elevation than pre-dam surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that pre-removal but post-dam banks are, on average, lower than older banks, suggesting that floodplain built during the period when dams were in place did not completely replace sediment eroded from nearby banks. Bank erosion thus almost certainly represented a net source of sediment for the channel, and differences in the size distributions of eroded and deposited material could have had important geomorphic implications. Facies mapping and surface and sub-surface sampling on recent bars and along cut banks allow us to compare the coarseness of pre- and post-dam bulk deposits. We note that the coarsest fraction in eroding banks may be correlated to riffle location. In addition, bulk sampling in recently exposed reservoir deposits allows us to estimate the gravel and cobble fractions of the pulse of sediment released to the downstream river after the final portion of Glines Canyon Dam was removed in August 2014.

  20. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  1. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  2. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xian; LI, Yu-Ru; CHU, Ling; ZHU, Ren; WANG, Li-Zhu; YAN, Yun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  3. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  4. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  5. Comparison of Natural Dams from Lava Flows and Landslides on the Owyhee River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, L. L.; Brossy, C. C.; Othus, S. M.; Orem, C.; Fenton, C.; House, P. K.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous large lava flows and mass movements have temporarily dammed the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon at various temporal and spatial scales. These channel-encroaching events potentially play a significant role in creating and maintaining the geomorphic features of river canyons in uplifted volcanic terranes that compose a significant part of the western U.S. Abundant landslides and lava flows have the capacity to inhibit incision by altering channel slope, width, and bed character, and burying valley- bottom bedrock under exogenous material; or promote incision by generating cataclysmic floods through natural dam failures. The natural dams vary in their source, morphology, longevity and process of removal, which in turn affects the extent and duration of their impact on the river. The 3 most recent lava flows filled the channel 10-75 m deep and flowed up to 26 kilometers downvalley, creating long, low dams that were subject to gradual, rather than catastrophic, removal. In the last 125 ka, the Saddle Butte and West Crater lava dams created reservoirs into which 10-30 meters of silt and sand were deposited. The river overtopped the dams and in most reaches eventually cut a new channel through the adjacent, less resistant bedrock buttresses. Terraces at several elevations downstream and upstream of the West Crater dam indicate periods of episodic incision ranging from 0.28 to 1.7 mm/yr., based on 3He exposure ages on strath surfaces and boulder-rich fluvial deposits. In contrast to the lava dams, outburst flood deposits associated with landslide dams are common along the river. The mechanisms of failure are related to the geologic setting, and include rotational slump complexes, cantilevered blocks and block slides, and massive earthflows. Most large-scale mass movements occur in reaches where the Owyhee canyon incises through stacks of interbedded fluviolacustrine sediments capped with lava flows. The frequently observed association of landslides and flood

  6. Risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated on Bistrita and Siret Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Popescu, Emilia; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Otilia Placinta, Anica

    2015-04-01

    The work will present an ongoing national Project that have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of a large earthquake occurrence, allowing further public training for evacuation. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies in 6 counties from Moldova region including Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be accomplished during the project. A number of 5 large dams (the most vulnerable) will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. The results will consist in local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable 5 dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The maps will provide the best available estimate of the general location and extent of dam failure inundation areas and will tell if a specific location lies within a dam failure inundation zone. Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site. In this paper we will obtain the ground motion parameters in the dams locations using probabilistic hazard assessment techniques, the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure, and will

  7. The Scientific and Institutional Context for the Removal of Marmot Dam, Sandy River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; Major, J. J.; O'Connor, J.; Wallick, J. R.; Marr, J.; Wilcock, P.; Podolack, C.

    2008-12-01

    Dam removal has been widely viewed as an important river restoration strategy and an interesting scientific opportunity, the latter because it represents a real-time, full-scale field experiment on fluvial adjustment. Removals therefore offer an excellent setting for testing analytical models of sediment transport, morphologic change, and our capacity to predict short- and medium-term channel evolution in response to changing water and sediment transport regimes. Most dam removals to date have involved relatively small structures and modest releases of sediment stored in pre-removal reservoirs. The largest instantaneous and uncontrolled release of sediment accompanying a dam removal occurred with the breaching of the Marmot coffer dam on the Sandy River in Oregon in October 2007. Marmot Dam was a 14-m-high by 50-m-wide diversion dam built in 1913 as part of a larger hydroelectric project. It was located on the Sandy River, an energetic gravel to cobble-bed river that naturally carries copious quantities of sand and gravel, ~45 km upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River near Portland, Oregon. At the time of removal, the reservoir upstream of the dam was completely filled with ~750,000 m3 of sand (40%) and gravel (60%). The river below the dam includes bedrock gorges, mixed bedrock/alluvial reaches, and alluvial reaches with well-developed gravel and sand bars. The decision to remove the dam was motivated by a combination of increasing maintenance costs and an unfavorable future economic return due to the necessity of installing expensive fish passage facilities to meet relicensing requirements. Portland General Electric, the dam's owner, surrendered the dam's license in 1999, and removal commenced in summer 2007. To remove the concrete structure, a temporary coffer dam was constructed 70 m upstream. In October 2007 the coffer dam was breached and the river allowed to erode the remaining impounded sediment (~730,000 m3). Physical modeling conducted at

  8. Reconstructing Sediment Supply and Transport Behind the Elwha River Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, C.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Bandaragoda, C.; Curran, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Elwha River watershed in Washington State's Olympic National Park is predominantly a steep mountainous landscape where dominant geomorphic processes includes landslides, debris flows, and gullying. The removal of the two massive hydropower dams along the Elwha River in 2013 marked the largest dam removal in history. Over the century-long lifespan of the dams, approximately 21 million cubic meters of sediment was impounded behind them. In this study, we test different approaches to reconstructing sediment supply and delivery to the Elwha dams throughout their lifespan. Available observational data that aid in this approach include DEM, channel morphology, meteorology, and streamflow and sediment (bedload and suspended load) discharge. First, we apply the existing sediment rating curve for a gage upstream of the dams along with a flow duration approach to estimate the historical sediment load to the dams. Then, we calibrate a generalized sediment transport capacity equation based on physical characteristics of the watershed and observational data, and apply the equation to estimate historical sediment delivery. In addition, we compute historical sediment loading using equations such as those of Meyer-Peter and Muller, Einstein-Brown, and Engelund-Hansen. For each method, we vary parameters (e.g., median grain size, channel shape constants, model calibration parameters) to understand the sensitivity of model results to parameter uncertainties. We compare model results to the observed sediment accumulation behind the dams along with watershed erosion and uplift rates found in literature. Results generally infer that the system is running in transport-limited mode. The range of results proceeding from model and parameter variation provide insights to the characterization of complex sediment supply and transport processes in the steep uplands of the basin.

  9. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... by the Mississippi River Power Co., including the memorandum of March 24, 1908, approved by...

  10. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... by the Mississippi River Power Co., including the memorandum of March 24, 1908, approved by...

  11. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... by the Mississippi River Power Co., including the memorandum of March 24, 1908, approved by...

  12. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... by the Mississippi River Power Co., including the memorandum of March 24, 1908, approved by...

  13. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... by the Mississippi River Power Co., including the memorandum of March 24, 1908, approved by...

  14. Sediment characteristics and configuration within three dam impoundments on the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Rachol, C.M.; Hubbell, D.L.; Simard, Andreanne

    2002-01-01

    The removal of the remnants of three hydroelectric dams on the Kalamazoo River near Plainwell, Otsego, and Allegan, Michigan, has been proposed. The benefits of this removal include returning the Kalamazoo River to its pre-dam flow, increasing recreational use and safety on the river, and improving aquatic habitat. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has designated this reach of the Kalamazoo River as a Federal Superfund site because of the historical discharge of papermill waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls. Much of this waste material remains concentrated in organic sediment and kaolinite clay deposited upstream from the three dam foundations. Sediment containing up to 150 milligrams per kilogram polychlorinated biphenyls could move if dam foundations are removed; therefore, it is necessary to estimate the characteristic and configuration of the sediment before work begins. Data collected from augered sections and sediment cores show that impoundment sediments were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments. Interbedded lacustrine sediments that overlie the pre-dam channel surface consist of organic-rich silt and clay, fine to medium sand, and some gravel. These materials were deposited in a repetitive, cyclic fashion related to former stream velocities when the impoundment water levels were 5-10 feet higher. Lowering of these water levels and demolition of the superstructures of these dams resulted in erosion of much of these instream lacustrine sediments and subsequent deposition of coarse-grained alluvium in the impounded channel behind the remaining dam foundations. The composite thicknesses of the lacustrine deposits and overlying alluvium was determined from sediment cores collected from each impoundment. The volume of instream sediment contained in each impoundment is estimated to be about 77,600 cubic yards at the Plainwell impoundment; 268,900 cubic yards at the Otsego impoundment; and 1,192,600 cubic yards at the

  15. Sediment characteristics and configuration within three dam impoundments on the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Rachol, C.M.; Hubbell, D.L.; Simard, Andreanne

    2002-01-01

    The removal of the remnants of three hydroelectric dams on the Kalamazoo River near Plainwell, Otsego, and Allegan, Michigan, has been proposed. The benefits of this removal include returning the Kalamazoo River to its pre-dam flow, increasing recreational use and safety on the river, and improving aquatic habitat. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has designated this reach of the Kalamazoo River as a Federal Superfund site because of the historical discharge of papermill waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls. Much of this waste material remains concentrated in organic sediment and kaolinite clay deposited upstream from the three dam foundations. Sediment containing up to 150 milligrams per kilogram polychlorinated biphenyls could move if dam foundations are removed; therefore, it is necessary to estimate the characteristic and configuration of the sediment before work begins. Data collected from augered sections and sediment cores show that impoundment sediments were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments. Interbedded lacustrine sediments that overlie the pre-dam channel surface consist of organic-rich silt and clay, fine to medium sand, and some gravel. These materials were deposited in a repetitive, cyclic fashion related to former stream velocities when the impoundment water levels were 5-10 feet higher. Lowering of these water levels and demolition of the superstructures of these dams resulted in erosion of much of these instream lacustrine sediments and subsequent deposition of coarse-grained alluvium in the impounded channel behind the remaining dam foundations. The composite thicknesses of the lacustrine deposits and overlying alluvium was determined from sediment cores collected from each impoundment. The volume of instream sediment contained in each impoundment is estimated to be about 77,600 cubic yards at the Plainwell impoundment; 268,900 cubic yards at the Otsego impoundment; and 1,192,600 cubic yards at the

  16. Global perturbation of organic carbon cycling by river damming

    PubMed Central

    Maavara, Taylor; Lauerwald, Ronny; Regnier, Pierre; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The damming of rivers represents one of the most far-reaching human modifications of the flows of water and associated matter from land to sea. Dam reservoirs are hotspots of sediment accumulation, primary productivity (P) and carbon mineralization (R) along the river continuum. Here we show that for the period 1970–2030, global carbon mineralization in reservoirs exceeds carbon fixation (Pdams. We further estimate that at the start of the twenty-first century, in-reservoir burial plus mineralization eliminated 4.0±0.9 Tmol per year (48±11 Tg C per year) or 13% of total organic carbon (OC) carried by rivers to the oceans. Because of the ongoing boom in dam building, in particular in emerging economies, this value could rise to 6.9±1.5 Tmol per year (83±18 Tg C per year) or 19% by 2030. PMID:28513580

  17. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Aswan High Dam, 2.5 miles across and 364 feet high, (24.0N, 33.0E) completed in 1971, was constructed to supply cheap hydroelectric power to both Egypt and Sudan by impounding, controling and regulating the flood waters of the Nile River in Lake Nasser, the world's second largest artifical lake. The lake extends over 500 miles in length, covers an area of some 2,000 square miles and is as much as 350 feet deep at the face of the dam.

  18. Dam impacts on and restoration of an alluvial river-Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Gigi Richard; Pierre Julien

    2003-01-01

    The impact of construction of dams and reservoirs on alluvial rivers extends both upstream and downstream of the dam. Downstream of dams, both the water and sediment supplies can be altered leading to adjustments in the river channel geometry and ensuing changes in riparian and aquatic habitats. The wealth of pre and post-regulation data on the Middle Rio Grande, New...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T09-0405 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River. 165.T09-0405 Section 165.T09-0405 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T09-0405 Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River. (a... of the Marseilles Dam to Mile Marker 247.2. (b) Effective and enforcement period. This safety...

  20. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  1. Evaporation Ponds or Recharge Structures ? the Role of Check Dams in Arkavathy River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeremiah, K.; Srinivasan, V.; R, A.

    2014-12-01

    "Watershed development" has been the dominant paradigm for water management in India for the last two decades. Current spending on watershed development programmes rivals spending on large dams. In practice, watershed development involves a range of soil and water conservation measures including building check dams, gully plugs, contour bunds etc. Despite their dominance in water management paradigms, relatively little empirical data exists on these structures. Importantly, even though the benefits of individual watershed structures are recognized, the cumulative impact of building hundreds of such structures on hydrologic partitioning of a watershed remains unknown. We investigated the role of check dams in two small milli-watersheds in the Arkavathy River basin in South India. We conducted a comprehensive census of all check dams in the two milli-watersheds with a total area of 26 sq km. 40 check dams (representing a density of 1.35/sq km of watershed area) were geotagged, photographed, measured and their condition was recorded. We then selected twelve check dams and monitored the water stored using capacitance sensors. We also set up Automatic Weather Stations in each watershed. Inflows, evaporation and infiltration were calculated at each site to evaluate how check dams alter hydrologic partitioning in the watershed as a whole.

  2. Utilities plan fish lifts for Susquehanna River Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Pennsylvania Power Light Co., Baltimore Gas Electric Co., and Metropolitan Edison Co. will install fish lifts at three dams on the Susquehanna River to aid the spawning of American shad. The utilities estimate the lifts will cost a total of $15 million. PP L will install two lifts at its 108-MW Holtwood Dam, according to the utility's Bob Domermuth, a project scientist. One will be located at the spillway and the second in the tailrace. The two lifts will cost approximately $8 million. At the 417-MW Safe Harbor Dam, which PP L and BG E jointly own, one lift costing $5 million to $6 million will be built on the west side of the powerhouse. Met Ed will install a lift at its 20-MW York Haven Dam, the farthest upstream, at a cost of $3 million. Lifts at Holtwood and Safe Harbor will be completed in time for the spring 1997 shad run; York Haven's passage is to be completed no later than the spring of the year 2000. In 1991, Philadelphia Electric Co. completed a lift at its 512-MW Conowingo Dam, the first dam shad encounter as they swim upstream from the ocean. The utilities agreed with state and federal fish and wildlife agencies to build the lifts, after a decade of studying shad population and rebuilding stocks. Although the agreement is only in draft form, the utilities have begun studying fish movement to determine the best lift designs. While American shad is the species targeted by the effort, the lifts will open the river to all species, Comermuth said. The utilities also are preparing a bid package soliciting design and construction proposals.

  3. Dynamics of Bottomland Geomorphology and Vegetation Along a Dammed, Arid Region River: Implications for Streamflow Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafroth, P. B.; House, P. K.

    2007-05-01

    of dense floodplain vegetation, consisting primarily of native cottonwood and willow and non-native tamarisk shrubs. Moderate flood releases (~7000 ft3/s) from Alamo Dam in the early 1990's widened the river channel and resulted in the establishment of new woody vegetation. For the following nine years, relatively steady, low discharges were released from the dam, resulting in channel narrowing, extensive beaver pond creation, and dense vegetation growth. Moderate flood releases in 2005 again widened channels, destroyed beaver ponds, and created conditions suitable for new vegetation establishment. In addition to understanding the specific conditions along the Bill Williams River, our work should contribute to a more general understanding of connections between fluvial processes and floodplain vegetation, in the contexts of geomorphic response downstream of a large dam and efforts to manage streamflow for ecological benefits downstream.

  4. Channel Maintenance and Flushing Flows for the Klamath River Below Iron Gate Dam, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmquist-Johnson, Cristopher L.; Milhous, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The Klamath River is a major river in northern California and southern Oregon. Iron Gate Dam divides the river into the two subunits where there is a significant change in utilization of the river. Downstream of Iron Gate Dam, the river is very important for the propagation of salmon. To address concerns relating to substrate conditions in the mainstem Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam, the Arcata, California, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine flushing flows required to improve and maintain quality spawning and rearing habitats for salmon, and to reduce the abundance of preferred habitats of the polychaete worm suspected of being the intermediate host for Ceratomyxa shasta, a species of bacteria that infects fish. Historically, the river has had the capacity to move sediment just below Iron Gate Reservoir, but there have been periods when the capacity was very low. The results indicate that if the future is more like the pre-1961 period (low transport capacity) than the more recent period, there will be significant sediment issues in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam. It seems that during normal or wet years, winter months, and periods of high flow, sediments are flushed either downstream or deposited on higher surfaces. The recent drought conditions during 2000-2005 probably resulted in extensive fine-grained sedimentation along the river, which in turn may have caused increased establishment of aquatic vegetation and increased concentrations of C. shasta. It appears that releases from Iron Gate Dam as far downstream as Seiad Valley are important in maintaining flow conditions to flush the fines and clean the gravels in the river during summer months, or during drought years. Sediment transport studies indicate that supplemental flows during dry or drought conditions may provide some flushing flows in reaches downstream of the dam. For purposes of flushing fine sediments during drought

  5. Effects of Chiloquin Dam on spawning distribution and larval emigration of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Barbara A.; Hewitt, David A.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Chiloquin Dam was constructed in 1914 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatusChasmistes brevirostris) suckers, as well as other fish species. In 2002, the Bureau of Reclamation led a working group that examined several alternatives to improve fish passage at Chiloquin Dam. Ultimately it was decided that dam removal was the best alternative and the dam was removed in the summer of 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a long-term study on the spawning ecology of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi) in the Sprague and lower Williamson Rivers from 2004 to 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate shifts in spawning distribution following the removal of Chiloquin Dam. Radio telemetry was used in conjunction with larval production data and detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to evaluate whether dam removal resulted in increased utilization of spawning habitat farther upstream in the Sprague River. Increased densities of drifting larvae were observed at a site in the lower Williamson River after the dam was removed, but no substantial changes occurred upstream of the former dam site. Adult spawning migrations primarily were influenced by water temperature and did not change with the removal of the dam. Emigration of larvae consistently occurred about 3-4 weeks after adults migrated into a section of river. Detections of PIT-tagged fish showed increases in the numbers of all three suckers that migrated upstream of the dam site following removal, but the increases for Lost River and shortnose suckers were relatively small compared to the total number of fish that made a spawning migration in a given season. Increases for Klamath largescale suckers were more substantial. Post-dam removal monitoring

  6. "U.S. Reclamation Service Grand River Dam details of piers 'D' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "U.S. Reclamation Service Grand River Dam details of piers 'D' & 'F,' Oct. 25, 1914." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  7. Influence of dams on river-floodplain dynamics in the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kloehn, K.K.; Beechie, T.J.; Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Elwha dam removal project presents an ideal opportunity to study how historic reduction and subsequent restoration of sediment supply alter river-floodplain dynamics in a large, forested river floodplain. We used remote sensing and onsite data collection to establish a historical record of floodplain dynamics and a baseline of current conditions. Analysis was based on four river reaches, three from the Elwha River and the fourth from the East Fork of the Quinault River. We found that the percentage of floodplain surfaces between 25 and 75 years old decreased and the percentage of surfaces >75 years increased in reaches below the Elwha dams. We also found that particle size decreased as downstream distance from dams increased. This trend was evident in both mainstem and side channels. Previous studies have found that removal of the two Elwha dams will initially release fine sediment stored in the reservoirs, then in subsequent decades gravel bed load supply will increase and gradually return to natural levels, aggrading river beds up to 1 m in some areas. We predict the release of fine sediments will initially create bi-modal grain size distributions in reaches downstream of the dams, and eventual recovery of natural sediment supply will significantly increase lateral channel migration and erosion of floodplain surfaces, gradually shifting floodplain age distributions towards younger age classes.

  8. Jadwin Dam Condition Report. Dam, Outlet Works & Spillway Periodic Inspection Report Number 4. Lackawaxen River Basin, Dyberry Creek, Pennsylvania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    AD-A098 782 ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICTE PHILADELPHIA PA FIG 13/13 JADAI N DAM CONDITION REPORT. DA, OUTLET WORKS & SPILLWAY PERIO-ETC (U) UNCLASSIFIED...HUJREALI f ANDARD, 1961, L -GOVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUtiON UNLIMITED. LACKAWAXEN RIVER BASIN * DYBERRY CREEK, PENNSYLVANIA DClJADWIN DAM DTIC ELECTE...MAY 1 2 1981fl CONDITION REFORT E DAM , OUTLET WORKS a SPILLWAY - PERIODIC INSPECTION REPORT NO. 4 NOVEMBER 1980 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 0. PHILADELPHIA

  9. Massive accumulation of highly polluted sedimentary deposits by river damming.

    PubMed

    Palanques, Albert; Grimalt, Joan; Belzunces, Marc; Estrada, Ferran; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Uncontrolled dumping of anthropogenic waste in rivers regulated by dams has created contaminated deposits in reservoirs that have remained unidentified for decades. The Flix Reservoir is located in the Ebro River, the second largest river flowing into the NW Mediterranean, has been affected by residue dumping from a chlor-alkali electrochemical plant for decades. High-resolution seismic profiles, bathymetric data, surficial sediment samples and sediment cores were obtained in the Flix Reservoir to study the characteristics of the deposit accumulated by this dumping. These data were used to reconstruct the waste deposit history. Since the construction of the Flix Dam in 1948, more than 3.6×10(5) t of industrial waste has accumulated in the reservoir generating a delta-like deposit formed by three sediment lobes of fine-grained material highly contaminated by Hg, Cd, Zn and Cr (max: 640, 26, 420 and 750 mg kg(-1), respectively). This contamination was associated with the Hg that was used for the cathode in the electrochemical plant from 1949 and with the production of phosphorite derivatives from 1973. After the construction of two large dams only a few kilometres upstream during the 1960s, the solids discharged from the industrial complex became the main sediment source to the Flix Reservoir. The deposit has remained in the reservoir forming a delta that obstructs about 50% of the river water section. Its stability only depended on the flow retention by the Flix Dam. At present, this contaminated waste deposit is being removed from the water reservoir as it is a cause of concern for the environment and for human health downriver.

  10. Criteria for reducing predation by northern squawfish near juvenile salmonid bypass outfalls at Columbia River Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, Rip S.; Poe, Thomas P.; Sheer, Mindi B.; Peters, Rock

    1996-01-01

    Predation by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) has been documented to be significant on emigrating juvenile salmonids near juvenile bypass outfalls at hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Criteria for siting juvenile fish bypass outfalls to reduce predation were developed using locational data from radio-tagged northern squawfish in The Dalles Dam trailrace, Columbia River. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted in 164 northern squawfish in 1993 and 1994, and their movements and distribution were monitored. Position estimates of northern squawfish were compared with data from a physical hydraulic model of the dam to estimate water velocities where northern squawfish were located. Eighty-two percent of northern squawfish position estimates were in water velocities ≤110 cm/s in 1993 and ≤90 cm/s in 1994. Fish locations were usually associated with water depths ≤10 m (84% in 1993 and 82% in 1994); 90% were within 110 m of the shore or dam structure in 1993, and 86% were within 80 m in 1994. In a related study at John Day Dam, Columbia River, where the juvenile bypass outfall is located 40 m from shore, water depth is 10 m and water velocities typically exceed 75 cm/s, only 13 of 1443 (0.9%) contacts on radio-tagged northern squawfish were located within 200 m of the bypass outfall. We recommend that new or modified juvenile bypass outfalls on the Columbia River be located in water velocities of ≥100 cm/s, ≥75 m from the shore or dam structure, and in water ≥10 m deep.

  11. Assessment of dam removal from geochemical examination of Kuma River sediment, Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Young, Sansfica M; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if Arase dam gate removal and flushing elevated concentrations of any trace elements in Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay sediments or caused riverine environmental change. The Arase dam gate on the Kuma River was opened in April 2010. Surface and bottom sediments were compared using 10-cm-long cores (2011) and two grain size fractions. Surface sediment data from 2002, 2012, and 2013 from the Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay were also compared. The sediments were analyzed using XRF for 23 elements, and the grain size analysis was done. The short core surface and bottom sediments do not show major chemical changes, and therefore, may not represent post-and pre-dam sediments. Results based on 2011 samples show that the removal of the Arase dam gates in 2010 has been geoenvironmentally beneficial due to the decrease of environmentally related trace elements Pb and Zn in 2013. However, a slight increase in the levels of Cr, Cu, Zr, and Nb in 2013 indicates that periodic flushing in winter leads to elevation in these elements due to an increase in the fine fraction. Metal enrichment factors (EF) in 2002 are higher and these have decreased by 2013. Some elements exceed environmental guidelines, but this is due to natural background values, and there is no anthropogenic contamination. Thus, the environment of the river and bay has been significantly improved due to the dam opening. This result suggests that assessment and environmental monitoring studies are very important for dam management and future decision making.

  12. Bank erosion along the dam-regulated lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Schenk, E.R.; Richter, J.M.; Peet, Robert K.; Townsend, Phil A.

    2009-01-01

    Dam construction and its impact on downstream fluvial processes may substantially alter ambient bank stability and erosion. Three high dams (completed between 1953 and 1963) were built along the Piedmont portion of the Roanoke River, North Carolina; just downstream the lower part of the river flows across largely unconsolidated Coastal Plain deposits. To document bank erosion rates along the lower Roanoke River, >700 bank-erosion pins were installed along 66 bank transects. Additionally, discrete measurements of channel bathymetry, turbidity, and presence or absence of mass wasting were documented along the entire study reach (153 km). A bank-erosion- floodplain-deposition sediment budget was estimated for the lower river. Bank toe erosion related to consistently high low-flow stages may play a large role in increased mid- and upper-bank erosion. Present bank-erosion rates are relatively high and are greatest along the middle reaches (mean 63 mm/yr) and on lower parts of the bank on all reaches. Erosion rates were likely higher along upstream reaches than present erosion rates, such that erosion-rate maxima have since migrated downstream. Mass wasting and turbidity also peak along the middle reaches; floodplain sedimentation systematically increases downstream in the study reach. The lower Roanoke River isnet depositional (on floodplain) with a surplus of ??2,800,000 m3yr. Results suggest that unmeasured erosion, particularly mass wasting, may partly explain this surplus and should be part of sediment budgets downstream of dams. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Nevada, from the Pioneer Hotel to the Edgewater Hotel. Laughlin Aquamoto Sports Challenge and Expo.... PDT. Where: That portion of the Colorado River near Laughlin, Nevada, from Davis Dam to Harrah's Hotel...

  14. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiquí River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiquí River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (<15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects.While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiquí River Basin.Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiquí River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9 km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2 km).Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiquí River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  15. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Lake Konomoc Dam (CT 00152), Niantic River Basin, Waterford, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    STANOAROS 6 3 - A * 4 * 4 bi . . . . . . . ... . . . . . * . . . .. . . AD-A 143 447 NIANTIC RIVER BASIN WATERFORD, CONNECTICUT LAKE KONOMOC DAM CT...report. 19. KEY WORDS (Cntw nue r everse sde $ SI noe wp 0 m, d idu.ffly by bJck n ber) DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Niantic River Basin Waterford, Conn...Availability Codes CT 00152 Avail LInd/or Dist sp. cial - 5, [ NIANTIC RIVER WATERFORD, CONNECTICUT II L PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT - NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION

  16. Occupancy patterns of mammals and lentic amphibians in the Elwha River riparian zone before dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Chelgren, Nathan; Sager-Fradkin, K.A.; Happe, P.J.; Adams, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The downstream transport of sediments and organics and upstream migration of anadromous fishes are key ecological processes in unregulated riverine ecosystems of the North Pacific coast, but their influence on wildlife habitats and populations is poorly documented. Removal of two large hydroelectric dams in Washington’s Elwha Valley provides an unprecedented opportunity to study long-term responses of wildlife populations to dam removal and restoration of these key ecological processes. We compared pre-dam removal patterns in the relative abundance and occupancy of mesocarnivores, small mammals and lentic amphibians of the Elwha River riparian zone above, between and below the dams. Occupancy of riparian habitats by three mesocarnivore species diminished upriver but did not appear to be closely linked with the absence of salmon in the upper river. Although the importance of salmon in the lower river cannot be discounted, other gradients in food resources also likely contributed to observed distribution patterns of mesocarnivores. Abundance and occupancy patterns within congeneric pairs of new world mice (Peromyscus spp.) and shrews (Sorex spp.) indicated that closely related species were negatively associated with each other and responded to habitat gradients in the riparian zone. The availability of lentic habitats of amphibians was highly variable, and occupancy was low as a result of rapidly changing flows during the larval development period. We speculate that long-term changes in habitat conditions and salmon availability following dam removal will elicit long-term changes in distribution of mesocarnivores, small mammals and amphibians. Long-term monitoring will enhance understanding of the role of fish and restored ecosystem processes on wildlife communities along salmon-bearing rivers in the region.

  17. National Dam Safety Program. Colonie Dam (Inventory Number NY 204), Mohawk River Basin, Saratoga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-27

    MOHAWK RIVER BASIN COLONIE DAM f- ’iSARATOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK 1-t 1 INVENTORY NO. N.Y. 204 PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAM SAFETY PROGRAM...8217release; Distribution ur~limited. /.L ~ ~ ’ 15. SUPPLE N National Dam Safety Program. Colonie Dam (Inventory Number NY 204t)) Mohawk Q River Basin...Saratoga County) New York. Phase I Inspection Rpr J I. KEY WORDS (Cofnut YTVd7T~iw :d Identify by block riumber) Dam- Safety Colonie Dam Nainal Dam Safety

  18. Detrital Zircon Record of a Dammed River in Texas - Implications for Modern River Provenance Stories and Sediment Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafov, L. N.; Stockli, D. F.; Mohrig, D. C.; Olariu, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Colorado River in Texas is a meandering river that is bisected by a chain of highland lakes and dams that were completed by 1951. Intuitively, dams trap sediment, but how does that disruption of sediment flow affect overall sediment flux and river morphology downstream of the dams? Observations from aerial photographs were combined with detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb geochronology to quantify the anthropogenic effect of dams on sand generation. DZ U-Pb were collected from modern river channel sands, modern point bar sands, and modern delta sand sample. The U-Pb age data were evaluated in the context of bedrock U-Pb age data from the Llano Uplift Grenville basement above the dams and DZ U-Pb age data from the 30-40 km wide outcrop belt of Paleocene Wilcox Fm., dominated by Mesozoic Western US zircons, below the dams to evaluate possible entrenchment and sediment generation below the dams. While the modern river sediment collected upstream of the dams are dominated by Grenville DZ U-Pb ages, point bars below the dams show an abrupt increase of Wilcox derived zircons with only 1/3 of zircons derived from above the dams. This appears to be at least in part due to significant re-incision and erosion downstream of the dams out of the Paleocene Wilcox Formation. The lack of significant sand bars for 33 river kilometers below the dams and the progressive increase in sand bar size further downstream, combined with new DZ U-Pb data suggest that the modern river is incising into the Paleocene Wilcox below the dams and generating new sand. This is corroborated by the presence of 35 Ma DZ farther downstream, incorporated from Oligocene units. This progressive entrenchment of the river below the dams and incorporation of DZ from stratigraphic units encountered downstream illustrates the short-term response of the river geomorphology and sediment generation in light of anthropogenic perturbations of the river. These data also have interesting implications for sediment budget of

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of river periphyton below a hypereutrophic lake and a series of dams.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nadia D; Pan, Yangdong; Asarian, J Eli; Kann, Jacob

    2016-01-15

    Klamath River is described as an "upside-down" river due to its origins from the hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) and hydrology that is heavily regulated by upstream dams. Understanding the lake and reservoir effects on benthic communities in the river can inform important aspects of its water quality dynamics. Periphyton samples were collected in May-November from 2004, 2006-2013 at nine long-term monitoring sites along 306 river km below UKL and a series of dams (n=299). Cluster analysis of periphyton assemblages identified three statistically different periphyton groups (denoted Groups 1-3). Group 1 occurred primarily in the upstream reach for June-October and had a higher percentage of sestonic species, including the cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Microcystis aeruginosa, consistent with the presence of upstream reservoirs. Group 2 had the highest relative biomass of diatoms and lowest relative biomass of cyanobacteria. Sites in the lower reach of the Klamath River fell into Group 2 in May-June and transitioning into Group 3 for July-October. Group 3 was dominated by nitrogen (N)-fixing species, including three diatoms (Epithemia sorex, Epithemia turgida, and Rhopalodia gibba) with cyanobacterial endosymbionts and the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. Periphyton assemblages were strongly associated with temporal variations in flow conditions (e.g., decreasing flow from spring to fall) and spatial gradients in nutrient concentrations (e.g., decreasing from upstream to downstream). The inverse longitudinal relationship between periphyton biomass and nutrients may be explained by the ability of benthic N-fixers (Group 3) to overcome N limitation. Overall results showed a strong inverse relationship between the relative biomass of N-fixers and nitrogen concentrations and flow. This long-term dataset provides valuable insight into Klamath River's seasonal and longitudinal patterns of benthic algal communities and associated environmental variables. Our

  20. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  1. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and...

  2. 33 CFR 208.32 - Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.32 Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Sanford Dam...

  3. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and...

  4. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and...

  5. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and...

  6. 33 CFR 208.32 - Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.32 Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Sanford Dam...

  7. 33 CFR 208.32 - Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.32 Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Sanford Dam...

  8. 33 CFR 208.32 - Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.32 Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Sanford Dam...

  9. First-year dam removal activities in the Elwha River - dam removal, sediment dispersal, and fish relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, J. J.; McMillan, J. R.; Moses, R.; McHenry, M.; Pess, G. R.; Brenkman, S.; Peters, R.; Zimmerman, M.; Warrick, J. A.; Curran, C. A.; Magirl, C. S.; Beirne, M.; Rubin, S.

    2012-12-01

    After years of anticipation, volumes of Environmental Impact Statements, unprecedented mitigation projects, and the multifaceted collection of pre-dam removal data, the deconstruction phase of the Elwha River restoration project officially began on September 17th, 2011. With their simultaneous decommissioning, the removal of the 64 m tall Glines Canyon Dam and 33 m tall Elwha Dam represents one of the largest such projects of its kind in North America. The nearly 19 million m3 of sediment residing in the dammed reservoirs is being eroded by the river in one of the largest controlled releases of sediment into a river and marine waters in recorded history. The release of sediment and the halting of deconstruction and reservoir draw down activities during "fish windows" are largely determining a deconstruction schedule expected to last about 2 years. High suspended sediment concentrations, modeled to exceed 10,000 mg/L during the highest flows and to exceed 500 mg/L for 39% of the time in year 4 of the project (15% is the recorded background level entering the upper reservoir), could last for up to 3-5 years following dam removal depending on hydrological conditions. Anadromous fish, including three federally listed species (Puget Sound Chinook salmon, steelhead, and bull trout), reside in the river downstream of the Elwha dam for part of their life cycle. All five species of Pacific salmon and steelhead, either locally extirpated (sockeye) or persisting below the impassable Elwha Dam in degraded spawning and rearing habitat, are expected to recolonize the watershed to degrees that will vary spatially and temporally due to life history characteristics and levels of human intervention. During the first year of dam removal, adult coho salmon and steelhead were relocated from areas of high turbidity downstream of the Elwha Dam site to two tributaries upstream, where some of them successfully spawned. Additionally, steelhead were observed to naturally migrate past the

  10. Benthic invertebrates and periphyton in the Elwha river basin: Current conditions and predicted response to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, S.A.; Duda, J.J.; Coe, H.J.; Kloehn, K.K.; McHenry, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The impending removal of two dams on the Elwha River in Washington State offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem restoration at a watershed scale. We examine how periphyton and benthic invertebrate assemblages vary across regulated and unregulated sections of the Elwha River and across different habitat types, and establish baseline data for tracking future changes following dam removal. We collected multiple years of data on physical habitat, water chemistry, periphyton, and benthic invertebrates from 52 sites on the Elwha River and a reference section on the Quinault River, a neighboring basin. We found that substrate in regulated river sections was coarser and less heterogeneous in size than in unregulated sections, and summer water temperature and specific conductivity higher. Periphyton biomass was also consistently higher in regulated than unregulated sections. Benthic invertebrate assemblage structure at sites above both dams was distinct from sites between and below the dams, due in large part to dominance of mayfly taxa compared to higher relative abundance of midges and non-insect taxa at downstream sites. Following dam removal, we anticipate that both periphyton and benthic invertebrate abundance and diversity will temporarily decrease between and below dams as a result of sediment released from behind the reservoirs. Over the long-term, increased floodplain heterogeneity and recolonization by anadromous fish will alter benthic invertebrate and periphyton assemblages via increases in niche diversity and inputs of marine-derived nutrients. The extended timeline predicted for Elwha River recovery and the complexities of forecasting ecological response highlights the need for more long-term assessments of dam removal and river restoration practices.

  11. Effects of dams on river flow regime based on IHA/RVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Q.; Liang, S.

    2015-05-01

    The river hydrologic regime is a driving force of the river ecosystem. Operation of dams and sluices has significant impacts on rivers' hydrological situation. Taking the example of the Shaying River, the Jieshou hydrologic section was selected to study the influence of the sluice and all its upstream dams on the hydrologic regime. Using 55 years of measured daily flows at Jieshou hydrologic station, the hydrological date were divided into two series as pre- and post-impact periods. Based on the IHA, the range of variability in 33 flow parameters was calculated, and the hydrologic alteration associated with dams and sluices operation was quantified. Using the RVA method, hydrologic alteration at the stream gauge site was assessed to demonstrate the influence of dams on the hydrological condition. The results showed that dams have a strong influence on the regime; the river eco-hydrological targets calculated in this study can afford some support for water resources and ecosystem management of Shaying River.

  12. Summary and anticipated responses to Elwha River dam removal: Chapter 9 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    and after the removal of these dams, the Elwha River and its ecosystems will be altered by a renewal of sediment discharge downstream of the dams and a reintroduction of salmon spawning upstream of the dams. This chapter summarizes the pre-dam and current state of the river and its coastal ecosystems, and describes the likely outcomes of river restoration on the Elwha River ecosystems.

  13. Spotlight on Indus River Diplomacy: India, Pakistan, and the Baglihar Dam Dispute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    permanent partitioning of the Indus River system—India winning unfettered ownership of the waters of the three eastern rivers (Ravi, Beas, Sutlej ), and...SPOTLIGHT ON INDUS RIVER DIPLOMACY: INDIA, PAKISTAN, AND THE BAGLIHAR DAM DISPUTE Robert G. Wirsing and Christopher Jasparro Asia...DATES COVERED 00-05-2006 to 00-05-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spotlight on Indus River Diplomacy: India, Pakistan, and the Baglihar Dam Dispute 5a

  14. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Van Horn Park Upper Dam (MA 00574), Connecticut River Basin, Springfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    STATEMENT (a$ the. abstract sneered in ,1001ak 20. it diferent bea Stelw) lSUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Cover program reads: Phase I Inspection Report, National Dam...report. to. KEY WORDS (Continue. on reere,o~ vi o.m msaryad ideUnb 6F Ilock mush..) DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Connecticut River Basin Springfield...stated (4 lonel, Corps of Engineers D ,,hvis ion Engineer VAN HORN PARK UPPER DAM MA 00574 CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS PHASE 1

  15. Ecological parameters in the Elwha River estuary before and during dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Paradis, Rebecca; Ritchie, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    The Elwha and Glines Canyon dams were removed from the Elwha River in Washington State from 2011 to 2014. We collected data for a variety of metrics in the estuary and on the river delta before (2006-2011) and during (2012-2014) dam removal to assess how increased sediment transport and deposition affected habitats, vegetation, invertebrates, and fish.

  16. 75 FR 61417 - South River Watershed Dam No. 10A, Augusta County, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service South River Watershed Dam No. 10A, Augusta County, VA AGENCY... not being prepared for the rehabilitation of South River Watershed Dam No. 10A, Augusta...

  17. 77 FR 56189 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Elwha River Dam Removal and Floodplain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... River Dam Removal and Floodplain Restoration Ecosystem Service Valuation Pilot Project AGENCY: National... Elwha River Dam Removal and Floodplain Restoration Ecosystem Service Valuation Survey it has developed... U.S. history. This project, along with restoration actions planned for the floodplain and...

  18. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  19. Flood effects provide evidence of an alternate stable state from dam management on the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Schenk, Edward R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2017-01-01

    We examine how historic flooding in 2011 affected the geomorphic adjustments created by dam regulation along the approximately 120 km free flowing reach of the Upper Missouri River bounded upstream by the Garrison Dam (1953) and downstream by Lake Oahe Reservoir (1959) near the City of Bismarck, ND, USA. The largest flood since dam regulation occurred in 2011. Flood releases from the Garrison Dam began in May 2011 and lasted until October, peaking with a flow of more than 4200 m3 s−1. Channel cross-section data and aerial imagery before and after the flood were compared with historic rates of channel change to assess the relative impact of the flood on the river morphology. Results indicate that the 2011 flood maintained trends in island area with the loss of islands in the reach just below the dam and an increase in island area downstream. Channel capacity changes varied along the Garrison Segment as a result of the flood. The thalweg, which has been stable since the mid-1970s, did not migrate. And channel morphology, as defined by a newly developed shoaling metric, which quantifies the degree of channel braiding, indicates significant longitudinal variability in response to the flood. These results show that the 2011 flood exacerbates some geomorphic trends caused by the dam while reversing others. We conclude that the presence of dams has created an alternate geomorphic and related ecological stable state, which does not revert towards pre-dam conditions in response to the flood of record. This suggests that management of sediment transport dynamics as well as flow modification is necessary to restore the Garrison Segment of the Upper Missouri River towards pre-dam conditions and help create or maintain habitat for endangered species. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Flood effects provide evidence of an alternate stable state caused by dam management on the Upper Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Hupp, C. R.; Schenk, E.; Galloway, J.; Nustad, R.

    2016-12-01

    We examine how historic flooding in May 2011 affected the geomorphic adjustments (incision, island loss, delta formation etc.) created by dam regulation along the approximately 120 km free flowing reach of the Upper Missouri River bounded upstream by the Garrison Dam (1953) and downstream by Lake Oahe Reservoir (1959) near the City of Bismarck, ND. The largest flood since dam regulation occurred in May 2011. Flood releases from the Garrison Dam began in May 2011 and lasted until October, peaking with a flow of more than 4200 m3/s. Channel cross-section data and aerial imagery before and after the flood were compared to historic rates of channel change to assess the relative impact of the flood on the river morphology. Results indicate that the flood caused continued loss of islands in the reach just below the dam and an increase in island area downstream. Changes in channel capacity changes varied along the Garrison Segment as a result of the flood. The thalweg, which has been stable since the mid-1970s, did not migrate. And channel morphology, as defined by a newly developed shoaling metric which quantifies the degree of channel braiding, indicates significant longitudinal variability in response to the flood. These results show that the 2011 flood exacerbates some geomorphic trends caused by the dam while reversing others. We conclude that dam management created an alternate geomorphic and related ecological stable state which does not revert towards pre-dam conditions in response to the flood of record. This suggests that more active management, which includes sediment transport as well as flow modification, is necessary to restore the river towards pre-dam conditions and help create or maintain habitat for endangered species.

  1. Algal community used for assessment of water quality of Haranbaree dam and Mosam river of Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Nandan, S N; Aher, N H

    2005-04-01

    An algal community was used to assess the quality of water of Haranbaree dam and Mosam river of Maharashtra. Pollution tolerant genera and species of 4 groups of algae from each of 3 stations of Haranbaree dam and Mosam river were recorded. By using Palmer's index of pollution for rating of water samples the total score of each station of study area was greater than 20 indicating the confirmed high organic pollution. 34 pollution tolerant genera were recorded at all stations of dam and river. Out of 34 pollution tolerant genera, 27 genera and 33 genera were observed at the dam and river sites respectively. In present study 22 pollution tolerant species are observed at dam and river sites.

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Panama Dam (Inventory Number NY 784) Allegheny River Basin Chautauqua County. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-22

    formed by the dissection of the uplifted but flat lying saidstones, siltstones, and shales of the Late Upper Devonian Period (345 to 365 million years ago...TYPE OF REPORT &- PERIOD COVERED Se nspection Report Phase I Inspection Report Panama Dam lational Dam Safety Program Allegany River Basin...discharge the outflow from at least the 1/2 JI’. In the inLer.im, a detailed emergency action plan must be developed and implemented during periods of

  3. The Importance of Paleohydrologic Analysis to Guide River Restoration After Dam Removal, Ottawa River, NW Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. E.; Harris, N.; Webb, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Secor Dam was a low-head weir on an urbanized river that was constructed in 1928 and removed in 2007 for a variety of reasons: (1) it was obsolete and a potential liability to the owner, (2) removal would enhance aquatic ecosystems and fisheries, and (3) removal would improve downstream water quality and help restore downstream sediment budgets. In sum, it was a “river restoration” effort in an urbanized river corridor, with extensive public involvement. Detailed pre- and post-dam removal studies included field sedimentological methods such as trenching and sediment coring. Historical documents assisted in locating the pre-1928 channel and documented that urbanization of this region post-1928 resulted in channel armoring. Detailed channel surveys showed that the result of the dam removal was initial incision and channel widening in the former reservoir, as expected. However, nickzone migration upstream stalled on an exhumed woody peat layer. Studies subsequently showed that this was a hydromorphic paleosol that developed during pre-land clearance times that was buried beneath 2.5-m of anthropogenic or legacy sediments, much of that deposited since about 1950. Today, the river flows through an incised channel between fill-terraces comprised of legacy sediments. Additional coring and survey work documented that the channel lateral migration rates averaged 0.32 m/yr over the past approximately 80 years, and that the meander wavelength appears to be changing in response to dam removal. Public hearings about “river restoration” made it clear that the public has a vision of a restored river that in fact never existed. Significant channel bank erosion and lateral channel migration should be expected until such time as the river system reworks and removes accumulated legacy sediments currently in intrabasinal storage. This finding has important implications in an urbanized setting, where bank erosion is perceived to be a threat to infrastructure and property

  4. Transport, dam passage, and size selection of adult Atlantic Salmon in the Penobscot River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigourney, Douglas B.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hughes, Edward; Cox, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2012, returning adult Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had to pass through fishways at three dams in the lower section of the Penobscot River, Maine: Veazie Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 48; removed in 2013), Great Works Dam (rkm 60; removed in 2012), and Milford Dam (rkm 62). To facilitate better passage through the lower river, a fish transport program was implemented in 2010 and 2011. Fish were captured at Veazie Dam and were either transported by truck above Milford Dam (TRKD group) or released into the head pond above Veazie Dam (run-of-the-river [ROR] group). To assess the efficacy of transport, we used PIT telemetry to compare the performance and passage of TRKD and ROR fish based on their (1) success in reaching one of the three dams upstream of Milford Dam, (2) time taken to reach an upstream dam (transit time), and (3) success in passing that upstream dam. In both years, the percentage of fish detected at upstream dams was higher for the TRKD group (82.4% in 2010; 78.6% in 2011) than for the ROR group (41.3% in 2010; 22.4% in 2011). In addition, median transit time was faster for TRKD fish (7 d in 2010; 5 d in 2011) than for ROR fish (23 d in 2010; 25 d in 2011). However, passage success through the upstream dams did not differ between the two release groups. Our analysis also revealed a strong, negative size-selective force on dam passage: larger fish were consistently less likely to successfully pass dams than smaller fish. Finally, environmental conditions also influenced passage success. Our analysis shows that the transport of adult Atlantic Salmon can be an effective means by which to increase migration success in systems where upstream passage is poor.

  5. National Dam Safety Program. Pompton Dam (NJ00782), Passaic River Basin, Ramapo River, Passaic County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Inspection: January 9, 1981 Assessment of General Conditions Pompton Dam is a concrete gravity dam with earthen dikes on each side along the river banks and a...Taleri:o, P.E. HARRIS-ECI ASSOCIATES /! Photo taken January 9, 1981 POMPTON DAM View of dam looking towards the left wingwall. PREFACE This report...U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This inspection was made in accordance with this authority under Contract C- FPM No. 35 with the State of New Jersey who

  6. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.330 Mississippi River between...

  7. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.330 Mississippi River between...

  8. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.330 Mississippi River between...

  9. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.330 Mississippi River between...

  10. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.330 Mississippi River between...

  11. 75 FR 4363 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License..., 2009. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Hydroelectric Project... Contact: D. Casey Davis, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, 226 West Dwain Willis Avenue,......

  12. 76 FR 4649 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: In Mayes..., and Mr. Charles Atkins, Superintendent of Hydro Operations, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box...

  13. 76 FR 7831 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Project. f. Location: The project is..., Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC...

  14. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona) within the... § 100.1102 Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and.... Regulated Area That portion of the lower Colorado River on the Arizona side between Thompson Bay and...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona) within the... § 165.1124 Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and... 8 p.m.-10 p.m. The safety zone includes all navigable waters of the lower Colorado River at...

  16. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona) within the... § 100.1102 Annual marine events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and.... Regulated Area That portion of the lower Colorado River on the Arizona side between Thompson Bay and...

  17. 75 FR 7469 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application...: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Pond Project. f. Location: The project would be located at the existing Crocker Pond Dam, on the Whitman River, in Worcester County, Massachusetts....

  18. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC... affected by issuance of a license for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No... Hydroelectric LLC, as applicant for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Project No. 12757, is invited...

  19. Downstream passage and impact of turbine shutdowns on survival of silver American Eels at five hydroelectric dams on the Shenandoah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, Sheila; Welsh, Stuart; Smith, David; Rockey, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams impact the downstream migrations of silver American Eels Anguilla rostrata via migratory delays and turbine mortality. A radiotelemetry study of American Eels was conducted to determine the impacts of five run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams located over a 195-km stretch of the Shenandoah River, Virginia–West Virginia, during fall 2007–summer 2010. Overall, 96 radio-tagged individuals (mean TL = 85.4 cm) migrated downstream past at least one dam during the study. Most American Eels passed dams relatively quickly; over half (57.9%) of the dam passage events occurred within 1 h of reaching a dam, and most (81.3%) occurred within 24 h of reaching the dam. Two-thirds of the dam passage events occurred via spill, and the remaining passage events were through turbines. Migratory delays at dams were shorter and American Eels were more likely to pass via spill over the dam during periods of high river discharge than during low river discharge. The extent of delay in migration did not differ between the passage routes (spill versus turbine). Twenty-eight American Eels suffered turbine-related mortality, which occurred at all five dams. Mortality rates for eels passing through turbines ranged from 15.8% to 40.7% at individual dams. Overall project-specific mortality rates (with all passage routes combined) ranged from 3.0% to 14.3%. To protect downstream-migrating American Eels, nighttime turbine shutdowns (1800–0600 hours) were implemented during September 15–December 15. Fifty percent of all downstream passage events in the study occurred during the turbine shutdown period. Implementation of the seasonal turbine shutdown period reduced cumulative mortality from 63.3% to 37.3% for American Eels passing all five dams. Modifying the turbine shutdown period to encompass more dates in the spring and linking the shutdowns to environmental conditions could provide greater protection to downstream-migrating American Eels.

  20. Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Matthews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the out-migration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988-1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988-1990). We sampled 860-2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney-spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1-11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any 1 year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86-100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4-17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68-87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  1. Historical patterns of river stage and fish communities as criteria for operations of dams on the Illinois River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koel, T.M.; Sparks, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic regime of the Illinois River has been altered over the past 100 years. Locks and dams regulate water surface elevations and flow, enabling commercial navigation to continue year round. This study relates changes in water surface elevation to fish abundance in the river, and establishes target criteria for operating locks and dams. Using longterm records of daily river stage, we identified ecologically meaningful hydrological parameters for eight gage locations along the Illinois River. Inter-annual variability of a long-term fisheries dataset beginning in 1957 was related to variability in stage, flood and recession duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change of water levels. Reversals in water surface elevation, maximum stage levels, and lenght of the spring flood were the most important parameters influencing abundance of age-zero fishes in annual collections. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunneins), and white bass (Morone chrysops) were most abundant in samples during years that approximated the natural water level regime. Of the 33 hydrologic parameters evaluated for the entire water year from an Illinois River gage site on La Grange Reach, all except average stage in January and Julian date (JD) of maximum stage had moderate or high hydrologic alteration based on the historical range of variation (RVA). The highest degree of hydrologic alteration was for minimum stage levels (1-day, 3-day, and 7-day), rate-of-rise, and rate-of-fall. Other parameters that have been severely altered were 30-day minimum stage, 90-day maximum stage, and the annual number of water level reversals. Operations of the La Grange and Peoria locks and dams could be modified so water level variability would approximate that of the late 1800s, when fish and wildlife resources were abundant. The water regime could be regulated to maintain navigation and improve conditions for native plants and

  2. Baseline studies in the Elwha River ecosystem prior to dam removal: Introduction to the special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freilich, Jerry; Schreiner, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams that have been in place for over 95 years on the Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study dam removal effects. Among the largest dams ever considered for removal, this project is compelling because 83% of the watershed lies undisturbed in Olympic National Park. Eighteen million cubic meters of sediment have accumulated in and will be released from the reservoirs, and there is potential for rehabilitating depressed Pacific salmon runs. Researchers from academia, non-profit organizations, federal and state governments, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe are currently assessing baseline ecological conditions of the Elwha River as part of dam removal studies. We introduce dam removal topics, provide a brief history of the dams, and summarize the ecology of the Elwha River basin as an introduction to a special issue devoted to research in the watershed.

  3. Estimates of Sediment Load Prior to Dam Removal in the Elwha River, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Higgins, Johnna L.; Bryant, Mark K.

    2009-01-01

    stations shows the extent of sediment trapping by Lake Mills, and a trap efficiency of 0.86 was determined for the reservoir. Pre-dam-removal estimates of suspended-sediment load and sediment-discharge relations will help planners monitor geomorphic and habitat changes in the river as it reaches a dynamic equilibrium following the removal of dams.

  4. Update of Columbia River flow and temperature data measured at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Newbill, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Columbia River temperatures and flow rates are collected daily at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. These data are necessary for assessing trends or changes in river conditions downstream of Priest Rapids Dam. In order to analyze this data, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a computerized data base using existing US Geological Survey flow and temperature records at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. Daily-averaged temperature and daily flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. A newly developed computer model, COLSTAT (Columbia River Statistical Update), used the data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. Information regarding the data base is presented, as well as, a description of the COLSTAT model.

  5. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rechisky, Erin L.; Welch, David W.; Porter, Aswea D.; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C.; Winchell, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River’s largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  6. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is < 0.2 m s-1 in a lentic reach. We estimated temporal change in the lotic:lentic stream length ratio by relating beaver pond length (determined by the upstream lentic-lotic boundary position) to dam size, and coupling that to the dam-size frequency distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to < 3:1 after 7 years of flows favourable for beaver. We investigated the dam failure-flood intensity relationship in three independent trials (experimental floods) featuring peak discharge ranging from 37 to 65 m3 s-1. Major damage (breach ??? 3-m wide) occurred at ??? 20% of monitored dams (n = 7-86) and a similar or higher proportion was moderately damaged. We detected neither a relationship between dam size and damage level nor a flood discharge threshold for initiating major damage. Dam constituent materials appeared to control the probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A giant dune-dammed lake on the North Platte River, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Swinehart, J.B. . Conservation and Survey Div.); Loope, D.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The recent work in the Nebraska Sand Hills, just north of the North Platte Valley, has revealed the presence of numerous dune dams--sites where eolian sand has filled Pleistocene paleovalleys and caused the formation of lake basins containing abundant small, interdunal lakes. Although the Platte River is considered the southern margin of the Sand Hills, there is a 1,200 sq km triangular area of large dunes in Lincoln County just south of the South Platte. The authors hypothesize that large dunes migrated southward to fill the North Platte Valley during glacial maximum when both the North and South Platte were dry. As Rocky Mountain snowmelt and Great Plains precipitation increased during deglaciation, a single 65 km-long, 15 km-wide, 50 m-deep lake formed behind the massive dune dam. The tentative chronology suggests that the lake was in existence for at least several thousand years. They have not yet found compelling evidence of catastrophic flooding downstream of the former lake. Evidence of two large Quaternary lakes on the White Nile between Khartoum and Malakal (Sudan) was discovered in the 1960's. Shoreline deposits indicate the lakes were 400--600 km long and up to 50 km wide. Although the lakes have been attributed to repeated blockage of the White Nile by clay-rich Blue Nile deposits, the distribution and age of dune sand near the confluence of these rivers suggest that, as in the Nebraska example, the course of the White Nile was blocked by dunes when the region was desiccated in the Late Pleistocene. Lakes behind permeable dams rise to a level where input equals output. Earthen dams are vulnerable to overtopping and piping. The relatively high permeability of dune sand prevents or delays overtopping, and piping is prevented by the extremely high low hydraulic gradients that typify extant sand dams.

  8. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  9. Changes in a large regulated tropical river: The Paraná River downstream from the Porto Primavera Dam, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevaux, José C.; Martins, Débora P.; Meurer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Dams disturb in the fluvial dynamics by changing the natural cycle of the rivers, interfering with the transport-deposition processes and affecting river ecology. The Brazilian part of the Paraná Basin has the largest hydrometrical power potential of the country with more than 150 hydroelectric power dams that transformed the Paraná River and its tributaries in a succession of lakes. This research aims to analyze the changes in certain fluvial variables in the last natural downstream reach of the Upper Paraná River after closure of the Porto Primavera Dam. Data acquired before and after dam construction showed changes in water discharge, bank erosion, flood pulse, bed load grain size discharge, concentration of suspended load and bedform morphology and size. Those alterations generated changes in river ecology especially on fish reproduction, benthic community, and rotifers variety and density. A review of the obscure regional literature, generally in Portuguese, is also presented.

  10. Delta Morphodynamics from River Sediment Input: Dam Removal, Elwha River, Washington, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, J. A.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Miller, I. M.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Ritchie, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment supply plays an important role in river delta morphodynamics and sustainability, and it is important to evaluate how deltas respond to the restoration or enhancement of sediment supplies. Here we report on the morphodynamic responses of the Elwha River delta to large increases in river sediment loads from the removal of two large dams beginning in 2011. The dam removal project exposed ~30 million tonnes of sediment stored within the former reservoirs to natural erosion by the river, and roughly half of this reservoir sediment was eroded during the first four years of the project. Coastal surveys with GPS-based mapping systems, sonar, and aerial photography have revealed that the Elwha River mouth has expanded seaward by ~500 m with the introduction of new supplies of sediment. Approximately 3.5 million cubic meters (or ~5 million tonnes) of sediment were deposited at the river mouth delta between 2011 and 2015. This newly deposited sediment has been shaped by waves and currents into a series of dynamic bars that have greatly expanded the estuarine habitats of the delta.

  11. Geomorphic responses to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.; Cook, K. L.; Kuo, W.

    2011-12-01

    Dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years, but studies documenting the physical and ecological response to dam removal are still lacking - particularly in mountain rivers and following major floods. This presentation documents the recent removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan river, a tributary of the Tachia River draining a 1236 km2 watershed, is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. The habitat of this fish has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, in early 2011, the sediment wedge behind the dam had reached an estimated 0.2 million m3 and the dam toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, posing a serious risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the response of the river to dam removal, we installed video cameras, time-lapse cameras, stage recorders, and turbidity sensors, conducted surveys of grain size distributions and longitudinal profiles, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Most of the subsequent downstream deposition occurred within 500m of the dam, with alluviation reaching up to 0.5m in places. Two months after dam removal, erosion had propagated 300m upstream into the impounded sediment along a bed profile of gradient

  12. Contaminants in fishes from great lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan Rivers: III. Implications for health of bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Newsted, J.L.; Summer, C. L.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been discussions of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on three rivers (Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon) in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on bald eagles that could consume such fishes from above and below dams on the three primary rivers. The hazard assessments were verified by comparing the reproductive productivities of eagles nesting in areas where they ate primarily fish from either above or below dams on the three primary rivers, as well as on two additional rivers in Michigan, the Menominee and Thunder Bay. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (OCI), polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in composite samples of fishes from above and below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Mean concentrations of OCI, total PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than in those from above. The hazard assessment indicated that current concentrations of Hg and OCI other than DDT (DDT + DDE + DDD) in fish from neither above nor below dams would present a significant hazard to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Both total PCBs and TCDD-EQ in fishes from below the dams currently present a significant hazard to bald eagles, since their mean hazard quotients (HQ) were all greater than one.

  13. Contaminants of fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers: III. Implications for health of bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J P; Bowerman, W W; Mora, M A; Verbrugge, D A; Othoudt, R A; Newsted, J L; Summer, C L; Aulerich, R J; Bursian, S J; Ludwig, J P

    1995-10-01

    Recently, there have been discussions of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on three rivers (Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon) in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on bald eagles that could consume such fishes from above and below dams on the three primary rivers. The hazard assessments were verified by comparing the reproductive productivities of eagles nesting in areas where they ate primarily fish from either above or below dams on the three primary rivers, as well as on two additional rivers in Michigan, the Menominee and Thunder Bay. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (OCI), polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in composite samples of fishes from above and below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Mean concentrations of OCI, total PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than in those from above. The hazard assessment indicated that current concentrations of Hg and OCI other than DDT (DDT+DDE+DDD) in fish from neither above nor below dams would present a significant hazard to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Both total PCBs and TCDD-EQ in fishes from below the dams currently present a significant hazard to bald eagles, since their mean hazard quotients (HQ) were all greater than one.

  14. Wavelet analysis of the hydrologic effects of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Continuous wavelet transformation is a powerful analytical tool with which to analyze the hydrologic effects of dam construction and operation on river systems, an issue of great managerial, political, and social interest in the western United States. Using continuous records of instantaneous discharge from the Lees Ferry gaging station and records of daily mean discharge from upstream tributaries, we conducted a continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) analysis of the pre- and post-dam hydrologic structure of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. CWT of mean daily discharge provided a highly compressed and integrative picture of the near-total elimination of pronounced annual and sub-annual wavelet features after dam construction. Events such as droughts, managed floods, and uncontrollable snowmelt-driven discharge were also visible. The continuous record, interpolated to consistent hourly intervals, revealed a much finer scale image of river conditions. Prior to dam construction, the CWT showed the influence of warm season peak discharge periods, discharge driven by the monsoon and dissipating tropical storms, and annual droughts. In the post-dam period, strong wavelet signals related to diurnal power generation, weekly shutdowns in power generation, shifts in daily discharge management, and the 1996 experimental flood were dominant. The CWT approach appears to represent well-known features of dam operation without generation of spurious results. Thus, CWT, with quantitative statistical significance tests, should be a promising tool for assessing (1) dam operation in less well-studied regions and (2) real-time success or failure of management attempts to reconstruct desired flow characteristics.

  15. Sediment Dynamics and Coastal Response to Large-Scale Dam Removal: Elwha River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Miller, I. M.; Warrick, J. A.; Ritchie, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 25 million m3 of mud, sand, and gravel since the early 1900s and contributed to erosion of the delta protruding into the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams, initiated in September 2011, is providing an unprecedented opportunity to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal delta to massive changes in river sediment supply. Observations once or twice a year prior to and during dam removal of nearshore bathymetry, collected using personal watercraft equipped with RTK GPS and single-beam echosounders and beach topography, collected with RTK GPS mounted on backpacks provide a sequence of continuous DEM surfaces to quantify geomorphic change. Bed sediments are sampled by grab sampler in water depths between -9 and -1 m around the delta, and by hand and a 'cobble-cam' digital camera during low tide on sub-aerial beaches. An approximately monthly series of low altitude, high-resolution vertical aerial ortho-images qualitatively document sub-aerial changes in coastal landforms. Comparison of the March 2013 survey with surveys conducted prior to dam removal shows large changes in the morphology of the river mouth and submarine delta. Sediment accumulation was widespread throughout the survey area but was concentrated primarily in two distinct areas. The largest area of deposition was located adjacent to the river mouth and covered approximately 368,000 m2 with an average thickness of 3.1 m and a maximum of 8 m. A secondary area of deposition was observed to the east of the river mouth and covered 115,600 m2 with a mean thickness of 0.69 m and a maximum of 1.8 m. Net accumulation within the study area totals roughly 1,300,000 m3 since the removal of the two dams began in 2011. Surface sediment of the primary deposit adjacent to the river mouth is coarser (coarse to medium sand) than the secondary deposit to the east (medium to fine sand). Numerical model simulations of

  16. National Dam Inspection Program. Thornes Dam (Inventory Number NY 00793). Housatonic River Basin. Town of Amenia. Dutchess County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    A.D - . s" - MALE (C I) ASSOCIATES SCHENECTADY NY F/B 13/13N TIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM. THORNES DAM (INVENTORY NUMBER -- ETC(U) FFf JUL 81 K J...llNhllEEEmlI HOUSATONIC RIVER BASIN TOWN OF AMENIA OUTCHESS COUNTY, NEW YORK S" THORNES DAM NY 00793 (i~ Kenneth J. /maleT SW. M. /Sm~ith Jr 15 DACW51...81..C.0014 PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT ,.%NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM Thornes Dam (Inventory Number NY 00793). Housatonic River Basin. Town of Amenia

  17. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  18. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  19. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  20. Apollo 9 Mission image - United Arab Republic,Nile River,Red Sea and Aswan Dam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    Oblique Earth Observation taken by the Apollo 9 crew. View is the United Arab Republic,the Nile River,The Red Sea and the Aswan Dam. Film magazine was E,film type was SO-368 Ektachrome with 0.460 - 0.710 micrometers film / filter transmittance response and haze filter,80mm lens. Latitude was 19.38 N by Longitude 30.24 E, Overlap was 50%, Altitude was 97 nautical miles and cloud cover was 5%.

  1. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Pollution Abatement; R--Recreation; Q--Water Quality or Silt Control. \\3\\ FCA--Flood Control Act; FERC... approved water control plan of regulation may be obtained by contacting the LCRA offices in Austin, Texas... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD....

  2. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Richville Dam (VT 00074) Richelieu River Basin, Shoreham.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    crest of the dam axis to about 50 feet downstream of the dam. The bedrock is basically a massively bedded, very hard blue- gray calcitic dolostone ... dolostone is -’-- relatively soluble, minor-solution features in the form of small pits up to one inch deep were observed at a bedrock exposure about 20

  3. Eco-Design of River Fishways for Upstream Passage: Application for Hanfeng Dam, Pengxi River, China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Rainey, William S.

    2012-05-20

    This paper provides a scientific approach to eco-design of river fishways to allow upstream movement of fish past new and existing dams in China. This eco-design approach integrates principles of fish ecology/behavior and engineering, a scientific field also known as bio-engineering or eco-hydraulics. We define a fishway as a structure or mechanism to convey fish upstream past a dam. Man-made or natural stream beds can be part of the fishway mechanism. Fish include bony and non-bony fishes, and upstream passage is the concern here, not downstream passage. The problem is dams block access to upstream habitat used for spawning, rearing, and refuge, i.e., dams decrease habitat connectivity. A solution to alleviate this problem is to design fishways, preferably while the dam is being designed, but if necessary, as retrofits afterward to provide a route that fish can and will use to pass safely upstream without undue delay. Our eco-design approach for fishways involves eight steps: 1) identify the primary species of importance; 2) understand basic ecology and behavior of these fish; 3) characterize the environmental conditions where passage is or will be blocked; 4 identify fishway alternatives and select a preferred alternative; 5) establish eco-design criteria for the fishway, either from management agencies or, if necessary, developed specifically for the given site; 6) where needed, identify and perform research required to resolve critical uncertainties and finalize the eco-design criteria; 7) apply the eco-design criteria and site-specific considerations to design the fishway, involving peer-review by local stakeholders in the process; 8) build the fishway, monitor its effectiveness, and apply the lessons learned. Example fishways are described showing a range of eco-designs depending on the dam site and fish species of concern. We apply the eco-design principles to recommend an approach and next steps for a fishway to pass fish upstream at Hanfeng Dam, an

  4. Three Experimental High-Flow Releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona-Effects on the Downstream Colorado River Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Grams, Paul E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Robinson, Christopher T.; Schmidt, John C.; Schmit, Lara M.; Valdez, Richard A.; Wright, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Three high-flow experiments (HFEs) were conducted by the U.S. Department of the Interior at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in March 1996, November 2004, and March 2008. Also known as artificial or controlled floods, these scheduled releases of water above the dam's powerplant capacity were designed to mimic pre-dam seasonal flooding on the Colorado River. The goal of the HFEs was to determine whether high flows could be used to benefit important downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park that have been affected by the existence and operation of Glen Canyon Dam. These downstream resources include native fish, particularly endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), terrestrial and aquatic sandbar habitats, cultural sites, and recreational resources. This Fact Sheet summarizes HFE-related studies published since 1996 and outlines a possible strategy for implementing future HFEs.

  5. Widespread dieback of riparian trees on a dammed ephemeral river and evidence of local mitigation by tributary flows.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Caitlin M S; Mulligan, Mark; Harrison, Xavier A; Henschel, Joh R; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers act as linear oases in drylands providing key resources to people and wildlife. However, not much is known about these rivers' sensitivities to human activities. We investigated the landscape-level determinants of riparian tree dieback along the Swakop River, a dammed ephemeral river in Namibia, focusing on the native ana tree (Faidherbia albida) and the invasive mesquite (Prosopis spp.). We surveyed over 1,900 individual trees distributed across 24 sites along a 250 km stretch of the river. General linear mixed models were used to test five hypotheses relating to three anthropogenic threats: river flow disruption from damming, human settlement and invasive species. We found widespread dieback in both tree populations: 51% mortality in ana tree, with surviving trees exhibiting 18% canopy death (median); and 26% mortality in mesquite, with surviving trees exhibiting 10% canopy death. Dieback in the ana tree was most severe where trees grew on drier stretches of the river, where tributary flow was absent and where mesquite grew more abundantly. Dieback in the mesquite, a more drought-tolerant taxon, did not show any such patterns. Our findings suggest that dieback in the ana tree is primarily driven by changes in river flow resulting from upstream dam creation and that tributary flows provide a local buffer against this loss of main channel flow. The hypothesis that the invasive mesquite may contribute to ana tree dieback was also supported. Our findings suggest that large dams along the main channels of ephemeral rivers have the ability to cause widespread mortality in downstream riparian trees. To mitigate such impacts, management might focus on the maintenance of natural tributary flows to buffer local tree populations from the disruption to main channel flow.

  6. An assessment of flow data from Klamath River sites between Link River Dam and Keno Dam, south-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Hess, Glen W.; Fisher, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Records of diversion and return flows for water years 1961?2004 along a reach of the Klamath River between Link River and Keno Dams in south-central Oregon were evaluated to determine the cause of a water-balance inconsistency in the hydrologic data. The data indicated that the reach was losing flow in the 1960s and 1970s and gaining flow in the 1980s and 1990s. The absolute mean annual net water-balance difference in flows between the first and second half of the 44-year period (1961-2004) was approximately 103,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr). The quality of the diversion and return-flow records used in the water balance was evaluated using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) criteria for accuracy. With the exception of the USGS Klamath River at Keno record, which was rated as 'good' or 'excellent,' the eight other flow records, all from non-USGS flow-measurement sites, were rated as 'poor' by USGS standards due to insufficient data-collection documentation and a lack of direct discharge measurements to verify the rating curves. The record for the Link River site, the most upstream in the study area, included both river and westside power canal flows. Because of rating curve biases, the river flows might have been overestimated by 25,000 acre-ft/yr on average from water years 1961 to 1982 and underestimated by 7,000 acre-ft/yr on average from water years 1983 to 2004. For water years 1984-2004, westside power canal flows might have been underestimated by 11,000 acre-ft/yr. Some diversion and return flows (for mostly agricultural, industrial, and urban use) along the Klamath River study reach, not measured continuously and not included in the water-balance equation, also were evaluated. However, the sum of these diversion and return flows was insufficient to explain the water-balance inconsistency. The possibility that ground-water levels in lands adjacent to the river rose during water years 1961-2004 and caused an increase in ground-water discharge to the river

  7. Habitat and Hydrological Effects of Low-head Dams on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled sites in the Ohio and impounded Upper Mississippi Rivers to develop indices of habitat and hydrological condition. Discharge in these rivers is controlled by low-head locks and dams. On the Ohio River, the littoral fish cover index, the hydrology index, and a multi-met...

  8. Habitat and Hydrological Effects of Low-head Dams on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled sites in the Ohio and impounded Upper Mississippi Rivers to develop indices of habitat and hydrological condition. Discharge in these rivers is controlled by low-head locks and dams. On the Ohio River, the littoral fish cover index, the hydrology index, and a multi-met...

  9. 75 FR 16090 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: March 11, 2010, supplemented on March 17, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e.... 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Ms. Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Council, Grand Dam...

  10. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Flower Dam, Inventory Number NY-707. Lake Champlain River Basin. Franklin County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD-A091 596 NEW YORK STATE DE!PT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ALBANY F/B 13/13 NATIONAL OAM SAFETY PROGRAM. LAKE FLOWER DAM, INVENTORY NUMBER --ETC...tjon Report S. TYPE Or REPORT4 PERIOO COVEReO Lake Flpwer Dam Phase I Inspection Report Lake Champlain River Basin, Franklin County,NiS Inventory No...Safety Program Franklin County Visual Inspeton Saranae River Hydrology, Structural Stability Lake Flower Dam -. LABSTRACT (otbue a reverse eft It

  11. Prioritizing removal of dams for passage of diadromous fishes on a major river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Native diadromous fishes have been extirpated from much of the Susquehanna River system for nearly a century. Recent restoration efforts have focused on removal of dams, but there are hundreds of dams and presently there is no biologically based system to assist in prioritizing their removal. We present a new method that uses existing habitat suitability index models (HSI) for American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus, blueback herring A. aestivalis, and American eel Anguilla rostrata to prioritize the removal of non-hydropower dams within the Susquehanna River system. We ranked HSI scores for each of the four species, association between a landscape-scale factor and HSIs, length of river opened by removing a dam, and distance from the mouth at Chesapeake Bay for each dam and then calculated a mean rank prioritization for dam removal by averaging the ranks for the seven criteria. This prioritization method is resistant to outliers, is not strongly affected by somewhat arbitrary decisions on metrics included in the analysis, and provides a biologically based prioritization for dam removal that can be easily amended to include other metrics or adapted to other river systems and that complements other social and economic considerations that must be included in decisions to remove dams.

  12. The long-term legacy of geomorphic and riparian vegetation feedbacks on the dammed Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kui, Li; Stella, John C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, Kyle; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    On alluvial rivers, fluvial landforms and riparian vegetation communities codevelop as a result of feedbacks between plants and abiotic processes. The influence of vegetation on river channel and floodplain geomorphology can be particularly strong on dammed rivers with altered hydrology and reduced flood disturbance. We used a 56-year series of aerial photos on the dammed Bill Williams River (Arizona, USA) to investigate how (a) different woody riparian vegetation types influence river channel planform and (b) how different fluvial landforms drive the composition of riparian plant communities over time. We mapped vegetation types and geomorphic surfaces and quantified how relations between fluvial and biotic processes covaried over time using linear mixed models. In the decades after the dam was built, woody plant cover within the river's bottomland nearly doubled, narrowing the active channel by 60% and transforming its planform from wide and braided to a single thread and more sinuous channel. Compared with native cottonwood–willow vegetation, nonnative tamarisk locally induced a twofold greater reduction in channel braiding. Vegetation expanded at different rates depending on the type of landform, with tamarisk cover on former high-flow channels increasing 17% faster than cottonwood–willow. Former low-flow channels with frequent inundation supported a greater increase in cottonwood–willow relative to tamarisk. These findings give insight into how feedbacks between abiotic and biotic processes in river channels accelerate and fortify changes triggered by dam construction, creating river systems increasingly distinct from predam ecological communities and landforms, and progressively more resistant to restoration of predam forms and processes.

  13. 76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ..., 2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e. Name of Project: Pensacola Project. f... Ketchum Cove on Grand Lake 0' the Cherokees, Mayes County. The additional slips require waivers of...

  14. Rapid water quality change in the Elwha River estuary complex during dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Paradis, Rebecca; Ritchie, Andrew; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Dam removal in the United States is increasing as a result of structural concerns, sedimentation of reservoirs, and declining riverine ecosystem conditions. The removal of the 32 m Elwha and 64 m Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, U.S.A., was the largest dam removal project in North American history. During the 3 yr of dam removal—from September 2011 to August 2014—more than ten million cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the former reservoirs, transported downstream, and deposited throughout the lower river, river delta, and nearshore waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Water quality data collected in the estuary complex at the mouth of the Elwha River document how conditions in the estuary changed as a result of sediment deposition over the 3 yr the dams were removed. Rapid and large-scale changes in estuary conditions—including salinity, depth, and turbidity—occurred 1 yr into the dam removal process. Tidal propagation into the estuary ceased following a large sediment deposition event that began in October 2013, resulting in decreased salinity, and increased depth and turbidity in the estuary complex. These changes have persisted in the system through dam removal, significantly altering the structure and functioning of the Elwha River estuary ecosystem.

  15. Rapid Shoreline Response to the Removal of the Aldwell Dam on the Elwha River, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, I. M.; Warrick, J. A.; Stevens, A. W.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Ritchie, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Profiles and grain-size measurements from the intertidal beach of the Elwha River delta suggest a rapid shoreline response to the removal of the Aldwell Dam. Deconstruction of the 99-year old Aldwell Dam, a large dam at river kilometer 7.9 on the Elwha River, started in September of 2011 and the reservoir behind the dam was completely drained by the last week of March 2012. The Aldwell Dam impounded at least 3.0 x 106 m3 of sediment and has been implicated as a contributing cause of chronic erosion of the shoreline adjacent to the river mouth. Measurements were collected at four cross-shore transects along the shoreline, one to the west of the river mouth and three to the east, from 2008 to 2012. Accretions of sand on the lower - and previously cobble - part of the beach profile (near or below Mean Lower Low Water) were first observed in April 2012 on the east of the river mouth, and areas of sand grew in volume and extent over subsequent months. Profile accretion and a reduction in the mean grain size of the beach immediately to the east of the river mouth suggests that, by July 2012, sediment associated with the dam removal was recruiting to the foreshore and nourishing what has been a coarse eroding beach. Despite evidence of sand nourishment, however, erosion at the site is on-going. At the sites further to the east of the river, only minor changes in grain size have been observed on the lower profile. No significant changes in profile shape, profile stability or grain size have been observed at the measurement site to the west of the river mouth. These preliminary observations suggest mechanisms by which changes in sediment delivery to the coastal zone from the previously dammed Elwha River may help to slow or reverse chronic erosion, but continued measurements are planned to determine the long term response of the shoreline.

  16. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  17. Widespread dieback of riparian trees on a dammed ephemeral river and evidence of local mitigation by tributary flows

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Mark; Harrison, Xavier A.; Henschel, Joh R.; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers act as linear oases in drylands providing key resources to people and wildlife. However, not much is known about these rivers’ sensitivities to human activities. We investigated the landscape-level determinants of riparian tree dieback along the Swakop River, a dammed ephemeral river in Namibia, focusing on the native ana tree (Faidherbia albida) and the invasive mesquite (Prosopis spp.). We surveyed over 1,900 individual trees distributed across 24 sites along a 250 km stretch of the river. General linear mixed models were used to test five hypotheses relating to three anthropogenic threats: river flow disruption from damming, human settlement and invasive species. We found widespread dieback in both tree populations: 51% mortality in ana tree, with surviving trees exhibiting 18% canopy death (median); and 26% mortality in mesquite, with surviving trees exhibiting 10% canopy death. Dieback in the ana tree was most severe where trees grew on drier stretches of the river, where tributary flow was absent and where mesquite grew more abundantly. Dieback in the mesquite, a more drought-tolerant taxon, did not show any such patterns. Our findings suggest that dieback in the ana tree is primarily driven by changes in river flow resulting from upstream dam creation and that tributary flows provide a local buffer against this loss of main channel flow. The hypothesis that the invasive mesquite may contribute to ana tree dieback was also supported. Our findings suggest that large dams along the main channels of ephemeral rivers have the ability to cause widespread mortality in downstream riparian trees. To mitigate such impacts, management might focus on the maintenance of natural tributary flows to buffer local tree populations from the disruption to main channel flow. PMID:27812420

  18. Application of a hierarchical framework for assessing environmental impacts of dam operation: changes in hydrology, channel hydraulics, bed mobility and recruitment of riparian trees in a western North American river

    Treesearch

    Michael Burke; Klaus Jorde; John M. Buffington

    2009-01-01

    River systems have been altered worldwide by dams and diversions, resulting in a broad array of environmental impacts. The use of a process-based, hierarchical framework for assessing environmental impacts of dams is explored here in terms of a case study of the Kootenai River, western North America. The goal of the case study is to isolate and quantify the relative...

  19. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: Fluvial sediment load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Hilldale, Robert C.; Curran, Christopher A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian; Foreman, James R.

    2015-10-01

    The Elwha River restoration project, in Washington State, includes the largest dam-removal project in United States history to date. Starting September 2011, two nearly century-old dams that collectively contained 21 ± 3 million m3 of sediment were removed over the course of three years with a top-down deconstruction strategy designed to meter the release of a portion of the dam-trapped sediment. Gauging with sediment-surrogate technologies during the first two years downstream from the project measured 8,200,000 ± 3,400,000 tonnes of transported sediment, with 1,100,000 and 7,100,000 t moving in years 1 and 2, respectively, representing 3 and 20 times the Elwha River annual sediment load of 340,000 ± 80,000 t/y. During the study period, the discharge in the Elwha River was greater than normal (107% in year 1 and 108% in year 2); however, the magnitudes of the peak-flow events during the study period were relatively benign with the largest discharge of 292 m3/s (73% of the 2-year annual peak-flow event) early in the project when both extant reservoirs still retained sediment. Despite the muted peak flows, sediment transport was large, with measured suspended-sediment concentrations during the study period ranging from 44 to 16,300 mg/L and gauged bedload transport as large as 24,700 t/d. Five distinct sediment-release periods were identified when sediment loads were notably increased (when lateral erosion in the former reservoirs was active) or reduced (when reservoir retention or seasonal low flows and cessation of lateral erosion reduced sediment transport). Total suspended-sediment load was 930,000 t in year 1 and 5,400,000 t in year 2. Of the total 6,300,000 ± 3,200,000 t of suspended-sediment load, 3,400,000 t consisted of silt and clay and 2,900,000 t was sand. Gauged bedload on the lower Elwha River in year 2 of the project was 450,000 ± 360,000 t. Bedload was not quantified in year 1, but qualitative observations using bedload-surrogate instruments

  20. Simulation and control of morphological changes due to dam removal in the Sandy River, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Altinakar, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    A one-dimensional channel evolution simulation model (CCHE1D) is applied to assess morphological changes in a reach of the Sandy River, Oregon, USA, due to the Marmot Dam removal in 2007. Sediment transport model parameters (e.g. sediment transport capacity, bed roughness coefficient) were calibrated using observed bed changes after the dam removal. The validated model is then applied to assess long-term morphological changes in response to a 10-year hydrograph selected from historical storm water records. The long-term assessment of sedimentation gives a reasonable prediction of morphological changes, expanding erosion in reservoir and growing deposition immediately downstream of the dam site. This prediction result can be used for managing and planning river sedimentation after dam removal. A simulation-based optimization model is also applied to determine the optimal sediment release rates during dam-removal that will minimize the morphological changes in the downstream reaches.

  1. Dam-induced and natural channel changes in the Saskatchewan River below the E.B. Campbell Dam, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Norman D.; Morozova, Galina S.; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Gibling, Martin R.

    2016-09-01

    The E.B. Campbell Dam on the Saskatchewan River, east-central Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962, forming Tobin Lake (2.2 billion m3 capacity), which today impounds most fluvial sediment and disrupts normal outflow patterns. Thirty-five kilometers below the dam, the river diverts into a 500 km2 belt of alluvial sediment initiated by an avulsion ~ 140 years ago, rejoining the parent channel 108 km from the dam. Effects of the dam on channel geomorphology, including the historical channel (reach I) and the more recent avulsion-affected channels, were investigated by pre- and post-dam cross section surveys combined with grain-size and bedload measurements. Twenty-three sites were surveyed at least twice, and 14 were resurveyed annually in 2003-2014 (except 2007) during which significant floods occurred in 2005, 2011, and 2013. All channel cross sections up to 81 km below the dam have coarsened and enlarged since closure, resulting in excavation of 35.4 × 106 m3 of channel-perimeter sediment since 1962. The most proximal segment is armored and has changed little in recent years. Since 2003, channel enlargement has been greatest in the 35-81 km segment between the avulsion site and the Forks (reaches II, III), manifested as widening and deepening. Enlargement rates were greatest during the three floods, and the paucity of bedload has prevented degraded portions of the channel bed from replenishment following flooding. Budget calculations based on bedload measurements and channel cross-section areas suggest that > 30 years would be required to replace the sediment removed between 2003 and 2014, assuming all available bedload remains in the affected reach. Dam effects appear to be absent or uncertain beyond 81 km, a multichanneled region of varied stages of activity (reach IV), recombining and eventually rejoining the parent Saskatchewan River channel at km 108 (reach V). Sediment evacuated from reaches I-III is sufficient to sustain modest aggradation in some distal

  2. Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

  3. The Impact of the Dachaoshan Dam on Seasonal Hydrological Dynamics in the Main Stream of the Mekong River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, S.; Shimazaki, H.; Nohara, S.; Fukushima, M.; Kudo, K.; Sato, T.

    2008-12-01

    In the Mekong River watershed, traditional social and industrial systems have long existed in harmony with water and biological resources. Since the 1950s, many dam-construction projects have been started to develop power and water resources to meet increasing demand for energy and food production. Since the 1970s, there have been temporary interruptions to these projects because of civil war or regional volatility of international relations. Many of these projects have been restarted in the last 15 years. This raises international interest, as there are transboundary issues cross-border issues related to both development assistance and environmental conservation. By 2008, two Chinese dams had already been completed (the Manwan dam in 1996 and the Dachaoshan dam in 2003) on the Mekong River in Yunnan province. Dam construction has some positive impacts, such as electricity production, management of water resources, and flood control. However, upstream control of water discharge can have negative impacts on traditional agricultural systems and fisheries downstream from the dams, such as drastic changes in flow volume and sediment load. We used hydrological simulation of the watershed to quantify the impact of the construction of the Dachaoshan dam by comparing annual water discharge and sediment transport before and after the dam was completed. Our main objectives were to use watershed hydrologic modeling to simulate changes to annual hydrological parameters and sediment transport, and to map spatio-temporal changes of these data before and after dam construction. Our study area covered the part of the Mekong River main channel that extends about 100 km downstream from the junction of the borders of Myanmar, Thailand, and the Lao People's Democratic Republic. We used five data validation points at 25-km intervals along this section of the river and calculated model parameters every 1 km. The years we modeled were 1990 (began dam construction) and 2006 (after dam

  4. Initial Geomorphic Responses to Removal of Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Woelfle-Erskine, C.

    2008-12-01

    The removal of Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River, Montana, USA, is creating a field-scale experiment on upstream and downstream responses to dam removal and on how gravel-bed rivers respond to sediment pulses. Milltown Dam was removed in 2008, reconnecting the Clark Fork River to its upstream basin in terms of sediment transport and fish passage. This dam removal is especially notable because (1) it is the largest dam removal to date in the United States in terms of the volume of reservoir sediment potentially available for downstream transport (over 3 million m3; 1.7 million m3 are being mechanically removed); and (2) the dam is the downstream end of the largest Superfund site in the United States, the Clark Fork Complex, and reservoir sediments are composed largely of contaminated mine tailings. Data collection on pre- and post-dam removal channel morphology, bed sediment characteristics, and sediment loads are being used to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport and deposition associated with this dam removal. In the first several months following breaching of the dam, snowmelt runoff with a 3-year recurrence interval peak caused substantial erosion and downstream transport of metals-laden sediments from Milltown reservoir. Reservoir sediments in the Clark Fork arm of Milltown reservoir eroded at levels far exceeding modeling predictions as a result of both incision to the new base level created by dam removal and bank retreat of over 200 m in reaches upstream of a constructed bypass reach and remediation area. Copper and other metals in these eroded reservoir sediments provide a tracer for identifying whether sediment deposits observed downstream of the dam originated from Milltown reservoir or uncontaminated tributaries and indicate that Milltown sediments have reached over 200 km downstream. Downstream deposition has been greatest along channel margins and in side-channel areas, whereas the transport capacity of the active channel

  5. National Dam Safety Program. Clove Lake Dam (NJ 00259) Delaware River Basin, Shimers Brook, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0-A103 762 NEW JERSEY DEPT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TRENTON -ETC P/A 13/13 NATIONAL DAM SAFETY PROGRAM. CLOVE LAKE DAM (NJ 00259 DELAW ARE--ETC(U...ERLO National Dam Safety Program YIN-I Clove Lake Dam, NJO0259 4 S RIG R." OTUE Sussex County, New Jersey _______________ 7. AUTHOR(*) .CMaCgqA!yBRO...unlimited. KNational Dam Safety Programs clove - Lake Dm(NJ 00259) Delaware River Basins Shimers Brook, Sussex County, 17. DISTmIGUTION STATE[T (o

  6. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Cornelis Dam (CT 00293), Housatonic River Basin, Wolcott, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    RD-AI144 080 NATIONAL PRObRAM FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAMS 12 CORNELIS DAM (CT 0029..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS W~ALTHAM MA NEW ENGLAND DIV MAR 81...J * S 0 HOSTOI RIVER BASIN0 WOLCOTT, CONNECTICUT CORNELIS DAM7 CT 00293 PHASE 1 INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM E lECTE K. AUG 1 3...ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER C 00293/ 4, TITLE (and S.ubidti) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Cornelis Dam INSPECTION REPORT *NATIONAL

  7. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Diamond International Corporation, Upper Dam (MA 00562) Connecticut River Basin, Palmer, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    of Appendix C. b. Dam . The dam is a run-of-the-river type structure consisting of a concrete spillway and rockfill dike. A significant amount of...unknown 7󈧕] (8) Top of dam : 368.0 ( rockfill dike) (9) Test flood surcharge: 387.0 d. Reservoir (Length in feet) (1) Normal pool: 11,460 (2) Flood...and Appurtenances. The Upper Dam at Diamond International Corporation consists of a concrete and stone spillway and rockfill dike (see Plan of Dam

  8. Remote measurement of gravel-bed river depths and analysis of the geomorphic response of rivers to canals and small dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Suzanne Corinna

    This dissertation investigates the potential impacts of canals and small dams on gravel-bed rivers and methods for documenting those impacts. First, I evaluate the potential for mapping channel depths along the McKenzie River, OR, using 10 cm resolution optical aerial imagery with a hydraulically-assisted bathymetry (HAB-2) model. Results demonstrate that channel depths can be accurately mapped in many areas, with some imagery limitations. The HAB-2 model works well in the majority of the river (R2=0.89) when comparing modeled to observed depths, but not in areas of shadow, surface turbulence, or depths >1.5 m. Next, I analyze the relative effects of a small dam and two diversion canals on sediment distribution along bars of the lower McKenzie River. The typical pattern of downstream fining is disrupted at each feature and several tributaries, particularly in the "reduced water reaches" below canal outtakes. Most modeled discharge values necessary to mobilize bar sediments fall at or below the 2-year flood return interval, with the remaining at or below the 5-year flood return interval, generally reflecting the D50 values at each bar (20-115 mm). The third analysis investigates the potential to document geomorphic impacts of small dams in Oregon at ecoregion extents using air photos and publically available data sets. This analysis highlights data disparity with respect to the collecting agency's mission and the difficulty of using remote sensing for small dams. Though the imagery was not useful in evaluating small dam impacts due to resolution and feature size, the data were useful in mapping the small dam distribution across Oregon and each ecoregion. Sixty-one percent of Oregon land is located in the catchment of at least one small dam and the greatest number of dams per area is in the Willamette Valley ecoregion. Overall, this research suggests that, while the application of these techniques must be improved, our ability to observe, study, and understand rivers

  9. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    PubMed

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  10. Survival of Migrating Salmon Smolts in Large Rivers With and Without Dams

    PubMed Central

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R. Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River. PMID:18959485

  11. Dam Effects on Sediment Transport and Channel Form in the Klamath River: Implications for Salmonid Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    By virtue of the historical importance of its salmonid fishery and recent controversies over agricultural water diversions and fish mortality, the Klamath River (California and Oregon) has attracted significant attention from the public and federal agencies, including reports by two committees of the National Research Council since 2000. One proposal under consideration to restore Klamath River salmonid fisheries is to remove four hydroelectric dams that influence hydrology, sediment transport, and fish passage. The Klamath River is unusual in many respects, including the fact that its upper reaches are low-gradient, lake and bedrock-sill-controlled, with small sediment yields but large influxes of natural and anthropogenic nutrients. The river’s gradient and sediment load increase downstream as it passes through the steep Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. Therefore, the impact of the four dams proposed for removal on downstream geomorphic conditions varies with location in the watershed. Thus, some expectations of downstream dam effects based on observations on other rivers may not be directly applicable to the Klamath dams. We conducted a two-year study of reservoir sedimentation, bed material size, bed mobility, sediment transport, and channel form between Klamath Falls, Oregon and Seiad Valley, California. Based on our results, we identified geomorphically distinct reaches, and quantified bed mobility and sensitivity to channel change, as a basis to evaluate dam effects on downstream channel morphology. Our findings could be used to inform future dam removal approaches for the Klamath River.

  12. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220 Section 162.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500...

  13. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220 Section 162.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500...

  14. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102... MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1102 Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River... portion of the lower Colorado River on the Arizona side between Thompson Bay and Copper Canyon. 2....

  15. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220 Section 162.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500...

  16. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220 Section 162.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500...

  17. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. 162.220 Section 162.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500...

  18. Erosion and Redeposition of Reservoir Sediment in Response to Removal of Marmot Dam, Sandy River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallick, R.; Major, J. J.; Spicer, K. R.; Rhode, A.; Keith, M.; O'Connor, J. E.; Burkholder, B.; Grant, G.; Tanner, D. Q.; Saunders, D.

    2008-12-01

    The 19 October 2007 removal of the 14-m-high temporary coffer dam standing in stead of Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon, triggered a rapid sequence of fluvial responses as the ~730,000 m3 of sand and gravel filling the former reservoir was suddenly exposed to an energetic river. Here we report on the rapid erosion and redeposition of this sediment in the minutes, days, and months following breaching of the coffer dam. Our analyses stem from: 1) repeat topographic surveys of the reservoir and downstream channel reach made before and after breaching and after major storm events; 2) repeat and time-lapse photography from locations around the reservoir; and 3) frequent site visits during and immediately after smaller flow events to document modest channel changes. Following mechanical notching of the earthen coffer dam at 17:00 PDT (Pacific Daylight Time), small knickpoints formed on the downstream dam face and migrated up face until they intercepted the dam crest at 17:45 PDT. This interception resulted in rapid vertical erosion of the reservoir sediment, an instantaneous peak discharge of 136 m3/s (compared to an incoming flow of 50 m3/s) as pooled reservoir water drained, and tall (e.g., 1-2 m high) knickpoints migrated upstream at rates exceeding 200 m/hr. Rapid knickpoint migration slowed 200 m upstream from the breach when the channel became superposed on a bedrock outcrop. After the river slid off the bedrock during slightly higher flow, the knickpoint declined in height and moved upstream another 300 m over the next several days at a mean rate of about 1 m/hr. Knickpoint migration over the next 1.5 km of the reservoir progressed episodically, sweeping rapidly through long (~ 400 m) pools but slowing where it intercepted bouldery riffles that had emerged. At the end of high flows in May 2008, the remnant knickpoint had migrated 2 km upstream from the former dam site, resembled a riffle crest approximately 1 m high, but remained 1.5 km downstream from the

  19. Cumulative sediment reduction to the Lower Mekong River from planned dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z.; Minear, J. T.; Alford, C.

    2012-12-01

    Cumulative sediment reduction to the Lower Mekong River from planned dams Kondolf, G.M.1, Rubin, Z.1, Alford, C.1 1University of California, Berkeley, USA T. Minear, US Geological Survey Essentially unregulated until the 1990s, the Mekong River system is now being rapidly changed by dam construction. On the Lancang River (the upper Mekong in China), a cascade of eight mainstem dams is under construction; on the Lower Mekong and tributaries, over 135 dams are planned or under construction. How will these dams alter the sediment load of the Mekong? Sediment data are lacking from important tributaries, and data from the better-sampled mainstem have data quality problems. Average annual suspended load of the entire Mekong is about 160 million tonnes per year (Mt/y) (Walling 2005), about half of which is derived from the Lancang drainage in China. Prior studies indicate that the eight Chinese dams will reduce sediment yield from the Lancang to the Lower Mekong River basin by 95%. Once the Lower Basin dams are built, what will be the likely cumulative reduction in sediment load? We first estimated sediment yields from tributaries to the lower Mekong River by delineating distinct geomorphic provinces, and based on geomorphic characteristics, the limited sediment sampling data available, and runoff, we reconstructed the unimpaired sediment loads for each tributary and each reach of the mainstem, such that the total load equaled the documented 160Mt/y. We next applied the 3W model of Minear and Kondolf (2009) (a network model that accounts for multiple reservoirs on a given river and changing trap efficiencies as reservoirs fill) to estimate the sediment trapping by various combinations of dams, from a near-term, 'definite-future' scenario to a full build-out scenario. Under the former scenario, the sediment load reaching the Delta will be about half of its pre-1990 level. With full build-out of dams in the Lower Mekong River basin, including mainstem dams, the sediment

  20. Intercomparison of global river discharge simulations focusing on dam operation—multiple models analysis in two case-study river basins, Missouri-Mississippi and Green-Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Hanasaki, Naota; Biemans, Hester; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Gosling, Simon N.; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki

    2017-05-01

    We performed an intercomparison of river discharge regulated by dams under four meteorological forcings among five global hydrological models for a historical period by simulation. This is the first global multimodel intercomparison study on dam-regulated river flow. Although the simulations were conducted globally, the Missouri-Mississippi and Green-Colorado Rivers were chosen as case-study sites in this study. The hydrological models incorporate generic schemes of dam operation, not specific to a certain dam. We examined river discharge on a longitudinal section of river channels to investigate the effects of dams on simulated discharge, especially at the seasonal time scale. We found that the magnitude of dam regulation differed considerably among the hydrological models. The difference was attributable not only to dam operation schemes but also to the magnitude of simulated river discharge flowing into dams. That is, although a similar algorithm of dam operation schemes was incorporated in different hydrological models, the magnitude of dam regulation substantially differed among the models. Intermodel discrepancies tended to decrease toward the lower reaches of these river basins, which means model dependence is less significant toward lower reaches. These case-study results imply that, intermodel comparisons of river discharge should be made at different locations along the river's course to critically examine the performance of hydrological models because the performance can vary with the locations.

  1. Specific Conductance in the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Diamond Creek, Northern Arizona, 1988-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voichick, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, resulted in substantial physical and biological changes to downstream Colorado River environments between Lake Powell and Lake Mead - an area almost entirely within Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz. In an effort to understand these changes, data have been collected to assess the condition of a number of downstream resources. In terms of measuring water quality, the collection of specific-conductance data is a cost-effective method for estimating salinity. Data-collection activities were initially undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (1982-96); these efforts were subsequently transferred to the U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (1996 to the present). This report describes the specific-conductance dataset collected for the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Diamond Creek from 1988 to 2007. Data-collection and processing methods used during the study period are described, and time-series plots of the data are presented. The report also includes plots showing the relation between specific conductance and total dissolved solids. Examples of the use of specific conductance as a natural tracer of parcels of water are presented. Analysis of the data indicates that short-duration spikes and troughs in specific-conductance values lasting from hours to days are primarily the result of flooding in the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, Colorado River tributaries below Glen Canyon Dam. Specific conductance also exhibits seasonal variations owing to changes in the position of density layers within the reservoir; these changes are driven by inflow hydrology, meteorological conditions, and background stratification. Longer term trends in Colorado River specific conductance are reflective of climatological conditions in the upper Colorado River Basin. For example, drought conditions generally result in an increase in specific conductance in Lake

  2. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  3. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  4. Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Richard A.; Mills, John D.; Wrazien, David R.; Bassett, Beau; Splinter, Dale K.

    2005-10-01

    In 1906, the Bureau of Reclamation created Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River in what later became Grand Teton National Park. The geomorphic, hydrologic and vegetation adjustments downstream of the dam have yet to be documented. After a larger reservoir was completed further downstream in 1957, the reservoir release schedule from Jackson Lake Dam was changed in a manner that lowered the magnitude and frequency of floods. The stability of the Snake River exhibited a complex response to the change in flow regime. Close to major tributaries, the Snake River increased in total sinuosity and rates of lateral channel migration. Away from the influence of tributaries, the river experienced fewer avulsions and a decrease in sinuosity. Vegetation maps were constructed from 1945 and 1989 aerial photography and field surveys. Using these data, we determined how vegetation is directly related to the number of years since each portion of the floodplain was last occupied by the channel. The vegetation has changed from a flood-pulse dominated mosaic to a more terrestrial-like pattern of succession. Changes in the Snake River and its floodplain have direct implications on bald eagle habitat, moose habitat, fish habitat, safety of rafting and canoeing, and biodiversity at the community and species levels.

  5. Geomorphic response of the Sandy River, Oregon, to removal of Marmot Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Podolak, Charles J.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Grant, Gordon E.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Pittman, Smokey; Bragg, Heather M.; Wallick, J. Rose; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Rhode, Abagail; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    deposited within the sediment wedge and within the gorge, whereas eroded sand largely passed through the gorge and was broadly dispersed farther downstream. The sequence of transporting flows affected the specific trajectory of reservoir erosion and downstream sediment transport during the 2 years following breaching. However, because the overall erosion was largely a consequence of knickpoint retreat and channel widening, which in the 2 years after removal had affected most of the reservoir reach, it is unlikely that the specific sequence of flows significantly affected the overall outcome. Because the knickpoint had largely passed through the reservoir within 2 years, and the remaining reservoir sediment is mostly isolated high above armored or bedrock banks, it is unlikely that substantial additional sediment from the reservoir site will enter the system unless very large flows occur. Continued channel evolution downstream of the dam site is probable as deposits formed in the first 2 years are episodically mobilized. Below the Sandy River gorge, detection of effects related to release of reservoir sediment is challenging, especially in areas of sand deposition, because of the high background supply of sand in the river and substantial channel dynamism.

  6. Effects of the Marmot Dam Removal on Grain Size Distribution in the B Reaches of the Sandy River in Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillier, K. N.; Podolak, C. J.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2008-12-01

    The Marmot dam, a medium-large sized dam on the Sandy River in Oregon, was removed in October 2007 to restore fish spawning habitat. This decommissioning project provided the opportunity to study fluvial geomorphologic changes as affected by the release of impounded sediment behind a dam. This research project examined change in grain size distribution (GSD) in Reach B in the downstream of the Sandy River, relatively close to the dam site. Data was collected in July 2008 and compared to data collected by others in July 2007, prior to the dam removal. Seven bars in this reach were facies mapped and pebble counted using the Wolman pebble counting technique. This study hypothesized that fine material had already traveled downstream without deposition whereas larger grains had yet to be transported to this reach. Therefore, Reach B should not have changed significantly since the dam removal. Data collected in 2008 suggest that the GSD of some individual bars changed though these changes are not apparent when evaluating the reach as a whole. In Reach B1, one of the three bars had noticeable changes in the size of finer grains though in contrast, the change in fraction of sand for the other two bars was more evident. In Reach B2, where four bars were studied, only one showed a noticeable change in D16. The data suggest that grain size in Reach B2 changed less than in Reach B1. Overall thus far, grain size in Reach B appears to be fairly the same, pre- and post-dam removal.

  7. Evaluation of Lower Umatilla River Channel Modifications Below Three Mile Dam, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Ward, David L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes results of the first year of a study initiated in September 1984 to evaluate the adequacy of channel modifications made in the lower Umatilla River to improve adult anadromous salmonid passage to Three Mile Dam (RKm 5.6), determine if fish passage or delay problems exist at Three Mile Dam and recommend site specific corrective measures if needed. Movements of steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were monitored using mark and recapture and radio telemetry techniques. Thirty-four steelhead were marked with T-anchor tags and released in the lower river. Fifteen of those marked were also fitted with radio transmitters. Three radiotagged steelhead migrated through channel modifications to Three Mile Dam. Two of these fish migrated to the dam in less than 26 hours, but held just below the dam for 7 and 10 days before entering the ladders. The third steelhead delayed for 30 days and entered the west ladder within 24 hours of arrival at the dam. Two other radiotagged steelhead moved upstream through some of the channel modifications but did not migrate to the dam. Only one of 19 marked steelhead not fitted with transmitters was recovered at Three Mile Dam. 14 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Undamming rivers: a review of the ecological impacts of dam removal.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, A T

    2001-06-01

    Dam removal continues to garner attention as a potential river restoration tool. The increasing possibility of dam removal through the FERC relicensing process, as well as through federal and state agency actions, makes a critical examination of the ecological benefits and costs essential. This paper reviews the possible ecological impacts of dam removal using various case studies. Restoration of an unregulated flow regime has resulted in increased biotic diversity through the enhancement of preferred spawning grounds or other habitat. By returning riverine conditions and sediment transport to formerly impounded areas, riffle/pool sequences, gravel, and cobble have reappeared, along with increases in biotic diversity. Fish passage has been another benefit of dam removal. However, the disappearance of the reservoir may also affect certain publicly desirable fisheries. Short-term ecological impacts of dam removal include an increased sediment load that may cause suffocation and abrasion to various biota and habitats. However, several recorded dam removals have suggested that the increased sediment load caused by removal should be a short-term effect. Pre-removal studies for contaminated sediment may be effective at controlling toxic release problems. Although monitoring and dam removal studies are limited, a continued examination of the possible ecological impacts is important for quantifying the resistance and resilience of aquatic ecosystems. Dam removal, although controversial, is an important alternative for river restoration.

  9. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Altus...

  11. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Altus...

  12. Literature Review: Oral History of the Mississippi River Locks and Dams Numbers 3-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Engineering Record Report Locks & Dams 3-10 (MN-20). October 1987. Scarpino, Philip V. Great River: An Environmental History of the Upper Mississippi...historiographic and aesthetic terms. Scarpino, Philip V. Great River: An Environmental History of the Upper Mississippi, 1890-1950. Columbia: University of

  13. The geomorphic response of gravel-bed rivers to dams: perspectives and prospects

    Treesearch

    Gordon E. Grant

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes over 40 years of research on the downstream geomorphic responses of rivers to dams, with a particular emphasis on gravel-bed rivers, and evaluates the state if the science with respect to predicting channel adjustments: channel incision, lateral adjustments, and bed textural changes. Effects of vegetation and implications for management are also...

  14. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: Coastal geomorphic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfenbaum, Guy; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Eidam, Emily

    2015-10-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of mud, sand, and gravel since 1927, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams, initiated in September 2011, induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal delta to these increases. Detailed measurements of beach topography and nearshore bathymetry show that 2.5 million m3 of sediment was deposited during the first two years of dam removal, which is 100 times greater than deposition rates measured prior to dam removal. The majority of the deposit was located in the intertidal and shallow subtidal region immediately offshore of the river mouth and was composed of sand and gravel. Additional areas of deposition include a secondary sandy deposit to the east of the river mouth and a muddy deposit west of the mouth. A comparison with fluvial sediment fluxes suggests that 70% of the sand and gravel and 6% of the mud supplied by the river was found in the survey area (within about 2 km of the mouth). A hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, validated with in-situ measurements, shows that tidal currents interacting with the larger relict submarine delta help disperse fine sediment large distances east and west of the river mouth. The model also suggests that waves and currents erode the primary deposit located near the river mouth and transport sandy sediment eastward to form the secondary deposit. Though most of the substrate of the larger relict submarine delta was unchanged during the first two years of dam removal, portions of the seafloor close to the river mouth became finer, modifying habitats for biological communities. These results show that river restoration, like natural changes in river sediment supply, can result in rapid and substantial coastal geomorphological responses.

  15. Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin dam-hydraulic system, travel time and temperature modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Bishnu; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    SummaryTiete River System in the State of Sao Paolo, Brazil is characterized by complex hydraulics and operational problems due to series of dams and point and diffuse inflows along the river. A one dimension Lagrangian river model was developed and applied to the 313 km reach of the Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin from the Penha Dam to the head water of Bara Bonita Reservoir, a stretch of river that includes six small to medium size dams (3.4-22 m high) including the Pirapora Reservoir and 26 inflows into the river (11 tributaries, 9 diffuse source areas, and discharges of 4 cities stormwater and 2 wastewater treatment plants. The conservative tracer transport and temperature model that accounts for the short and long wave radiation and heat transfers at the free surface was included and solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The time variable catchment input to the model was the simulated output of the external hydrological model called Runoff Load Model which results were provided by CETESB. The numerical treatment of series of dams and spillway (that included uncontrolled overflow spillway, gate-controlled ogee spillway; and underflow gates and tunnels) and parameterisation of hydraulic jumps are described. Special attention was focused on the high spatial and temporal variation of flows in Tiete River Basin, a result of the large variation in catchment inflows and channel geometry due to dams and reservoirs along the river. Predicted and measured spatial and seasonal variation of flow and temperature profiles along the river show good agreement. The simulated travel time of conservative tracer is compared against the CETESB's 1982 and 1984 field study data in a 254 km reach of the Middle Tiete River that again shows good agreement. Being Lagrangian in construction, this new model is computationally efficient making it an ideal tool for long term simulation for water resource planning, management and operation decision making in a large and complex river

  16. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  17. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: river channel and floodplain geomorphic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Pess, George R.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Logan, Joshua; Randle, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Minear, Justin T.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Liermann, Martin C.; McHenry, Michael L.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    As 10.5 million t (7.1 million m3) of sediment was released from two former reservoirs, downstream dispersion of a sediment wave caused widespread bed aggradation of ~ 1 m (greater where pools filled), changed the river from pool–riffle to braided morphology, and decreased the slope of the lowermost river. The newly deposited sediment, which was finer than most of the pre-dam-removal bed, formed new bars (largely pebble, granule, and sand material), prompting aggradational channel avulsion that increased the channel braiding index by almost 50%. As a result of mainstem bed aggradation, floodplain channels received flow and accumulated new sediment even during low to moderate flow conditions. The river system showed a two- to tenfold greater geomorphic response to dam removal (in terms of bed elevation change magnitude) than it had to a 40-year flood event four years before dam removal. Two years after dam removal began, as the river had started to incise through deposits of the initial sediment wave, ~ 1.2 million t of new sediment (~ 10% of the amount released from the two reservoirs) was stored along 18 river km of the mainstem channel and 25 km of floodplain channels. The Elwha River thus was able to transport most of the released sediment to the river mouth. The geomorphic alterations and changing bed sediment grain size along the Elwha River have important ecological implications, affecting aquatic habitat structure, benthic fauna, salmonid fish spawning and rearing potential, and riparian vegetation. The response of the river to dam removal represents a unique opportunity to observe and quantify fundamental geomorphic processes associated with a massive sediment influx, and also provides important lessons for future river-restoration endeavors.

  18. Sediment Transport and Deposition Resulting from a Dam-Removal Sediment Pulse: Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, MT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    The removal of Milltown Dam in 2008 from the Clark Fork River, Montana, USA, lowered base level at the dam site by 9 m and triggered erosion of nearly 600,000 metric tons of predominantly fine reservoir sediment. Bedload and bed-material sampling, repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport modeling, geochemical fingerprinting of downstream sediments, and Lidar analysis have all been applied to study the upstream and downstream effects of the dam removal. In the years since dam breaching, successive years with similar peak flows (3-year recurrence interval) were followed by a third year with below-average runoff. Nearly all of the documented reservoir erosion occurred in the first year, when sand and silt was eroded and transported downstream. In subsequent years, minimal reservoir erosion occurred, in part as a result of active management to prevent further reservoir erosion, but coarse material eroded from the reservoir has dispersed downstream. Upstream responses in this system have been strongly mediated by Superfund remediation activities in Milltown Reservoir, in which over two million metric tons of contaminated sediments have been mechanically excavated. Downstream aggradation has been limited in the main channel but was initially substantial in bars and side channels of a multi-thread reach 21 to 25 km downstream of the dam site, suggesting that channel change has been influenced far more by the antecedent depositional environment than by proximity to the source of the sediment pulse. Comparison of observed erosion with pre-removal modeling shows that reservoir erosion exceeded model predictions by two orders of magnitude in the unconfined Clark Fork arm of the reservoir. In addition, fine reservoir sediments predicted to move exclusively in suspension traveled as bedload at lower transport stages. The resulting fine sediment deposition in substrate interstices, on bars, and in side channels of the gravel- and cobble-bed Clark Fork River is the most

  19. Klamath River Water Quality and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Stewart, Marc A.; Wellman, Roy W.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, Watercourse Engineering, and the Bureau of Reclamation began a project to construct and calibrate a water quality and hydrodynamic model of the 21-mile reach of the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam. To provide a basis for this work, data collection and experimental work were planned for 2007 and 2008. This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents data from the first year of work. To determine water velocities and discharge, a series of cross-sectional acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were made on the mainstem and four canals on May 30 and September 19, 2007. Water quality was sampled weekly at five mainstem sites and five tributaries from early April through early November, 2007. Constituents reported here include field parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, iron, silica, and alkalinity; specific UV absorbance at 254 nm; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. The ADCP measurements conducted in good weather conditions in May showed that four major canals accounted for most changes in discharge along the mainstem on that day. Direction of velocity at measured locations was fairly homogeneous across the channel, while velocities were generally lowest near the bottom, and highest near surface, ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 ft/s. Measurements in September, made in windy conditions, raised questions about the effect of wind on flow. Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased and remained elevated in summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and nitrite had a different seasonal cycle and were below detection or at low concentration in summer. Many nutrient and

  20. National Dam Safety Program. Upper Apple Mountain & Lower Apple Mountain. Dam (Inventory Number VA 18711 and VA 18709), Potomac River Basin, Warren County, Virginia. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    which may pose hazards to human life or property. The assessment of the gereral conditions of the dam is based upon available data and visual...including required remedial measures. -4 :1 SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAeflWbM DM 11110 • - .’,’, , .,’ POTOMAC RIVER ASIN NAME OF DAM: UPPER APPLE...20314. The purpose of a Phase I investi- gation is to identify expeditiously those dams which may pose hazards to human life or property. The assessment

  1. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Townsend Harbor Dam (MA 00138), Merrimack River Basin, Townsend, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    dry- weather river flow. m h. Design and Construction History - There are no records of the design or construction of this dam. A newspaper account and...1,430 cfs. Such a wet- weather flow would produce flooding conditions downstream prior to dam failure. While this flooding would not be expected to...the spillway and any necessary modifications to the facility to pro- vide adequate capacity, taking into account the sumbergence of the dam. 2. An

  2. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Dolloff Dam NH 00134 State Number 184.02, Piscataqua River Basin, Nottingham, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    overtop the dam by 3.5 ft. at the lowest point of the crest. DD OR 1473 ILOITION OF INOV *S IS OBSOLE E -DD- ..A ., OW DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...Estimating Downstream Dam Failure Hydro - graphs issued by the Corps of Engineers. The analysis covered the reach extending from the dam to the village...Ownership passed onto the Lamprey S• River Improvement Company, a subsidiary of New Hampshire Gas and Electric Company, sometime prior to 1917. The New

  3. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Hartford Reservoir Number 5 Dam (CT 00004), Park River Basin, Hartford, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Coneftu an #*VMS* aide lin*608ey smollF~~ AV eeb aioMS.) DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY , PARK RIVER BASIN HARTFORD CONN. 2.ABSTRACT (Caoiiuume an revoroe...consistent with the Recomended Guidelines for Safety Inspection of Dj_m. and with good engineering judguent and practice, and is hereby submtted for...prepared under guidance contained in the Recommended Guidelines for Safety Inspection of Dams, for Phase I Investigations. Copies of theses guidelines

  4. Understanding Hydrological Regime Alterations Caused by dams: the Santiago River case in the Andean Region of the Amazon Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero-Lopez, D.; Flecker, A.; Walter, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources in South America have been clearly targeted as key sources for hydropower expansion over the next 30 years. Ecuador, among the most biologically diverse countries in the world, has the highest density of hydropower dams, either operational, under construction, or planned, in the Amazon Basin. Ecuador's ambitious plan to change its energy portfolio is conceived to satisfy the country's demand and to empower the country to be the region's first hydroelectric energy exporter. The Santiago watershed located in the southeast part of the country has 39 facilities either under construction or in operation. The Santiago River and its main tributaries (Zamora and Upano) are expected to be impounded by large dams over the next 10 years. In order to understand the magnitude and potential impacts of regional dam development on hydrological regimes, a 35-year historical data set of stream discharge was analyzed. We examined flow regimes for time series between the construction of each dam, starting with the oldest and largest built in 1982 up until the most recent dam built in 2005. Preliminary results indicate a systematic displacement in flow seasonality following post-dam compared to pre-dam conditions. There are also notable differences in the distributions of peaks and pulses in post-dam flows. The range of changes from these results shows that punctuated and cumulative impacts are related to the size of each new impoundment. These observations and their implications to the livelihoods, biota, and ecosystems services in the Santiago watershed need to be incorporated into a broader cost-benefit analysis of hydropower generation in the western Amazon Basin.

  5. Water temperature effects from simulated changes to dam operations and structures in the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.

    2017-05-31

    Green Peter and Foster Dams on the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon, have altered the annual downstream water temperature profile (cycle). Operation of the dams has resulted in cooler summer releases and warmer autumn releases relative to pre-dam conditions, and that alteration can hinder recovery of various life stages of threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss). Lake level management and the use of multiple outlets from varying depths at the dams can enable the maintenance of a temperature regime more closely resembling that in which the fish evolved by releasing warm surface water during summer and cooler, deeper water in the autumn. At Green Peter and Foster Dams, the outlet configuration is such that temperature control is often limited by hydropower production at the dams. Previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 water temperature models of Green Peter and Foster Lakes were used to simulate the downstream thermal effects from hypothetical structures and modified operations at the dams. Scenarios with no minimum power production requirements allowed some releases through shallower and deeper outlets (summer and autumn) to achieve better temperature control throughout the year and less year-to-year variability in autumn release temperatures. Scenarios including a hypothetical outlet floating 1 meter below the lake surface resulted in greater ability to release warm water during summer compared to existing structures. Later in Autumn (October 15–December 31), a limited amount of temperature control was realized downstream from Foster Dam by scenarios limited to operational changes with existing structures, resulting in 15-day averages within 1.0 degree Celsius of current operations.

  6. Dam removal, connectivity, and aquatic resources in the St. Regis River Watershed, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Hanak, Kaitlin; DeVilbiss, Katharine; David, Anthony; Johnson, James H.

    2015-10-09

    The decommissioning and planned removal of the Hogansburg Dam on the St. Regis River in New York has stimulated interest in the potential effects of that barrier removal on the St. Regis watershed. There will be immediate and systemic effects of the Hogansburg Dam removal, which may include inundation of habitats below the dam or dewatering of habitats above the dam, possibly affecting local fish assemblages and (or) local native mussel assemblages; and expansion of stream network connectivity, which has the potential to open a large area of the watershed to migratory aquatic species. Information was collected about biota, water quality, sediment distribution, riverbed dimensions in the vicinity of the dam, and habitat characteristics of headwater sample sites. Complete fish assemblages were collected, but species of special concern associated with the connectivity changes included, American Eel, Atlantic Salmon, Brook Trout, Eastern Sand Darter, and Lake Sturgeon. Freshwater mussels in the vicinity of the dam also were examined and may be at risk of exposure (without a rescue plan) after dam removal. Reservoir sediment will be transported downstream and will alter aquatic habitat as it moves through the system. The dam removal will open more than 440 kilometers of stream habitat to migratory species, allowing them to more easily complete their life cycles. Fish assemblages above the dam may be altered by migrating fishes, but resident Brook Trout are not expected to be adversely affected.

  7. Factors affecting route selection and survival of steelhead kelts at Snake River dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Green, Ethan D.

    2015-03-31

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a study that summarized the passage route proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged kelts. Kelts were also tagged with passive integrated transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems (JBS) and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that were related to forebay residence time, route of passage, and survival of steelhead kelts at FCRPS dams on the Snake River. Multiple approaches, including 3-D tracking, bivariate and multivariable regression modeling, and decision tree analyses were used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the greatest effect on forebay residence time, route of passage, and route-specific and overall dam passage survival probabilities for tagged kelts at Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams. In general, kelt behavior and discharge appeared to work independently to affect forebay residence times. Kelt behavior, primarily approach location, migration depth, and “searching” activities in the forebay, was found to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. The condition of kelts was the single most important factor affecting their survival. The information gathered in this study may be used by dam operators and fisheries managers to identify potential management actions to improve in-river survival of kelts or collection methods for kelt reconditioning programs to aid

  8. Assessment of dam impacts on sediment dynamics and channel geometry in complex anthropogenic systems: feedbacks from comparative study of the Sacramento and the Ain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollet, A. J.; Piégay, H.; Michalkova, M.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the complexity of river adjustments downstream dams (Williams and Wolman, 1984; Brandt, 2000; Petts and Gurnell, 2005), depending on many parameters such catchment geology context (Grant et al., 2003), land use, pre-dam sediment supply and transport regime, degree of hydrologic alteration (Church, 1995; Schmidt and Wilcock, 2008), and dam characteristics and operation (Brewer and Lewin, 1998). Dam impact is particularly difficult to evaluate in river systems where human pressures are old and manifold, and where dam-induced impacts can be compounded by other human influences, such as in-channel aggregate mining (Kondolf 1997). In such cases, it may be challenging to sort out the causal links between dam-induced disruptions and resulting channel adjustment. To illustrate these problems, we introduce two complex case studies, the Ain (France) and Sacramento (California) Rivers, both freely meandering rivers regulated since mid-20th century, whose sedimentary and morphologic dynamic have been modified in different ways since the end of the 19th century. Dam impacts can be distinguished from the effects of other factors such as floodplain disconnection by flood-control infrastructure, land-use changes, and artificial meander-bend cutoff. The Ain River evinces a significant sediment deficit, which results in bed degradation, decrease in area of gravel bars , and reduced lateral channel migration. As a result, sediment supply is reduced not only from trapping by upstream reservoirs but also by reduced bank erosion. In the case of the Sacramento, the impact of the dam is not as clear as on the Ain due to major effects of prior pressures on the channel. Using aerial imagery and field measurements (grain-size measurements…), we led a spatiotemporal study of several morphologic parameters (active channel narrowing, gravel bar areas …) to underline the relative contribution of dams to the contemporary channel evolution. These analyses are

  9. Large-Scale Dam Removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: River Channel and Floodplain Geomorphic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, A. E.; Pess, G. R.; Bountry, J.; Magirl, C. S.; Ritchie, A. C.; Logan, J. B.; Randle, T. J.; Mastin, M. C.; Duda, J.; Liermann, M. C.; McHenry, M. L.; Beechie, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A substantial increase in fluvial sediment supply causes complex, large-magnitude changes in river and floodplain morphology. Although sedimentary and geomorphic responses to sediment influx are a fundamental part of landscape evolution, few opportunities exist to quantify those processes over field scales. We investigated downstream effects of sediment released during the largest dam removal in history, on the Elwha River, WA, USA, by measuring changes in riverbed elevation and topography, bed-sediment grain size, and channel planform as two dams were removed in stages over two years. As 10.5 million t (7.1 million m3) of sediment was released from two former reservoirs, downstream dispersion of a sediment wave caused widespread bed aggradation of ~1 m (greater where pools filled), changed the river from pool-riffle to braided morphology, and decreased the slope of the lowermost river. The newly deposited sediment, which was finer than most of the pre-dam-removal bed, formed new bars (largely pebble, granule, and sand material), prompting aggradational channel avulsion that increased the channel braiding index by almost 50%. As a result of mainstem bed aggradation, floodplain channels received flow and accumulated new sediment even during low to moderate flow conditions. The river system showed a two- to ten-fold greater geomorphic response to dam removal (bed-elevation change) than it had to a 40-year flood event four years before dam removal. Two years after dam removal began, as the river had started to incise through the new deposits, approximately 1.2 million t of new sediment (~10% of the amount released from the two reservoirs) was stored along 18 river km of the mainstem channel and 25 km of floodplain channels. The Elwha River thus was able to transport most of the released sediment to the river mouth. The geomorphic alterations and changing bed-sediment grain size along the Elwha River have important ecological implications, affecting aquatic habitat

  10. Impact of dam construction on river banks evolution and sediment dynamics. A case study from the Po River (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Crose, L.; Del Bianco, F.; Mercorella, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers draining densely populated landscapes are extremely impacted by modern human engineering: armored beds, artificial levees and dams modified natural fluvial dynamics, and consequently, the evolution of alluvial plains, deltas and coastal environments. Dams, in particular, segmented the longitudinal continuity of the river and reduced (or even interrupted) the export of sediment toward the sea. Here we investigate the impact of the Isola Serafini dam on the upstream portion of the Po River (Italy) influenced by backwater, by using an integrated approach of aerial and satellite images, longitudinal cross-sections, grain size analysis, backscatter data and multibeam bathymetry. The analysis of aerial photographs, acquired every 10 yr since the dam construction in 1960, and of longitudinal cross-sections, allows understanding how the river adjusts its profile in response to the backwater and quantifying areas of net river banks erosion and deposition in meanders. The drowning of the reaches influenced by backwater reduced the progradation of point bars and promoted the deposition of fine grained sediments, as highlighted by grain size analysis on surficial sediment sampled across and along the river course. Calibrated back-scatter data with grain-size distributions of two selected meanders, under the backwater effect and beyond, show how sands are progressively replaced by fine-grained sediments in the meander belt and in the river axis, mainly reflecting the reduction of flow velocity, inferred also by river bed roughness. The understanding of river and sediment dynamics under the influence of backwater due to dam construction is useful when studying pristine systems in which natural backwater affects their evolution, as in the case of the formation of standing water bodies during the drowning of an incised valley.

  11. Predicting the thermal effects of dam removal on the Klamath River.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, John M; Campbell, Sharon G; Flug, Marshall

    2004-12-01

    The Klamath River once supported large runs of anadromous salmonids. Water temperature associated with multiple mainstem hydropower facilities might be one of many factors responsible for depressing Klamath salmon stocks. We combined a water quantity model and a water quality model to predict how removing the series of dams below Upper Klamath Lake might affect water temperatures, and ultimately fish survival, in the spawning and rearing portions of the mainstem Klamath. We calibrated the water quantity and quality models and applied them for the hydrometeorological conditions during a 40-year postdam period. Then, we hypothetically removed the dams and their impoundments from the models and reestimated the river's water temperatures. The principal thermal effect of dam and reservoir removal would be to restore the timing (phase) of the river's seasonal thermal signature by shifting it approximately 18 days earlier in the year, resulting in river temperatures that more rapidly track ambient air temperatures. Such a shift would likely cool thermal habitat conditions for adult fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during upstream migration and benefit mainstem spawning. By contrast, spring and early summer temperatures could be warmer without dams, potentially harming chinook rearing and outmigration in the mainstem. Dam removal might affect the river's thermal regime during certain conditions for over 200 km of the mainstem.

  12. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  13. The use of historical maps for reconstructing landforms before river damming. The case of the Swiss Rhone River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, E.; Laigre, L.; Baud, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss Rhone River was systematically embanked during the period 1864-1893. The Swiss Rhone River valley is a glacial valley filled by glaciolacustrine, fluvioglacial and fluvial sediments. Torrential tributaries contribute to a large extent to the sedimentation in the valley and have built large alluvial fans in the main valley. The period before the river damming corresponds to the Little Ice Age, and it is supposed that the torrential behaviour of the river and its tributaries was very active during that period. In parallel to a large hydraulic project (Third Rhone River Correction), aiming at enlarging the river for security and environmental reasons, this project aims at reconstructing the palaeogeomorphology of the river floodplain before and also during the 30-year long embankment project developed during the last decades of the 19th century. The objective is to better know the geomorphological behaviour of the river, and also to localize palaolandforms (meanders, braided patterns, sandstone dunes, wetlands, etc.), present in the floodplain in the first part of the 19th century and that have now totally disappeared. The project is carried out in close collaboration with the Cantonal Archives of Valais and with a group of historians working on the relations between the river and the communities. It should contribute to a better knowledge of the Swiss Rhone River history (Reynard et al., 2009). Both published official maps (Dufour maps, Siegfried maps) and unpublished maps and plans are systematically collected, digitized, and organised in a database managed by a Geographical Information System. Other data are collected (place names, geomorphological, hydrological and hydraulic data, information about land-use and vegetation, paintings and photographs, etc.) and localised. A high-resolution digital terrain model and areal photographs are also used and allow us to map palaeolandforms (meanders, filled oxbow lakes, former channels, etc.). In a second step

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Beatties Mill Dam (NJ00821), Passaic River Basin, Passaic River, Passaic County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    allowing diversion of 75 mgd from the Passaic River to the Passaic Valley Water Commission’s water treatment plant for treatment and municipal use. Several...half of the PMF. Failure of the dam would cause interruption of raw water supply (75 mgd) to the Passaic Valley Water Commission’s water treatment plant . This...created by Beatties Mill Dam serves to create a diversion pool for a canal leading to a water treatment plant . This canal is controlled from a gate house

  15. Sedimentology of new fluvial deposits on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, formed during large-scale dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy; Ritchie, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of two dams 32 m and 64 m high on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, provided the first opportunity to examine river response to a dam removal and controlled sediment influx on such a large scale. Although many recent river-restoration efforts have included dam removal, large dam removals have been rare enough that their physical and ecological effects remain poorly understood. New sedimentary deposits that formed during this multi-stage dam removal result from a unique, artificially created imbalance between fluvial sediment supply and transport capacity. River flows during dam removal were essentially natural and included no large floods in the first two years, while draining of the two reservoirs greatly increased the sediment supply available for fluvial transport. The resulting sedimentary deposits exhibited substantial spatial heterogeneity in thickness, stratal-formation patterns, grain size and organic content. Initial mud deposition in the first year of dam removal filled pore spaces in the pre-dam-removal cobble bed, potentially causing ecological disturbance but not aggrading the bed substantially at first. During the second winter of dam removal, thicker and in some cases coarser deposits replaced the early mud deposits. By 18 months into dam removal, channel-margin and floodplain deposits were commonly >0.5 m thick and, contrary to pre-dam-removal predictions that silt and clay would bypass the river system, included average mud content around 20%. Large wood and lenses of smaller organic particles were common in the new deposits, presumably contributing additional carbon and nutrients to the ecosystem downstream of the dam sites. Understanding initial sedimentary response to the Elwha River dam removals will inform subsequent analyses of longer-term sedimentary, geomorphic and ecosystem changes in this fluvial and coastal system, and will provide important lessons for other river-restoration efforts where large dam removal is planned or

  16. Research on evaluation methods for water regulation ability of dams in the Huai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, G. H.; Lv, S. F.; Ma, K.

    2016-08-01

    Water environment protection is a global and urgent problem that requires correct and precise evaluation. Evaluation methods have been studied for many years; however, there is a lack of research on the methods of assessing the water regulation ability of dams. Currently, evaluating the ability of dams has become a practical and significant research orientation because of the global water crisis, and the lack of effective ways to manage a dam's regulation ability has only compounded this. This paper firstly constructs seven evaluation factors and then develops two evaluation approaches to implement the factors according to the features of the problem. Dams of the Yin Shang ecological control section in the Huai He River basin are selected as an example to demonstrate the method. The results show that the evaluation approaches can produce better and more practical suggestions for dam managers.

  17. Compiling an Open Database of Dam Inundation Areas on the Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, and Red River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, P. G.; Walcutt, A.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.; Geheb, K.; Troy, A.; Saah, D. S.; Ganz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Dam construction in mainland Southeast Asia has increased substantially in recent years with extensive regional impacts including alterations to water regimes, the loss and degradation of natural forests and biodiversity, and reductions in soil and water quality. The CGIAR Water Land Ecosystem program (WLE) and partners maintain a comprehensive database of locations and other data relating to existing, planned, and proposed dams in the region's major transboundary rivers spanning areas in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, and China. A recent regional needs assessment and specific stakeholder requests revealed the need for a dataset reflecting the inundation areas of these dams for use in measuring impacts to river ecology, analyzing disaster risk, monitoring land cover and land use change, evaluating carbon emissions, and assessing the actual and potential impacts to communities. In conjunction with WLE and other partners, SERVIR-Mekong, a regional hub of the USAID and NASA-supported SERVIR program, formulated an explicit procedure to produce this dataset. The procedure includes leveraging data from OpenStreetMap and other sources, creating polygons based on surface water classification procedures achieved via Google Earth Engine, manual digitizing, and modeling of planned/proposed dams based on a DEM and the location and planned height of dams. A quality assurance step ensures that all polygons conform to spatial data quality standards agreed upon by a wide range of production partners. When complete, the dataset will be made publicly available to encourage greater understanding and more informed decisions related to the actual and potential impacts of dams in the region.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Missouri River Bed Evolution Downstream of Gavins Point Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Z. A.; Blum, M. D.; Lephart, G.; Viparelli, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Missouri River originates in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and joins the Mississippi River near Saint Louis, Missouri. In the 1900s dam construction and river engineering works, such as river alignment, narrowing and bank protections were performed in the Missouri River basin to control the flood flows, ensure navigation and use the water for agricultural, industrial and municipal needs, for the production of hydroelectric power generation and for recreation. These projects altered the flow and the sediment transport regimes in the river and the exchange of sediment between the river and the adjoining floodplain. Here we focus on the long term effect of dam construction and channel narrowing on the 1200 km long reach of the Missouri River between Gavins Point Dam, Nebraska and South Dakota, and the confluence with the Mississippi River. Field observations show that two downstream migrating waves of channel bed degradation formed in this reach in response to the changes in flow regime, sediment load and channel geometry. We implemented a one dimensional morphodynamic model for large, low slope sand bed rivers, we validated the model at field scale by comparing the numerical results with the available field data and we use the model to 1) predict the magnitude and the migration rate of the waves of degradation at engineering time scales ( 150 years into the future), 2) quantify the changes in the sand load delivered to the Mississippi River, where field observations at Thebes, i.e. downstream of Saint Louis, suggest a decline in the mean annual sand load in the past 50 years, and 3) identify the role of the main tributaries - Little Sioux River, Platte River and Kansas River - on the wave migration speed and the annual sand load in the Missouri River main channel.

  19. Natural streamflow regime alterations: Damming of the Piave river basin (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Porporato, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-06-01

    A novel approach is proposed to estimate the natural streamflow regime of a river and to assess the extent of the alterations induced by dam operation related to anthropogenic (e.g., agricultural, hydropower) water uses in engineered river basins. The method consists in the comparison between the seasonal probability density function (pdf) of observed streamflows and the purportedly natural streamflow pdf obtained by a recently proposed and validated probabilistic model. The model employs a minimum of landscape and climate parameters and unequivocally separates the effects of anthropogenic regulations from those produced by hydroclimatic fluctuations. The approach is applied to evaluate the extent of the alterations of intra-annual streamflow variability in a highly engineered alpine catchment of north-eastern Italy, the Piave river. Streamflows observed downstream of the regulation devices in the Piave catchment are found to exhibit smaller means/modes, larger coefficients of variation, and more pronounced peaks than the flows that would be observed in the absence of anthropogenic regulation, suggesting that the anthropogenic disturbance leads to remarkable reductions of river flows, with an increase of the streamflow variability and of the frequency of preferential states far from the mean. Some structural limitations of management approaches based on minimum streamflow requirements (widely used to guide water policies) as opposed to criteria based on whole distributions are also discussed.

  20. Detection of PIT-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon at a Snake River dam: Implications for summer flow augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Bennett, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Rearing subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (≥60 mm in fork length) were captured in the Snake River and tagged with passive integrated transponders to provide an index of their survival to Lower Granite Dam, the first of eight dams encountered by seaward migrants. Water was released from reservoirs upstream of Lower Granite Dam to augment summer flows and thereby increase subyearling chinook salmon survival. Mean summer flow and maximum summer water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir were highly correlated (N = 4; r = −0.999). Acknowledging this correlation, we conducted two separate least-squares regressions using detection rate as the dependent variable. Detection rate at Lower Granite Dam was positively related to mean summer flow (N = 4; r 2 = 0.993; P = 0.003) and negatively related to maximum summer water temperature (N = 4; r 2 = 0.984; P = 0.008). Summer flow augmentation increased flow and decreased water temperature in Lower Granite Reservoir especially in low-flow years. Our results support summer flow augmentation as a beneficial interim recovery measure for enhancing survival of subyearling chinook salmon in the Snake River. Additional research should include replicate within-year releases of PIT-tagged subyearlings as well as studies of fish guidance efficiency.

  1. A river might run through it again: criteria for consideration of dam removal and interim lessons from California.

    PubMed

    Pejchar, L; Warner, K

    2001-11-01

    Resource managers are increasingly being challenged by stakeholder groups to consider dam removal as a policy option and as a tool for watershed management. As more dam owners face high maintenance costs, and rivers as spawning grounds for anadromous fish become increasingly valuable, dam removal may provide the greatest net benefit to society. This article reviews the impact of Endangered Species Act listings for anadromous fish and recent shifts in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's hydropower benefit-costs analysis and discusses their implications for dam removal in California. We propose evaluative criteria for consideration of dam removal and apply them to two case studies: the Daguerre and Englebright Dams on the Yuba River and the Scott and Van Horne Dams on the South Eel River, California.

  2. Predicted Effects of Hydropower Uprate on Trout Habitat in the Cumberland River, Downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    is useful for predicting flow patterns in simple, straight channels. Flow patterns at cross sections located on bends or with complex channel...URN), regulates flows in the Cumberland River at Wolf Creek Dam to provide for hydropower generation and flood control. The ORN is considering...Instream Flow Incremental Methodology concepts. The relative downstream habitat impacts of hydro- power uprate are assessed by contrasting existing

  3. National Dam Safety Program. Elmwood City Lake Dam (MO 10240), Grand - Chariton River Basin, Sullivan County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    SHIFRIN DACW4-79-C-OOOTS LNCLASSIFtED NI mmumeummmmmm EEEEEEmmmEmmI LEVE-i GRAND-CHARITON RIVER BASIN . ELMWOOD CITY LAKE DAM SULLIVAN COUNTY, MISSOURII...DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING River Basin, Sullivan County, Missouri. r SCHEDULE is. IMST0l Phase I Inspection Report. .... Approved for release; distribution...in the general area of the dam belong to the soil series of Weller-Keswick-Lindley- Mandeville in the Central Mississipi Valley Wooded Slopes Forest

  4. A framework for social impact analysis of large dams: a case study of cascading dams on the Upper-Mekong River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Lassoie, James P; Dong, Shikui; Morreale, Stephen J

    2013-03-15

    Construction of large dams on the Upper-Mekong River, China, has significant social impacts on local communities. To analyze the social impacts, we identified three classes of wealth for the affected people, material, embodied, and relational, and comprehensively compared the loss and compensation in each type of wealth. Then we examined the effects on gap of wealth at household and community levels. Lastly, an insider-outsider analysis was conducted to understand the differences in the perceptions of wealth loss between local villagers and policy makers, and recommendations for more reasonable compensation policies were provided.

  5. Coastal and lower Elwha River, Washington, prior to dam removal--history, status, and defining characteristics: Chapter 1 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing the physical and biological characteristics of the lower Elwha River, its estuary, and adjacent nearshore habitats prior to dam removal is essential to monitor changes to these areas during and following the historic dam-removal project set to begin in September 2011. Based on the size of the two hydroelectric projects and the amount of sediment that will be released, the Elwha River in Washington State will be home to the largest river restoration through dam removal attempted in the United States. Built in 1912 and 1927, respectively, the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams have altered key physical and biological characteristics of the Elwha River. Once abundant salmon populations, consisting of all five species of Pacific salmon, are restricted to the lower 7.8 river kilometers downstream of Elwha Dam and are currently in low numbers. Dam removal will reopen access to more than 140 km of mainstem, flood plain, and tributary habitat, most of which is protected within Olympic National Park. The high capture rate of river-borne sediments by the two reservoirs has changed the geomorphology of the riverbed downstream of the dams. Mobilization and downstream transport of these accumulated reservoir sediments during and following dam removal will significantly change downstream river reaches, the estuary complex, and the nearshore environment. To introduce the more detailed studies that follow in this report, we summarize many of the key aspects of the Elwha River ecosystem including a regional and historical context for this unprecedented project.

  6. Geomorphic evolution to large check-dam removal on a mountain river in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Kuo, W.

    2012-12-01

    As aging dams become obsolete or economically inefficient, dam removal has become an important aspect of river restoration in recent years. While various efforts are ongoing to enhance our understanding, studies documenting the physical and ecological responses to dam removal are still lacking, particularly for removal of large dams in mountain river and following major flood, where the size of watersheds and the amount of reservoir sediment released can be much greater than for most previously studied dam removals. This presentation documents the geomorphic evolution to removal of a large dam on a coarse-grained, steep (an order of magnitude greater than on the Marmot) mountain channel in Taiwan. The Chijiawan creek is the only habitat in Taiwan of the endangered Formosan landlocked salmon. Its habitat has been cut significantly since the 1960s following construction of check dams designed to prevent reservoir sedimentation downstream. The largest and lowermost barrier on Chijiawan creek is the 15m high, "No. 1 Check Dam" built in 1971. Forty years later, the dam had backfilled with about an estimated 0.2 million m3 sediment and its toe had been scoured about 4m below its foundation, raising a significant risk of dam failure. For these reasons, the Shei-Pa National Park removed the dam in late May 2011. To monitor the channel response to dam removal, we conducted surveys of grain size distributions, cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, analyzed the stage and turbidity records, and carried out repeat photography. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal as a result of the high stream power, steep energy slope, and unconsolidated alluvial fill behind the dam. Headcut propagation caused immediate removal of the sand-grade sediment and progressive channel widening. One month after dam removal, a minor flood event with the estimated peak discharge of 20 m3/s excavated a big wedge of sediment from the impoundment. Two months after dam removal

  7. A riverscape perspective of Pacific salmonids and aquatic habitats prior to large-scale dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, S.J.; Duda, J.J.; Torgersen, C.E.; Welty, E.; Pess, G.R.; Peters, R.; McHenry, M.L.

    2012-01-01

     Dam removal has been increasingly proposed as a river restoration technique. In 2011, two large hydroelectric dams will be removed from Washington State’s Elwha River. Ten anadromous fish populations are expected to recolonise historical habitats after dam removal. A key to understanding watershed recolonisation is the collection of spatially continuous information on fish and aquatic habitats. A riverscape approach with an emphasis on biological data has rarely been applied in mid-sized, wilderness rivers, particularly in consecutive years prior to dam removal. Concurrent snorkel and habitat surveys were conducted from the headwaters to the mouth (rkm 65–0) of the Elwha River in 2007 and 2008. This riverscape approach characterised the spatial extent, assemblage structure and patterns of relative density of Pacific salmonids. The presence of dams influenced the longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, and species richness was the highest downstream of the dams, where anadromous salmonids still have access. The percent composition of salmonids was similar in both years for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), coastal cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Richardson) (89%; 88%), Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) (8%; 9%), and bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley) (3% in both years). Spatial patterns of abundance for rainbow and cutthroat trout (r = 0.76) and bull trout (r = 0.70) were also consistent between years. Multivariate and univariate methods detected differences in habitat structure along the river profile caused by natural and anthropogenic factors. The riverscape view highlighted species-specific biological hotspots and revealed that 60–69% of federally threatened bull trout occurred near or below the dams. Spatially continuous surveys will be vital in evaluating the effectiveness of upcoming dam removal projects at restoring anadromous salmonids.

  8. Ecological significance of riverine gravel bars in regulated river reaches below dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ock, G.; Takemon, Y.; Sumi, T.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    A gravel bar has been recognized as ecologically significant in that they provide simplified habitat with topographical, hydrological and thermo-chemical diversity, while enhancing material exchanges as interfaces laterally between aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and vertically between surface and subsurface waters. During past several decades, regulated rivers below dams have been loss of a number of the geomorphological features due to sediment starvation by upstream dams, accompanied by a subsequent degradation of their ecological functions. Despite a growing concern for gravel bar management recognizing its importance in recovering riverine ecosystem services, the ecological roles of gravel bars have not been assessed enough from the empirical perspectives of habitat diversity and organic matter interactions. In this study, we investigate the 'natural filtering effects' for reducing lentic plankton and contaminants associated with self-purification, and 'physicochemical habitat complexity' of gravel bars, focusing on reach-scaled gravel bars in rivers located in three different countries; First is the Uji River in central Japan, where there has been a loss of gravel bars in the downstream reaches since an upstream dam was constructed in 1965; second is the Tagliamento River in northeast Italy, which shows morphologically intact braided bar channels by natural flooding events and sediment supply; third is the Trinity River in the United States (located in northern California), the site of ongoing restoration efforts for creating new gravel bars through gravel augmentation and channel rehabilitation activities. We traced the downstream changes in particulate organic matter (POM) trophic sources (composed of allochthonous terrestrial inputs, autochthonous instream production and lentic plankton from dam outflows) in order to evaluate the roles of the geomorphological features in tailwater ecosystem food-resources shifting. We calculated suspended POM

  9. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's Hydroelectric Development of the Xingu River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Phillip M.

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil’s proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country’s national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  10. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  11. Scale-dependency of macroinvertebrate communities: responses to contaminated sediments within run-of-river dams.

    PubMed

    Colas, Fanny; Archaimbault, Virginie; Devin, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Due to their nutrient recycling function and their importance in food-webs, macroinvertebrates are essential for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. These organisms also constitute an important component of biodiversity. Sediment evaluation and monitoring is an essential aspect of ecosystem monitoring since sediments represent an important component of aquatic habitats and are also a potential source of contamination. In this study, we focused on macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dams, that are prime areas for sediment and pollutant accumulation. Little is known about littoral macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dam or their response to sediment levels and pollution. We therefore aimed to evaluate the following aspects: the functional and structural composition of macroinvertebrate communities in run-of-river dams; the impact of pollutant accumulation on such communities, and the most efficient scales and tools needed for the biomonitoring of contaminated sediments in such environments. Two run-of-river dams located in the French alpine area were selected and three spatial scales were examined: transversal (banks and channel), transversal x longitudinal (banks/channel x tail/middle/dam) and patch scale (erosion, sedimentation and vegetation habitats). At the patch scale, we noted that the heterogeneity of littoral habitats provided many available niches that allow for the development of diversified macroinvertebrate communities. This implies highly variable responses to contamination. Once combined on a global 'banks' spatial scale, littoral habitats can highlight the effects of toxic disturbances.

  12. The occurrence of hepatitis A and astroviruses in selected river and dam waters in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M B; Cox, N; Vrey, M A; Grabow, W O

    2001-08-01

    Over a period of one year (June 1997-May 1998) samples of surface waters, used for domestic and recreational purposes, were collected weekly from the same sites on the Klip River and Vaal Dam, Gauteng, South Africa. Sensitive and specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-oligonucleotide probe assays were used to detect HAV and HAstV RNA in concentrates of the water and infectious virus in cell cultures infected with the water concentrates. HAV was detected in 18 (35.3%) of the river and 19 (37.3%) of the dam water samples, often in association with the RNA from other enteric viruses. HAstV was detected less frequently and was present in 11 (21.6%) of the river and 3 (5.9%) of the dam water samples. A seasonal pattern was noted for HAV but not for HAstV. Cell culture amplification in a variety of carefully selected cell culture systems enhanced the detection of both viruses. Infectious viruses were detected in dam water samples where microbiological indicators of faecal pollution were absent or within acceptable limits. The presence of these viruses in the dam and river water could pose a potential health risk for people using these waters for domestic or recreational purposes.

  13. Influence of a dam on fine-sediment storage in a canyon river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2006-03-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has caused a fundamental change in the distribution of fine sediment storage in the 99-km reach of the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The two major storage sites for fine sediment (i.e., sand and finer material) in this canyon river are lateral recirculation eddies and the main-channel bed. We use a combination of methods, including direct measurement of sediment storage change, measurements of sediment flux, and comparison of the grain size of sediment found in different storage sites relative to the supply and that in transport, in order to evaluate the change in both the volume and location of sediment storage. The analysis shows that the bed of the main channel was an important storage environment for fine sediment in the predam era. In years of large seasonal accumulation, approximately 50% of the fine sediment supplied to the reach from upstream sources was stored on the main-channel bed. In contrast, sediment budgets constructed for two short-duration, high experimental releases from Glen Canyon Dam indicate that approximately 90% of the sediment discharge from the reach during each release was derived from eddy storage, rather than from sandy deposits on the main-channel bed. These results indicate that the majority of the fine sediment in Marble Canyon is now stored in eddies, even though they occupy a small percentage (˜17%) of the total river area. Because of a 95% reduction in the supply of fine sediment to Marble Canyon, future high releases without significant input of tributary sediment will potentially erode sediment from long-term eddy storage, resulting in continued degradation in Marble Canyon.

  14. Influence of a dam on fine-sediment storage in a canyon river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, J.E.; Topping, D.J.; Schmidt, J.C.; Kaplinski, M.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has caused a fundamental change in the distribution of fine sediment storage in the 99-km reach of the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The two major storage sites for fine sediment (i.e., sand and finer material) in this canyon river are lateral recirculation eddies and the main-channel bed. We use a combination of methods, including direct measurement of sediment storage change, measurements of sediment flux, and comparison of the grain size of sediment found in different storage sites relative to the supply and that in transport, in order to evaluate the change in both the volume and location of sediment storage. The analysis shows that the bed of the main channel was an important storage environment for fine sediment in the predam era. In years of large seasonal accumulation, approximately 50% of the fine sediment supplied to the reach from upstream sources was stored on the main-channel bed. In contrast, sediment budgets constructed for two short-duration, high experimental releases from Glen Canyon Dam indicate that approximately 90% of the sediment discharge from the reach during each release was derived from eddy storage, rather than from sandy deposits on the main-channel bed. These results indicate that the majority of the fine sediment in Marble Canyon is now stored in eddies, even though they occupy a small percentage (???17%) of the total river area. Because of a 95% reduction in the supply of fine sediment to Marble Canyon, future high releases without significant input of tributary sediment will potentially erode sediment from long-term eddy storage, resulting in continued degradation in Marble Canyon. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Unsteady flow model of Priest Rapids Dam releases at Hanford Reach, Columbia River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, S.C.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    A model was developed to simulate water levels at three locations on the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam River Mile 396.1 (River Kilometer 639.0) and River Mile 361.50 (River Kilometer 581.7). The model was calibrated and verified over a range of flows. The results of calibration and verification indicate that the model, with reasonable accuracy, simulates stages to within +-0.08 m (+- 0.25 ft) and surface wave timing to within +-20 min. The model can be used by researchers, river system managers, planners, and decision makers as a tool to predict fluctuating water levels at locations downstream of dams. Data produced by the model can be used to evaluate and quantify possible impacts on aquatic organisms, water supply, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and additional hydropower enhancement. Although the results of this model calibrationand the model simulations presented are site-specific, the methodology is generic. Therefore, the model can be adapted to reflect dam discharges and resulting river flows at other river systems affected by water-level fluctuations.

  16. 75 FR 61458 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: May 27, 2010, supplemented on August 12 and August 16, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: Grand Lake in Ottawa...

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  18. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. 207.320 Section 207.320 Navigation and... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level....

  19. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. 207.320 Section 207.320 Navigation and... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level....

  20. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. 207.320 Section 207.320 Navigation and... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level....

  1. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. 207.320 Section 207.320 Navigation and... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level....

  2. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  3. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Glendale Dam (MA 00021), Housatonic River Basin, Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    lma ? 10100Ir Weakh ""maw) DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Housatonic River Basin Stockbridge, MassachusettsL ENSTRACT (Coniftwean - evffea 40,14 Of...sloping, high banks overgrown with trees and bushes. Flows * I in gently meandering path to the Village of Housatonic 6 th J.e Regulating Outlets. There...Reservoir Area. There is an island in the river upstream of the dam with a grove of mature trees established on it, Photo No. 11. An unpaved access road

  4. Alterations of River Flow Caused By Dams. The Ebro River (ne Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalla, R. J.; Kondolf, G. M.

    The Ebro River drains 85,530 km2 of the Cantabrian Range, Pyrenees, and Iberian Massif in northeastern Spain, with a mean annual runoff of 13,400 106 m3 at Tortosa, where it debouches into the Mediterranean Sea, about 180 km south of Barcelona. One hundred eighty-seven reservoirs (two-thirds built between 1950 and 1975) built for hydroelectric production, irrigation, cooling water, and industrial and domestic uses, have a total capacity equivalent to 57% of the Ebro River's mean annual runoff. Gauging records are available from the Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro (CHE), a government agency established in 1926 to manage the water resources in the Ebro River basin. We analyzed 38 gauging records from 22 rivers that, by virtue of their location within the drainage network and period of record, would reflect hydrological changes from reservoir construction and operation. From pre- and post-dam records, we analyzed changes in flood peaks, mean annual runoff, mean daily flows, and mean monthly flows for four distinct climatic zones. Most rivers showed reduction in flood magnitude, with average reduction of over 30% for Q2 and Q10. Greater reductions were associated with higher values of the Impounded Runoff index (IR, calculated as reservoir capacity divided by mean annual runoff). Despite similar values of IR, floods in the low-rainfall Mediterranean tributaries in the southeast part of the basin were more affected by reservoirs than those in the high-rainfall humid Atlantic tributaries in the western part of the basin, with a given percentage of regulation producing twice the flood reduction as in the humid Atlantic zone. Annual runoff did not show strong trends, but the variability of mean daily flows was reduced in most cases due to storing of winter floods and increased baseflows in summer for irrigation. Monthly flows ranged from virtually no change post-dam to complete inversion in seasonal pattern, the latter due to releases for irrigation in the summer

  5. Adaptive Management Implementation: Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Trinity River Restoration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittler, R.; McBain, S.; Stalnaker, C.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Two adaptive management programs, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) and the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) are examined. In both cases, the focus is on managing the aquatic and riparian systems downstream of a large dam and water supply project. The status of the two programs, lessons learned by the program managers and the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) evolution of the TRRP are discussed. The Trinity River illustrates some of the scientific uncertainities that a program faces and the ways the program evolves from concept through implementation.

  6. The fluvial sediment budget of a dammed river (upper Muga, southern Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, G.; Batalla, R. J.; López, R.; Sabater, S.

    2017-09-01

    Many rivers in the Mediterranean region are regulated for urban and agricultural purposes. Reservoir presence and operation results in flow alteration and sediment discontinuity, altering the longitudinal structure of the fluvial system. This study presents a 3-year sediment budget of a highly dammed Mediterranean river (the Muga, southern Pyrenees), which has experienced flow regulation since the 1969 owing to a 61-hm3 reservoir. Flow discharge and suspended sediment concentration were monitored immediately upstream and downstream from the reservoir, whereas bedload transport was estimated by means of bedload formulae and estimated from regional data. Results show how the dam modifies river flow, reducing the magnitude of floods and shortening its duration. At the same time, duration of low flows increases. The downstream flow regime follows reservoir releases that are mostly driven by the irrigation needs in the lowlands. Likewise, suspended sediment and bedload transport are shown to be notably affected by the dam. Sediment transport upstream was mainly associated with floods and was therefore concentrated in short periods of time (i.e., > 90% of the sediment load occurred in < 1% of the time). Downstream from the dam, sediments were transported more constantly (i.e., 90% of the load was carried during 50% of the time). Total sediment load upstream from the dam equalled 23,074 t, while downstream it was < 1000 t. Upstream, sediment load was equally distributed between suspension and bedload (i.e., 10,278 and 12,796 t respectively), whereas suspension dominated sediment transport downstream. More than 95% of the sediments transported from the upstream basins were trapped in the reservoir, a fact that explains the sediment deficit and the river bed armouring observed downstream. Overall, the dam disrupted the natural water and sediment fluxes, generating a highly modified environment downstream. Below the dam, the whole ecosystem shifted to stable conditions owing

  7. Assessing organic contaminant fluxes from contaminated sediments following dam removal in an urbanized river.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Mark G; Perron, Monique M; Sullivan, Julia C; Katz, David R; Burgess, Robert M; King, John

    2014-08-01

    In this study, methods and approaches were developed and tested to assess changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from dam removal in a riverine system. Sediment traps and passive samplers were deployed to measure particulate and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column prior to and following removal of a small, low-head dam in the Pawtuxet River, an urbanized river located in Cranston, RI, USA. During the study, concentrations of particulate and dissolved PAHs ranged from 21.5 to 103 μg/g and from 68 to 164 ng/L, respectively. Overall, temporal trends of PAHs showed no increases in either dissolved or particulate phases following removal of the dam. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs were very low, remaining below 1.72 ng/L at all sites. Particulate PCB concentrations across sites and time showed slightly greater variability, ranging from 80 to 469 ng/g, but with no indication that dam removal influenced any increases. Particulate PAHs and PCBs were sampled continuously at the site located below the dam and did not show sustained increases in concentration resulting from dam removal. The employment of passive sampling technology and sediment traps was highly effective in monitoring the concentrations and flux of contaminants moving through the river system. Variations in river flow had no effect on the concentration of contaminants in the dissolved or particulate phases, but did influence the flux rate of contaminants exiting the river. Overall, dam removal did not cause measurable sediment disturbance or increase the concentration or fluxes of dissolved or particulate PAHs and PCBs. This is due in large part to low volumes of impounded sediment residing above the dam and highly armored sediments in the river channel, which limited erosion. Results from this study will be used to improve methods and approaches that assess the short- and long-term impacts ecological restoration activities such as

  8. Bed Degradation and Sediment Export from the Missouri River after Dam Construction and River Training: Significance to Lower Mississippi River Sediment Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.; Viparelli, E.; Sulaiman, Z. A.; Pettit, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    More than 40,000 dams have been constructed in the Mississippi River drainage basin, which has had a dramatic impact on suspended sediment load for the Mississippi delta. The most significant dams were constructed in the 1950s on the Missouri River in South Dakota, after which total suspended loads for the lower Mississippi River, some 2500 km downstream, were cut in half: gauging station data from the Missouri-Mississippi system show significant load reductions immediately after dam closure, followed by a continued downward trend since that time. The delta region is experiencing tremendous land loss in response to acceleration of global sea-level rise, and load reductions of this magnitude may place severe limits on mitigation efforts. Here we examine sediment export from the Missouri system due to bed scour. The US Army Corps of Engineers has compiled changes in river stage at constant discharge for 8 stations between the lowermost dam at Yankton, South Dakota and the Missouri-Mississippi confluence at St. Louis (a distance of 1250 river km), for the period 1930-2010, which we have updated to 2015. These data show two general reaches of significant bed degradation. The first extends from the last major dam at Yankton, South Dakota downstream 300 km to Omaha, Nebraska, where degradation in response to the dam exceeds 3 m. The second reach, with >2.5 m of degradation, occurs in and around Kansas City, Missouri, and has been attributed to river training activities. The reach between Omaha and Kansas City, as well as the lower Missouri below Kansas City, show <1 m of net bed elevation change over the entire 75-year period of record. Integrating bed elevation changes over the period of record, we estimate a total of 1.1-1.2 billion tons of sediment have been exported from the Missouri River due to bed scour following dam construction and river training. This number equates to 20-25 million tons per year, which is sufficient to account for 30% of the total Missouri

  9. Evaluation of Lower Umatilla River Channel Modifications Below Three Mile Dam, 1985 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Ward, David L.

    1986-02-01

    The second year of a study to evaluate passage of adult anadromous salmonids through channel modifications made in the lower Umatilla River below Three Mile Dam was terminated due to inadequate returns of upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Sampling of returning adults was discontinued on November 15, when it became apparent that insufficient numbers of fall chinook salmon were returning to the river to allow the evaluation. Stream flows were monitored through December 31 to document flow conditions present during the period when returns of fall chinook salmon were anticipated. This report summarizes results prior to termination of the study. Arrival of upriver bright fall chinook salmon at the mouth of the Umatilla River was monitored by boat electrofishing below river kilometer (RKm) 1. Attempts to examine passage of salmon through channel modifications were made using marked and radiotagged fish. Forty-eight jack and six adult salmon were marked and released above a weir placed at RKm 2. Five of the adults were also fitted with radiotransmitters. Thirty fall chinook were collected while boat electrofishing at the mouth of the Umatilla River. Fifteen of those collected were captured between October 14 and October 18, after flows had reached 150 cfs. No salmon were captured at the weir or at Three Mile Dam until flows reached 150 cfs. One radiotagged salmon migrated to the dam at flows of 245 cfs. Only one marked jack salmon was recovered at Three Mile Dam.

  10. Coastal change from a massive sediment input: Dam removal, Elwha River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Stevens, Andrew; Miller, Ian M.; Kaminsky, George M.; Foley, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, provides an ideal opportunity to study coastal morphodynamics during increased sediment supply. The dam removal project exposed ~21 million cubic meters (~30 million tonnes) of sediment in the former reservoirs, and this sediment was allowed to erode by natural river processes. Elevated rates of sand and gravel sediment transport in the river occurred during dam removal. Most of the sediment was transported to the coast, and this renewed sediment supply resulted in hundreds of meters of seaward expansion of the river delta since 2011. Our most recent survey in January 2015 revealed that a cumulative ~3.5 million m3 of sediment deposition occurred at the delta since the beginning of the dam removal project, and that aggradation had exceeded 8 m near the river mouth. Some of the newly deposited sediment has been shaped by waves and currents into a series of subaerial berms that appear to move shoreward with time.

  11. Geomorphic response to large-dam removal: Impacts of a massive sediment release to the Elwha River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magirl, C. S.; Ritchie, A.; Bountry, J.; Randle, T. J.; East, A. E.; Hilldale, R. C.; Curran, C. A.; Pess, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011-2014 staged removals of two nearly century-old dams on the Elwha River in northwest Washington State, the largest dam-removal project in the United States, exposed 21 million m3 of reservoir-trapped sand and gravel to potential fluvial transport. The river downstream from the dams is gravel bedded with a pool-riffle morphology. The river flows 20 km to the marine environment through a riparian corridor lined with large wood and having relatively few anthropogenic alterations. This moderately natural pre-dam-removal condition afforded an unprecedented opportunity to study river response to an anticipated massive sediment release. Four years into the project, 12 million m3 of sediment eroded from the former reservoirs with about 90% of the total load transported to the marine environment. Annualized sediment discharge was as great as 20 times the background natural load. Initial river response to the arrival of the first large sediment pulse was the nearly complete filling of the river's previously sediment-starved pools, widespread filling of side channels, and increased braiding index. In year 2, during maximum aggradation, the river graded to a plane-bedded system, efficiently conveying sediment to the marine environment. Modest peak flows (<2-yr return period) in year 2 promoted sediment transport but caused little large-scale geomorphic disturbance by channel migration or avulsions. As the river processed the sediment pulse, pools returned and the braiding index decreased in years 3-4. Higher peak flows in year 4 caused localized channel widening and migration but no major avulsions. Gauging indicated sand dominated the first stages of sediment release, but fluvial loads coarsened through time with progressive arrival of larger material. The literature suggests the Elwha River sediment wave should have evolved through dispersion with little translation. However, morphologic measurements and data from a stage-gauge network indicated patterns of

  12. Usoi dam wave overtopping and flood routing in the Bartang and Panj Rivers, Tajikistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, J.C.; Walder, J.S.; Denlinger, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Usoi dam was created in the winter of 1911 after an enormous seismogenic rock slide completely blocked the valley of the Bartang River in the Pamir Mountains of southeastern Tajikistan. At present the dam impounds 17 million cubic meters of water in Lake Sarez. Flood volume and discharge estimates were made for several landslide generated floods that could overtop the dam. For landslide volumes of 200, 500, and 1,000 million cubic meters, estimated overtopping flood volumes were 2, 22, and 87 million cubic meters of water, respectively. Estimated peak discharge at the dam for these three flood scenarios were 57,000, 490,000, and 1,580,000 m3/s, based on triangular hydrographs of 70-, 90-, and 110-s durations, respectively. Flood-routing simulations were made for the three landslide-induced overtopping floods over a 530-km reach of the Bartang and Panj Rivers below the Usoi dam. A one-dimensional flow model using a Riemann numerical solution technique was selected for the analysis. For the 87 million cubic meter volume overtopping flood scenario, the peak flows were approximately 1, 100, 800, and 550 m3/s at locations 50, 100, and 150 km downstream of the dam respectively. ?? Springer 2006.

  13. PROFILE: Hungry Water: Effects of Dams and Gravel Mining on River Channels

    PubMed

    Kondolf

    1997-07-01

    / Rivers transport sediment from eroding uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream). Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains. In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up- and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to river-derived aggregate sources.KEY WORDS: Dams; Aquatic habitat; Sediment transport; Erosion; Sedimentation; Gravel mining

  14. Assessing geomorphic change along the Trinity River downstream from Lewiston Dam, California, 1980-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Wright, Scott A.; Minear, Justin T.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The highest rates of change in the areal extents of channel and riparian features were observed during the pre‑2001 period, which was longer and relatively wetter than the post-2001 period. A series of tributary floods in 1997, 1998, and 2006 increased channel complexity and floodplain connectivity. During the post-2006 period, managed-flow releases, in the absence of tributary flooding, combined with gravel augmentation and mechanical restoration, caused localized increases in sediment supply and transport capacity that led to smaller, but measurable, increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity in the upper river near Lewiston Dam. Extensive pre-2001 channel widening and the muted geomorphic response of channel rehabilitation sites to post-2001 managed flows highlight the need for continued monitoring and assessment of the magnitude, duration, and timing of prescriptive flows and associated geomorphic responses.

  15. Geologic features of dam sites in the Nehalem, Rogue, and Willamette River basins, Oregon, 1935-37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, A.M.

    1947-01-01

    The present report comprises brief descriptions of geologic features at 19 potential dam sites in the Nehalem, Rogue, and Willamette River basins in western Oregon. The topography of these site and of the corresponding reservoir site was mapped in 1934-36 under an allocation of funds, by the Public Works Administration for river-utilization surveys by the Conservation Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The field program in Oregon has been under the immediate charge of R. O. Helland. The 19 dam sites are distributed as follows: three on the Nehalem River, on the west or Pacific slope of the Oregon Coast range; four on Little Butte Creek and two on Evans Creek, tributaries of the Rogue River in the eastern part of the Klamath Mountains; four on the South and Middle Santiam Rivers, tributaries of the Willamette River from the west slope of the Cascade mountains; and six on tributaries of the Willamette River from the east slope of the Coast Range. Except in the Evans Creek basin, all the rocks in the districts that were studied are of comparatively late geological age. They include volcanic rocks, crystalline rocks of several types, marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, and recent stream deposits. The study of geologic features has sought to estimate the bearing power and water-tightness of the rocks at each dam site, also to place rather broad limits on the type of dam for which the respective sites seem best suited. It was not considered necessary to study the corresponding reservoir sites in detail for excessive leakage appears to be unlikely. Except at three of the four site in the Santiam River basin, no test pits have been dug nor exploratory holes drilled, so that geologic features have been interpreted wholly from natural outcrops and from highway and railroad cuts. Because these outcrops and cuts are few, many problems related to the construction and maintenance of dams can not be answered at the this time and all critical features of the sites

  16. The Dalles Dam, Columbia River: Spillway Improvement CFD Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2006-06-01

    This report documents development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that were applied to The Dalles spillway for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District. The models have been successfully validated against physical models and prototype data, and are suitable to support biological research and operations management. The CFD models have been proven to provide reliable information in the turbulent high-velocity flow field downstream of the spillway face that is typically difficult to monitor in the prototype. In addition, CFD data provides hydraulic information throughout the solution domain that can be easily extracted from archived simulations for later use if necessary. This project is part of an ongoing program at the Portland District to improve spillway survival conditions for juvenile salmon at The Dalles. Biological data collected at The Dalles spillway have shown that for the original spillway configuration juvenile salmon passage survival is lower than desired. Therefore, the Portland District is seeking to identify operational and/or structural changes that might be implemented to improve fish passage survival. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) went through a sequence of steps to develop a CFD model of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The first step was to identify a preferred CFD modeling package. In the case of The Dalles spillway, Flow-3D was as selected because of its ability to simulate the turbulent free-surface flows that occur downstream of each spilling bay. The second step in development of The Dalles CFD model was to assemble bathymetric datasets and structural drawings sufficient to describe the dam (powerhouse, non-overflow dam, spillway, fish ladder entrances, etc.) and tailrace. These datasets are documented in this report as are various 3-D graphical representations of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The performance of the CFD model was then validated for several cases as the third step. The validated model

  17. Prevalence and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Mathews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibaeterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the outmigration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988–1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988–1990). We sampled 860–2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney–spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1–11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any l year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86–100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4–17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68–87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  18. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: fluvial sediment load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Hilldale, Robert C.; Curran, Christopher A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Foreman, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The Elwha River restoration project, in Washington State, includes the largest dam-removal project in United States history to date. Starting September 2011, two nearly century-old dams that collectively contained 21 ± 3 million m3 of sediment were removed over the course of three years with a top-down deconstruction strategy designed to meter the release of a portion of the dam-trapped sediment. Gauging with sediment-surrogate technologies during the first two years downstream from the project measured 8,200,000 ± 3,400,000 tonnes of transported sediment, with 1,100,000 and 7,100,000 t moving in years 1 and 2, respectively, representing 3 and 20 times the Elwha River annual sediment load of 340,000 ± 80,000 t/y. During the study period, the discharge in the Elwha River was greater than normal (107% in year 1 and 108% in year 2); however, the magnitudes of the peak-flow events during the study period were relatively benign with the largest discharge of 292 m3/s (73% of the 2-year annual peak-flow event) early in the project when both extant reservoirs still retained sediment. Despite the muted peak flows, sediment transport was large, with measured suspended-sediment concentrations during the study period ranging from 44 to 16,300 mg/L and gauged bedload transport as large as 24,700 t/d. Five distinct sediment-release periods were identified when sediment loads were notably increased (when lateral erosion in the former reservoirs was active) or reduced (when reservoir retention or seasonal low flows and cessation of lateral erosion reduced sediment transport). Total suspended-sediment load was 930,000 t in year 1 and 5,400,000 t in year 2. Of the total 6,300,000 ± 3,200,000 t of suspended-sediment load, 3,400,000 t consisted of silt and clay and 2,900,000 t was sand. Gauged bedload on the lower Elwha River in year 2 of the project was 450,000 ± 360,000 t. Bedload was not quantified in year 1, but qualitative observations using bedload

  19. Evaluation of the water quality in the releases from thirty dams in the Tennessee River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has routinely monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature from the tailwater releases of its dams since the 1950s. The original objective of this monitoring was to collect baseline information to support reaeration research and determine the relative impact of impoundments on the assimilative capacity of the river system. This monitoring has continued even though the original objective was satisfied. New purposes for this monitoring data have arisen in support of several programs, without new consideration of the monitoring strategy and sampling design. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the historical release data for 30 dams in the Tennessee Valley based on four different objectives: (1) comparison of seasonal patterns, (2) comparison of baseline conditions using descriptive statistics, (3) evaluation of monotonic trends, and (4) discussion of monitoring strategies that might be required to determine compliance with existing and proposed criteria. A secondary purpose of the report is to compile the existing database into tables and figures that would be useful for other investigators. 51 refs., 210 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Sasso Pizzuto landslide dam and seismically induced rockfalls along the Nera River gorge (Central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Melelli, Laura; Cencetti, Corrado; Dragoni, Walter; Fredduzzi, Andrea; De Rosa, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    The seismically induced landslides are among the most destructive and dangerous effects of an earthquake. In the Italian contest, this is also documented by a national catalogue that collects data related to earthquake-induced ground failures in the last millennium (CEDIT database). In particular, Central Italy has been affected by several historical landslides triggered by significant earthquakes, the last of which occurred in August-October 2016, representing the Italian strongest event after the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Mw 6.9). The study presents the effects of recent seismically induced rockfalls occurred within the Central Italy seismic sequence (October 30, 2016) along the Nera River gorge between Umbria and Marche. The study area is completely included in the Monti Sibillini National Park, where the highest mountain chain in the Umbrian-Marchean Apennine is located. Most of rockfalls have affected the "Maiolica" formation, a stratified and fractured pelagic limestone dating to the Early Cretaceous. The seismic sequence produced diffuse instabilities along the SP 209 road within the Nera River gorge: boulders, debris accumulations and diffuse rockfalls have been mapped. Most of boulders have size ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 m in diameter. Although several strong quakes (Mw > 5) occurred during the August-October sequence, only the main quake triggered the Sasso Pizzuto rockfall producing a landslide dam along the Nera River. The landslide appears to have originated as a wedge failure, which evolved to free fall when the rock block lost the contact with the stable rock mass. In other words, the quake produced the "explosion" of the rock wall allowing the rockfall process. Once the rock mass reached the toe of the slope, it was broken triggering a rock avalanche that obstructed both the Nera River and SP 209 road. With the aim to estimate the total volume of involved rock, a field survey was carried out by using a laser rangefinder. Remote measures were acquired

  1. Beach morphodynamics of the mixed grain-size delta of the dammed Elwha River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, J. A.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; George, D. A.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Beirne, M.; Miller, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    -tide terrace is very likely a geomorphological feature caused by coastal erosion of a coastal plain and delta, which in turn is related to the impacts of the dams on the Elwha River to sediment fluxes to the coast.

  2. 33 CFR 165.930 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL. 165.930 Section 165.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters... River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL. (a...

  3. Quantifying sediment distribution and channel changes following removal of the Glines Canyon Dam, Elwha River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Free, B.; Ely, L. L.; Bountry, J.; Ritchie, A. C.; Erwin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, beginning in 2011, is the largest dam-removal project in history. Our research quantifies sediment deposition and channel changes in the reach between the dams during the removal of the upstream Glines Canyon Dam. After the initial release in October 2012, the sediment transport and deposition throughout our study reach has had a dynamic effect on channel and bar morphology. Multiple methods were used to quantify the changes in the morphology of the channel and gravel bars. Detailed topographic surveys using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and total station bathymetric surveys began before the initial sediment release and were repeated one year later to quantify changes in sediment volume and distribution. Monthly surface pebble counts and photo documentation were used to quantify changes in surface grain-size distribution and the effects of the influx of sediment and woody debris on the channel morphology. We measured changes in channel morphology and grain-size distribution at four field sites located 2 - 6 km downstream of Glines Canyon Dam. In the first two months following the initial sediment release, the mean sediment size on the surface of the channel bars abruptly decreased from approximately 18 cm to < 1mm due to rapid burial by new sediment. Large woody debris transported downstream from the former reservoir has caused new sand and gravel bars to form along the channel margin at two of our study sites, as well as the longitudinal growth of 5 - 10 bars throughout the study area. The copious amount of sediment transported through the system since October 2012 also created new mid-channel bars at all four field sites. In some locations, the formation, growth and merging of bars has effectively narrowed the river channel, causing it to migrate laterally and erode the bank. The initial sediment deposition has started eroding at the downstream end of some of the new bars since May 2013. This

  4. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications.

    PubMed

    Poff, N Leroy; Olden, Julian D; Merritt, David M; Pepin, David M

    2007-04-03

    Global biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems is generated and maintained by geographic variation in stream processes and fluvial disturbance regimes, which largely reflect regional differences in climate and geology. Extensive construction of dams by humans has greatly dampened the seasonal and interannual streamflow variability of rivers, thereby altering natural dynamics in ecologically important flows on continental to global scales. The cumulative effects of modification to regional-scale environmental templates caused by dams is largely unexplored but of critical conservation importance. Here, we use 186 long-term streamflow records on intermediate-sized rivers across the continental United States to show that dams have homogenized the flow regimes on third- through seventh-order rivers in 16 historically distinctive hydrologic regions over the course of the 20th century. This regional homogenization occurs chiefly through modification of the magnitude and timing of ecologically critical high and low flows. For 317 undammed reference rivers, no evidence for homogenization was found, despite documented changes in regional precipitation over this period. With an estimated average density of one dam every 48 km of third- through seventh-order river channel in the United States, dams arguably have a continental scale effect of homogenizing regionally distinct environmental templates, thereby creating conditions that favor the spread of cosmopolitan, nonindigenous species at the expense of locally adapted native biota. Quantitative analyses such as ours provide the basis for conservation and management actions aimed at restoring and maintaining native biodiversity and ecosystem function and resilience for regionally distinct ecosystems at continental to global scales.

  5. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications

    PubMed Central

    Poff, N. LeRoy; Olden, Julian D.; Merritt, David M.; Pepin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Global biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems is generated and maintained by geographic variation in stream processes and fluvial disturbance regimes, which largely reflect regional differences in climate and geology. Extensive construction of dams by humans has greatly dampened the seasonal and interannual streamflow variability of rivers, thereby altering natural dynamics in ecologically important flows on continental to global scales. The cumulative effects of modification to regional-scale environmental templates caused by dams is largely unexplored but of critical conservation importance. Here, we use 186 long-term streamflow records on intermediate-sized rivers across the continental United States to show that dams have homogenized the flow regimes on third- through seventh-order rivers in 16 historically distinctive hydrologic regions over the course of the 20th century. This regional homogenization occurs chiefly through modification of the magnitude and timing of ecologically critical high and low flows. For 317 undammed reference rivers, no evidence for homogenization was found, despite documented changes in regional precipitation over this period. With an estimated average density of one dam every 48 km of third- through seventh-order river channel in the United States, dams arguably have a continental scale effect of homogenizing regionally distinct environmental templates, thereby creating conditions that favor the spread of cosmopolitan, nonindigenous species at the expense of locally adapted native biota. Quantitative analyses such as ours provide the basis for conservation and management actions aimed at restoring and maintaining native biodiversity and ecosystem function and resilience for regionally distinct ecosystems at continental to global scales. PMID:17360379

  6. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  7. Usoi Dam wave overtopping and flood routing in the Bartang and Panj Rivers, Tajikistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John; Walder, Joseph; Denlinger, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The Usoi dam was created in the winter of 1911 after an enormous seismogenic rock slide completely blocked the valley of the Bartang River in the Pamir Mountains of southeastern Tajikistan. At present the dam impounds 17 million cubic meters of water in Lake Sarez. Flood volume and discharge estimates were made for several landslide generated floods that could overtop the dam. For landslide volumes of 200, 500, and 1,000 million cubic meters, estimated overtopping flood volumes were 2, 22, and 87 million cubic meters of water, respectively. Estimated peak discharge at the dam for these three flood scenarios were 57,000, 490,000, and 1,580,000 cubic meters per second, based on triangular hydrographs of 70-, 90-, and 110-second durations, respectively. Flood-routing simulations were made for the three landslide-induced overtopping floods over a 530-kilometer reach of the Bartang and Panj Rivers below the Usoi dam. A one-dimensional flow model using a Riemann numerical solution technique was selected for the study. A constant 50-meter wide rectangular channel, which represented the mean channel width, was used for the entire reach. A roughness coefficient of 0.038, appropriate for steep mountainous streams, also was used for the entire reach. For the 87 million cubic meter volume overtopping flood scenario, the peak flows were approximately 1,100, 800, and 550 cubic meters per second at locations 50, 100, and 150 kilometers downstream of the dam, respectively. The model was also used to simulate the less likely scenario of an instantaneous dam breach and draining of the total volume of the lake. Simulated peak flows were approximately 64,000, 52,000, 40,000, and 20,000 cubic meters per second at locations 50, 100, 150, and 530 kilometers downstream of the Usoi dam.

  8. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  9. The geomorphic response of rivers to dams: a short course.

    Treesearch

    M.J. Furniss; J. Guntle

    2004-01-01

    CD-ROMCourse AgendaDay 1: Tuesday, March 11, 20031:15 Forest Service line officer perspective: John Berry, Forest Supervisor, El Dorado National Forest, CA2:00 Power company perspective: John Esler, Portland General Electric, OR3:30 The spatial and geographical context of nonfederal hydropower dams on Forest...

  10. Dover Dam Physical Model Study, Tuscarawas River, Dover OH

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    noted. Figure 2. Dover Dam Model The accepted equations of hydraulic similitude , based on Froudian rela- tions, were used to express mathematical ... similitude . All dimensions and results in this report are presented in prototype scale, with all elevations referenced to (MSL) unless otherwise

  11. Do post-glacial river valleys in northern New England store mill-dam legacy sediments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, S.; Snyder, N. P.

    2010-12-01

    Dam-influenced floodplain morphology has not been studied extensively in post-glacial rivers with high densities of colonial-era milldams. Fluvial restoration in the eastern U.S. often focuses on understanding the natural, or pre-Colonial, floodplain processes. Recent work by Walter and Merritts (2008) in the piedmont of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region suggests milldams significantly impact sedimentation by creating surfaces composed of post-dam legacy sediment that are often abandoned by the river and function as fill terraces. This work has not yet been tested in a post-glacial environment. I analyze channel morphology and sedimentation patterns upstream of two breached dams on the Sheepscot River in Mid-Coastal Maine using lidar digital elevation models, historical aerial photographs, radiocarbon dating, and hydraulic modeling. In the past several decades, observable channel morphologic changes occurred at the two study sites: Maxcy’s Mills dam (built in 1809, it was 4-m high and breached in the late 1950s), and at Head Tide dam (built in the 1760s, it is 6-m high and was partially breached in 1952). The Sheepscot River is one of Maine’s eight rivers with native anadromous Atlantic salmon populations. Because Atlantic salmon are a federally listed endangered species, understanding the existence and transport of legacy sediment has become an important component of habitat restoration efforts in the region. The goal of this investigation is to determine the extent of legacy sediment in order to better understand how historical dam sites affect morphology and sediment transport in a post-glacial, low-gradient river system. Field and remote sensing analyses indicate that surfaces (up to 2-m high) composed of mud and sand function as floodplains 1.5-2.5 km upstream of both former dam sites. Preliminary analysis of seven radiocarbon dates from pieces of tree bark sampled from the stratigraphy (58-187 cm below the surface) of the two study sites suggest at least 1.8 m

  12. Spawning migration movements of Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon, following the removal of Chiloquin Dam-2009 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    The Chiloquin Dam was located at river kilometer (rkm) 1.3 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus), shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), and other fish in the Sprague River. Our research objectives in 2009 were to evaluate adult catostomid spawning migration patterns using radio telemetry to identify and describe shifts in spawning area distribution and migration behavior following the removal of Chiloquin Dam in 2008. We attached external radio transmitters to 58 Lost River suckers and 59 shortnose suckers captured at the Williamson River fish weir. A total of 17 radio-tagged Lost River suckers and one radio-tagged shortnose sucker were detected approaching the site of the former Chiloquin Dam but only two radio-tagged fish (one male Lost River sucker and one female Lost River sucker) were detected crossing upstream of the dam site. A lower proportion of radio-tagged shortnose suckers were detected migrating into the Sprague River when compared with previous years. Detections on remote passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays located in the Sprague River show that although the proportion of fish coming into the Sprague River is small when compared to the number of fish crossing the Williamson River fish weir, the number of fish migrating upstream of the Chiloquin Dam site increased exponentially in the first year since its removal. These data will be used in conjunction with larval production and adult spawning distribution data to evaluate the effectiveness of dam removal in order to provide increased access to underutilized spawning habitat located further upstream in the Sprague River and to reduce the crowding of spawning fish below the dam site.

  13. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and

  14. Monitoring Changes in Contaminant Fluxes Resulting from Dam Removal in an Urbanized River.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USEPA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water...

  15. Recent vegetation changes along the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Raymond Marriner; Karpiscak, Martin M.

    1980-01-01

    Vegetation changes in the canyon of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead were studied by comparing photographs taken prior to completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 with photographs taken afterwards at the same sites. In general, the older pictures show an absence of riparian plants along the banks of the river. The newer photographs of each pair were taken in 1972 through 1976 and reveal an increased density of many plant species. Exotic species, such as saltcedar and camel-thorn, and native riparian plants such as sandbar willow, arrowweed, desert broom and cattail, now form a new riparian community along much of the channel of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead. The matched photographs also reveal that changes have occurred in the amount of sand and silt deposited along the banks. Detailed maps are presented showing distribution of 25 plant species along the reach of the Colorado River studied. Data showing changes in the hydrologic regime since completion of Glen Canyon Dam are presented. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Monitoring Changes in Contaminant Fluxes Resulting from Dam Removal in an Urbanized River.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USEPA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water...

  17. Assessing Changes to Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USDA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water ...

  18. Assessing Changes in Contaminant Fluxes Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USEPA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water...

  19. 77 FR 40607 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory..., and has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA). The EA contains the staff's analysis of the...

  20. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.7 Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project and.... (a) All receipts to the Project shall be deposited in the Fund along with electric service revenues...

  1. Assessing Changes in Contaminant Fluxes Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USEPA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water...

  2. 33 CFR 207.9 - Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission. 207.9 Section 207.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.9...

  3. Assessing Changes to Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USDA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water ...

  4. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 2, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study, using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 1 at mile 44 (kilometer 71) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 40 feet (12.2 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage of 9 feet (2.7 meters). As a result, ground-water levels will be raised 1 foot (0.3 meter) or more within 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) of the river. The potentiometric surface may be near land surface in low-lying areas, and above land surface along the course of drainage features near the dam. The magnitude of ground-water-level fluctuations near the river will be reduced. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. A pre-dam-removal assessment of sediment transport for four dams on the Kalamazoo River between Plainwell and Allegan, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syed, Atiq U.; Bennett, James P.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Four dams on the Kalamazoo River between the cities of Plainwell and Allegan, Mich., are in varying states of disrepair. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) are considering removing these dams to restore the river channels to pre-dam conditions. This study was initiated to identify sediment characteristics, monitor sediment transport, and predict sediment resuspension and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions. The mathematical model SEDMOD was used to simulate streamflow and sediment transport using three modeling scenarios: (1) sediment transport simulations for 730 days (Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2002), with existing dam structures, (2) sediment transport simulations based on flows from the 1947 flood at the Kalamazoo River with existing dam structures, and (3) sediment transport simulations based on flows from the 1947 flood at the Kalamazoo River with dams removed. Sediment transport simulations based on the 1947 flood hydrograph provide an estimate of sediment transport rates under maximum flow conditions. These scenarios can be used as an assessment of the sediment load that may erode from the study reach at this flow magnitude during a dam failure. The model was calibrated using suspended sediment as a calibration parameter and root mean squared error (RMSE) as an objective function. Analyses of the calibrated model show a slight bias in the model results at flows higher than 75 m3/s; this means that the model-simulated suspended-sediment transport rates are higher than the observed rates; however, the overall calibrated model results show close agreement between simulated and measured values of suspended sediment. Simulation results show that the Kalamazoo River sediment transport mechanism is in a dynamic equilibrium state. Model results during the 730-day simulations indicate significant sediment erosion from the study reach at flow rates higher than 55 m3/s. Similarly, significant

  6. Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington- Biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Together, these different scientific perspectives form a basis for understanding the Elwha River ecosystem, an environment that has and will undergo substantial change. A century of change began with the start of dam construction in 1910; additional major change will result from dam removal scheduled to begin in September 2011. This report provides a scientific snapshot of the lower Elwha River, its estuary, and adjacent nearshore ecosystems prior to dam removal that can be used to evaluate the responses and dynamics of various system components following dam removal.

  7. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  8. The Interaction between Logjams, Channel Evolution, and Sports Fisheries on a Dam Regulated Low Gradient River.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, E.; Hupp, C. R.; Moulin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the interaction between in-stream large wood (LW), bank erosion, and sports fisheries in the 210 river kilometer (km) Coastal Plain segment of the dam-regulated Roanoke River, North Carolina. Methods included collecting background geomorphic data including a 200 km channel geometry survey and measurements from 701 bank erosion pins at 36 cross-sections over 132 km. LW concentrations were evaluated over a 177 km reach using georeferenced aerial video taken during regulated low flow (56 m3/s). LW transport was measured using 290 radio tagged LW pieces (mean diameter = 35.0 cm, length = 9.3 m) installed between 2008 and 2010. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were surveyed in 2010 at 29 sites using a boat mounted electroshock unit. The abundance of LW in logjams was 59 pieces/km and these were concentrated (21.5 logjams/km) in an actively eroding reach with relatively high sinuosity, high local LW production rates, and narrow channel widths. Most jams (70%) are available nearly year round as aquatic habitat, positioned either on the lower bank or submerged at low-water flows. The actively eroding reach is adjusting to upstream dam regulation by channel widening. The channel upstream of this reach has widened and stabilized while the channel downstream of the eroding reach is still relatively narrow but with lower bank erosion rates. Repeat surveys of radio tagged LW determined that transport was common throughout the study area despite dam regulation and a low channel gradient (0.0016). The mean distance travelled by a radio tagged piece of LW was 11.9 km with a maximum of 101 km (84 tags moved, 96 stationary, 110 not found). Radio tagged LW that moved during the study was found at low flow either in logjams (44%), as individual LW (43%), or submerged mid-channel (14%). Largemouth bass biomass density (g/hr effort) was highest in the actively eroding reach where logjams were most common. Our results support the

  9. Sediment characteristics and configuration within the Otsego City Dam impoundment on the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Hubbell, D.L.; Rachol, C.M.; Simard, A.; Fuller, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of the Otsego City Dam on the Kalamazoo River at Otsego, Mich., is under consideration by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and the city of Otsego. The historical discharge of papermill waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls from sources upstream from the dam has led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to designate the Kalamazoo River from Morrow Dam near Comstock to its mouth near Saugatuck as a Federal Superfund site. The papermill waste is concentrated in organic sediment and kaolinite clay, with the sediment containing as much as 94 milligrams per kilogram polychlorinated biphenyls. This contaminated sediment could move if the dam is removed; therefore, it is necessary to estimate the characteristics and configuration of the sediment before removal plans begin. Data from augered sections and sediment cores show that the current Otsego City impoundment sediments were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments: (1) lacustrine sediments consisting of organic-rich silt and clay, fine to medium sand, and some gravel deposited in a repetitive, cyclic fashion related to former stream velocities when the Otsego City impoundment water levels were 2-4 feet higher (1880s-1960s), and from downstream movement of lacustrine sediments during the removal of the upstream Plainwell Dam superstructure in the 1980s; and (2) more recent (1980s-2002) coarse-grained alluvium deposited on top of the lacustrine sediments. The volume of instream sediment contained within the Otsego City impoundment is estimated to be about 457,270 cubic yards. This estimate is based on the composite thicknesses of the lacustrine deposits and overlying alluvium, which were determined to contain PCBs, and does not include bank or flood-plain deposits.

  10. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: coastal geomorphic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Eidam, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of mud, sand, and gravel since 1927, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams, initiated in September 2011, induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal delta to these increases. Detailed measurements of beach topography and nearshore bathymetry show that ~ 2.5 million m3 of sediment was deposited during the first two years of dam removal, which is ~ 100 times greater than deposition rates measured prior to dam removal. The majority of the deposit was located in the intertidal and shallow subtidal region immediately offshore of the river mouth and was composed of sand and gravel. Additional areas of deposition include a secondary sandy deposit to the east of the river mouth and a muddy deposit west of the mouth. A comparison with fluvial sediment fluxes suggests that ~ 70% of the sand and gravel and ~ 6% of the mud supplied by the river was found in the survey area (within about 2 km of the mouth). A hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, validated with in-situ measurements, shows that tidal currents interacting with the larger relict submarine delta help disperse fine sediment large distances east and west of the river mouth. The model also suggests that waves and currents erode the primary deposit located near the river mouth and transport sandy sediment eastward to form the secondary deposit. Though most of the substrate of the larger relict submarine delta was unchanged during the first two years of dam removal, portions of the seafloor close to the river mouth became finer, modifying habitats for biological communities. These results show that river restoration, like natural changes in river sediment supply, can result in rapid and substantial coastal geomorphological

  11. Geomorphological and river management issues of dam removal : lessons from low order and low gradient streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollet, Anne-Julia

    2014-05-01

    Until today, scientists have mainly studied morphological processes, channel adjustment and river restoration plans on large rivers or mountain streams. These orientations answered society's needs, especially about risk management such as bank erosion or river floods. Since the European Water Framework Directive (2001) and the obligation to reach the good ecological status for freshwater systems, the operations of river restoration refocus social demand on smaller and lower gradient streams. To reach this "good ecological status", managers of French rivers increase actions to restore ecological and sediment continuity by removing dams and weirs. In most cases these operations are not subjected to morphological monitoring because they not consist in "emblematic" removals. In this context, we observe a lack of knowledge about the functioning of low order streams and their response to such operations. The objective of this presentation is to illustrate questions arising from these operations in order to initiate a global discussion of the relevance of current practices. Thus, three different issues will be discussed. Firstly, we will suggest an interrogation about the geomorphologic specificities of the low order streams and the accuracy of current knowledge to forecast their adjustments after dam or weir removals: what are the main morphological drivers in a context of low streampower ? How long does the morphological adjustment take? If these removals do not concern large structures, what could be expected about cumulative effects of small weir removal? Secondly, we will study the contribution of the long term historical approach of the morphological structure of such systems, especially to establish their resiliency and the range of channel adjustment we can expect after historic dam removal. Finally, these previous points will lead us to discuss more widely the relevance of dam removal intervention for the development of river restoration strategies. Our

  12. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Millen Lake Dam (NH 00236), NHWRB Number 245.04, Connecticut River Basin, Washington, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN WASHINGTON, NEW HAMPSHIRE U) MILLEN LAKE DAM NH 00236 NHWRB NO. 245.04 PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM JULS 0...DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Connecticut River Basin Washington, New Hampshire 20. ABSTRACT (Continuae an uovorso aide Of necesANae and 1411guii1O...addition, a copy of the report has also been furnished the owner, Millen Lake " " Association, Inc., Ardmore , Pennsylvania. .0 Copies of this report will be

  13. Foundation Report, Dam & Spillway, Taylorsville Lake, Ohio River Basin, Salt River, Kentucky.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    earth core, rock-filled dam ; an operating tower; conduit and stilling basin in the right abutment; an open cut uncon- trolled spillway through the right...Engineering Company (Rural Route 3, Harrisburg, Illinois 62946). It involved construction of an earth core, rock-filled dam ; an open cut uncontrolled... earth materials for later use in the dam . These stockpiles were located adjacent to the spillway and in the upstream area so designated above the dam

  14. Chief Joseph Dam, Columbia River, Washington, Community Impact Reports,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Corps of Engineers. . e . .. . UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wh.n Data Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS R PEFORE... CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (WIhwnt ata Ent .rd) CHIEF JOSEPH DAM COMMUNITY IMPACT REPORTS TABLE OF CONTENTS PRE-CONSTRUCTION ANALYSIS PUBLISHED...pool 10 feet to elevation 956 feet. Planned construction will temporarily occur in three stages : (1) phasing- in of construction activities in late 1974

  15. Fish community response to dam removal in a Maine coastal river tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Gardner, Cory

    2016-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River in Maine, historically has supported several anadromous fishes including Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated in removal of the lowermost dam (Mill Dam) providing access to 4.7 km of lotic habitat and unimpeded passage into the lentic habitat of Fields Pond. In anticipation of these barrier removals, we initiated a modified before-after-control-impact study, and monitored stream fish assemblages in fixed treatment and reference sites. Electrofishing surveys were conducted twice yearly since 2007. Results indicated that density, biomass, and diversity of the fish assemblage increased at all treatment sites upstream of the 2009 dam removal. No distinct changes in these metrics occurred at reference sites. We documented recolonization and successful reproduction of Atlantic Salmon, Alewife, and Sea Lamprey in previously inaccessible upstream reaches. These results clearly demonstrate that dam removal has enhanced the fish assemblage by providing an undisrupted stream gradient linking a small headwater lake and tributary with a large coastal river, its estuary, and the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Effects of river-floodplain exchange on water quality and nutrient export in the dam-impacted Kafue River (Zambia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbrugg, R.; Wamulume, J.; Blank, N.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes in river-floodplain ecosystems are strongly influenced by hydrology and, in particular, river-floodplain exchange. In tropical systems, where the hydrology is dominated by distinct dry and rainy seasons, annual flood waters trigger organic matter mineralization within and nutrient export from the dried and rewetted floodplain, and the magnitude of hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain has the potential to substantially influence nutrient and carbon exports and water quality in the river. In this study we examined the extent and the effects of hydrological river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue River and its floodplain, the Kafue Flats, in Zambia. The Kafue Flats is a 7000 km2 seasonal wetland whose hydrological regime has been impacted by upstream and downstream large dams constructed in the 1970s, leading to changes in the flooding pattern in this high-biodiversity ecosystem. Field campaigns, carried out during flood recession (May 2008, 2009, 2010) and covering a ~400 km river stretch, revealed a steep decline in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L to 1 mg/L over a ~20 km stretch of river beginning approximately 200 km downstream from the first dam, with low oxygen persisting for an additional 150 km downstream. To further explore this phenomenon discharge measurements (ADCP) were conducted in May 2009 and May 2010. River discharge decreased from ~600 m3/s at the upstream dam to 100 m3/s midway through the Kafue Flats, and increased to >800 m3/s towards the end of the floodplain (400 km downstream). River cross section data indicate that the dramatic decrease in discharge occured primarily because of variations in channel area and channel carrying capacity, with channel constrictions forcing ~85% of the discharge out of the river channel and into the floodplain. Using specific conductivity and δ18O-H2O as tracers for floodplain water, we estimate that the downstream increases in flow occur through lateral inflows of receding

  17. Riparian soil development linked to forest succession above and below dams along the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perakis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Riparian forest soils can be highly dynamic, due to frequent fluvial disturbance, erosion, and sediment deposition, but effects of dams on riparian soils are poorly understood. We examined soils along toposequences within three river segments located upstream, between, and downstream of two dams on the Elwha River to evaluate relationships between riparian soil development and forest age, succession, and channel proximity, explore dam effects on riparian soils, and provide a baseline for the largest dam removal in history. We found that older, later-successional forests and geomorphic surfaces contained soils with finer texture and greater depth to cobble, supporting greater forest floor mass, mineral soil nutrient levels, and cation exchange. Forest stand age was a better predictor than channel proximity for many soil characteristics, though elevation and distance from the channel were often also important, highlighting how complex interactions between fluvial disturbance, sediment deposition, and biotic retention regulate soil development in this ecosystem. Soils between the dams, and to a lesser extent below the lower dam, had finer textures and higher mineral soil carbon, nitrogen, and cation exchange than above the dams. These results suggested that decreased fluvial disturbance below the dams, due to reduced sediment supply and channel stabilization, accelerated soil development. In addition, reduced sediment supply below the dams may have decreased soil phosphorus. Soil δ15N suggested that salmon exclusion by the dams had no discernable effect on nitrogen inputs to upstream soils. Recent dam removal may alter riparian soils further, with ongoing implications for riparian ecosystems.

  18. First-Year Downstream Sediment Budget Following the Marmot Dam Removal from the Sandy River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, C. J.; Wilcock, P. R.; Pittman, A.

    2008-12-01

    The October 2007 removal of the Marmot Dam, from the Sandy River, OR, provides an opportunity to assess the impact of increased sediment flux on a river channel. The Sandy River drains the west flank of Mt Hood and typically carries a large load of sand and gravel. The 14-meter-tall dam impounded over 750,000 m3 of sediment, only a small amount of which was removed during the decommissioning. Using a one- dimensional modeling approach, it was assessed that the river could transport the accumulated sediment without large adverse impacts downstream of the dam (Cui et al, 2008 - abstract submitted). In order to observe the actual changes to the river due to the dam removal and to test the modeled predictions, a significant monitoring effort has be in place on the Sandy River including bedload and suspended load measurements, discharge measurements, high-fidelity topographic surveys, repeat photography, multiple airborne LIDAR flights, long profile surveys, as well as mapping and characterizing the grain sizes throughout several reaches downstream of the dam. A key step in the quest to describe and predict the spatial distribution of the sediment throughout the downstream reach is to first account for all the sediment (both stored in the reservoir and supplied from upstream). Here, we examine the transport and deposition downstream of the dam through a 2-fraction sediment budget approach using the former dam as the upstream limit of the reach and choosing a the mouth of a bedrock gorge 7 km below the dam site as the downstream limit. Suspended sediment and bedload measurements taken by the USGS just below the dam site (Major et al, 2008 - abstract submitted) are combined with suspended sediment and bedload measurements collected just below the mouth of the gorge and the annual hydrograph to define the sediment fluxes into and out of the reach. Repeat surveys in the reach below the dam (Wallick et al, 2008 - abstract submitted) provide the measure of change in storage

  19. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Bog Brook Dam (NH 00189), NHWRB 220.12, Connecticut River Basin, Springfield, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    8217 0~6rM AkrO bdl ee 1114) DAMS. INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Connecticut River Basin Springfield, New Hampshire Bog Brook 20ASRC CR em.sd la.. epm s~~ ~Se...INSPECTION TEAM Robert Minutoli Goldberg, Zoino, Dunnicliff & Associates, Inc. (GZD) Team Captain William S. Zoino GZD Soils Nicholas Campagna GZD... Soils Andrew Christo Andrew Christo Engineers (ACE) Structural Paul Razgha ACE Structural Richard Laramie Resource Analysis, Inc. Hydrology A-2 Bog Brc

  20. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Spaulding Dam (NH-00390), Piscataqua River Basin, Rochester, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    results of the hydrology of the watershed and hydraulics of the dam. Other re- medial measures must also be implemented. DD , 1473 EDITION OF INOv O...intended to provide detailed hydro - logic and hydraulic analyses. In accordance with the established Recommended Guidelines for Safety Inspection of Dams...operated lift gates. Water discharges from the power -*1 house to an outlet channel which rejoins the Salmon Falls River about 1,100 feet below the plant

  1. Coastal habitat and biological community response to dam removal on the Elwha River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Stevens, Andrew; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Duda, Jeff; Beirne, Matthew M.; Paradis, Rebecca; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; McCoy, Randall; Cubley, Erin S.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat diversity and heterogeneity play a fundamental role in structuring ecological communities. Dam emplacement and removal can fundamentally alter habitat characteristics, which in turn can affect associated biological communities. Beginning in the early 1900s, the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams in Washington, USA, withheld an estimated 30 million tonnes of sediment from river, coastal, and nearshore habitats. During the staged removal of these dams—the largest dam removal project in history—over 14 million tonnes of sediment were released from the former reservoirs. Our interdisciplinary study in coastal habitats—the first of its kind—shows how the physical changes to the river delta and estuary habitats during dam removal were linked to responses in biological communities. Sediment released during dam removal resulted in over a meter of sedimentation in the estuary and over 400 m of expansion of the river mouth delta landform. These changes increased the amount of supratidal and intertidal habitat, but also reduced the influx of seawater into the pre-removal estuary complex. The effects of these geomorphic and hydrologic changes cascaded to biological systems, reducing the abundance of macroinvertebrates and fish in the estuary and shifting community composition from brackish to freshwater-dominated species. Vegetation did not significantly change on the delta, but pioneer vegetation increased during dam removal, coinciding with the addition of newly available habitat. Understanding how coastal habitats respond to large-scale human stressors—and in some cases the removal of those stressors—is increasingly important as human uses and restoration activities increase in these habitats.

  2. Feeding the hungry river: Fluvial morphodynamics and the entrainment of artificially inserted sediment at the dammed river Isar, Eastern Alps, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Abel, Judith; Rimböck, Andreas; Becht, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Dams interrupt the sediment continuum in rivers by retaining the bedload; combined with flow diversion, bedload retention in tributaries and river engineering measures, this causes a bedload deficit leading to changes in river planform and morphodynamics, with potentially detrimental downstream effects. As part of the SedAlp joint project (Sediment management in Alpine basins: integrating sediment continuum, risk mitigation and hydropower), this study investigates changes within a section of the dammed river Isar between the Sylvenstein reservoir and the city of Bad Tölz. We use a multi-method approach on a range of spatial and temporal scales. First, we analysed historical maps and aerial photos to analyse river planform and landcover changes within the river corridor of the whole study area on a temporal scale of over 100 years. Results show that major changes occurred before the construction of the Sylvenstein reservoir, suggesting that present morphodynamics represent the reaction to different disturbances on different time scales. Second, changes in mean bed elevation of cross profiles regularly surveyed by the water authorities are analysed in light of artificial sediment insertion and floods; they are also used to estimate the sediment budget of river reaches between consecutive cross profiles. Results suggest stability and a slight tendency towards incision, especially near the Sylvenstein reservoir; further downstream, the sediment balance was positive. Third, we acquired multitemporal aerial photos using an unmanned aerial vehicle and generated high-resolution digital elevation models to show how sediment artificially inserted in the river corridor is entrained. Depending on the position of the artificial deposits in relation to the channel, the deposits are entrained during floods of different return periods.

  3. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Bog Brook Dam (NH 00194) (NHWRB 220.16) Connecticut River Basin, Springfield, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    AD-RI56 391 NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAMS BOG 1/1 BROOK DAM (NH 9iI (U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAN MR NEW ENGLAND DIV JUL 8B...UNCLASSIFIED F/G 13/03 NL mmmhhmmhhhlI ommhhmhmhhm.EomhhmhoE-EEE hmhhhhhhmmonsl I I fl 1 I.15 111_ _ 1.6 CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN SPRINGFIELD, NEW...CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM, MASS. 02154 JULY 1980 , D11tC EiLf. WE Y NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM PPHASE I INSPECTION REPORT Identification No.: NH

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Berry Pond Dam (NH 00105), NHWRB 195.01, Merrimack River Basin, Pittsfield, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    report. It. KEY WORDS (Genemeo on e old@ #006 e ry*l neem , mid DifneUtt a1 blos fmmiS..) DAMS, -INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Merrimack River Basin...week, readiness exercises to . remove stop-logs should be conducted once per year, trees should be removed from the right abutment, and in the absence...several trees were standing at the right abutment area. Two seepage areas were noted on the downstream slope of the earth dam. One seepage point is located

  5. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Woodtick Reservoir Dam (CT 00294), Housatonic River Basin, Wolcott, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    September, 1958. 7. Instrumentation of Earth and Rockfill Dams ; U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers; EM 1100-2-1908; August, 1971. B- 9 B-i I I C) I A / " ~’ ’I I...AD-A144 195 NATIONAL PROGRAMI FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAMS I/i kOODTICK RESERVOIR DR..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM MA NEW ENGLAND DIV DEC 78...CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A in HOUSATONIC RIVER BASIN WOLCOTT, CONNECTICUT <- WOODTICK RESERVOIR DAM CT. 00294 PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT

  6. Spillway for Benbrook Dam, Clear Fork of the Trinity River, Texas: Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-03-01

    section at tho too of tho spillway to tho trapezoidal cross section of tho exit channel. Concreto training walls 11 ft in height will confine the...rould parmi t 6 spillway flow to attack the toe of the dam. A pilot channel 100 ft in width will connect the exit channel with the old river...channel about 7,000 ft below the dam. It is expected that the pilot channel will ulti- mately scour to the full width of the exit channel and to the

  7. Bank Erosion, Mass Wasting, Water Clarity, Bathymetry and a Sediment Budget Along the Dam-Regulated Lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.; Kroes, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Dam construction and its impact on downstream fluvial processes may substantially alter ambient bank stability, floodplain inundation patterns, and channel morphology. Most of the world's largest rivers have been dammed, which has prompted management efforts to mitigate dam effects. Three high dams (completed between 1953 and 1963) occur along the Piedmont portion of the Roanoke River, North Carolina; just downstream, the lower part of the river flows across largely unconsolidated Coastal Plain deposits. To document bank erosion rates along the lower Roanoke River, more than 700 bank erosion pins were installed along 124 bank transects. Additionally, discrete measurements of channel bathymetry, water clarity, and presence or absence of mass wasting were documented along the entire 153-kilometer-long study reach. Amounts of bank erosion in combination with prior estimates of floodplain deposition were used to develop a bank erosion and floodplain deposition sediment budget for the lower river. Present bank erosion rates are relatively high [mean 42 milimeters per year (mm/yr)] and are greatest along the middle reaches (mean 60 mm/yr) and on lower parts of the bank on all reaches. Erosion rates were likely higher along upstream reaches than present erosion rates such that erosion rate maxima have migrated downstream. Mass wasting and water clarity also peak along the middle reaches.

  8. The effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River-a 16-mile segment from Glen Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Paria River-supports an important recreational rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery. In Grand Canyon, nonnative rainbow trout prey on and compete for habitat and food with native fish, such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Experimental flow fluctuations from the dam during winter and spring 2003-5 dewatered and killed a high proportion of rainbow trout eggs in gravel spawning bars, but this mortality had no measurable effect on the abundance of juvenile fish. Flow fluctuations during summer months reduced growth of juvenile trout relative to steadier flows. A high-flow experiment in March 2008 increased both trout survival rates for early life stages and fish abundance. These findings demonstrate that Glen Canyon Dam operations directly affect the trout population in the Lees Ferry reach and could be used to regulate nonnative fish abundance to limit potential negative effects of trout on native fish in Grand Canyon.

  9. Particle-bound metal transport after removal of a small dam in the Pawtuxet River, Rhode Island, USA.

    PubMed

    Katz, David R; Cantwell, Mark G; Sullivan, Julia C; Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T

    2016-10-06

    The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head dam at the mouth of the river, was removed in August 2011. The removal of the dam was part of an effort to restore the riverine ecosystem after centuries of anthropogenic impact. Sediment traps were deployed below the dam to assess changes in metal concentrations and fluxes (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from the river system into Pawtuxet Cove. Sediment traps were deployed for an average duration of 24 days each, and deployments continued for 15 months after the dam was removed. Metal concentrations in the trapped suspended particulate matter dropped after dam removal (e.g., 460 to 276 mg/kg for Zn) and remained below preremoval levels for most of the study. However, particle-bound metal fluxes increased immediately after dam removal (e.g., 1206 to 4248 g/day for Zn). Changes in flux rates during the study period indicated that river volumetric flow rates acted as the primary mechanism controlling the flux of metals into Pawtuxet Cove and ultimately upper Narragansett Bay. Even though suspended particulate matter metal concentrations initially dropped after removal of the dam, no discernable effect on the concentration or flux of the study metals exiting the river could be associated with removal of the Pawtuxet River dam. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;00:000-000. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    dams. Therefore, this study gives essential information about the dam safety and related analysis. Monitoring of dams is crucial since deformation might have occurred as a result of erosion, water load, hydraulic gradients, and water saturation. The case study is the deformation measurements of Ataturk Dam. This dam was constructed on Firat River and it has importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and especially irrigation. In addition, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Geodetic monitoring methods are emphasized in this study. Some results have been obtained from this method for nearly seven years are presented in this work. In addition, some deformation predictions have been made especially for the cross sections where the maximum deformations took place.

  11. Anticipated sediment delivery to the lower Elwha River during and following dam removal: Chapter 2 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    During and after the planned incremental removal of two large, century-old concrete dams between 2011 and 2014, the sediment-transport regime in the lower Elwha River of western Washington will initially spike above background levels and then return to pre-dam conditions some years after complete dam removal. Measurements indicate the upper reaches of the steep-gradient Elwha River, draining the northeast section of the Olympic Mountains, carries between an estimated 120,000 and 290,000 cubic meters of sediment annually. This large load has deposited an estimated 19 million cubic meters of sediment within the two reservoirs formed by the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams. It is anticipated that from 7 to 8 million cubic meters of this trapped sediment will mobilize and transport downstream during and after dam decommissioning, restoring the downstream sections of the sediment-starved river and nearshore marine environments. Downstream transport of sediment from the dam sites will have significant effects on channel morphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat during and after dam removal. Sediment concentrations are expected to be between 200 and 1,000 milligrams per liter during and just after dam removal and could rise to as much as 50,000 milligrams per liter during high flows. Downstream sedimentation in the river channel and flood plain will be potentially large, particularly in the lower Elwha River, an alluvial reach with a wide flood plain. Overall aggradation could be as much as one to several meters. Not all reservoir sediment, however, will be released to the river. Some material will remain on hill slopes and flood plains within the drained reservoirs in quantities that will depend on the hydrology, precipitation, and mechanics of the incising channel. Eventually, vegetation will stabilize this remaining reservoir sediment, and the overall sediment load in the restored river will return to pre-dam levels.

  12. Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    Rivers transport sediment from eroding uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream), Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains. In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up- and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to river-derived aggregate sources. 80 refs., 17 figs.

  13. Reconnaissance Report for Hydropower, Lock and Dam 8, Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    T.MMO0 1G AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(I diff erent from Controlling Office) 15 . SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) 1s. DECLASSI FICATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE I...Minimum flow (August 1934) (cfs) 3,300 Roller gates (80 by 20 feet) 5 Top of roller gate sill (feet) Elevation 611.0 Tainter gates (35 by 15 feet) 10 Top...Minnesota (25,100). These areas are located 15 and 40 miles, respectively, from lock and dam 8. 7 . . _ . . A more thorough discussion of the

  14. Upstream movements of Atlantic Salmon in the Lower Penobscot River, Maine following two dam removals and fish passage modifications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Maynard, George A.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project (PRRP), to be completed in 2016, involved an extensive plan of dam removal, increases in hydroelectric capacity, and fish passage modifications to increase habitat access for diadromous species. As part of the PRRP, Great Works and Veazie dams were removed, making Milford Dam the first impediment to federally endangered Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. Upstream habitat access for Atlantic Salmon is dependent upon successful and timely passage at Milford Dam because nearly all suitable spawning habitat is located upstream. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 73 adult salmon were radio-tagged to track their upstream movements through the Penobscot River to assess potential delays at (1) the dam remnants, (2) the confluence of the Stillwater Branch and the main stem of the Penobscot River below the impassable Orono Dam, and (3) the Milford Dam fish lift (installed in 2014). Movement rates through the dam remnants and the Stillwater confluence were comparable to open river reaches. Passage efficiency of the fish lift was high in both years (95% and 100%). However, fish experienced long delays at Milford Dam, with approximately one-third of fish taking more than a week to pass in each year, well below the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission passage standard of 95% within 48 h. Telemetry indicates most fish locate the fishway entrance within 5 h of arrival and were observed at the entrance at all hours of the day. These data indicate that overall transit times through the lower river were comparable to reported movement rates prior to changes to the Penobscot River due to the substantial delays seen at Milford Dam. The results of this study show that while adult Atlantic Salmon locate the new fish lift entrance quickly, passage of these fish was significantly delayed under 2014–2015 operations.

  15. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. In... period when the river is closed to navigation. The variation of pool level shall not exceed 0.5 foot per...

  16. 76 FR 65609 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ..., Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast... of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all waters of the Chicago Sanitary...

  17. Particle-bound metal transport after removal of a small dam in the Pawtuxet River, Rhode Island, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head ...

  18. 33 CFR 165.930 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Des Plaines River located between mile marker 286.0 (Brandon Road Lock and Dam) and mile marker 290.0... Sanitary and Ship Canal. All U.S. waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal between mile marker 290.0... (Main Branch) and North Branch Chicago River). (4) Chicago River (Main Branch). All U.S. waters of...

  19. National Dam Safety Program. South River Number 3 Dam, (Inventory Number VA 01510), Potomac River Basin, Augusta County, Virginia. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Vesuvius Stream: Poor Creek Date of Inspection: 16 April 1980 South River #3 Dam is an earthfill structure about 665 feet long and 47 feet high. The...490a0 r a IV .0 U bel " -c" mt 0 f.. ow 0 44 o. w.1 C6 Ce1 N14 * o S 1. P0 .1 ..~ : 4 10 -4 A.i 4O 4 al Ai:1 4 r4 IV * Ai 0 Va to v4 C Ŕ c A m4*A

  20. Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-02-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City.

  1. Use and usability of experimental monitoring data and temperature modeling to inform adaptive management of the Colorado River's thermal regime for native fish conservation below Glen Canyon Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal thermal variability of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon was severely decreased by closure of Glen Canyon Dam and filling of Lake Powell reservoir that was achieved in 1980. From 1973 to 2002, downstream summer river temperatures at Lees Ferry were about 18°C below pre-dam conditions, and limited juvenile native fish growth and survival. A large-scale flow experiment to improve the river's thermal regime for spawning and rearing habitat of endangered native humpback chub and other native fish in eastern Grand Canyon was conducted in Water Year 2000. Monitoring revealed warming, but well below the 16-18°C optimum for chub 124 km below the dam near the Little Colorado River confluence, and no measurable chub population increase in Grand Canyon. Fall-timed stable flow experiments to improve shoreline chub nursery habitat (2008-12) were also inconclusive relative to juvenile chub growth and recruitment. Field studies also showed that daytime warming of shoreline habitats used by fish under steady flows is limited by high daily exchange rates with main channel water. Monthly averaged and higher resolution temperature models have also been developed and used to support more recent experimental management planning. Temperature simulations have been useful for screening dam release scenarios under varied reservoir storage conditions with and without use of previously proposed but never constructed multilevel intake structures on the dam's hydroelectric units. Most importantly, modeling revealed the geophysical limits on downstream warming under existing water management and dam operating policies. Hourly unsteady flow simulations in 2006 predicted equivalent levels of average downstream river warming under either fluctuating or steady flows for a given monthly release volume. River warming observed since 2002, has resulted from reduced Lake Powell storage resulting from drier upper basin hydrology. In support of new environmental compliance on dam operations

  2. 77 FR 70121 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River Between Davis Dam (Bullhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River Between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, AZ) and Headgate Dam (Parker, AZ) Within the San Diego Captain of...

  3. 77 FR 67563 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulation; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, AZ) and Headgate Dam (Parker, AZ) Within the San Diego Captain of...

  4. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    PubMed Central

    Kuzishchin, Kirill V.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3–12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99–1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  5. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    PubMed

    Malison, Rachel L; Kuzishchin, Kirill V; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3-12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99-1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  6. Investigation of River Seismic Signal Induced by Sediment Transport and Water Flow: Controlled Dam Breaking Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Chen, S. C.; Chao, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Natural river's bedload often hard to measure, which leads numerous uncertainties for us to predict the landscape evolution. However, the measurement of bedload flux has its certain importance to estimate the river hazard. Thus, we use seismometer to receive the seismic signal induced by bedload for partially fill the gap of field measurement capabilities. Our research conducted a controlled dam breaking experiments at Landao River, Huisun Forest since it has advantage to well constraining the spatial and temporal variation of bedload transport. We set continuous bedload trap at downstream riverbed of dam to trap the transport bedload after dam breaking so as to analyze its grain size distribution and transport behavior. In the meantime we cooperate with two portable velocity seismometers (Guralp CMG6TD) along the river to explore the relationship between bedload transport and seismic signal. Bedload trap was divided into three layers, bottom, middle, and top respectively. After the experiment, we analyzed the grain size and found out the median particle size from bottom to top is 88.664mm, 129.601mm, and 214.801mm individually. The median particle size of top layer is similar with the upstream riverbed before the experiment which median particle size is 230.683mm. This phenomena indicated that as the river flow become stronger after dam breaking, the sediment size will thereupon become larger, which meant the sediment from upstream will be carried down by the water flow and turned into bedload. Furthermore, we may tell apart the seismic signal induced by water flow and bedload by means of two different position seismometers. Eventually, we may estimate the probable error band of bedload quantity via accurately control of water depth, time-lapse photography, 3D LiDAR and other hydrology parameters.

  7. Preliminary Experimental Results on the Technique of Artificial River Replenishment to Mitigate Sediment Loss Downstream Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, M. J.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of sediments by water throughout the river basins, from the steep slopes of the upstream regions to the sea level, is recognizable important to keep the natural conditions of rivers with a role on their ecology processes. Over the last decades, a reduction on the supply of sand and gravel has been observed downstream dams existing in several alpine rivers. Many studies highlight that the presence of a dam strongly modifies the river behavior in the downstream reach, in terms of morphology and hydrodynamics, with consequences on local ecology. Sediment deficit, bed armoring, river incision and bank instability are the main effects which affect negatively the aquatic habitats and the water quality. One of the proposed techniques to solve the problem of sediment deficit downstream dams, already adopted in few Japanese and German rivers although on an unsatisfactory fashion, is the artificial replenishment of these. Generally, it was verified that the erosion of the replenishments was not satisfactory and the transport rate was not enough to move the sediments to sufficient downstream distances. In order to improve and to provide an engineering answer to make this technique more applicable, a series of laboratory tests are ran as preparatory study to understand the hydrodynamics of the river flow when the replenishment technique is applied. Erodible volumes, with different lengths and submergence conditions, reproducing sediment replenishments volumes, are positioned along a channel bank. Different geometrical combinations of erodible sediment volumes are tested as well on the experimental flume. The first results of the experimental research, concerning erosion time evolution, the influence of discharge and the distance travelled by the eroded sediments, will be presented and discussed.

  8. Integrative assessment of river damming impacts on aquatic fauna in a Portuguese reservoir.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Cortes, R M V; Varandas, S G P; Jesus, J J B; Pacheco, F A L

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of river damming on aquatic fauna are assessed and then integrated across hierarchical scales, portrayed as nested circles. The outer circles characterize the studied site for habitat disturbance and hydrologic regime during the construction and filling phases. The inner circles characterize the construction and filling phase zones for water quality parameters and aquatic fauna. The procedure for integrating the impacts comprises two consecutive stages: in the task stage, inner circles are characterized through field and laboratory work involving sampling and analyses of water aliquots and aquatic fauna; in the impact assessment stage, circle data are processed in ecological and statistical algorithms, which allow identification of changes in abundance and composition of aquatic fauna communities and their integration with changes in water quality parameters across the construction and filling phase zones. The integrative assessment of river damming impacts on aquatic fauna was carried out in the Sabor River dam (Portugal). This dam created two reservoirs: primary and secondary. Changes in water quality caused by dam construction and stream water impoundment were significant, marked by increases in temperature and electric conductivity downstream, accumulation of phosphorus and nitrogen in the reservoirs triggering the growth of algae and the increase of chlorophyll a, and drop of transparency. These changes were aggravated in the secondary reservoir. The consequences of water deterioration for aquatic fauna were severe, marked by abrupt declines of native fish species and invasion of exotic species even upwards the reservoirs. The ecological status determined from ecological quality ratios of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were also affected, changing from good-fair in the unaffected watercourses to fair-poor in the lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower Housatonic River Basin, Waterbury, Connecticut. Mad River Dam (CT 00030). Phase I Inspection Report. National Dam Inspection Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    VISUAL INSPECTION 8 1 3.1 Findings 8 a. General 8 b. Dam 8 c. Appurtenant Structures 9 d. Reservoir Area 9 e. Downstream Channel 9 f. Footbridge 9 3.2...connects with a footbridge over the spillway (see photo no. 2). The asphalt has been patched at many locations along the downstream edge where erosion had...armored bed of gravel and cobbles is present in some reaches. The channel is neither aggrading or degrading. f. Footbridge . The metal truss members are

  10. Seasonal and decadal-scale channel evolution on the dammed Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Logan, Joshua B.; Mastin, Mark C.; McCoy, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    More than 75,000 dams exist in the continental United States to provide water storage, flood control, and hydropower generation (Graf, 1999). Many of these were built during the early twentieth century and are due for relicensing consideration now and in the near future. The cost of repairing aging dams, together with growing understanding of the ecologic effects of river regulation (Williams and Wolman, 1984; Dynesius and Nilsson, 1994; Graf, 1999, 2003; Yang et al., 2007), in some places have prompted dam removal, facilitating restoration of riparian habitat to a more natural state. In the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., river-restoration efforts are commonly targeted to improve habitat quality for native salmonid fish species, many runs of which have declined precipitiously from their historical conditions (owing, in part, to overfishing and habitat loss and degradation) and are now endangered (e.g., Nehlsen, 1997; Larsen et al., 2004; Pess et al., 2008). Removal of dams that block the upstream migration of anadromous fish is considered an important step toward any potential recovery of Pacific Northwest salmon and steelhead populations.

  11. Water contaminations in Karaj dam's rivers and their relationship with outcrop rocks with using GIS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmehr, Mehdi; Bafekr, Gilava; Pirouz, Mortaza

    2010-05-01

    Karaj Dam is located in the middle part of Alborz Mountain and its distance from Capital city, Tehran, is 63 kilometers. Watershed area approximately is 1000 square kilometers, average rate of rainfall is 625 mm per year and watershed altitude is between 4900 to 1700 meters from open sea. Karaj Dam is as a drinking water source for Tehran and Karaj cities and 21000 hectares of agricultural irrigation. Our studies is connected with As, Pb, Sb, Hg, Mo contaminant elements . We used 194 rock samples for chemical analysis and 12 water quality control stations. Chemical analysis values of rocks in the GIS divided into different classes with regard to the standard allowable values. We used SRTM data to find major catchments area and small watershed basin area behind the dam. After the necessary calculations, we determined which small basin area can be important to make more elements to pollution. The results compared with 12 water quality control stations and direct connection between the chemical composition of the rocks and water contaminated that comes from that area are very obvious. Our Study shows that natural contaminations can be enter to cycle from the southern part of basin, 14 kilometers from dam to east. Water contaminations is located along Shahrestanak river to Shahrestanak bridge and then to Mahan factory. The catchment's area for this river has highest amount of As, Sb, Pb and water quality control stations close that area show high contamination.

  12. Dams in the Mekong River Basin: Options for Improved Sediment and Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong River and its tributaries comprise one of the most productive fish habitats in the world today. The economic value of the Mekong fishery in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam is among the highest in the world, providing income and food security to tens of millions of people. However, the construction of multiple dams in the basin will reduce sediment discharge, which will adversely impact nutrient transport and habitat quality and availability, and disrupt fish migration routes. Thus, of considerable interest is the identification of alternatives to the location, design and operation of planned hydropower dams that could improve sediment passage, enable migratory fish passage, and sustain fish production for local use. This paper describes the results of simulation studies designed to identify and evaluate such alternatives, as well as their potential impact on hydropower production. Dam sites in Cambodia and Lao PDR on tributaries and on the mainstream Mekong River will be discussed. Evaluations of sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing and bypassing will be discussed. This study is intended to inform decision makers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam about potential alternatives to current plans as they prepare decisions regarding the development of over 100 hydropower dams throughout the basin.

  13. Cold Brook Dam, Hot Springs, South Dakota, Fall River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Is ’ 44 .0 01 0 o0 0 . 4 . 00 0 &J w 0. 0) 01 0c Ai 061 0 . u00 l .1 Coo 𔃾 0 0a 0 .4 0 0 A - 0. Z%0 0 01 w low" to 0 m N t 0 o AJ,0 00 4 .a ... 0 40...tf Des,. uw file .11 C0..A D,k,,Io ’hf .i*’ .. . . . .. . . -- ~ e 749?-fat-6 0 0 -- AI COLD BROOK DAM FOWNMTION REPORT LOCATiOE OF CKPLORATION §OftUS...Secondary Holes T- lC Tertiary Holes T-1D Quaternary Holes T-1E Quintary Holes T-2 Pressure Test Records T-2A Primary Holes T-2B Secondary Holes T-2C

  14. National Dam Inspection Program. Little Youghiogheny River Site Number 5 (NDI-ID-MD-55), Ohio River Basin, Landon’s Dam Run, Garrett County, Maryland. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    r~~t ~~ 1~• !~~,~ O8 13 J,~ 1 P b National Dam Inspection Program. Little \\ I Youghiogheny River Site Niguber 5 I (NDI~ID~MD—55), Ohio River...i / NAME OF DAM: Little Youghiogheny Site No. 5 STATE LOCATED: Maryland COUNTY LOCATED: Garrett STREAM : Landon ’s Dam Run , a small...conditions as they existed on the dates of the field reconnaissances , the general cond ition of Little Youghlogheny Site No. 5 is considered to be

  15. River systems as providers of goods and services: a basis for comparing desired and undesired effects of large dam projects.

    PubMed

    Brismar, Anna

    2002-05-01

    In developing countries, large dam projects continue to be launched, primarily to secure a time-stable fresh-water supply and to generate hydropower. Meanwhile, calls for environmentally sustainable development put pressure on the dam-building industry to integrate ecological concerns in project planning and decision-making. Such integration requires environmental impact statements (EISs) that can communicate the societal implications of the ecological effects in terms that are understandable and useful to planners and decision-makers. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic framework for assessing the societal implications of the river ecological effects expected of a proposed large dam project. The aim is to facilitate a comparison of desired and potential undesired effects on-site and downstream. The study involves two main tasks: to identify key river goods and services that a river system may provide, and to analyze how the implementation of a large dam project may alter the on-site capacity and downstream potentials to derive river goods and services from the river system. Three river goods and six river services are identified. River goods are defined as extractable partly man-made products and river services as naturally sustained processes. By four main types of flow manipulations, a large dam project improves the on-site capacity to derive desired river goods, but simultaneously threatens the provision of desirable river goods and services downstream. However, by adjusting the site, design, and operational schedule of the proposed dam project, undesirable effects on river goods and services can be minimized.

  16. Equilibrium or indeterminate? Where sediment budgets fail: Sediment mass balance and adjustment of channel form, Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.

    2005-10-01

    This study examines bed and bank adjustment in the 105-km reach of the Green River immediately downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam by the use of historical aerial and oblique photographs, analysis of current and abandoned stream-gaging records, and field observations. Although this segment has been previously characterized as sediment deficient, these data show that sediment is accumulating in all reaches and that the bed has not degraded at any location where historical data are available. Adjustment is occurring through a combination of deposition of post-dam sediment and stabilization of pre-dam deposits, resulting in a 10-30% reduction in average width of the channel. All post-dam surfaces are colonized by woody riparian vegetation. The style of channel adjustment varies between geomorphically defined reaches. In canyons dominated by debris fans and gravel-bedded restricted meandering reaches, gravel bars have become inactive and accumulated fine sediment. In the sand-bedded meandering reaches, existing islands have increased in size and new mid-channel islands have formed. In all of these types of reaches, post-dam deposits line the banks and sediment has accumulated in side-channels that previously separated islands from the bank. These findings demonstrate that sediment budgets that show a balance between inputs and outputs cannot necessarily be interpreted to indicate channel equilibrium. A sediment mass balance for 150-km reach between the dam and the first long-term gage indicates approximate balance of inputs and outputs for the pre- and post-dam periods. When uncertainty in budget components is considered, the mass balance is indeterminate. Although the Green River may have been in approximate equilibrium in the pre-dam period, we have shown that channel width is decreasing in the post-dam period. The post-dam deposits constitute a small but a significant component of the sediment budget upstream from the first major tributary. Sediment is supplied to

  17. The geomorphic effects of dams on rivers: some examples from southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    During the second half of the last century, many rivers in southern Italy have experienced huge channel adjustments mainly induced by anthropic interventions. Particularly, in several cases dams were built along them mainly to meet the growing need for energy and water for irrigation purposes. The present study investigates the cases of Fortore and Biferno rivers, whose lower courses are regulated respectively since 1966 and 1976 by the Occhito and Ponteliscione dams, with the aim to verify possible impacts of the dams on channel morphology and adjustments over the last 60 years. Channel changes were analyzed by means of a multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs integrated with topographic and geomorphological field. The obtained evolutionary trajectories highlight that channel adjustments occurred through two distinct phases and led to an overall channel narrowing and channel bed lowering accompanied by pattern changes in prevalence from multithread to single-thread channel configurations. Major channel adjustments occurred in the first phase, from the 1950s until the end of the 1990s, under the dominant control of in-channel mining, channel works and hydraulic interventions. Regarding this phase, the impact of the dams is highlighted by net differences in the amount of channel adjustments of the reaches located respectively upstream and downstream of them. Especially channel narrowing was more intense in downstream reaches (up to 98% in the Fortore River and up to 96% in the Biferno River) than in upstream reaches (up to 81% in the Fortore and up to 86% in the Biferno). With respectively 7.4 m y-1 and -7.8 m y-1, averages rates of narrowing are very similar for the Fortore and Biferno in downstream reaches. Observed differences suggest that, besides the control factors that guided the evolution of the entire fluvial systems, the closure of the two dams had additional and permanent effects on downstream reaches through overall

  18. Riparian plant succession in the dam-regulated Colorado River: Why is saltcedar losing

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, L. )

    1993-06-01

    Three modes of plant succession (inhibition, facilitation and tolerance) were tested to explain the replacement of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) by naive phreatophytes in the Colorado River corridor in the Grand Canyon. Dam construction reduced flood frequency and sediment transport, interrupting the [open quotes]perpetual succession[close quotes] of the pre-dam riparian vegetation and initially allowing saltcedar to proliferate. Inhibition results from direct or indirect competition, but field measurements and experiments demonstrate limited evidence of competitive superiority by naive species over saltcedar in three life stages. Field observations and experiments on germination, physiological responses to gradients and comparative life history analyses demonstrate that saltcedar is a stress tolerant, disturbance specialist in an ecologically stabilized river corridor where safe germination sites are increasingly rare. Altered flood frequency, increased soil coarseness and differential herbivory contribute to succession in this system.

  19. The Effect of Large Dams on Flow Regime and Eco-hydrologic Connectivity Processes in the Floodplain of the Upper Parana River, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, S.; Souza Filho, E. E.; Stevaux, J. C.; Corradini, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Parana River, one of the largest alluvial rivers of the world, had been strongly affected by dams in special along the Brazilian territory. Here we present results on the eco-hydrologic effect of dams on the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, from Porto Primavera Dam to Guaíra, Brazil along more than 200km. The area includes the last remnant of floodplain in "natural" conditions of the Paraná River in Brazilian territory. Detailed mapping and field surveys of morpho-vegetation units and floristic identifications were performed. The daily discharges, stages and flow variability and temporal distribution of flows as well as the ENSO events influence, time duration flows curves and recurrence curves were analyzed at three gauge stations: Porto São José, Porto Caiuá and Guaíra. The record was divided in three periods taking account the human impact on the basin. The first period extended from 1971 to 1982, the second one from 1982 to 1998 and the last one from 1999 to 2006. Since the first period a decreasing in flow duration is detected as well as a decreasing of the recurrence period of floods. The effect of the Porto Primavera dam construction in 1998 was very strong and affected substantially the hydrology and ecology of the fluvial system. The hydrological regime was related with the ecologically important morphologic levels (stages) of the floodplain to determine the river-floodplain connections. The river stages (levels) were tested and studied for each temporal interval. The difference in river stages necessaries for connections as proposed permit the idealization of different scenarios on the ecology of the river-floodplain system and suggest that improvements need to be obtained in the identification of critical values connecting the channel with the floodplain to different stages.

  20. Hyporheic exchange along a river below a dam

    Treesearch

    Alessandra Marzadri; Daniele Tonina; James A. McKean; Matt Tiedemann

    2012-01-01

    Hyporheic exchange is an important mechanism for solute mixing between river waters and shallow groundwater in streambed sediment. The hyporheic zone also provides an important ecotone for benthic species, including macro-invertebrates, microorganisms, and parts of some fish life stages. Most hyporheic analyses are limited in scope and performed at the reach scale....

  1. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J P; Verbrugge, D A; Othout, R A; Bowerman, W W; Mora, M A; Jones, P D; Newsted, J L; Vandervoort, C; Heaton, S N; Aulerich, R J

    1994-08-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  2. Estimating accumulation rates and physical properties of sediment behind a dam: Englebright Lake, Yuba River, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.P.; Rubin, D.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Childs, J. R.; Curtis, J.A.; Flint, L.E.; Wright, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of reservoir sedimentation are vital to understanding scientific and management issues related to watershed sediment budgets, depositional processes, reservoir operations, and dam decommissioning. Here we quantify the mass, organic content, and grain-size distribution of a reservoir deposit in northern California by two methods of extrapolating measurements of sediment physical properties from cores to the entire volume of impounded material. Englebright Dam, completed in 1940, is located on the Yuba River in the Sierra Nevada foothills. A research program is underway to assess the feasibility of introducing wild anadromous fish species to the river upstream of the dam. Possible management scenarios include removing or lowering the dam, which could cause downstream transport of stored sediment. In 2001 the volume of sediments deposited behind Englebright Dam occupied 25.5% of the original reservoir capacity. The physical properties of this deposit were calculated using data from a coring campaign that sampled the entire reservoir sediment thickness (6–32 m) at six locations in the downstream ∼3/4 of the reservoir. As a result, the sediment in the downstream part of the reservoir is well characterized, but in the coarse, upstream part of the reservoir, only surficial sediments were sampled, so calculations there are more uncertain. Extrapolation from one-dimensional vertical sections of sediment sampled in cores to entire three-dimensional volumes of the reservoir deposit is accomplished via two methods, using assumptions of variable and constant layer thickness. Overall, the two extrapolation methods yield nearly identical estimates of the mass of the reservoir deposit of ∼26 × 106 metric tons (t) of material, of which 64.7–68.5% is sand and gravel. Over the 61 year reservoir history this corresponds to a maximum basin-wide sediment yield of ∼340 t/km2/yr, assuming no contribution from upstream parts of the watershed impounded by other dams. The

  3. Estimating accumulation rates and physical properties of sediment behind a dam: Englebright Lake, Yuba River, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Noah P.; Rubin, David M.; Alpers, Charles N.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Wright, Scott A.

    2004-11-01

    Studies of reservoir sedimentation are vital to understanding scientific and management issues related to watershed sediment budgets, depositional processes, reservoir operations, and dam decommissioning. Here we quantify the mass, organic content, and grain-size distribution of a reservoir deposit in northern California by two methods of extrapolating measurements of sediment physical properties from cores to the entire volume of impounded material. Englebright Dam, completed in 1940, is located on the Yuba River in the Sierra Nevada foothills. A research program is underway to assess the feasibility of introducing wild anadromous fish species to the river upstream of the dam. Possible management scenarios include removing or lowering the dam, which could cause downstream transport of stored sediment. In 2001 the volume of sediments deposited behind Englebright Dam occupied 25.5% of the original reservoir capacity. The physical properties of this deposit were calculated using data from a coring campaign that sampled the entire reservoir sediment thickness (6-32 m) at six locations in the downstream ˜3/4 of the reservoir. As a result, the sediment in the downstream part of the reservoir is well characterized, but in the coarse, upstream part of the reservoir, only surficial sediments were sampled, so calculations there are more uncertain. Extrapolation from one-dimensional vertical sections of sediment sampled in cores to entire three-dimensional volumes of the reservoir deposit is accomplished via two methods, using assumptions of variable and constant layer thickness. Overall, the two extrapolation methods yield nearly identical estimates of the mass of the reservoir deposit of ˜26 × 106 metric tons (t) of material, of which 64.7-68.5% is sand and gravel. Over the 61 year reservoir history this corresponds to a maximum basin-wide sediment yield of ˜340 t/km2/yr, assuming no contribution from upstream parts of the watershed impounded by other dams. The

  4. Application of a hierarchical framework for assessing environmental impacts of dam operation: changes in streamflow, bed mobility and recruitment of riparian trees in a western North American river.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Jorde, Klaus; Buffington, John M

    2009-07-01

    River systems have been altered worldwide by dams and diversions, resulting in a broad array of environmental impacts. The use of a process-based, hierarchical framework for assessing environmental impacts of dams is explored here in terms of a case study of the Kootenai River, western North America. The goal of the case study is to isolate and quantify the relative effects of multiple dams and other river management activities within the study area and to inform potential restoration strategies. In our analysis, first-order impacts describe broad changes in hydrology (determined from local stream gages), second-order impacts quantify resultant changes in channel hydraulics and bed mobility (predicted from a 1D flow model), and third-order impacts describe consequences for recruitment of riparian trees (recruitment box analysis). The study area is a 233km reach bounded by two dams (Libby and Corra Linn). Different times of dam emplacement (1974 and 1938, respectively) allow separation of their relative impacts. Results show significant changes in 1) the timing, magnitude, frequency, duration and rate of change of flows, 2) the spatial and temporal patterns of daily stage fluctuation, unit stream power, shear stress, and bed mobility, and 3) the potential for cottonwood recruitment (Populus spp.). We find that Libby Dam is responsible for the majority of first and second-order impacts, but that both dams diminish cottonwood recruitment; operation of Corra Linn adversely affects recruitment in the lower portion of the study reach by increasing stage recession rates during the seedling establishment period, while operation of Libby Dam affects recruitment in the middle and upper portions of the study reach by changing the timing, magnitude, and duration of flow. We also find that recent experimental flow releases initiated in the 1990s to stimulate recovery of endangered native fish may have fortuitous positive effects on cottonwood recruitment potential in the lower

  5. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and volume of sediments behind a dam relic on the Muskegon River, Big Rapids, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, David B.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed removal of the remnants of a hydroelectric dam in the Muskegon River at Big Rapids, Michigan, will potentially affect flow of the river at the city's water intake system. Fifteen boreholes were augered in bottom sediments in the river just upstream from the dam relic, and streambottom profiles were made using ground-penetrating radar. Data from boreholes show that sediments captured by the dam foundation were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments. Sediments that overlie the pre-dam channel surface consist of lacustrine clay, wood chips, silt, and sand. These lacustrine sediments are interbedded in a cyclical fashion, and they were deposited under low flow to stagnant water conditions during 1916-66, when a 17-foot-tall hydroelectric dam was in place. Demolition of the upper 13 feet of this dam in 1966 resulted in erosion of most of the lacustrine sediments, and subsequent deposition of coarser alluvium in the impoundment behind the remaining dam foundation. Lacustrine sediments are present in the active part of the stream channel and extend from the dam foundation to about 1,300 feet upstream. The composite thickness of lacustrine sediments and overlying coarser alluvium was determined from sediment cores collected from the boreholes. The volume of these sediments is estimated to be about 19,000 cubic yards.

  6. IMPACTS OF DAM BUILDING ON THE STREAM TEMPERATURE REGIME OF THE YANGTZE RIVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.

    2009-12-01

    The Yangtze River (Changjiang) is one of the most important rivers in the world. With population increase and economic growth, the stream temperature regime of the Yangtze River has been altered to some extent by human activities, including runoff impoundment (dam construction). To assess dam-induced alterations in the temperature regime of the Yangtze River quantitatively, this paper selected two key hydrological stations (i.e. Yichang and Cuntan stations) below and above the Three Gorges dam respectively as case study sites. Cuntan station is at the upper limit of Three Gorges reservoir controlling water and sediment discharge to the reservoir from the upper Yangtze River. Yichang station is the control point of the upper Yangtze River basin and located at the starting point of the middle reach of the Yangtze River, 44 km below the Three Gorges Dam and 6 km below the Gezhouba Dam. The Gezhouba reservoir, with a capacity of 1.58 × 109m3, is a run-of-river reservoir and located on the main stem of the Yangtze River, 38 km below the Three Gorges reservoir. The Three Gorges reservoir with a capacity of 3.93 × 1010 m3 spans the Yangtze River. On the consideration that the Gezhouba Reservoir and the Three Gorges Reservoir may impose impacts on the downstream temperature regime of Gezouba and Three Gorges dams to different extents respectively, the whole study periods were divided into 3 subperiods by the years when these two reservoirs started to store water respectively. On the basis of 50-year long time series of daily or ten-day stream temperature from two stations, their annual, seasonal, monthly and daily stream temperature, the correlation of the 10-day stream temperature values between Cuntan and Yichang, and the correlation of the 10-day stream temperature changing rates between Cuntan and Yichang in different subperiods were analyzed and compared. The stream temperature rising and falling characteristics and daily stream temperature distribution during the

  7. National Dam Safety Program. Glenham Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 72), Lower Hudson River Basin, Dutchess County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-14

    is an ogee-shaped concrete weir 140 feet long (measured perpendicular to flow). The spillway has a rounded crest, a near vertical upstream face, and a...downstream end of the stilling basin, water discharges over a 1-foot wide and 3-foot high rounded concrete end sill into the natural river channel...water flows over a rounded concrete berm into the natural river channel. The right side of the dam, parallel to the flow, is a complex concrete structure

  8. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  9. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  10. Influence of Glen Canyon Dam on Fine-Sediment Storage in the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazel, J. E.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Kaplinski, M.

    2005-12-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has caused a fundamental change in the distribution of fine-sediment storage in the 99-km reach of the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The two major storage sites for fine sediment (i.e., sand and finer material) in this canyon river are lateral recirculation eddies and the main-channel bed. We use a combination of methods, including direct measurement of sediment storage change, measurements of sediment flux, and comparison of the grain size of sediment found in different storage sites relative to the supply and that in transport, in order to evaluate the change in both volume and location of sediment storage. The analysis shows that the bed of the main channel was an important storage environment for fine sediment in the pre-dam era. In years of large seasonal accumulation, ~50% of the fine sediment supplied to the reach from upstream sources was stored on the main-channel bed. In contrast, sediment budgets constructed for two short-duration, experimental releases from Glen Canyon Dam indicate that ~90% of the sediment discharge from the reach during each release was derived from eddy storage, rather than from sandy deposits on the main-channel bed. These results indicate that the majority of the fine sediment in Marble Canyon is now stored in eddies, even though they occupy a small percentage (~17%) of the total river area. Because of a 95% reduction in the supply of fine sediment to Marble Canyon, future high releases not timed with substantial tributary inputs will potentially erode sediment from long-term eddy storage, resulting in continued degradation in Marble Canyon.

  11. National Dam Safety Program. St. James Lake Dam (Inventory Number NY 779), St. Lawrence River Basin, Jefferson County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-14

    Province. It is north of the Tug Hill Plateau and at the western edge of the Adirondack foothills. The January 5, 1973 State Report indicates the dam...Preliminary Brittle Structures Map of New York, Adirondack Sheet: New York State Museum Map and Chart Series No. 31A 17. Eastern New York River

  12. Sedimentary Records of Hyperpycnal Flows and the Influence of River Damming on Sediment Dynamics of Estuaries: Examples from the Nelson, Churchill, Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Duboc, Q.; Boyer-Villemaire, U.; Lajeunesse, P.; Bernatchez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment cores were sampled in the estuary of the Nelson and Churchill Rivers in western Hudson Bay, as well as in the estuary of the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers in Gulf of St. Lawrence in order to evaluate the impact of hydroelectric dams on the sedimentary regime of these estuaries. The gravity cores at the mouth of the Nelson River recorded several cm-thick rapidly deposited layers with a reverse to normal grading sequence, indicating the occurrence of hyperpycnal flows generated by major floods during the last few centuries. These hyperpycnal flows were probably caused by ice-jam formation, which can increase both the flow and the sediment concentration following the breaching of such natural dams. Following the construction of hydroelectric dams since the 1960s, the regulation of river discharge prevented the formation of hyperpycnal flows, and hence the deposition of hyperpycnites in the upper part of the cores. In the core sampled in the estuary of the Churchill River, only one hyperpycnite was recorded. This lower frequency may be due to the enclosed estuary of the Churchill River, its weaker discharge and the more distal location of the coring site.In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, grain size measurements allowed the identification of a major flood around AD 1844±4 years in box cores from both the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie Rivers, whereas a drastic decrease in variations in the median grain size occurred around AD ~1900 in the estuary of the Sainte-Marguerite River, highlighting the offshore impact of the SM1 dam construction in the early 1900s. Furthermore, sedimentological variations in the box cores from both estuaries have been investigated by wavelet analysis and the sharp disappearance of high frequencies around AD 1900 in the estuary of the dammed river (Sainte-Marguerite River), but not in the estuary of the natural river (Moisie River), also provides evidence of the influence of dams on the sedimentary regime of estuaries.

  13. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Mirror Lake Dam (N.H. 00317) State Number 259.07. Merrimack River Basin, Woodstock, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD-A156 39? NATIONAL PROGRRM FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAMS 1/1 MIRROR LAKE DAM (NH @..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM MA NEW ENGLAND DIV AUG 80...CHART MERRIMACK RIVER BASIN (Y) WOODSTOCK. NEW HAMPSHIRE In MIRROR LAKE DAM N.H. 00317 STATE NO 259.07 PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL. DAM INSPECTION...Mirror Lake Dam NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL 6. PERFORMINOORG. REPORT NUMBER DAMS 7. AUTHOR(aJ 1. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(W) U.S

  14. Geomorphic change and sediment transport during a small artificial flood in a transformed post-dam delta: The Colorado River delta, United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Schmidt, John C.; Topping, David J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Rodríguez-Burgueño, Jesús Eliana; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Grams, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado River delta is a dramatically transformed landscape. Major changes to river hydrology and morpho-dynamics began following completion of Hoover Dam in 1936. Today, the Colorado River has an intermittent and/or ephemeral channel in much of its former delta. Initial incision of the river channel in the upstream ∼50 km of the delta occurred in the early 1940s in response to spillway releases from Hoover Dam under conditions of drastically reduced sediment supply. A period of relative quiescence followed, until the filling of upstream reservoirs precipitated a resurgence of flows to the delta in the 1980s and 1990s. Flow releases during extreme upper basin snowmelt in the 1980s, flood flows from the Gila River basin in 1993, and a series of ever-decreasing peak flows in the late 1990s and early 2000s further incised the upstream channel and caused considerable channel migration throughout the river corridor. These variable magnitude post-dam floods shaped the modern river geomorphology. In 2014, an experimental pulse-flow release aimed at rejuvenating the riparian ecosystem and understanding hydrologic dynamics flowed more than 100 km through the length of the delta’s river corridor. This small artificial flood caused localized meter-scale scour and fill of the streambed, but did not cause further incision or significant bank erosion because of its small magnitude. Suspended-sand-transport rates were initially relatively high immediately downstream from the Morelos Dam release point, but decreasing discharge from infiltration losses combined with channel widening downstream caused a rapid downstream reduction in suspended-sand-transport rates. A zone of enhanced transport occurred downstream from the southern U.S.-Mexico border where gradient increased, but effectively no geomorphic change occurred beyond a point 65 km downstream from Morelos Dam. Thus, while the pulse flow connected with the modern estuary, deltaic sedimentary processes were not

  15. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: Erosion of reservoir sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randle, Timothy J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Ritchie, Andrew; Wille, Kurt

    2015-10-01

    Base-level lowering of reservoirs impounding upstream sediment supply triggers a series of channel evolution steps such as degradation, lateral erosion, and redeposition that can dramatically alter the reservoir landscape and decouple the relationship between stream power and sediment supply. Many case studies exist for small dam removals with a few years of sediment storage or dam breaches triggering instantaneous large sediment releases. However, quantitative information for a controlled drawdown initiating erosion of a large sediment deposit is rare. We investigate reservoir sediment response to the phased and concurrent drawdown of two reservoirs on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, during the largest dam removal in history by measuring changes in reservoir topography and channel morphology as a function of base-level lowering, river discharge, and cohesion. After two years, the Elwha Dam was completely removed, and three-quarters of Glines Canyon Dam were removed. Reservoir drawdown increments of 3 to 5 m were sufficient to initiate channel degradation and delta progradation across the width of the receding reservoir, redistributing decades of accumulated delta sediment throughout the reservoir while the lake still remained. The first year of dam removal resulted in up to 5 m of incision through the Lake Aldwell delta down to the predam surface and in just over 20 m of incision through the Lake Mills delta. In contrast, delta progradation resulted in a few meters of deposition in Lake Aldwell and 2 to 10 m in Lake Mills on top of prodelta and lakebed deposits. In coarse, noncohesive sediment, a braided channel developed and widened up to tenfold across the entire width of the reservoir. The most extensive lateral erosion occurred in noncohesive deposits during multiweek hold periods coinciding with flows greater than the mean annual flow, but less than a 2-year flood peak. Channel widening in more cohesive fine sediments of the prodelta and lakebed was less

  16. [Structure of planktonic ammonia-oxidizing community in the waters near the Three Gorges Dam of the Yangtze River].

    PubMed

    Huang, Liuqin; Jiang, Hongchen; Wang, Shang; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dong, Hailiang

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) in natural environments is of great importance to understand global nitrogen cycling. However, little is known about the effects of dam constructions on the AOM community. We studied the diversity of the free-living and particle-attached AOM populations in the waters behind and in front of the Three Gorges Dam of the Yangtze River, and analyzed the possible correlation between the observed difference in the two fractions of AOM with the environmental parameters. Two sampling locations near the Three Gorges Dam were selected: one behind and the other in front of the dam. Physicochemical profiles of waters at each location were measured, and the biomass in the waters was collected by filtration. The diversity of AOM in the collected samples was investigated by using an integrated approach including reverse transcription and clone library construction. The turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential of the water in front of the dam were higher than those behind the dam. The AOM population behind and in front of the dam was dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea, whereas the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were not detected. The distribution of free-living and particle-attached AOA behind and in front of the dam was different: the particle-attached AOA behind the dam was more diverse than that in front of the dam, whereas the free-living AOA showed the opposite tendency; the difference between the fractions of AOA behind the dam was apparently higher than that in front of the dam. The dominant AOA population did not show significant variation in the waters behind and in front of the dam, whereas the altered water dynamics resulted from the TGD construction may change the distribution of free-living and particle-attached AOA fractions in the waters behind and in front of the dam.

  17. Student Experiments on the Effects of Dam Removal on the Elwha River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandland, T. O.; Grack Nelson, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    The National Center for Earth Surface Dynamics (NCED) is an NSF funded Science and Technology Center devoted to developing a quantitative, predictive science of the ecological and physical processes that define and shape rivers and river networks. The Science Museum of Minnesota's (SMM) Earthscapes River Restoration classes provide k-12 students, teachers, and the public opportunities to explore NCED concepts and, like NCED scientists, move from a qualitative to a quantitative-based understanding of river systems. During a series of classes, students work with an experimental model of the Elwha River in Washington State to gain an understanding of the processes that define and shape river systems. Currently, two large dams on the Elwha are scheduled for removal to restore salmon habitat. Students design different dam removal scenarios to test and make qualitative observations describing and comparing how the modeled system evolves over time. In a following session, after discussing the ambiguity of the previous session's qualitative data, student research teams conduct a quantitative experiment to collect detailed measurements of the system. Finally, students interpret, critique, and compare the data the groups collected and ultimately develop and advocate a recommendation for the "ideal" dam removal scenario. SMM is currently conducting a formative evaluation of River Restoration classes to improve their educational effectiveness and guide development of an educator's manual. As of August 2006, pre- and post-surveys have been administered to 167 students to gauge student learning and engagement. The surveys have found the program successful in teaching students why scientists use river models and what processes and phenomena are at work in river systems. Most notable is the increase in student awareness of sediment in river systems. A post-visit survey was also administered to 20 teachers who used the models in their classrooms. This survey provided feedback about

  18. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida) of Neotropical dammed river.

    PubMed

    Ragonha, F H; Petsch, D K; Alves, G H Z; Santana, H S; Michelan, T S; Takeda, A M

    2014-11-01

    Tributaries may serve as richness source for the river main channel and the zoobenthos community is a good tool to verify this kind of pattern. In this study, we aimed to characterize the benthic invertebrate assemblage in three tributaries associated to the Paraná River main channel, focusing in Oligochaeta community. We hypothesized that (i) in tributaries, Oligochaeta are richer than the main river (Paraná River) and (ii) dammed tributary (Paranapanema River) is poorly diverse than the others. Samples were conducted in Paranapanema, Baía and Ivinhema tributaries using a modified Petersen grab along three transects (samples conducted inside the tributary, in the mouth of each tributary and inside Paraná River). To analyze (i) the difference between the richness and density among the tributaries and the Paraná River and (ii) effect of each tributary transect on the Oligochaeta richness we used a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Changes in environmental variables and in richness and composition of Oligochaeta were summarized by Canonic Correspondence Analysis. It was registered 21 different benthic invertebrates taxa, being Oligochaeta assemblage with the highest density. Within Oligochaeta, Narapa bonettoi was the most abundant species, followed by Haplotaxis aedochaeta and Paranadrilus descolei. In our results we refused both hypotheses, because we did not found significant differences for richness and density between the tributaries and the main river, and also no difference between the three transects of each tributary were found. However, the tributaries less influenced by damming, especially the Baía recorded high richness. This corroborates their importance to diversity in the floodplain and the species of Oligochaeta reflect the peculiar characteristics of habitats within each tributaries.

  19. National Dam Inspection Program. Maple Lake Dam (NDI ID Number PA-01026, DER ID Number 57-38), Susquehanna River Basin, Branch of Blackwater Run, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    34 dsde 187 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN BRANCH OF BLACKWATER RUN, SULLIVAN COUNTY PENNSYLVANIA Accession ForMAPLE LAKE DAM NTIS . A&.I.. NDI ID NO. PA-01026...iii OVERVIEW OF MAPLE LAKE DAM .. ........ .......... ........vi SECTION 1 - GENERAL INFOkMATION .. .. ............ ..........1 SECTION 2 - ENGINEERING...of Dam: Maple Lake Dam NDI ID No. PA-01026 DER ID No. 57-38 Size: Small (14.4 feet high; 126.5 acre-feet) Hazard Classification: High Owner: Russell E

  20. Quantifying Channel Morphology Changes in Response to the Removal of the Glines Canyon Dam, Elwha River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Free, B. J.; Ely, L. L.; Hickey, R.; Flake, R.; Baumgartner, S.

    2014-12-01

    The removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, is the largest dam-removal project in history. Our research documents the sediment deposition, erosion, and channel changes between the dams following the initial sediment release from the removal of the upstream Glines Canyon Dam. Within the first year following the dam removal, the pulse of coarse sediment and large woody debris propagated downstream well over 6 km below the dam. The sediment deposition and altered channel hydraulics caused lateral channel migration where anabranching channels merge around new mid-channel bars and at large bends in the river channel. Documenting the river channel response to this exceptional sediment pulse could improve models of the impacts of future dam removals on similar gravel-bed rivers. We quantified the sediment flux and channel changes at four field sites 2-6 km downstream of Glines Canyon Dam. Topographic changes were surveyed with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) on an annual basis from August 2012 - August 2014 and the surface sediment distribution was quantified with bimonthly sediment counts. Differencing the annual TLS data yielded an overall increase in sediment throughout the study reach, with a minimum of 20,000 m3 of deposition on bars and banks exposed above the water surface in each 700-m-long TLS survey reach. The surface sediment distribution decreased from ~18 cm to < 1 mm. Large woody debris transported downstream from the former reservoir contributed to the formation of new sand and gravel bars along the channel margin at two sites as well as the longitudinal growth of several bars throughout the study area. The new bar formations have continued to propagate downstream as new sediment and woody debris have been added and remobilized, increasing the complexity of the river channel. By spring 2013, channel features that were present before the dam removal began to re-emerge due to the remobilizing of sediment through the system.

  1. Relationship of the Ben Franklin Dam Alternative to Water and Land Uses, Plans, Policies, and Controls for the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    fish spawning and wildlife habitat loss. , North Pacific Division. Reach Inventory, Columbia River Headwater McNary Reservoir to Grand Coulee Dam . Portland...River. This book is an inventory of existing land uses and conditions of the river from McNary Reservoir to Grand Coulee Dam . This inventory was part of

  2. Simulating the recovery of suspended sediment transport and river-bed stability in response to dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of the Interior is planning to remove two high dams (30 and 60 m) from the Elwha River, which will allow the river to erode sediment deposits in the reservoirs, and ultimately restore the river ecosystem. Fluvial sediment transport and deposition paradoxically represent ecological disturbance and restoration. A one-dimensional, movable boundary sediment-transport model was applied at a daily time step to simulate changes in river-bed elevations and particle-size distributions and concentrations of suspended sediment. The simulations included a three-year dam removal period and a four-year recovery period. Simulated concentrations of suspended sediment recover rapidly during the recovery period. Simulated bed elevation and particle-size distributions are stable for much of the river during the recovery period, but high flows periodically disturb the river bed, causing changes in river-bed elevation and particle-size distribution, especially during autumn, when summer/autumn chinook salmon are incubating in redds. Although the river bed will become increasingly stable after dam removal, episodic high flows will interrupt recovery trends. Productivity and diversity of the ecosystem may be lower because of excess sediment immediately after dam removal but should increase during recovery above current levels as the river. Monitoring of the recovery of the Elwha River ecosystem can target ecologically significant physical parameters indicating the transition from a sediment transport-limited state to a supply-limited state.

  3. 50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  4. 49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  5. CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  6. National Dam Inspection Program. Flat Rock Dam (NDS I.D. Number PA 00896, DER I.D. Number 51-1), Delaware River Basin, Schuylkill River, Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    engineering characteristics of the dam include the Water Resources Bulletin, Bulletin No. 4, "Water Resources Survey, The Schuylkill River , Pennsylvania...2.8 12.5 iii,,1.0 .0 12 .0*2 1111 L A, 1 .2 1 1 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 10AIIONA1 0111I AAil 0 IANDAR[1, 101,3 A DELAWARE RIVER BA(IN SNOYLKILL... RIVER UIUTllUERY AND PUILADELPEIA eoNuTIES PENNSYLVANIA lOS I PA. 06816 DER IB 51-1 . t0 II PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT I NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION

  7. Finding of no significant impact. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diverson Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. The proposed fish passage improvements would have effects on the anadromous and resident fish populations which, viewed in the context of the Umatilla River basin, would be beneficial. Resident fish would receive incidental benefits from reduced mortalities at the diversion structures. However, given the regional context, as specified in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, in which the proposed passage improvements would be implemented and the large increase in anadromous fish production necessary to restore historical population levels, the proposed actions are not considered to have significant environmental impacts.

  8. Effects of flow alterations on trout, angling, and recreation in the Chattahoochee River between Buford Dam and Peachtree Creek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, John M.; Milhouse, Robert T.; Troxel, Jay; Fritschen, Janet A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1974 county governments in the Atlanta vicinity realized that demands on the Chattahoochee River for water supply plus the streamflow required for water quality nearly equaled the minimum flow in the river. Increased demands for water supply in the following years could not be supplied under the then existing flow regime in the river. In response to the anticipated shortage of water, the Atlanta Regional Commission, a multicounty agency responsible for comprehensive regional planning in the Atlanta region, was contracted to prepare water demand projections to the year 2010 and identify alternatives for meeting projected water demands. The results of this study are published in an extensive final report, the Metropolitan Atlanta Area Water Resources Management Study (1981). Requests for copies should be directed to the District Engineer, Savannah District. Many of the identified alternatives to increase future water supply for the Atlanta area would result in modifications to the present flow regime within the Chattahoochee River between Buford Dam (river mile 348.3) and its confluence with Peachtree Creek (river mile 300.5). The present preferred alternative is construction of a reregulation dam at about river mile 342. The proposed reregulation dam would release a much more constant flow than the peaking flows presently released from Buford Dam (generally, a maximum release of approximately 9000 cfs or minimum release of about 550 cfs) by storing the generation releases from Buford Dam for gradual release during non-generation periods. The anticipated minimum release from the rereg dam would he approximately 1U5U cfs (based on contractual obligations to the Southeast Power Administration to supply a minimum of 11 hours of peaking power per week from Buford Dam). The average annual release from the proposed reregulation dam into the Chattahoochee River would be approximately 2000 cfs (based on USGS flow records) and the median release would he approximately 1500

  9. Bedload transport over run-of-river dams, Delaware, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Adam J.; Pizzuto, Jim

    2015-11-01

    We document the detailed morphology and bed sediment size distribution of a stream channel upstream and downstream of a 200-year-old run-of-river dam on the Red Clay Creek, a fifth order stream in the Piedmont of northern Delaware, and combine these data with HEC-RAS modeling and bedload transport computations. We hypothesize that coarse bed material can be carried through run-of-river impoundments before they completely fill with sediment, and we explore mechanisms to facilitate this transport. Only 25% of the accommodation space in our study site is filled with sediment, and maximum water depths are approximately equal to the dam height. All grain-size fractions present upstream of the impoundment are also present throughout the impoundment. A characteristic coarse-grained sloping ramp leads from the floor of the impoundment to the crest of the dam. A 2.3-m-deep plunge pool has been excavated below the dam, followed immediately downstream by a mid-channel bar composed of coarse bed material similar in size distribution to the bed material of the impoundment. The mid-channel bar stores 1472 m3 of sediment, exceeding the volume excavated from the plunge pool by a factor of 2.8. These field observations are typical of five other sites nearby and suggest that all bed material grain-size fractions supplied from upstream can be transported through the impoundment, up the sloping ramp, and over the top of the dam. Sediment transport computations suggest that all grain sizes are in transport upstream and within the impoundment at all discharges with return periods from 1 to 50 years. Our computations suggest that transport of coarse bed material through the impoundment is facilitated by its smooth, sandy bed. Model results suggest that the impoundment is currently aggrading at 0.26 m/year, but bed elevations may be recovering after recent scour from a series of large floods during water year 2011-2012. We propose that impoundments upstream of these run-of-river dams

  10. Projection of climate change Impact on water resources for hydropower and irrigation under new dam construction in the Mekong River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, R.; Masumoto, T.; Horikawa, N.; Yoshida, T.

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction Many projects for water resources development are planned in the Mekong River basin. Hydrological cycles in river basins are affected by such developments as well as by climate change. In Laos there are about 70 hydroelectric power projects and several hydroelectric dams are currently under construction upstream from the Nam Ngum dam (NN1 dam), one of the largest hydroelectric dams in the Mekong River. In this study, the combined impacts of climate change and the construction of new dams on water resources in the Nam Ngum River were investigated by using a distributed hydrological model, a reservoir operation model, and future climate scenarios based on a Global Climate Model (GCM). 2. Distributed Hydrological and Reservoir Operation Models The hydrological model used in this study contains four sub-models, evapotranspiration, cropping pattern and area, agricultural water use, and runoff. For modeling, a basin is divided into a 10 km grid and the ratios of five land-use categories (forest, rain-fed paddy, irrigated paddy, upland field, and water body) are set for each grid cell. A reservoir operation model was developed to represent the operation of dams in the Nam Ngum River basin and this model was incorporated in the distributed hydrological model. This model was applied to the NN1 dam and other new dams. 3. Data and Methods Future climate scenarios simulated by MRI-AGCM3.1S (SRES-A1B), a GCM developed by Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) of Japan, were used as input data for the hydrological model. The climate scenarios were statistically corrected to eliminate biases between the GCM simulations and the observations. Simulations were carried out for five scenarios: Present: Without dam construction under present climate conditions (1979-2003) Near future1: Without dam construction under near future climate conditions (2015-2039) Near future2: With dam construction under near future climate conditions (2015-2039) Future1: Without dam

  11. The Influence of Dam Discharge Regime and Canyon Orientation on Ecosystem Metabolism in the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, T. A.; Tietjen, T.; Wright, S.

    2005-05-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam and the beginning of flow regulation of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1963, considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding the aquatic ecology of this altered ecosystem. Understanding what controls resource availability has been a central focus of these efforts because the Colorado River supports populations of sport fish and endangered humpback chub, both of which appear to be strongly resource limited. There is evidence that dam discharge regime and canyon orientation influence algal standing crop due to their effects on water velocity (scour) and solar insolation, respectively. We explored whether these physical factors influenced rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, two different metrics of resource availability, in the clear tailwater section of the Colorado River by conducting whole system metabolism measurements across a range of discharge regimes and in reaches with different orientation (i.e. N-S vs. E-W). We found that while both discharge regime and canyon orientation influence rates of primary production, seasonal changes in light availability appear to have a far stronger influence on rates of primary production in the Colorado River. Water temperature appeared to be the main driver of ecosystem respiration.

  12. Upstream dams and downstream clams: growth rates of bivalve mollusks unveil impact of river management on estuarine ecosystems (Colorado River Delta, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delta, River; Schone, Mexico) B. R.; Flessa, K. W.; Dettman, D. L.; Goodwin, D. H.

    2003-12-01

    We studied how the extensive diversion of Colorado River water, induced by dams and agricultural activities of the last 70 years, affected the growth rates of two abundant bivalve mollusk species ( Chione cortezi and Chione fluctifraga) in the northern Gulf of California. Shells alive on the delta today ('Post-dam' shells) grow 5.8-27.9% faster than shells alive prior to the construction of dams ('Pre-dam' shells). This increase in annual shell production is linked to the currently sharply reduced freshwater influx to the Colorado River estuary. Before the upstream river management, lower salinity retarded growth rates in these bivalves. Intra-annual growth rates were 50% lower during spring and early summer, when river flow was at its maximum. Growth rates in Chione today are largely controlled by temperature and nutrients; prior to the construction of dams and the diversion of the Colorado River flow, seasonal changes in salinity played an important role in regulating calcification rates. Our study employs sclerochronological (growth increment analysis) and geochemical techniques to assess the impact of reduced freshwater influx on bivalve growth rates in the Colorado River estuary. A combination of both techniques provides an excellent tool to evaluate the impact of river management in areas where no pre-impact studies were made.

  13. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Vandervoort, C.; Heaton, S. N.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachloridibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  14. Application of wavelet analysis for monitoring the hydrologic effects of dam operation: Glen canyon dam and the Colorado River at lees ferry, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, M.A.; Schmidt, J.C.; Topping, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is a powerful tool with which to analyse the hydrologic effects of dam construction and operation on river systems. Using continuous records of instantaneous discharge from the Lees Ferry gauging station and records of daily mean discharge from upstream tributaries, we conducted wavelet analyses of the hydrologic structure of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The wavelet power spectrum (WPS) of daily mean discharge provided a highly compressed and integrative picture of the post-dam elimination of pronounced annual and sub-annual flow features. The WPS of the continuous record showed the influence of diurnal and weekly power generation cycles, shifts in discharge management, and the 1996 experimental flood in the post-dam period. Normalization of the WPS by local wavelet spectra revealed the fine structure of modulation in discharge scale and amplitude and provides an extremely efficient tool with which to assess the relationships among hydrologic cycles and ecological and geomorphic systems. We extended our analysis to sections of the Snake River and showed how wavelet analysis can be used as a data mining technique. The wavelet approach is an especially promising tool with which to assess dam operation in less well-studied regions and to evaluate management attempts to reconstruct desired flow characteristics. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Determining sources of sediments at Nkula Dam in the Middle Shire River, Malawi, using mineral magnetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mzuza, Maureen Kapute; Weiguo, Zhang; Chapola, Lostina S.; Tembo, Mavuto; Kapute, Fanuel

    2017-02-01

    Shire River is the largest and longest in Malawi supporting many livelihoods. Degradation in the river's catchment is now a major problem causing excessive siltation in the Nkula Dam which is a terminal sink for sediments eroded and transported by the river and its tributaries. In this study, source of sediments that are deposited into the Nkula Dam were determined by analysing sediment samples from western and eastern tributaries of the Shire River using mineral magnetic approach. Representative samples were collected from tributaries on both sides of the Shire River and Nkula Dam, and subjected to magnetic measurements on bulk samples and sized fractions (<250 μm and >250 μm). Results show significantly higher ferrimagnetic mineral contents and ferrimagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic ratios in the eastern tributaries than the western side of the Shire River. Lithology and weathering conditions are suggested to be the main cause for magnetic contrast between the two sides of the river. It is concluded that most sediments in the Nkula Dam originate from the western side of the Shire River, presumably due to excessive erosion. This study demonstrates that magnetic method is a promising approach in assessing fluvial sediment source.

  16. 75 FR 74700 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... inspection: a. Application Type: Non-Project Use of Project Lands and Waters. b. Project No.: 2183-078. c. Date Filed: October 26, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project is located on the Grand River in Mayes...

  17. Assessing distribution of migratory fishes and connectivity following complete and partial dam removals in a North Carolina River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Fish, especially migratory species, are assumed to benefit from dam removals that restore connectivity and access to upstream habitat, but few studies have evaluated this assumption. Therefore, we assessed the movement of migratory fishes in the springs of 2008 through 2010 and surveyed available habitat in the Little River, North Carolina, a tributary to the Neuse River, after three complete dam removals and one partial (notched) dam removal. We tagged migratory fishes with PIT tags at a resistance-board weir located at a dam removal site (river kilometer [rkm] 3.7) and followed their movements with an array of PIT antennas. The river-wide distribution of fish following removals varied by species. For example, 24–31% of anadromous American Shad Alosa sapidissima, 45–49% of resident Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, and 4–11% of nonnative Flathead CatfishPylodictis olivaris passed the dam removal site at rkm 56 in 2009 and 2010. No preremoval data were available for comparison, but reach connectivity appeared to increase as tagged individuals passed former dam sites and certain individuals moved extensively both upstream and downstream. However, 17–28% did not pass the partially removed dam at rkm 7.9, while 20–39% of those that passed remained downstream for more than a day before migrating upstream. Gizzard Shad required the deepest water to pass this notched structure, followed by American Shad then Flathead Catfish. Fish that passed the notched dam accessed more complex habitat (e.g., available substrate size-classes) in the middle and upper reaches. The results provide strong support for efforts to restore currently inaccessible habitat through complete removal of derelict dams.

  18. National Dam Safety Program. Morgan Lake Dam (Inventory Number NY-787), Hudson River Basin, Dutchess County, New York. Phase I Inspection Reprot,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-12

    Alsu develop an lncrurncy a-.’tion pIan. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Whon Date Entered) .4-4, E J4.. . . HUDSON RIVER BASIN MORGAN LAKE 1...Street housing project directly downstream of the dam. e . Ownership. Morgan Lake Dam is owned by the City of Pough- keepsie, and is maintained by the...will hi-vcv to be revised. h SL:r hould L- ci thcr rr i Ii ncd o;- H, .-rd~’ b oa i:;p. Ccforo .- uSaL ainy work on) Morgan Lzi,’ e , Damn, ar. ! for

  19. Planned flooding and Colorado River riparian trade-offs downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Lawrence E.; Ayers, T.J.; Bennett, J.B.; Christensen, K.; Kearsley, M.J.C.; Meretsky, V.J.; Phillips, A. M.; Parnell, R.A.; Spence, J.; Sogge, M.K.; Springer, A.E.; Wegner, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Regulated river restoration through planned flooding involves trade-offs between aquatic and terrestrial components, between relict pre-dam and novel post-dam resources and processes, and between management of individual resources and ecosystem characteristics. We review the terrestrial (wetland and riparian) impacts of a 1274 m3/s test flood conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in March/April 1996, which was designed to improve understanding of sediment transport and management downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in the Colorado River ecosystem. The test flood successfully restored sandbars throughout the river corridor and was timed to prevent direct impacts to species of concern. A total of 1275 endangered Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis) were translocated above the flood zone at Vaseys Paradise spring, and an estimated 10.7% of the total snail habitat and 7.7% of the total snail population were lost to the flood. The test flood scoured channel margin wetlands, including potential foraging habitats of endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). It also buried ground-covering riparian vegetation under >1 m of fine sand but only slightly altered woody sandbar vegetation and some return-current channel marshes. Pre-flood control efforts and appropriate flood timing limited recruitment of four common nonnative perennial plant species. Slight impacts on ethnobotanical resources were detected >430 km downstream, but those plant assemblages recovered rapidly. Careful design of planned flood hydrograph shape and seasonal timing is required to mitigate terrestrial impacts during efforts to restore essential fluvial geomorphic and aquatic habitats in regulated river ecosystems.

  20. Water Quality Monitoring of the Upper St Lawrence River Using Remote Sensor Arrays Placed in a Hydropower Dam Combined with Hydrodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, F.; Sprague, H. M.; Skufca, J. D.; Twiss, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    There are limited long-term data available on the ecological health and environmental state of the Upper St. Lawrence River (CA,US; average discharge 6,910 m3/s). Our research objective is to establish long-term remote water quality monitoring stations in the Moses-Saunders hydroelectric power dam at Massena, New York using a network of sensors. Such a placement of sensors allows for year-round monitoring of water and hence, the ability to measure at times of year and during extreme weather events that previously made monitoring infeasible. The sensor array was installed on 17 June 2014 and draws water from the penstock at a rate of 6-10 L per minute. Sensors in flow through chambers collect data on temperature, turbidity, color dissolved organic material (CDOM), phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, and specific conductivity at one minute intervals. In combination with a hydrodynamic flow model we are able to hind-cast water movements so that the quality of water passing through the dam can be related to environmental conditions in the river upstream from the sensor array. We conducted field surveys using sensors in a ferry box on a vessel moving upstream (40 km) at a velocity providing a spatial resolution of 100 m and determined that main channel water is more homogenous than water along the shorelines (2 m isopleth) of the river, despite the high turbulence in this river. The sensor array located in the turbine unit nearest the US shore is able to discern tributary inputs for CDOM from the Oswegatchie River (discharge 40-120 m3/s), located 67 km upstream. This research is an important proof-of-concept for installing similar arrays in dams throughout the Great Lakes region and is applicable to smaller rivers containing power dams.

  1. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  2. Discharge ratings for control gates at Mississippi River lock and dam 21, Quincy, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The water levels of the navigation pools on the Mississippi River are maintained by the operation of tainter and roller gates at the locks and dams. Discharge ratings for the gates on Lock and Dam 21, at Quincy, Illinois, were developed from current meter discharge measurements made in the forebays of the gate structures. Methodology is given to compute the gate openings of the tainter gates accurately. Discharge coefficients , in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater head, forebay head, and height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of submerged orifice and free weir flow. A comparison of the rating discharges to the hydraulic model rating discharges is given for submerged orifice flow for the tainter and roller gates.

  3. Discharge ratings for control gates at Mississippi River lock and dam 12, Bellevue, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    The water level of the navigation pools on the Mississippi River are maintained by the operation of tainter and roller gates at the locks and dams. Discharge ratings for the gates on Lock and Dam 12, at Bellevue, Iowa, were developed from current-meter discharge measurements made in the forebays of the gate structures. Methodology is given to accurately compute the gate openings of the tainter gates. Discharge coefficients, in equations that express discharge as a function of tailwater head , forebay head, and height of gate opening, were determined for conditions of submerged-orifice and fee-weir flow. A comparison of the rating discharges to the hydraulic-model rating discharges is given for submerged orifice flow for the tainter and roller gates.

  4. Beach morphology and change along the mixed grain-size delta of the dammed Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; George, D.A.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Beirne, M.

    2009-01-01

    shellfish collections from the low-tide beach, we suggest that it is an armored layer of cobble clasts that are not generally competent in the physical setting of the delta. Thus, the cobble low-tide terrace is very likely a geomorphological feature caused by coastal erosion of a coastal plain and delta, which in turn is related to the impacts of the dams on the Elwha River to sediment fluxes to the coast.

  5. Beach morphology and change along the mixed grain-size delta of the dammed Elwha River, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.; Beirne, Matt

    2009-10-01

    collections from the low-tide beach, we suggest that it is an armored layer of cobble clasts that are not generally competent in the physical setting of the delta. Thus, the cobble low-tide terrace is very likely a geomorphological feature caused by coastal erosion of a coastal plain and delta, which in turn is related to the impacts of the dams on the Elwha River to sediment fluxes to the coast.

  6. The impact of a dam on the helminth fauna and health of a neotropical fish species Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier 1816) from the upper Paraná River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Karling, L C; Isaac, A; Affonso, I P; Takemoto, R M; Pavanelli, G C

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect changes in the structure of the helminth parasite infracommunities in Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier 1816) from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River after construction of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant. A total of 126 fish in the period before the dam's construction and 56 specimens 10 years after this event were analysed. Three species of parasites were collected before the construction of the dam: Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 (Digenea), Cladocystis intestinalis Vaz, 1932 (Digenea) and Monticellia coryphicephala Monticelli, 1892 (Cestoda), and one nematode species in the larval stage, whose identification was not possible. After dam construction, the following helminth parasites were found: C. intestinalis, M. coryphicephala, Octospiniferoides incognita, Contracaecum spp. larvae and Contracaecum sp. type 2 larvae Moravec, Kohn & Fernandes 1993. The diversity of helminth parasites measured by the Brillouin diversity index (HB) differed significantly between the pre- and post-dam periods (mean HB = 0.069 and HB = 0.2, respectively; P= 0.0479; Mann-Whitney U test). The parasite community of S. brasiliensis before the construction of the dam showed concentration of dominance (C) of P. obesa (C = 0.38), while there was no concentration of dominance of any species of parasite (C = 0.22) after the dam's construction. Before the Porto Primavera dam the relative condition factor of fish was 1.0; after the dam's construction it was 0.93 (P < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney U test). This study records the disappearance of the species P. obesa and suggests that there has been local extinction of this parasite. The results show that the anthropic influence on natural systems is interfering with the welfare and health of S. brasiliensis, reflected by its fauna of helminth parasites.

  7. Colorado River sediment transport 1. Natural sediment supply limitation and the influence of Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Vierra, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of flow, sediment-transport, bed-topographic, and sedimentologic data suggest that before the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons was annually supply-limited with respect to fine sediment (i.e., sand and finer material). Furthermore, these analyses suggest that the predam river in Glen Canyon was not supply-limited to the same degree and that the degree of annual supply limitation increased near the head of Marble Canyon. The predam Colorado River in Grand Canyon displays evidence of four effects of supply limitation: (1) seasonal hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) seasonal hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the seasonal hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Analyses of sediment budgets provide additional support for the interpretation that the predam river was annually supply-limited with respect to fine sediment, but it was not supply-limited with respect to fine sediment during all seasons. In the average predam year, sand would accumulate and be stored in Marble Canyon and upper Grand Canyon for 9 months of the year (from July through March) when flows were dominantly below 200-300 m3/s; this stored sand was then eroded during April through June when flows were typically higher. After closure of Glen Canyon Dam, because of the large magnitudes of the uncertainties in the sediment budget, no season of substantial sand accumulation is evident. Because most flows in the postdam river exceed 200-300 m3/s, substantial sand accumulation in the postdam river is unlikely.

  8. Movements and demography of spawning American Shad in the Penobscot River, Maine, prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grote, Ann B.; Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a baseline study to better understand the migratory movements and age and spawning histories of American Shad Alosa sapidissima in the Penobscot River, Maine. The Penobscot River is currently undergoing a major dam removal project that is focused on restoring migratory connectivity and recovering diadromous fish populations including American Shad. This study addresses key data gaps for a previously unstudied native population of shad prior to restoration. A combination of radio- (n = 70) and acoustic telemetry (n = 14) was used to investigate the movements of migratory adult fish in 2010 and 2011. Scale-based analyses were used to assess spawner age and iteroparity. Radiotelemetry results indicated that few tagged fish (5–8%) approached the head-of-tide dam. Tagged fish exhibited three general patterns of movement in the accessible freshwater river habitat: use of the upper river reach, the lower river reach, or both. Mean freshwater residence time ranged from 9.1 to 14.0 d. Congregating fish were observed at two sites in the upper river reach and spawning activity was observed. Freshwater survival and survival to the estuary were at least 71%. This observed high survival was consistent with the estimated age and spawning histories of tracked fish, which indicated that 75–95% of the sampled fish were repeat spawners. Estimated age of adult migrants ranged from age 4 to age 9. Postspawning acoustic-tagged American Shad exhibited a series of prolonged upstream and downstream reversals upon entering the lower estuary. These movements have been previously unreported, and suggest that estuarine residency after spawning is important to osmoregulatory acclimatization for re-entry into salt water and the resumption of postspawning feeding activity.

  9. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: source-to-sink sediment budget and synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; East, Amy E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Randle, Timothy J.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Pess, George R.; Leung, Vivian; Duda, Jeff J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding landscape responses to sediment supply changes constitutes a fundamental part of many problems in geomorphology, but opportunities to study such processes at field scales are rare. The phased removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, exposed 21 ± 3 million m3, or ~ 30 million tonnes (t), of sediment that had been deposited in the two former reservoirs, allowing a comprehensive investigation of watershed and coastal responses to a substantial increase in sediment supply. Here we provide a source-to-sink sediment budget of this sediment release during the first two years of the project (September 2011–September 2013) and synthesize the geomorphic changes that occurred to downstream fluvial and coastal landforms. Owing to the phased removal of each dam, the release of sediment to the river was a function of the amount of dam structure removed, the progradation of reservoir delta sediments, exposure of more cohesive lakebed sediment, and the hydrologic conditions of the river. The greatest downstream geomorphic effects were observed after water bodies of both reservoirs were fully drained and fine (silt and clay) and coarse (sand and gravel) sediments were spilling past the former dam sites. After both dams were spilling fine and coarse sediments, river suspended-sediment concentrations were commonly several thousand mg/L with ~ 50% sand during moderate and high river flow. At the same time, a sand and gravel sediment wave dispersed down the river channel, filling channel pools and floodplain channels, aggrading much of the river channel by ~ 1 m, reducing river channel sediment grain sizes by ~ 16-fold, and depositing ~ 2.2 million m3 of sand and gravel on the seafloor offshore of the river mouth. The total sediment budget during the first two years revealed that the vast majority (~ 90%) of the sediment released from the former reservoirs to the river passed through the fluvial system and was discharged to the coastal

  10. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: Source-to-sink sediment budget and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; East, Amy E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Randle, Timothy J.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Pess, George R.; Leung, Vivian; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding landscape responses to sediment supply changes constitutes a fundamental part of many problems in geomorphology, but opportunities to study such processes at field scales are rare. The phased removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, exposed 21 ± 3 million m3, or 30 million tonnes (t), of sediment that had been deposited in the two former reservoirs, allowing a comprehensive investigation of watershed and coastal responses to a substantial increase in sediment supply. Here we provide a source-to-sink sediment budget of this sediment release during the first two years of the project (September 2011-September 2013) and synthesize the geomorphic changes that occurred to downstream fluvial and coastal landforms. Owing to the phased removal of each dam, the release of sediment to the river was a function of the amount of dam structure removed, the progradation of reservoir delta sediments, exposure of more cohesive lakebed sediment, and the hydrologic conditions of the river. The greatest downstream geomorphic effects were observed after water bodies of both reservoirs were fully drained and fine (silt and clay) and coarse (sand and gravel) sediments were spilling past the former dam sites. After both dams were spilling fine and coarse sediments, river suspended-sediment concentrations were commonly several thousand mg/L with 50% sand during moderate and high river flow. At the same time, a sand and gravel sediment wave dispersed down the river channel, filling channel pools and floodplain channels, aggrading much of the river channel by 1 m, reducing river channel sediment grain sizes by 16-fold, and depositing 2.2 million m3 of sand and gravel on the seafloor offshore of the river mouth. The total sediment budget during the first two years revealed that the vast majority ( 90%) of the sediment released from the former reservoirs to the river passed through the fluvial system and was discharged to the coastal waters, where slightly less

  11. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Lakeview Dam (MO 10543), Mississippi - Salt - Quincy River Basin, Lincoln County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subttlte) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Phase I Dam Inspection Report National Dam Safety Program )ial...IT The absence of seepage and stability analyses is a deficiency which should be corrected. Periodic inspections by a qualified engineer and...action. The following problems were observed which could affect the safety of the dam or which will require maintenance within a reasonable period of

  13. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimated egg-emergence days for endangered Upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed for all scenarios. Estimated spring Chinook fry emergence under SlidingWeir scenarios was 9 days later immediately downstream of Big Cliff Dam, and 4 days later at Greens Bridge compared with existing structural scenarios at Detroit Dam. Despite the inclusion of a hypothetical sliding weir at Detroit Dam, temperatures exceeded without-dams temperatures during November and December. These late-autumn exceedances likely represent the residual thermal effect of Detroit Lake operated to meet minimum dry-season release rates (supporting instream habitat and irrigation requirements) and lake levels specified by the current (2014) operating rules (supporting recreation and flood mitigation).

  14. The rate and pattern of bed incision and bank adjustment on the Colorado River in Glen Canyon downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, 1956-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, P.E.; Schmidt, J.C.; Topping, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 transformed the Colorado River by reducing the magnitude and duration of spring floods, increasing the magnitude of base flows, and trapping fine sediment delivered from the upper watershed. These changes caused the channel downstream in Glen Canyon to incise, armor, and narrow. This study synthesizes over 45 yr of channel-change measurements and demonstrates that the rate and style of channel adjustment are directly related to both natural processes associated with sediment deficit and human decisions about dam operations. Although bed lowering in lower Glen Canyon began when the first cofferdam was installed in 1959, most incision occurred in 1965 in conjunction with 14 pulsed high flows that scoured an average of 2.6 m of sediment from the center of the channel. The average grain size of bed material has increased from 0.25 mm in 1956 to over 20 mm in 1999. The magnitude of incision at riffles decreases with distance downstream from the dam, while the magnitude of sediment evacuation from pools is spatially variable and extends farther downstream. Analysis of bed-material mobility indicates that the increase in bed-material grain size and reduction in reach-average gradient are consistent with the transformation of an adjustable-bed alluvial river to a channel with a stable bed that is rarely mobilized. Decreased magnitude of peak discharges in the post-dam regime coupled with channel incision and the associated downward shifts of stage-discharge relations have caused sandbar and terrace erosion and the transformation of previously active sandbars and gravel bars to abandoned deposits that are no longer inundated. Erosion has been concentrated in a few pre-dam terraces that eroded rapidly for brief periods and have since stabilized. The abundance of abandoned deposits decreases downstream in conjunction with decreasing magnitude of shift in the stage-discharge relations. In the downstream part of the study area where riffles

  15. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2004 - March 2005. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2006-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2004 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph was relatively low compared to past years, which is reflected in the relatively low monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-theyear (YOY) white sturgeon.

  16. Geologic Hazards Associated With a Proposed Dam on the Yarlung-Tsangpo River in SE Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.; Meltzer, A. S.; Hallet, B.; Kidd, W. S.; Koons, P. O.

    2007-12-01

    For a decade anecdotes and media reports have been circulating about a proposed dam on the Yarlung- Tsangpo River in SE Tibet. The proposed site is in the deep canyon of the Yarlung-Tsangpo where the river leaves the Tibetan Plateau across an immense knickpoint, falling ~2000 m along an irregular U-shaped reach ~100 km in length. The fundamental purpose of the dam is generation of ~40,000 MW of hydropower, to be used in diverting a portion of the impounded river to water-starved regions of northern China. Offsetting benefits that would accrue from improved water supply in the north, debate has centered on the water-flow and sediment-flux impacts that would be felt downstream in the Brahmaputra system in northeastern India and Bangladesh, as well as the impact of a dam and large lake on the pristine, ecologically and ethnographically diverse area around the Yarlung-Tsangpo canyon, an area of great significance to Tibetan Buddhists. We have been examining the geodynamic evolution of eastern Tibet, and have gathered considerable geophysical and geological data on the knickpoint region. The knickpoint traverses the Namche Barwa-Gyala Peri massif, one of the most geologically active regions on Earth. In this region, very rapid bedrock exhumation at rates of 7 mm/yr or more has exposed granites as young as 1 Ma, and these rates have been ongoing for at least the past 3 m.y. Detrital-dating evidence shows that these high rates continue at present and that erosion within the massif contributes fully 50% of the suspended-sediment load in the Yarlung-Tsangpo at the point where it enters the Brahmaputra (this would be about 100 Mt/yr derived from the massif). The steep slopes in the massif fail by pervasive landsliding and suggest a steady-state topography where the high erosion rates are balanced by equivalent rates of rock uplift accommodated by numerous active structures. At a more regional scale, GPS results show that steep three-dimensional velocity gradients exist

  17. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Ludlow Dam (MA 00547) and Cherry Valley Dam (MA 00548), Chicopee River Basin, Ludlow, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    of Springfield Reservoir. Both dams , which were built in approximately 1877, are of the earth fill . type with a vertical spiling wall along their...of the reservoir. Both dams are of the earth filled type with a ’ .,, vertical spiling wall along their centerlines. An overall view of the . . " LS...ne j.Asonry 0 Tim.bpr _____ Rockfill ______Other_______ Dam Tyrpe: Gravity X_ Stra i.L,L X __Curved, Arched - ~ Other . Overflow _____Non-overflow S

  18. Macroinvertebrate diets reflect tributary inputs and turbidity-driven changes in food availability in the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical changes to rivers associated with large dams (e.g., water temperature) directly alter macroinvertebrate assemblages. Large dams also may indirectly alter these assemblages by changing the food resources available to support macroinvertebrate production. We examined the diets of the 4 most common macroinvertebrate taxa in the Colorado River through Glen and Grand Canyons, seasonally, at 6 sites for 2.5 y. We compared macroinvertebrate diet composition to the composition of epilithon (rock and cliff faces) communities and suspended organic seston to evaluate the degree to which macroinvertebrate diets tracked downstream changes in resource availability. Diets contained greater proportions of algal resources in the tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam and more terrestrial-based resources at sites downstream of the 1st major tributary. As predicted, macroinvertebrate diets tracked turbidity-driven changes in resource availability, and river turbidity partially explained variability in macroinvertebrate diets. The relative proportions of resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates ranged from dominance by algae to terrestrial-based resources, despite greater assimilation efficiencies for algal than terrestrial C. Terrestrial resources were most important during high turbidity conditions, which occurred during the late-summer monsoon season (July–October) when tributaries contributed large amounts of organic matter to the mainstem and suspended sediments reduced algal production. Macroinvertebrate diets were influenced by seasonal changes in tributary inputs and turbidity, a result suggesting macroinvertebrate diets in regulated rivers may be temporally dynamic and driven by tributary inputs.

  19. Condition Survey of Cedars Lock and Dam, Lower Fox River, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Report S EP 2 8 Appmoed For Public Rseabs; D~tu*Mo Ur A Poepmd for U. S . Army Engineer Disto C11604 K Chlouo, IN 60604 .aLL82 09 28 04 to the...MISCELLANEOUS PAPER 6L4-4 CONDITION SURVEY OF CEDARS LOCK AND DAM LOWER FOX RIVER, WISCONSIN by Richard L. Stowe, Joyce C. Ahlvin Structures LaboratoryI U. S ...O of t s of sodl ammmoo1. pedois. ~ e’:" ekf _____ __ __6, DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC

  20. Elwha River dam removal: A major opportunity for salmon and steelhead recolonization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pess, George R.; Brenkman, Samuel J.; Winans, Gary A.; McHenry, Michael L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Beechie, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    In this in-depth paper, authors George R. Pess, Gary A. Winans and Timothy J. Beechie of the NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, Samuel J. Brenkman of the National Park Service, Olympic National Park, Michael L. McHenry of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe and Jeffrey J. Duda of the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center in Seattle, provide an historical overview of the Elwha River system, and its native anadromous fish runs and the prospect of their recolonization after the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams are removed.

  1. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  2. Geomorphic mapping to support river restoration on the Trinity River downstream from Lewiston Dam, California, 1980-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Guerrero, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Historic land use, dam construction, water storage, and flow diversions in the Trinity River watershed have resulted in downstream geomorphic change, loss of salmonid habitat, and declines in salmonid populations. The USGS in cooperation with the Trinity River Restoration Program, a multi-agency partnership tasked with implementing federally mandated restoration, completed a geomorphic change assessment to inform the planning process for future restoration work. This report documents an ARCMAP geodatabase (v.10.0) containing geomorphic features digitized from a series of rectified orthophotographs (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7TT4P04). Upland, riparian, and channel features were digitized from six available base images (1980, 1997, 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2011). This report describes the structure of the geodatabase and the methods used to delineate individual geomorphic features.

  3. Fragmentation of riverine systems: the genetic effects of dams on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Clark Fork River system.

    PubMed

    Neraas, L P; Spruell, P

    2001-05-01

    Migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) historically spawned in tributaries of the Clark Fork River, Montana and inhabited Lake Pend Oreille as subadult and adult fish. However, in 1952 Cabinet Gorge Dam was constructed without fish passage facilities disrupting the connectivity of this system. Since the construction of this dam, bull trout populations in upstream tributaries have been in decline. Each year adult bull trout return to the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam when most migratory bull trout begin their spawning migration. However, the origin of these fish is uncertain. We used eight microsatellite loci to compare bull trout collected at the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam to fish sampled from both above and further downstream from the dam. Our data indicate that Cabinet Gorge bull trout are most likely individuals that hatched in above-dam tributaries, reared in Lake Pend Oreille, and could not return to their natal tributaries to spawn. This suggests that the risk of outbreeding depression associated with passing adults over dams in the Clark Fork system is minimal compared to the potential genetic and demographic benefits to populations located above the dams.

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Arm Brook Multiple Purpose Dam (MA 00604) Connecticut River Basin, Westfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Engineer .. . . -... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARM BROOK MULTIPLE PURPOSE DAM MA 0 0604 CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN WESTFIELD...ation of desilting Lasins. - I 5 6 Karl R. Klincelhofer-/Mgc State Conservation Engineer aorge ’Mcflonnelle, County Engineer aorge Hartley, Chairman...AD-Ai56 161 NATIONAL PROGRRH FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAS R 12’. BROOK MULTIPLE PU..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAN MR I NEW ENGLAND DIV AUG

  5. Movement Patterns of American Shad Transported Upstream of Dams on The Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline throughout much of their native range as a result of overfishing, pollution, and habitat alteration in coastal rivers where they spawn. One approach to restoration in regulated rivers is to provide access to historical spawning habitat above dams through a trap-and-transport program. We examined the initial survival, movement patterns, spawning, and downstream passage of sonic-tagged adult American shad transported to reservoir and riverine habitats upstream of hydroelectric dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia, during 2007–2009. Average survival to release in 2007–2008 was 85%, but survival decreased with increasing water temperature. Some tagged fish released in reservoirs migrated upstream to rivers; however, most meandered back and forth within the reservoir. A higher percentage of fish migrated through a smaller (8,215-ha) than a larger (20,234-ha) reservoir, suggesting that the population-level effects of transport may depend on upper basin characteristics. Transported American shad spent little time in upper basin rivers but were there when temperatures were appropriate for spawning. No American shad eggs were collected during weekly plankton sampling in upper basin rivers. The estimated initial survival of sonic-tagged American shad after downstream passage through each dam was 71–100%; however, only 1% of the detected fish migrated downstream through all three dams and many were relocated just upstream of a dam late in the season. Although adult American shad were successfully transported to upstream habitats in the Roanoke River basin, under present conditions transported individuals may have reduced effective fecundity and postspawning survival compared with nontransported fish that spawn in the lower Roanoke River.

  6. Movement and spawning of American shad transported above dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline throughout much of their native range as a result of overfishing, pollution, and habitat alteration in coastal rivers where they spawn. One approach to restoration in regulated rivers is to provide access to historical spawning habitat above dams through a trap-and-transport program. We examined the initial survival, movement patterns, spawning, and downstream passage of sonic-tagged adult American shad transported to reservoir and riverine habitats upstream of hydroelectric dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia, during 2007–2009. Average survival to release in 2007–2008 was 85%, but survival decreased with increasing water temperature. Some tagged fish released in reservoirs migrated upstream to rivers; however, most meandered back and forth within the reservoir. A higher percentage of fish migrated through a smaller (8,215-ha) than a larger (20,234-ha) reservoir, suggesting that the population-level effects of transport may depend on upper basin characteristics. Transported American shad spent little time in upper basin rivers but were there when temperatures were appropriate for spawning. No American shad eggs were collected during weekly plankton sampling in upper basin rivers. The estimated initial survival of sonic-tagged American shad after downstream passage through each dam was 71–100%; however, only 1% of the detected fish migrated downstream through all three dams and many were relocated just upstream of a dam late in the season. Although adult American shad were successfully transported to upstream habitats in the Roanoke River basin, under present conditions transported individuals may have reduced effective fecundity and postspawning survival compared with nontransported fish that spawn in the lower Roanoke River.

  7. Riverbed-Sediment Mapping in the Edwards Dam Impoundment on the Kennebec River, Maine By Use of Geophysical Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In July 1997, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a Final Environmental Impact Statement recommending that the 162-year-old Edwards Dam on the Kennebec River in Augusta, Maine, be removed. The impoundment formed by Edwards Dam extends about 15 mi to the city of Waterville, near the confluence of the Sebasticook River with the Kennebec River. The impoundment has a surface area of 1,143 acres, a gross storage of approximately 740 million ft3, and a usable storage of about 184 million ft3 (Stone and Webster, 1995a). According to FERC, removal of the 917-ft-long, 24-ft-high timber crib and concrete structure would restore 15 mi of riverine habitat, improve passage of ocean-migrating fish species native to the Kennebec River, and result in substantial recreational enhancements (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 1997). Because the removal of Edwards Dam would change the hydraulic characteristics of the river in the present-day impoundment, the potential transport of erodible, fine-grained sediment currently in the impoundment is a concern. Of particular concern is the erosion and transport of this sediment to areas downstream from the dam, a process that could introduce possible bacterial and chemical contamination and could impede river navigation as a result of sediment deposition. In an effort to build upon available information on the composition of the riverbed, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Maine State Planning Office, classified riverbed sediment types and mapped their areal extents in the lower (southern) half of the Edwards Dam impoundment. This report describes the methods used to collect and analyze the data used to create a map of sediment types in the Edwards Dam impoundment. The map is included with this report. Data used to map riverbed sediment types were also used to estimate the volume of observed mud and mud-containing sediment in the study area.

  8. Aquatic ecology of the Elwha River estuary prior to dam removal: Chapter 7 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Larsen, Kimberly; Barry, Dwight; Stenberg, Karl; McHenry, Michael L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of two long-standing dams on the Elwha River in Washington State will initiate a suite of biological and physical changes to the estuary at the river mouth. Estuaries represent a transition between freshwater and saltwater, have unique assemblages of plants and animals, and are a critical habitat for some salmon species as they migrate to the ocean. This chapter summarizes a number of studies in the Elwha River estuary, and focuses on physical and biological aspects of the ecosystem that are expected to change following dam removal. Included are data sets that summarize (1) water chemistry samples collected over a 16 month period; (2) beach seining activities targeted toward describing the fish assemblage of the estuary and migratory patterns of juvenile salmon; (3) descriptions of the aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate communities in the estuary, which represent an important food source for juvenile fish and are important water quality indicators; and (4) the diet and growth patterns of juvenile Chinook salmon in the lower Elwha River and estuary. These data represent baseline conditions of the ecosystem after nearly a century of changes due to the dams and will be useful in monitoring the changes to the river and estuary following dam removal.

  9. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  10. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  11. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Otisco Lake Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 753), Oswego River Basin, Onondaga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-23

    ona Dam Safety Program Oswego River Basin, Onondaga County,.NY 6. PERFORam0G OG. Re.PoRT Nu EaRB.’ Inventory No . NY00753 7- AU MOK&PS OTRC RGAN U~R...PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAN SAFETY PROGRAM OTISCO LAKE DAN I.D. NO . NY-753 DEC #73B-2751A OSWEGO RIVER BASIN ONONDAGA...COUNTY TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO . ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW PHOTOGRAPH 1 PROJECT INFORMATION 1 1.1 GENERAL 1 1.2 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT 1 1.3 PERTINENT DATA 2 2

  13. Dissolved heavy metal concentrations of the Kralkızı, Dicle and Batman dam reservoirs in the Tigris River basin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Varol, Memet

    2013-10-01

    Water samples were collected at monthly intervals during 1 year of monitoring from Kralkızı, Dicle and Batman dam reservoirs in the Tigris River basin to assess the concentrations of dissolved heavy metals and to determine their spatial and seasonal variations. The results indicated that dissolved heavy metal concentrations in the reservoirs were very low, reflecting the natural background levels. The lowest total metal concentrations in the three dam reservoirs were detected at sampling sites close to the dam wall. However, the highest total concentrations were observed at sites, which are located at the entrance of the streams to the reservoirs. Fe, Cr and Ni were the most abundant elements in the reservoirs, whereas Cd and As were the less abundant. The mean concentrations of dissolved metals in the dam reservoirs never exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations established by EC (European Community), WHO and USEPA drinking water quality guidelines. All heavy metals showed significant seasonal variations. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb displayed higher values in the dry season, while higher values for Zn in the wet season. Cluster analysis grouped all ten sampling sites into three clusters. Clusters 1 and 2, and cluster 3 corresponded to relatively low polluted and moderate polluted regions, respectively. PCA/FA demonstrated the dissolved metals in the dam reservoirs controlled by natural sources.

  14. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  15. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  16. Soil erosion and sediment yield, a double barrel problem in South Africa's only large river network without a dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion not only involves the loss of fertile topsoil but is also coupled with sedimentation of dams, a double barrel problem in semi-arid regions where water scarcity is frequent. Due to increasing water requirements in South Africa, the Department of Water and Sanitation is planning water resource development in the Mzimvubu River Catchment, which is the only large river network in the country without a dam. Two dams are planned including a large irrigation dam and a hydropower dam. However, previous soil erosion studies indicate that large parts of the catchment is severely eroded. Previous studies, nonetheless, used mapping and modelling techniques that represent only a selection of erosion processes and provide insufficient information about the sediment yield. This study maps and models the sediment yield comprehensively by means of two approaches over a five-year timeframe between 2007 and 2012. Sediment yield contribution from sheet-rill erosion was modelled with ArcSWAT (a graphical user interface for SWAT in a GIS), whereas gully erosion contributions were estimated using time-series mapping with SPOT 5 imagery followed by gully-derived sediment yield modelling in a GIS. Integration of the sheet-rill and gully results produced a total sediment yield map, with an average of 5 300 t km-2 y-1. Importantly, the annual average sediment yield of the areas where the irrigation dam and hydropower dam will be built is around 20 000 t km-2 y-1. Without catchment rehabilitation, the life expectancy of the irrigation dam and hydropower dam could be 50 and 40 years respectively.

  17. Engineering application of activated alumina adsorption dams for emergency treatment of arsenic-contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Junfeng; Qin, Wei; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei; Ding, Wencheng

    2015-01-01

    A batch of lab-based adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the arsenic (As) removal efficacy by activated alumina. Four factors including contact time, pH, initial As concentration and different coexisting ions were examined. The adsorbent made of activated alumina (AA) with particles of 2-4 mm diameter showed a high As removal efficiency and the As concentrations of the samples were below 0.05 mg/L when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was operated above 5 min. The As concentrations of the samples could remain below 0.05 mg/L for 30 days. A series of AA adsorption dams coupled with several other supporting adsorption techniques were employed for As-contaminated river restoration. The engineering project functioned well, and the effluent As concentration was below 0.05 mg/L when the influent was between 0.2 and 0.7 mg/L, which met the discharge requirement of the Surface Water Quality Standards criteria III in China. The results demonstrated that AA adsorption dams could be applied for emergency treatments of small- or medium-sized rivers contaminated with As.

  18. River flow changes related to land and water management practices across the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, Ken; Wolock, David M.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of land and water management practices (LWMP)—such as the construction of dams and roads—on river flows typically have been studied at the scale of single river watersheds or for a single type of LWMP. For the most part, assessments of the relative effects of multiple LWMP within many river watersheds across regional and national scales have been lacking. This study assesses flow alteration—quantified as deviation of several flow metrics from natural conditions—at 4196 gauged rivers affected by a variety of LWMP across the conterminous United States. The most widespread causes of flow changes among the LWMP considered were road density and dams. Agricultural development and wastewater discharges also were associated with flow changes in some regions. Dams generally reduced most attributes of flow, whereas road density, agriculture and wastewater discharges tended to be associated with increased flows compared to their natural condition.

  19. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon regi